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Sample records for gas stopper project

  1. The cyclotron gas stopper project at the NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenaut, C., E-mail: guenaut@nscl.msu.edu; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Marti, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Lawton, D.; Ottarson, J.; Pang, G. K.; Schwarz, S.; Sherrill, B. M. [Michigan State University (United States); Wada, M. [RIKEN (Japan); Zeller, A. F. [Michigan State University (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Gas stopping is becoming the method of choice for converting beams of rare isotopes obtained via projectile fragmentation and in-flight separation into low-energy beams. These beams allow ISOL-type experiments, such as mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, to be performed with projectile fragmentation products. Current gas stopper systems for high-energy beams are based on linear gas cells filled with 0.1-1 bar of helium. While already used successfully for experiments, it was found that space charge effects induced by the ionization of the helium atoms during the stopping process pose a limit on the maximum beam rate that can be used. Furthermore, the extraction time of stopped ions from these devices can exceed 100 ms causing substantial decay losses for very short-lived isotopes. To avoid these limitations, a new type of gas stopper is being developed at the NSCL/MSU. The new system is based on a cyclotron-type magnet with a stopping chamber filled with Helium buffer gas at low pressure. RF-guiding techniques are used to extract the ions. The space charge effects are considerably reduced by the large volume and due to a separation between the stopping region and the region of highest ionization. Cyclotron gas stopper systems of different sizes and with different magnetic field strengths and field shapes are presently investigated.

  2. The cyclotron gas stopper project at the NSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaut, C.; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Marti, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Lawton, D.; Ottarson, J.; Pang, G. K.; Schwarz, S.; Sherrill, B. M.; Wada, M.; Zeller, A. F.

    2006-01-01

    Gas stopping is becoming the method of choice for converting beams of rare isotopes obtained via projectile fragmentation and in-flight separation into low-energy beams. These beams allow ISOL-type experiments, such as mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, to be performed with projectile fragmentation products. Current gas stopper systems for high-energy beams are based on linear gas cells filled with 0.1-1 bar of helium. While already used successfully for experiments, it was found that space charge effects induced by the ionization of the helium atoms during the stopping process pose a limit on the maximum beam rate that can be used. Furthermore, the extraction time of stopped ions from these devices can exceed 100 ms causing substantial decay losses for very short-lived isotopes. To avoid these limitations, a new type of gas stopper is being developed at the NSCL/MSU. The new system is based on a cyclotron-type magnet with a stopping chamber filled with Helium buffer gas at low pressure. RF-guiding techniques are used to extract the ions. The space charge effects are considerably reduced by the large volume and due to a separation between the stopping region and the region of highest ionization. Cyclotron gas stopper systems of different sizes and with different magnetic field strengths and field shapes are presently investigated.

  3. Research and development of ion surfing RF carpets for the cyclotron gas stopper at the NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, A.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Brodeur, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bollen, G.; Morrissey, D.J.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A model device to transport thermal ions in the cyclotron gas stopper, a next-generation beam thermalization device under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, is presented. Radioactive ions produced by projectile fragmentation will come to rest at distances as large as 45 cm from the extraction orifice of the cyclotron gas stopper. The thermalized ions will be transported to the exit by RF carpets employing the recently developed “ion surfing” method. A quarter-circle prototype RF carpet was tested with potassium ions, and ion transport velocities as high as 60 m/s were observed over distances greater than 10 cm at a helium buffer gas pressure of 80 mbar. The transport of rubidium ions from an RF carpet to an electrode below was also demonstrated. The results of this study formed the basis of the design of the RF carpets for use in the cyclotron gas stopper.

  4. Characterization of Atypical Off-Flavor Compounds in Natural Cork Stoppers by Multidimensional Gas Chromatographic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Fischer, Claus; Legrum, Charlotte; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-09-09

    Natural cork stoppers with sensory deviations other than the typical cork taint were subgrouped according to their sensory descriptions and compared with unaffected control cork stoppers. The assessment of purge and trap extracts obtained from corresponding cork soaks was performed by heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry (MDGC-O). The identification of compounds responsible for atypical cork taint detected in MDGC-O was further supported with additional multidimensional GC analysis in combination with mass spectrometric detection. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were mainly found in cork stoppers described as moldy and cellarlike; 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were found in cork stoppers described with green attributes. Across all cork subgroups, the impact compound for typical cork taint, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), was present and is therefore a good marker for cork taint in general. Another potent aroma compound, 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine (MDMP), was also detected in each subgroup, obviously playing an important role with regard to the atypical cork taint. Sensory deviations possibly affecting the wine could be generated by MDMP and its presence should thus be monitored in routine quality control.

  5. Fabrication of the superferric cyclotron gas-stopper magnet at NSCL at Michigan state university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouhan, S S; Bollen, G; DeKamp, J; Green, M A; Magsig, C; Zeller, A F; Lawton, D; Morrissey, D J; Ottarson, J; Schwarz, S

    2014-01-01

    The magnet for the cyclotron gas stopper is a newly designed, large warm-iron superconducting cyclotron sector gradient dipole. The maximum field in the centre (gap = 0.18 m) is 2.7 T. The outer diameter of magnet yoke is 4.0 m, with a pole radius of 1.1 m and B * ρ = 1.8 T m. The fabrication and assembly of the iron return yoke and twelve pole pieces is complete. Separate coils are mounted on the return yokes that have a total mass of about 167 metric tons of iron. This paper illustrates the design and the fabrication process for the cyclotron gas-stopper magnet that is being fabricated at MSU.

  6. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper – Entering commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bollen, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Chouhan, S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Das, J.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Green, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Magsig, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Villari, A.C.C.; Zeller, A. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These ‘stopped beams’ have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN{sub 2}-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet’s two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  7. Direct sample introduction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of haloanisole compounds in cork stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Nicolás, J; Viñas, P; Campillo, N; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-12-02

    A solventless analytical method is proposed for analyzing the compounds responsible for cork taint in cork stoppers. Direct sample introduction (DSI) is evaluated as a sample introduction system for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of four haloanisoles (HAs) in cork samples. Several parameters affecting the DSI step, including desorption temperature and time, gas flow rate and other focusing parameters, were optimized using univariate and multivariate approaches. The proposed method shows high sensitivity and minimises sample handling, with detection limits of 1.6-2.6ngg -1 , depending on the compound. The suitability of the optimized procedure as a screening method was evaluated by obtaining decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) for each analyte, which were found to be in 6.9-11.8 and 8.7-14.8ngg -1 , respectively, depending on the compound. Twenty-four cork samples were analysed, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole was found in four of them at levels between 12.6 and 53ngg -1 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multivariate analysis of volatile compounds detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography: A tool for sensory classification of cork stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantal; Besalú, Emili; Bañeras, Lluís; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2011-06-15

    The volatile fraction of aqueous cork macerates of tainted and non-tainted agglomerate cork stoppers was analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography. Twenty compounds containing terpenoids, aliphatic alcohols, lignin-related compounds and others were selected and analysed in individual corks. Cork stoppers were previously classified in six different classes according to sensory descriptions including, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole taint and other frequent, non-characteristic odours found in cork. A multivariate analysis of the chromatographic data of 20 selected chemical compounds using linear discriminant analysis models helped in the differentiation of the a priori made groups. The discriminant model selected five compounds as the best combination. Selected compounds appear in the model in the following order; 2,4,6 TCA, fenchyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzothiazole. Unfortunately, not all six a priori differentiated sensory classes were clearly discriminated in the model, probably indicating that no measurable differences exist in the chromatographic data for some categories. The predictive analyses of a refined model in which two sensory classes were fused together resulted in a good classification. Prediction rates of control (non-tainted), TCA, musty-earthy-vegetative, vegetative and chemical descriptions were 100%, 100%, 85%, 67.3% and 100%, respectively, when the modified model was used. The multivariate analysis of chromatographic data will help in the classification of stoppers and provide a perfect complement to sensory analyses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  10. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  11. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  12. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  13. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  14. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  15. Big gas project for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)

  16. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  17. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  18. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haamsoe, B.; Mashayekhi, A.; Razavi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  19. Trifluoromethyl acting as stopper in [2]rotaxane

    KAUST Repository

    Dasgupta, Suvankar; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Jishan

    2012-01-01

    A modified dumbbell obtained by replacing one of the phenyl groups of the dibenzylammonium with a strong electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group templated the synthesis of the smallest [2]rotaxane reported so far. The trifluoromethyl group not only enhances the templating effect of the dumbbell but also acts as the stopper to prevent dethreading of a [20]crown ether macrocycle. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Trifluoromethyl acting as stopper in [2]rotaxane

    KAUST Repository

    Dasgupta, Suvankar

    2012-07-24

    A modified dumbbell obtained by replacing one of the phenyl groups of the dibenzylammonium with a strong electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group templated the synthesis of the smallest [2]rotaxane reported so far. The trifluoromethyl group not only enhances the templating effect of the dumbbell but also acts as the stopper to prevent dethreading of a [20]crown ether macrocycle. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  2. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  3. Jerneh gas project challenges and implementation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreau, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Jerneh gas project is part of Peninsular Malaysia's Gas Utilization Project, a mammoth undertaking to provide gas from the offshore fields off Malaysia's East Coast, to power stations and other industrial users throughout Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Prior to 1992, the only customers of the offshore Peninsular Malaysia gas were a local power station, and a steel mill in Terengganu, linked to the Phase 1 pipeline system. The Bekok platform is Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI)'s gas collection platform for existing associated gas fields. The Duyong and Sotong platforms are gas production/compression platforms operated by PETRONAS. In late 1991, the onshore pipeline system was extended by PETRONAS to cover the west and south coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore depicted in the map as the Phase 2 system. With the completion of the Jerneh platform and offshore trunklines, Jerneh became the primary source of supply to an increased number of customers in the wider Phase 2 gas network. Jerneh is estimated to have three TCF of non-associated gas. Phase 1 customers were utilizing about 120 MSCFD and the demand is expected to initially step-up to 400 MSCFD in 1992 and progressively increase thereafter. This paper provides an overview of the US$400 M Jerneh project for which detailed design commenced in 1989 and was commissioned in 1992. The paper describes the technical challenges, project execution, safety record and actions to achieve the fast track schedule for this project

  4. Centar's gas centrifuge enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajian, V.V.; Fishman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the building and operating of Centar Associates gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant are described. Operating costs and machine manufacture are considered. Commitments with the utilities are summarised. (U.K.)

  5. AA, beam stopper with scintillator screen

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    An insertable steel-plate beam stopper was located after nearly a full turn downstream of the injection point. It was fitted with a scintillator screen, a thin plate of Cr-doped alumina, imprinted with a grid and reference points. The screen was illuminated through a window and observed with a highly sensitive TV camera plus image intensifier. This allowed observation of beam position and size of a proton test beam and of the beam from the target, which consisted not only of antiprotons but contained as well electrons, pions and muons of the same momentum.

  6. Off-gas control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Smith, I.M.

    1978-06-01

    A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

  7. Hot gas cleaning, a targeted project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I. [University of Essen, Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Advanced hot gas cleaning systems will play a key role in future integrated combined cycle technologies. IGCC demonstration plants in operation or under construction are at present equipped with conventional wet gas scrubbing and cleaning systems. Feasibility studies for those IGCC plants have shown that the total efficiency of the processes can be improved using hot gas cleaning systems. However, this technology has not been developed and tested at a technical scale. Six well-known European industrial companies and research centres jointly worked together since January 1996 on a Targeted Project `Hot Gas Cleaning` to investigate and develop new hot gas cleaning systems for advanced clean coal power generation processes. In addition project work on chemical analysis and modelling was carried out in universities in England and Germany. The latest main findings were presented at the workshop. The main project aims are summarised as follows: to increase efficiency of advanced power generation processes; to obtain a reduction of alkalis and environmental emissions e.g. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and dust; and to develop the design basis for future industrial plants based on long-term operation of laboratory, pilot and demo-plants. To cover a range of possible process routes for future hot gas cleaning systems the following research programme is under investigation: removal of trace elements by different commercial and self developed sorbents; gas separation by membranes; separation of gas turbine relevant pollutants by hot filter dust and; H{sub 2}S removal and gas dedusting at high temperatures. 13 figs.

  8. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas

  9. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  10. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  11. The Ikhil Gas Project: developing the first commercial natural gas project north of the Arctic Circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, G. [AltaGas Services Inc., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Development of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project by the Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation in partnership with Enbridge and AltaGas Services are described in a step-by-step fashion. A minimum of 11 Bcf of recoverable natural gas reserves have been established to date. The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is committed under a 15-year take-or-pay contract to take the gas, and the Town of Inuvik also has a franchise agreement with the project owners for a 15-year period. Challenges faced and overcome in adapting to the regulatory process, the engineering problems that required special solutions (e.g. ice/snow roads, gravel pad to support wellhead and production facilities, reducing temperature of gas to avoid disturbing the permafrost, sand-padding pipeline to supplement high ice/content material), converting a diesel town to a natural gas town, and installing an underground distribution system in ground that is constantly shifting due to permafrost, are some of the examples discussed. Benefits accruing to local people and businesses during construction and the production phases of the project are described, along with details of an assessment and discussion of lessons learned after two years of operation. Overall, the project is considered to have been an engineering success. Financially, it is too early to judge, but it is expected that with economic development in Inuvik taking off, demand for natural gas and electricity will develop and justify the confidence of the developers.

  12. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  13. Vaccine vial stopper performance for fractional dose delivery of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahian, Courtney; Myers, Daniel; Creelman, Ben; Saxon, Eugene; Zehrung, Darin

    2017-07-03

    Shortages of vaccines such as inactivated poliovirus and yellow fever vaccines have been addressed by administering reduced-or fractional-doses, as recommended by the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, to expand population coverage in countries at risk. We evaluated 3 kinds of vaccine vial stoppers to assess their performance after increased piercing from repeated withdrawal of doses needed when using fractional doses (0.1 mL) from presentations intended for full-dose (0.5 mL) delivery. Self-sealing capacity and fragmentation of the stopper were assessed via modified versions of international standard protocols. All stoppers maintained self-sealing capacity after 100 punctures. The damage to stoppers measured as the fragmentation rate was within the target of ≤ 10% of punctures resulting in a fragment after as many as 50 punctures. We concluded that stopper failure is not likely to be a concern if existing vaccine vials containing up to 10 regular doses are used up to 50 times for fractional dose delivery.

  14. A dibenzoazacyclooctyne as a reactive chain stopper for [2]rotaxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Z.-Y.; Yeniad, B.; van Guyse, J.; Woisel, P.; Mullen, K.M.; Rutjes, F.P J.T.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Hoogenboom, R.

    2017-01-01

    A strained dibenzoazacyclooctyne (DIBAC) derivative was introduced for the preparation of a rotaxane by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), also referred to as a copper-free click reaction. The DIBAC can efficiently act as a bulky reactive chain stopper to transform a pseudorotaxane

  15. Wine absorption by cork stoppers research in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Adrados, J. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, F.; Garcia de Ceca, J. L.; Caceres-Esteban, M. J.; Garcia-Vallejo, M. C.

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of wine absorption by cork under conditions as close to reality as possible and its evolution in time, ready-to-use natural cork stoppers and ''1+1'' cork stoppers were used to close bottles filled with red wine. Stoppers were removed after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of contact to determine absorption of liquid and liquid progression along the lateral surface of the cork stopper.Variation of absorption with contact time was studied by adjusting the model Absorption = a {radical} t(R{sup 2}: 82.19 - 93.63%). A scheme of the evolution of wine absorption with time is proposed, differentiating liquid flow along cork-glass interface, diffusion in cell walls and liquid flow through the cell lumens. In conditions of use, a value of 4.48.10{sup 1}3 m{sup 2} s{sup -}1 was obtained for non-radial diffusion coefficient (D). (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Ankaferd Blood Stopper induces apoptosis and regulates PAR1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a preparation of plant extracts originally used as a hemostatic agent. It has pleiotropic effects in many cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, signal transduction, inflammation, immunologic processes and metabolic pathways as well as ...

  17. Vibration of a string against multiple spring-mass-damper stoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Hwan; Talib, Ezdiani; Kwak, Moon K.

    2018-02-01

    When a building sways due to strong wind or an earthquake, the elevator rope can undergo resonance, resulting in collision with the hoist-way wall. In this study, a hard stopper and a soft stopper comprised of a spring-mass-damper system installed along the hoist-way wall were considered to prevent the string from undergoing excessive vibrations. The collision of the string with multiple hard stoppers and multiple spring-mass-damper stoppers was investigated using an analytical method. The result revealed new formulas and computational algorithms that are suitable for simulating the vibration of the string against multiple stoppers. The numerical results show that the spring-mass-damper stopper is more effective in suppressing the vibrations of the string and reducing structural failure. The proposed algorithms were shown to be efficient to simulate the motion of the string against a vibration stopper.

  18. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

  19. Optimized debris stoppers for Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondarenko, N A; Pereira, N R [Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A pulse power generator discharging through an array of wires or a gas cylinder creates a pulse of useful soft x-rays, which is usually followed by deleterious byproducts such as plasma, hot gases and droplets of metal from evaporated electrodes. Separating the extraneous material from the x-rays is done with a debris shield. Optimization of such shields is discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  20. Ranking Canadian oil and gas projects using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Sadjadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns for investment in oil and gas projects is to have a comprehensive understanding on different issues associated with this industry. The industry is mainly influ-enced by the price of oil and gas and in some events, many production units have been forced to shut down solely because of low price of oil and gas. Environmental issues are other important factors, which may put pressure on Canada’s political affairs since the country has strong com-mitment to reduce green gas effect. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision making method, which helps us rank different projects in terms of investment. The proposed study con-siders different investment factors including net present value, rate of return, benefit-cost analy-sis and payback period along with the intensity of green gas effects for ranking the present oil and gas projects in Canada.

  1. Landfill Gas Energy Project Development Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    View handbook that provides an overview of LFG energy project development guidance and presents the technological, economic and regulatory considerations that affect the feasibility and success of these projects.

  2. Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures

  3. Container/Closure Integrity Testing and the Identification of a Suitable Vial/Stopper Combination for Low-Temperature Storage at -80 {degrees}C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Brigitte; Werner, Uwe; Kort, Alexander; Glowienka, Rene; Wehnes, Engelbert; Duncan, Derek

    2012-01-01

    It was recently found that after storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with rubber stoppers, a phenomenon was revealed which had not been observed before with other viral products stored at -20 °C: overpressure in the vials. As this phenomenon poses a serious safety problem for medical personnel as well as for the product itself, an investigation was initiated to identify the root cause of the overpressure. After exclusion of possible root causes (differences in air temperature or atmospheric air pressure during filling and quality control testing, outgassing from the formulation buffer) the remaining hypothesis involved a possible container closure integrity issue at low temperature. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of many rubber stopper formulations are in the range -55 to -70 °C. At storage temperatures below T(g), the rubber stopper loses its elastic properties and there is a risk that the seal integrity of the vial could be compromised. Loss of seal integrity of the vials near storage temperatures of -80 °C would result in an ingress of cold dense gas into the vial headspace. After removal of the vials from storage at -80 °C, the rubber stoppers could regain their elastic properties and the vials would quickly reseal, thereby trapping the ingressed gas, which leads to overpressure in the vial headspace. Nondestructive laser-based headspace analysis was used to investigate the maintenance of container closure integrity as a function of the filling and capping/crimping process, storage and transport conditions, and vial/stopper designs. This analytical method is based on frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and can be used for noninvasive headspace measurements of headspace pressure and headspace gas composition. Changes in the vial headspace composition and/or pressure are a clear marker for vials that have lost container closure integrity. After storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with

  4. EVEGAS Project (European validation exercise of GAS migration model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, T. [Geostock S.A., Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-03-01

    The EVEGAS project aims at the verification and validation of numerical codes suitable for simulating gas flow phenomenon in low permeability porous media. Physical phenomena involved in gas generation and gas flow are numerous, often complex, and may not be very well described. The existing numerical codes cannot represent all the occurring possible phenomena, but allow a good trade-off betwen simplicity and representativity of such phenomena. Two phase flow (Gas and Water) appear to be the most consequential phenomena in gas migration and pressure sizing. The project is organised in three major steps: (1) a simple problem with analytical solutions. (2) A few problems based on laboratory or in-situ experiments. (3) A 3-D repository scenarios involving the following aspects: a repository design; a source of gas; rock characteristics; and fluid characteristics.

  5. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  6. Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    PETROBRAS, the Brazilian/International Integrated Oil and Gas Company, is leading US$ 4 billion natural gas project. The goal of this paper is to identify Project challenges and propose solutions. It starts with fundamentals. Natural gas' share in Brazilian primary energy demand is only 2%. Economic aspects and environmental concerns, however, are changing this picture. For the Bolivian economy to be linked to a relatively huge market, in the long-term, is certainly a suitable decision. Besides, this Project will promote regional integration, within and outside Marcosur economies. Reserves, market data and economics give support to a feasible Project Financial structure is the main challenge. INTERGAS, a new subsidiary of PETROBRAS is opened for 49% stock to private sector participation. As an integrated Project, many opportunities will be generated during construction and operation. E ampersand P, pipeline and downstream investments could bring different investors to different sectors

  7. Landfill Gas Electricity Project Interconnection Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about a webinar LMOP offered to LMOP Partners to address questions associated with connecting electricity generating systems to the grid during LFG energy project planning and implementation.

  8. Natural gas consumption trends and demand projections for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, H.U.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country and heavily depends on imported energy. Natural gas is a dominating source of commercial energy in the country. This paper presents the natural gas consumption trends and future demand projections for Pakistan. The paper also investigates the potential utilization options of natural gas in the country. The study indicates that the natural gas consumption in the country increased rapidly at an average growth rate of about 6.8% per annum during the last three decades. Currently, natural gas contributes about 44.2% of the primary commercial energy supply in the country. Power, Fertilizer, General industry and Domestic sectors are the major consumers of gas in the country. The paper concludes the natural gas demand in the country is projected to increase to about 34-64 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) by the year 2018. Enhancement in the indigenous exploration and modulation of gas and import of gas from central Asian Sates is essential for meeting the growing gas demand, protecting the environment and increasing the economic independence in the country. (author)

  9. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Skagius, K.; Soedergren, S.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic {sup 14}C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose.

  10. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.

    2001-06-01

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic 14 C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose

  11. Gas core nuclear rocket feasibility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-09-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed

  12. Oman- Decisive progress for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The soon signature of a firm contract with the Korea Gas Corporation and the perspective of an agreement with Thailand will allow the attribution of a construction contract in September 1996. The hypothesis of a third liquefaction train seems to be more and more probable. The project of Oman-India gas pipeline is not given up but only put it back to several years. (N.C.)

  13. Shell's Caroline gas project on track in southwest Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that western Canada's biggest sour natural gas, sulfur, and natural gas liquids development project in 2 decades is on target to start up late this year. Shell Canada Ltd.'s $950 million (Canadian) Caroline project will produce 2 tcf of gas and associated products from the Swan Hills member of the middle Devonian Beaverhill Lake group. The price tag will reach about $1 billion, including some start-up costs. The project is designed to process an average 300 MMcfd of gas. It will produce 17,500 b/d of pentanes plus, 4,100 metric tons/day of sulfur, 90 MMcfd of sales gas, and 28,000 b/d of NGL-ethane, propane, and butane. A labor force that is peaking at about 2,400 workers is completing a network of processing plants, about 143 miles of pipeline, three field compressors, and other facilities covering an area of 161 sq miles. Dilcon Constructors Ltd., an arm of Delta Catalytic Corp., Calgary, is the main contractor for the project. About 85% of the services and equipment for Caroline are coming from Alberta suppliers, 7% from suppliers elsewhere in Canada, and only 8% from non-Canadian Sources

  14. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  15. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  16. Summer Student Project: GEM Simulation and Gas Mixture Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo Perhavec, Juan Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This project is a numerical simulation approach to Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors design. GEMs are a type of gaseous ionization detector that have proposed as an upgrade for CMS muon endcap. The main advantages of this technology are high spatial and time resolution and outstanding aging resistance. In this context, fundamental physical behavior of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is analyzed using ANSYS and Garfield++ software coupling. Essential electron transport properties for several gas mixtures were computed as a function of varying electric and magnetic field using Garfield++ and Magboltz.

  17. Major gas projects in Latin America. Issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Latin American energy demand will reach 677 MTOE by 2010, a 50% increase over 1995. There will be a major shift towards use of natural gas in power generation. US 503 10 9 Dollars will be required over 1995-2010 to discover and develop hydrocarbon reserves, build the pipeline system as well as generate and distribute electricity. US 19 10 9 Dollars will be required for gas pipelines and LNG projects in the region. Improvements in the policy, legal and regulatory framework are required in many countries to attract the needed investments. Several major gas projects are being implemented or planned in the region: Colombia Enron-built pipeline, Peru Camisea project, Chile Nova gas pipeline from Argentina, the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline and others. The World Bank group has been assisting countries in developing a competitive business environment and can provide, when needed, comfort to lenders in project financing through a guarantee scheme in several large complex cross border projects. (au)

  18. Project on effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste (Pegasus project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular, in the fourth five-year R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (1990-94), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called Pegasus, about 20 organizations and research institutes are involved. The project covers theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations such as clay, salt and granite. In this report the present status of the various research activities are described and 13 papers have been selected

  19. Effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on Early Bone Tissue Healing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Ankaferd blood stopper, Wound healing, Mineralized bone tissue, Inflammatory cell infiltration ... protein network formation with blood cells covers the primary and .... bone repair and regeneration, antibiotics and antimicrobial ...

  20. Middle East gas export projects: The case of Abu Dhabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Marzooqi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Abu Dhabi is ranked in the industry journals in the top 5 in the world tables of both oil and gas reserves. Gas is produced both Onshore and Offshore from associated and non-associated fields. Production has tripped during the last ten years and will increase further in the next few years as a result of current and planned investment. Development of Abu Dhabi's gas resources is aimed at enhancing oil production and recovery, meeting local and export demand and eliminating waste. Companies in Abu Dhabi are involved in all the main sectors of gas industry including production, processing, transportation and sales. The first large LNG export project by sea in Arabian Gulf was established in 1977 from Abu to Japan. Development continues and the gas is exported as LNG and is also processed into LPG and Pentane Plus for export. Japan remains the main market. The volume of Condensate available for export and processing will increase significantly in the next few years. In order to ensure a continuing and increasing supply of gas to world markets, in future years, prices will need to provide an adequate return on investment and should also reflect the environmental advantages of gas. 9 tabs

  1. Gas quality analysis and evaluation program for project Gasbuggy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Experimental results of the gas quality analysis program for Project Gasbuggy through August 1969 are presented graphically, addressing the questions raised by the preshot program goals. The chemical composition and the concentrations of tritium, krypton-85, carbon-14 and argon-37, 39 are presented as a function of time and gas production from the nuclear chimney. Chemically, the presence of CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2} served to dilute the formation gas and caused reactions which significantly altered the gas composition at early times. The radionuclide content of the chimney gas at reentry was some 800 pCi/cm{sup 3} of which about 80% was CH{sub 3}T. Lesser quantities of tritium were observed as HT, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}T and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}T. The other major contaminant was Kr{sup 85} which was present at about one-fifth the level of CH{sub 3}T. Small quantities of carbon-14 and argon-39 were also identified. The only other radionuclides identified in the gas were relatively short-lived rare gases. During the production testing, about two and one-half chimney volumes of gas at formation pressure were removed. This removal, accompanied by dilution, has reduced the radionuclide concentrations to about 7% of their levels at reentry. The production characteristics of the Gasbuggy environment prevented an adequate test of the effectiveness of chimney flushing. However, the rapid drawdown concept is supported by the available data as an effective means of reducing contaminant levels. The changes in composition during production or testing are seen to be consistent with a model involving a non-uniform gas influx rate and flow distribution over the chimney region. Mixing times are estimated to be on the order of a few days, so that increasing concentrations following a sudden gas influx can be explained. (author)

  2. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  3. Project Scheduling Based on Risk of Gas Transmission Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Nurbaity, A.; Mulyadi, Y.; Suntoyo; Chamelia, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    The planning of a project has a time limit on which must be completed before or right at a predetermined time. Thus, in a project planning, it is necessary to have scheduling management that is useful for completing a project to achieve maximum results by considering the constraints that will exists. Scheduling management is undertaken to deal with uncertainties and negative impacts of time and cost in project completion. This paper explains about scheduling management in gas transmission pipeline project Gresik-Semarang to find out which scheduling plan is most effectively used in accordance with its risk value. Scheduling management in this paper is assissted by Microsoft Project software to find the critical path of existing project scheduling planning data. Critical path is the longest scheduling path with the fastest completion time. The result is found a critical path on project scheduling with completion time is 152 days. Furthermore, the calculation of risk is done by using House of Risk (HOR) method and it is found that the critical path has a share of 40.98 percent of all causes of the occurence of risk events that will be experienced.

  4. Long-term projections for electricity and gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borggrefe, Frieder; Lochner, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses potential developments of wholesale electricity prices in Germany until 2030. The relevant determinants and their effects on prices are shown. Several projections demonstrate the impact of future fuel prices taking the political framework into account. The importance of carbon and gas prices - and the latter's relationship to oil prices - are discussed extensively. Although forecasting electricity prices is associated with great uncertainties, the article illustrates the relative impacts of the various price determinants and their interactions. (orig.)

  5. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  6. Overview of DOE Oil and Gas Field Laboratory Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G.; Ciferno, J.; Covatch, G.; Folio, E.; Melchert, E.; Ogunsola, O.; Renk, J., III; Vagnetti, R.

    2017-12-01

    America's abundant unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources are critical components of our nation's energy portfolio. These resources need to be prudently developed to derive maximum benefits. In spite of the long history of hydraulic fracturing, the optimal number of fracturing stages during multi-stage fracture stimulation in horizontal wells is not known. In addition, there is the dire need of a comprehensive understanding of ways to improve the recovery of shale gas with little or no impacts on the environment. Research that seeks to expand our view of effective and environmentally sustainable ways to develop our nation's oil and natural gas resources can be done in the laboratory or at a computer; but, some experiments must be performed in a field setting. The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Lab Observatory projects are designed to address those research questions that must be studied in the field. The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a suite of "field laboratory" test sites to carry out collaborative research that will help find ways of improving the recovery of energy resources as much as possible, with as little environmental impact as possible, from "unconventional" formations, such as shale and other low permeability rock formations. Currently there are three field laboratories in various stages of development and operation. Work is on-going at two of the sites: The Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin and the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) project in the Marcellus Shale Play. Agreement on the third site, the Utica Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (USEEL) project in the Utica Shale Play, was just recently finalized. Other field site opportunities may be forthcoming. This presentation will give an overview of the three field laboratory projects.

  7. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  8. Analysis of cantilever pipes in transverse fluid flow with motion limiting stopper at the free end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiyavan, R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchanger tubes can result in impact with the baffle plates and subsequent tube failure through fatigue, fracture and fretting wear. As a step towards the correlation between the random flow excitations and the rate of wear, this paper presents a general theory for predicting the tube motion and the tube baffle impact forces through a case of cantilever pipe with motion limiting stopper at the free end and simultaneously subjected to transverse fluid flow. The mathematical model has been developed using the theory of fluid-structure interactions with model superposition technique. The pipe displacement induced by lift forces is evaluated by numerical integration. When displacement increases to greater than the pipe-stopper clearance, the pipe impacts on stopper. Assuming semielastic impact, the equation of pipe motion during impact is developed using extended Hertz's theory to include the vibration of one of the colliding bodies. The stopper is assumed to be at rest before and after the impact. The constraint imposed on pipe motion, at the free end due to impact of the pipe on stopper, is considered as one of the boundary conditions and is used to evaluate the pipe natural frequencies. The nonlinear equations are solved numerically. The response of the pipe due to wake induced lift forces superposed by the impact response is evaluated. (orig./GL)

  9. Identification of an exposure risk to heavy metals from pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianghui; Qian, Pingping

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids represents a well-documented risk to animal and human health. However, current standards (European Pharmacopeia [EP], United States Pharmacopoeia [USP], International Organization for Standardization [ISO], YBB concerned with rubber closures) only require testing for Zn in pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers and then using only pure water as a solvent. We extracted and quantified heavy metals and trace elements from pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers under conditions that might occur during the preparation of drugs. Pure water, saline, 10% glucose, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4 mg/mL, 0.4 mg/mL, and 0.04 mg/mL) were used as extraction agents. We quantified the extracted arsenic, lead, antimony, iron, magnesium, aluminum, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentration of extracted metals varied depending on the different extraction solutions used and between the different rubber stopper manufacturers. Rubber stoppers are ubiquitously used in the pharmaceutical industry for the storage and preparation of drugs. Extraction of heavy metals during the manufacturing and preparation of drugs represents a significant risk, suggesting a need for industry standards to focus on heavy metal migration from rubber stoppers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  11. Projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.M.

    1979-02-01

    An analysis was made of the uncertainties associated with the measurements of the declared uranium streams in the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). The total uncertainty for the GCEP is projected to be from 54 to 108 kg 235 U/year out of a measured total of 200,000 kg 235 U/year. The systematic component of uncertainty of the UF 6 streams is the largest and the dominant contributor to the total uncertainty. A possible scheme for reducing the total uncertainty is given

  12. Financial structure of Korea Gas Corporation's LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeongsoo Ko

    1991-01-01

    When an Indonesian LNG tanker arrived in Korea for the first time in October 1986, Korea became the seventh LNG-consuming nation in the world. The imported LNG has contributed greatly to solving pollution problems and ensuring a stable supply of energy to Korea through the diversification of energy sources. So far, the LNG supply has been confined to the Metropolitan area. The Korea Gas Corporation now plans to expand the LNG supply to cover the entire nation. This paper introduces the experience and future plan of Korea's LNG projects with a special reference to their financial structure

  13. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  14. CENTAR gas centrifuge enrichment project: economics and engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Description of some economic and engineering considerations of the CENTAR Associates' 3000000 SWU/yr gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant project. The need for uranium enrichment facilities is discussed, and the advantages of using the centrifuge process rather than the presently used gaseous diffusion process are reviewed. A description of the CENTAR plant is given, highlighting the major features of the facility. Since the centiruges to be used in the plant account for approximately 50% of the capital cost of the project, the philosophy of their manufacture and procurement is discussed. Various design considerations which bear upon process economics are presented to give the reader an appreciation of the subtleties of the technology and the flexibility possible in plant design. Special attention is given to meeting the needs of the utility customer at the lowest possible cost

  15. Preparation of Pillar[5]arene-Based [2]Rotaxanes by a Stopper-Exchange Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierengarten, Iwona; Meichsner, Eric; Holler, Michel; Pieper, Pauline; Deschenaux, Robert; Delavaux-Nicot, Béatrice; Nierengarten, Jean-François

    2018-01-02

    A pillar[5]arene-containing rotaxane building block bearing exchangeable stoppers has been prepared in multigram scale quantities with high yields from the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with the inclusion complex resulting from the association of dodecanedioyl chloride with 1,4-diethoxypillar[5]arene. Stopper exchange reactions have been achieved by treatment of the resulting DNP diester with various amines through an addition-elimination mechanism preventing the unthreading of the axle component during the reaction and thus preserving the [2]rotaxane structures. The resulting diamide [2]rotaxane derivatives have thus been obtained in good to excellent yields. Importantly, [2]rotaxanes difficult or impossible to prepare by direct introduction of the two stoppers in a single synthetic step are now easily available. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  17. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  18. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  19. New projects developed by COMOTI in gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitulescu, Marian; Silivestru, Valentin; Toma, Niculae; Slujitoru, Cristian; Petrescu, Valentin; Leahu, Mihai; Oniga, Ciprian; Ulici, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    The paper aims to present two new projects developed by the Romanian Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbines (COMOTI) in partnership with City University of London and GHH-Rand Germany, in the field of screw compressors/expanders. COMOTI passed, in recent years, from being a GHH-Rand licensed manufacturer for a range of oil-injected screw compressors, of CU type, to a new phase of range diversification, approaching screw compressors with a maximum discharge pressure of 45 bara. So, in cooperation with City University and GHH-Rand we design, manufacture and test, with air, in COMOTI test bench the new type of screw compressor named CHP 220. Also, the cooperation with GHH-Rand has resulted in the design, manufacture and air testing on the test bench, and then gas testing - in a gas compression station - for an electric generator driven by a screw expander. This paper presents how the tests were carried out, the experimental data and the interpretation of results

  20. Chemical leucoderma induced by ear-ring stoppers made of polyvinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chemical leucoderma (CL in a 15-year-old girl, who developed patterned depigmentation at the back of both ear lobules after contact with plastic ear-ring stoppers made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC after continuous use for 6-7 months. Patch test with Indian standard series and cosmetic series was negative after 48 h, but she refused patch testing for extended duration as the possibility of induced depigmentation at the test site was unacceptable to her. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of plastic ear-ring stopper induced CL.

  1. Functional proteomic analysis of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Özel Demiralp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. The basic mechanism of action for ABS is the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for vital erythrocyte aggregation. ABS–induced protein network formation with blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, covers the primary and secondary hemostatic system without disturbing individual coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: To understand the effect mechanisms of ABS on hemostasis, a proteomic analysis using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometer was performed. Results: Proteins of plant origin in Ankaferd® were NADP-dependent-malic enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate-carboxylase-large chain, maturase K, ATP synthase subunit-beta, ATP synthase subunit-alpha, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-1, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-2, and actin-depolymerizing factor. Furthermore, functional proteomic studies revealed that proteins resembling human peptides have been detected within Ankaferd®, including ATP synthase, mucin-16 (CD164 sialomucin-like 2 protein, coiled-coil domain containing 141 hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 1, hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 2, dynactin 5, complex I intermediate-associated protein 30, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex, TP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial actin binding 1 isoform, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform a, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform b, spectrin alpha non erythrocytic 1, prolactin releasing hormone receptor, utrophin, tet oncogene family member 2 isoform b, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, NIMA (never in mitosis gene a-related kinase, ATP-binding cassette protein C12, Homo sapiens malic enzyme 1, mitochondrial NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme 3, ME2 protein, nuclear factor 1 B-type, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12B, E

  2. Quantitative risk management in gas injection project: a case study from Oman oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Mohammad Miftaur Rahman Khan; Piya, Sujan; Shamsuzzoha, Ahm

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the recognition, application and quantification of the risks associated in managing projects. In this research, the management of risks in an oil and gas project is studied and implemented within a case company in Oman. In this study, at first, the qualitative data related to risks in the project were identified through field visits and extensive interviews. These data were then translated into numerical values based on the expert's opinion. Further, the numerical data were used as an input to Monte Carlo simulation. RiskyProject Professional™ software was used to simulate the system based on the identified risks. The simulation result predicted a delay of about 2 years as a worse case with no chance of meeting the project's on stream date. Also, it has predicted 8% chance of exceeding the total estimated budget. The result of numerical analysis from the proposed model is validated by comparing it with the result of qualitative analysis, which was obtained through discussion with various project managers of company.

  3. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  4. Carcinogenicity of Mustard Gas: Report of the Cancer Registry Project Among Mustard Gas Exposed Iranian Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroush, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center in collaboration with Tehran University has conducted a nationwide cancer registry project among all Iranian Veterans with history of exposure to mustard gas during 1980-1988 Iran Iraq war. The mixed cohort study has a retrospective phase from the exposure time to 2003 and a prospective phase from 2003 to 2013. The main goal is to find any possible relationship between exposure to mustard gas and developing cancer as a long term health effect. A total number of 7500 individual (both military and civilians) with confirmed medical records of exposure to mustard gas have been included in the study to be compared with the same number of control population as well as the statistics of the national cancer registry system. The follow up of all cases is being done as a part of the national health monitoring program of the Janbazan (veterans) organization. In this report the latest findings of this project will be presented.(author)

  5. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final..., Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Jeff C. Wright, Director, Office of Energy Projects...

  6. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  7. Overview of stoppering of open magnetic containment systems for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Lichtenberg, A.J.; Dolan, T.J.

    1977-06-01

    Magnetic confinement systems with the field lines leading out of the system are subject to end loss. The rate of end loss must be reduced to a sufficiently small value in a reactor such that fusion energy is generated more rapidly than energy is lost. The basic open ended systems either have too high an end loss to satisfy the reactor criterion (single mirrors and cusps), or are too long to be considered practical (long solenoids). Various end stoppering schemes have been proposed to reduce the end loss of open ended systems, and thus make the energy balance more favorable. The end stoppering techniques reviewed in this paper are electrostatic, r.f., magnetic, material walls, and hybrid systems. We summarize here the more important characteristics and the potentialities of the first three methods of end stoppering. End stoppering with material walls has been insufficiently explored for further comment and hybrid systems, being mainly beyond the scope of this report, have been summarized in the main text

  8. Preventing Wine Counterfeiting by Individual Cork Stopper Recognition Using Image Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Costa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine counterfeiting is a major problem worldwide. Within this context, an approach to the problem of discerning original wine bottles from forged ones is the use of natural features present in the product, object and/or material (using it “as is”. The proposed application uses the cork stopper as a unique fingerprint, combined with state of the art image processing techniques to achieve individual object recognition and smartphones as the authentication equipment. The anti-counterfeiting scheme is divided into two phases: an enrollment phase, where every bottle is registered in a database using a photo of its cork stopper inside the bottle; and a verification phase, where an end-user/retailer captures a photo of the cork stopper using a regular smartphone, compares the photo with the previously-stored one and retrieves it if the wine bottle was previously registered. To evaluate the performance of the proposed application, two datasets of natural/agglomerate cork stoppers were built, totaling 1000 photos. The worst case results show a 100% precision ratio, an accuracy of 99.94% and a recall of 94.00%, using different smartphones. The perfect score in precision is a promising result, proving that this system can be applied to the prevention of wine counterfeiting and consumer/retailer security when purchasing a wine bottle.

  9. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 January 1979--31 January 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-01

    Aim is to increase gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western U.S. Progress is reported on: project management, resource assessment, R and D at various facilities, and field tests and demonstrations. (DLC)

  10. Project to support formation of an energy and environment technology demonstration project in fiscal 1999. International joint demonstration and research project (Sichuan Province natural gas DME project); 1999 nendo Shisensho tennen gas DME project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    DME can be manufactured from such raw materials as natural gas, coal bed gas and coal. NKK who is developing a technology to synthesize efficiently the DME being a new energy has been commissioned from NEDO to investigate and study a project to manufacture DME using natural gas produced in Sinchuan Province, and utilize it as fuel for power generation, transportation and LPG substitution. In the present research, the DME manufacturing plant size was assumed to be 500 tons a day (165 x 10{sup 3} tons annually). This output nearly corresponds to the current LPG consumption. The required amount of natural gas as the raw material is 0.2 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, wherein, since the total production quantity of natural gas in Sinchuan Province is 10 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, there is no problem in the supply of natural gas as the raw material. The construction cost was estimated to be 11 billion yen taking into consideration the device fabrication cost and construction labor cost in China. Furthermore, as a result of discussing the economy considering the natural gas material cost, industrial water cost, and labor cost for plant operation, the internal profit rate for the total capital after tax was found a little over 10%, proving the project to have excellent economic performance. (NEDO)

  11. The outlook for natural gas markets in the GRI baseline projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Research Institute is an independent, not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development program for the mutual benefit of the natural gas industry and its customers. The research program consists of over 500 active research projects in natural gas supply and end use, and in gas industry operations, as well as related basic research. This paper summarizes the U.S. natural gas demand and supply outlook projected in a preliminary version of the 191 edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. The projection used for this paper is from an early run of the GRI modeling structure. As such, it is subject to substantial revision before the Baseline Projection is finalized. The paper presents a projection of natural gas demand in the major end-use sectors and the slate of supply sources expected to meet that demand over the period from 1989 to 2010

  12. "Product on Stopper" in a Lyophilized Drug Product: Cosmetic Defect or a Product Quality Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyam B; Roy, Shouvik; Yang, Han-Chang Cathy

    2018-06-01

    During manufacturing of a lyophilized drug product, operator errors in product handling during loading of product filled vials onto the lyophilizer can lead to a seemingly cosmetic defect which can impact certain critical quality attributes of finished product. In this study, filling of a formulated monoclonal antibody in vials was performed using a peristaltic pump filling unit, and subsequently, the product was lyophilized. After lyophilization, upon visual inspection, around 40% of vials had cosmetic defect with residual product around stopper of the vial and were categorized as "product on stopper" vials, whereas remaining 60% vials with no cosmetic defect were called "acceptable vials." Both groups of vials from 1 single batch were tested for critical quality attributes including protein concentration (ultraviolet absorbance at 280), residual moisture (Karl Fischer), sterility (membrane filtration), and container closure integrity (CCI) (blue dye ingress). Analysis of protein quality attributes such as aggregation, protein concentration, residual moisture showed no significant difference between vials with "product on stopper" and "acceptable vials." However, CCI of the "product on stopper" vials was compromised due to the presence of product around stopper of the vial. The results from this case study demonstrate the following 2 important findings: (1) that a seemingly cosmetic defect may impact product quality, compromising the integrity of the product and (2) that CCI test method can be used as an orthogonal method to sterility testing to evaluate sterility assurance of the product. The corrective action proposed to mitigate this defect is use of a larger sized vial that can potentially minimize this defect that arises because of product handling errors. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Safeguarding public values in gas infrastructure expansion. A comparison of two investment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2007-02-01

    The realisation of new gas infrastructure projects affects overall gas market performance with respect to the public values of affordability and security of supply. However, the actual contribution of a gas infrastructure expansion project to system affordability and security of supply depends upon the institutional design of the market (legislation, regulatory codes and arrangements, market rules, etc.). In this paper we link the institutional design applicable to two specific gas infrastructure projects with the safeguarding of the aforementioned public values. We conclude that path dependencies can cause large differences in the contribution of the projects to the safeguarding of public values

  14. Development and implementation of a 600-MW natural gas cogeneration project - a financial case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, N.K.; Sherrill, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In February 1990, General Electric Capital Corporation (GECC), through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Electric Power Funding Corporation (GEPFC), provided a number of commitments to a partnership (the Partnership) formed by a company that develops, owns, and operates cogeneration facilities to fund the development, construction, and permanent debt and equity financing of a 614 megawatt (M) cogeneration facility (the Project) to be located near a large refinery in the northeastern United States. The Project is unusual both for the magnitude of its natural gas requirements and for its contractual configuration. The Project's entire transportation needs and a substantial portion of its gas requirements will be met by a joint venture between two local gas distribution companies (the Joint Venture), one of which is a large gas-consuming utility in the eastern United States. The Project's power purchase customer, (the Utility Host), is another very large gas-consuming utility. Thus, the fuel cost recovery of the Project is determined by the Utility Host's gas costs while its actual bill for fuel will be heavily influenced by the Joint Venture's gas commodity and transportation costs. Therefore, in appraising the credit quality of the Project's proposed fuel supply arrangements, the key issue to be answered is: Are the Project's natural gas supply and transportation arrangements compatible with the fuel cost recovery provisions of the power sales agreement with the Utility Host? If so, then the sensitivity of the Project's financing to adverse gas price movements would be minimized

  15. Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hank Seiff

    2008-12-31

    Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  17. Landfill Gas Energy Project Data and Landfill Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides data from the LMOP Database for U.S. landfills and LFG energy projects in Excel files, a map of project and candidate landfill counts by state, project profiles for a select group of projects, and information about Project Expo sites.

  18. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenham, J.

    2003-01-01

    as a source of CO 2 emission. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of these sectors. However, the report starts with a summary of the emissions with a section for each of the pollutants treated. At the end of each of these section the main differences between the present calculation and the values in Denmark's Second National Communication on Climate Change are described shortly. For each of the pollutants the development of the emissions in the period 1972-2012 and the various emission targets in Danish sector plants or international conventions are shown on a figure. Below the figures the emissions for the main emitting sectors are shown in a table. The years shown in these tables are not the same for all pollutants. When a column is marked with '2010' it means that the values in the columns are averaged over the first commitment period 2008-2012. It is not possible in this report to present all the data from the emission calculations. The data is contained in an EXEL notebook model. Appendix 1 contains a table with time-series for 1975-2012 for the greenhouse gases CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O for all emitting sectors. In Appendix 2 the results of the projections 2000-2012 are shown in the IPCC/CRF Sectoral Tables format in CO 2 equivalents for each greenhouse gas and in total (only source and sink categories with greenhouse gas emissions or removals are shown). The model is structured as a set of worksheets for the primary energy consuming sector and the model contains similar sets for each of the pollutants. Additional sheets have been included for the relevant pollutants, where emissions originate from non-combustion processes. Each of these spreadsheets contains time-series for the emissions from each of the primary fuels consumed in the sector. (ba)

  19. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  20. Searching for a strategy to gamma-sterilize Portuguese cork stoppers - preliminary studies on bioburden, radioresistance and sterility assurance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, M.L.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Andrade, M.E.; Tenreiro, R.

    1988-01-01

    A gamma radiation plant will start running next year in Portugal, to sterilize medical devices and wine cork stoppers. As Portugal is the first world producer, manufacturer and exporter of wine cork stoppers, an efficient sterilizing procedure is required to overcome moulding from long term shipping. Preliminary research on cork stoppers bioburden and microflora radioresistance allowed to establish reliable D 10 and Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) values. Studied samples showed an initial average contamination of about 10 4 c.f.u. per cork stopper. The determined D 10 values for fungi were not higher than 2 kGy. In these conditions, a SAL of 10 -4 can be expected when the product is treated at a minimum absorbed dose of 15 kGy. (author)

  1. Upgrades to the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Beam Stoppers for the LHC High-Luminosity Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Fraser, Matthew; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Each of the 3 km long transfer lines between the SPS and the LHC is equipped with two beam stoppers (TEDs), one at the beginning of the line and one close to the LHC injection point, which need to absorb the full transferred beam. The beam stoppers are used for setting up the SPS extractions and transfer lines with beam without having to inject into the LHC. Energy deposition and thermo-mechanical simulations have, however, shown that the TEDs will not be robust enough to safely absorb the high intensity beams foreseen for the high-luminosity LHC era. This paper will summarize the simulation results and limitations for upgrading the beam stoppers. An outline of the hardware upgrade strategy for the TEDs together with modifications to the SPS extraction interlock system to enforce intensity limitations for beam on the beam stoppers will be given.

  2. 75 FR 30021 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Teleconference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Teleconference With the National Marine... from Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Headquarters, commencing at 2 p.m. (Eastern Standard... Project. The South Carolina Electric and Gas Company will also participate in the teleconference. All...

  3. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 8, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: Effective... of Subjects in 18 CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  4. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 9, 2012. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gas Hydrates Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    The Gas Hydrates Project at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) focuses on the study of methane hydrates in natural environments. The project is a collaboration between the USGS Energy Resources and the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Programs and works closely with other U.S. Federal agencies, some State governments, outside research organizations, and international partners. The USGS studies the formation and distribution of gas hydrates in nature, the potential of hydrates as an energy resource, and the interaction between methane hydrates and the environment. The USGS Gas Hydrates Project carries out field programs and participates in drilling expeditions to study marine and terrestrial gas hydrates. USGS scientists also acquire new geophysical data and sample sediments, the water column, and the atmosphere in areas where gas hydrates occur. In addition, project personnel analyze datasets provided by partners and manage unique laboratories that supply state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to advance national and international priorities related to gas hydrates.

  6. Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.

  7. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  8. Quasi-Block Copolymers Based on a General Polymeric Chain Stopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguramath, Rajashekharayya A; Nealey, Paul F; Shenhar, Roy

    2016-07-11

    Quasi-block copolymers (q-BCPs) are block copolymers consisting of conventional and supramolecular blocks, in which the conventional block is end-terminated by a functionality that interacts with the supramolecular monomer (a "chain stopper" functionality). A new design of q-BCPs based on a general polymeric chain stopper, which consists of polystyrene end-terminated with a sulfonate group (PS-SO3 Li), is described. Through viscosity measurements and a detailed diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy study, it is shown that PS-SO3 Li can effectively cap two types of model supramolecular monomers to form q-BCPs in solution. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry data and structural characterization of thin films by scanning force microscopy suggests the existence of the q-BCP architecture in the melt. The new design considerably simplifies the synthesis of polymeric chain stoppers; thus promoting the utilization of q-BCPs as smart, nanostructured materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  10. Case study: I-95 Landfill gas recovery project Fairfax County, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, M.J.; Peterson, E.R.; Smithberger, J.M.; Owen, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the landfill gas (LFG) recovery project at the I-95 Landfill in Fairfax County, Virginia. The project originally was conceived more than 10 years ago and has overcome numerous obstacles enroute to its present success. The efforts of the landfill owner (Fairfax County) and the project developer (Michigan Cogeneration Systems, Inc.) to surmount these obstacles are presented

  11. Design of project management system for 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yan; Xu Yuanhui

    1998-01-01

    A framework of project management information system (MIS) for 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor is introduced. Based on it, the design of nuclear project management information system and project monitoring system (PMS) are given. Additionally, a new method of developing MIS and Decision Support System (DSS) has been tried

  12. Support services for the automative gas turbine project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Support was provided to DOE and NASA in their efforts to inform industry, the public, and Government on the benefits and purpose of the gas turbine programs through demonstrations and exhibits. Tasks were carried out for maintenance, repair, and retrofit of the experimental gas turbine engines being used by NASA in their gas turbine technology programs and in program demonstrations. Limited support testing was conducted at Chrysler in which data were generated on air bearing rotor shaft dynamics, heavy duty variable sheave rubber belts, high temperature elastomer regenerator drive mounting and graphite regenerator seal friction characteristics.

  13. Analytical treatment of gas flows through multilayer insulation, project 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system was made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was also investigated. It was shown that when the relaxation time is less than the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparisons with experimental data were made.

  14. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The main objective of this project has been to disseminate the results and experiences achieved during the former projects in Kaunas to other Lithuanian gas companies and the gas sector in general. Also new subjects selected in co-operation with Kaunas Gas Company, the Lithuanian Energy Institute and the Lithuanian Gas Training Centre, where improvements were required, have been implemented. The components of the project were the following: (1) A training course in cathodic protection. One course concerning measuring and registration and one course concerning design and implementation. (2) A pilot project to develop methods for measuring cathodic protection on coherent steel pipe network. (3) Analysis of gas losses related to types of gas meters and calibration of meters. (4) A training course and technology transfer concerning relations between gas companies and consumers. (5) Dissemination of the experience of 1998 from the preparation of an operation and maintenance manual for Kaunas Gas Company. Dissemination of the ideas to other Lithuanian gas companies. (EHS)

  15. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Nielsen, Malene

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates ...... on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency....

  16. Basic survey project for joint implementation, etc. for associated gas utilization project at Kokdumalak Gas Field in Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a survey was conducted of the recovery/utilization of the associated gas in the Kokdumalak gas field in the Republic of Uzbekistan. In this area, crude oil and natural gas are produced, but the associated gas, etc. are released burning in the atmospheric air. This plan aims to recover LPG, NGL, etc. from these. In the plan, studies were made on the installation in the Karaulbazar area of production facilities of LPG of 369t/d and NGL of 107t/d by the feed of raw gas of 5,748,000 Sm{sup 3}/d and of LPG storage facilities, and on the installation of a 80km-LPG pipeline. The construction work will start in April, 2001 and is planned to be completed in 33 months. The investment required is estimated at approximately 82,003M US$. The substituting energy generated in this plan will be 168,418 toe/y and will total 5,052,546 toe in the term. Moreover, the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions will be 4.52 million t/y in CO2 and will total 135 million t in CO2 in the term. (NEDO)

  17. Draft evaluation of the frequency for gas sampling for the high burnup confirmatory data project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802041, “Draft Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burn-up Storage Demonstration Project” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations. Gas sampling will provide information on the presence of residual water (and byproducts associated with its reactions and decomposition) and breach of cladding, which could inform the decision of when to open the project cask.

  18. The role of the Industrial Bank of Japan in financing gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns liquefied natural gas projects, or LNG projects for short, and more specifically, how the Industrial Bank of Japan, IBJ, as a private bank has been involved in many projects, and how the bank has solved a range of problems encountered in the process of financing such projects. After that, the author's personal views are expressed on how to tackle the future development of LNG, an energy source that will become increasingly important in the future

  19. A review on disaster risk mitigation in the oil and gas project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhi, N. N.; Anwar, N.; Wiguna, I. P. A.

    2018-01-01

    In addition to the very complex risks, hazards potentially lead to disasters in the oil and gas projects. These risks can certainly be anticipated with the application of risk management, but an unsystematic and ineffective implementation of risk management will still bring adverse impacts. According to the eleven risk management principles in ISO 31000:2009, the application of risk management must pay attention to all aspects, both internal and external factors. Thus, this paper aims to identify variables that could affect the disaster mitigation efforts of oil and gas projects. This research began with literature study to determine the problems of risk management in oil and gas projects, so the affecting variables as the study objectives can be specified subsequently based on the literature review as well. The variables that must be considered in the efforts of disaster risk mitigation of oil and gas project are the risk factors and sustainability aspect.

  20. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity...

  1. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2009 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity r...

  2. High temperature gasification and gas cleaning – phase II of the HotVegas project

    OpenAIRE

    Meysel, P.; Halama, S.; Botteghi, F.; Steibel, M.; Nakonz, M.; Rück, R.; Kurowski, P.; Buttler, A.; Spliethoff, H.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the research project HotVeGas is to lay the necessary foundations for the long-term development of future, highly efficient high-temperature gasification processes. This includes integrated hot gas cleaning and optional CO2 capture and storage for next generation IGCC power plants and processes for the development of synthetic fuels. The joint research project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and five industry partners. It is coordi...

  3. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented

  5. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  6. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  7. Assessing the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanjun; Yoo, Han Kyul; Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas and has a global warming potential at least 28 times as high as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In the United States, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are reported to be the third-largest source of human-made methane emissions, responsible for 18% of methane emissions in 2011. Capturing landfill gas (LFG) for use as an energy source for electricity or heat produces alternative energy as well as environmental benefits. A host of federal and state policies encourage the development of landfill gas to energy (LFGE) projects. This research provides the first systematic economic assessment of the role of these policies on adoption decisions. Results suggest that Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credits have contributed to the development of these projects, accounting for 13 of 277 projects during our data period from 1991 to 2010. These policy-induced projects lead to 10.4 MMTCO 2 e reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and a net benefit of $41.8 million. - Highlights: • Examine the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects • Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credit had impacts. • Investment tax credit policy is cost-effectiveness in promoting these projects. • Policy-induced projects lead to significant environmental benefits

  8. Introduction to the Gas Hydrate Master Project of Energy National Science and Technology Program of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Research Team of Gas Hydrate Project of CGS of Taiwan

    2011-12-01

    Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs), which have been considered as one of major indicators of the gas hydrate in sub-seafloor, have been detected and widely distributed in offshore SW Taiwan. The Central Geological Survey of Taiwan launched a 4-year multidisciplinary gas hydrate investigation program in 2004 to explore the potential of gas hydrate resources in the area. The results indicate that enormous amounts of gas hydrate should occur beneath the seafloor, although none of solid gas hydrate samples have been found. Therefore, a second stage of another 4-year program started in 2008 to extend the studies/investigation. In the ongoing projects, some specific areas will be studied in detail to assess the components of gas hydrate petroleum system and provide a better assessment of the energy resource potential of gas hydrate in the target area. In addition to the field investigations, phase equilibrium of gas hydrate via experiment, theoretical modeling, and molecular simulations has also been studied. The results can provide insights into gas hydrate production technology. Considering the high potential energy resources, the committee of the energy national science and technology program suggests initiating a master project to plan the strategy and timeline for the gas hydrate exploration, exploitation and production in Taiwan. The plan will be introduced in this presentation.

  9. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  10. PROJECT OF POLLUTANTS SEPARATOR FROM THE GAS STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kościelnik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oily wastewater are dangerous for the environment, because they can contaminate ground water or surface, which can lead to contamination of the biosystem or poisoning of humans and animals. The treatment plant of this kind may include petroleum products or substances derived from natural gas, crude oil, asphalt or natural wax. Of course, in the wastewater oily you cannot forget about vegetable oils used in catering. Waste water of this type to be cleaned are subjected to the following processes: flotation, sedimentation, filtration, flowing out, thermal methods, biodegradation, adsorption or chemical and thermal methods to destabilize the emulsion. The aim of this study was to design a separator pollution from the gas station. We present the investment and operating costs. In designing the system chosen individual process units based on the requirements of the quality of wastewater specified in PN - EU 858.

  11. Bolivia-Brazil natural gas project: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the natural gas reserves in Bolivia and Brazil is discussed. The development of these reserves is being conducted by the Private Corporation for Gas Development. The Corporation was created to promote participation of the private sector in an area that was exclusively managed by federal or state governments. In order to promote participation by the private sector and at the same time to motivate foreign investors, the corporation is conducting a program of activities and studies that includes a legal and institutional analysis, a feasibility study in accordance with the viewpoints of the private sector, and also the structure of a business development plan, according to the perspective of private investors

  12. Artificial Leaks in Container Closure Integrity Testing: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Aperture Size Originated by a Copper Wire Sandwiched between the Stopper and the Glass Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Adler, Michael; Chalus, Pascal; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against possible contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the container closure system with microorganisms under specified testing conditions. Physical CCI uses surrogate endpoints, such as coloration by dye solution ingress or gas flow (helium leakage testing). In order to correlate microbial CCI and physical CCI test methods and to evaluate the methods' capability to detect a given leak, artificial leaks are being introduced into the container closure system in a variety of different ways. In our study, artificial leaks were generated using inserted copper wires between the glass vial opening and rubber stopper. However, the insertion of copper wires introduces leaks of unknown size and shape. With nonlinear finite element simulations, the aperture size between the rubber stopper and the glass vial was calculated, depending on wire diameter and capping force. The dependency of the aperture size on the copper wire diameter was quadratic. With the data obtained, we were able to calculate the leak size and model leak shape. Our results suggest that the size as well as the shape of the artificial leaks should be taken into account when evaluating critical leak sizes, as flow rate does not, independently, correlate to hole size. Capping force also affected leak size. An increase in the capping force from 30 to 70 N resulted in a reduction of the aperture (leak size) by approximately 50% for all wire diameters. From 30 to 50 N, the reduction was approximately 33%. Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the

  13. Design and production of stopper made of concrete foam composite used for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Bustami; Sebayang, Alexander; Sebayang, Septian; Muttaqin, Maraghi; Darmadi, Harry; Basuki, WS; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-03-01

    Open channel conduit is designed and produced with the aims to reduce excess water, whether from rain, seepage, or excess irrigation water in an area. It is also included in one of the important components of urban infrastructure in tackling the problem of flooding and waterlogging. On the roadway, e.g. housing complex the open channel conduits should function the same, however conduit covers are needed. The covers should be also designed to function as parking bumper. This paper discusses the design and production of the stoppers using our newly invented materials; the stoppers are structurally tested under static, dynamic, and bump test. Response of the conduit cover are found from structural analysis using finite element software ANSYS MECHANICAL version 17.5. Two types of stoppers are introduced: flat and curvy configuration. It was obtained that both types are suitable for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper.

  14. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  15. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  16. Bypassing Russia: Nabucco project and its implications for the European gas security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Restrictions on CO 2 emissions, the nuclear phase-out announced by some member states, high emissions from coal-fired power plants, and barriers to rapid development of renewable generation are factors that make the European Union (EU) highly dependent on natural gas. With three non-EU countries (Russia, Algeria and Norway) currently supplying more than half the gas consumed within the EU and with projections pointing out that by 2030 internal sources will only be able to meet 25% of demand, the EU desperately looks for means to secure new sources of gas supply. In this context, the Nabucco pipeline is planned to deliver gas from Caspian and Middle East regions to the EU market. It runs across Turkey and then through Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary before connecting with a major gas hub in Austria. On paper, Nabucco project makes perfect sense, offering a new export route to the EU markets for Caspian gas producers (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) as well as Iran and, in time, Iraq. The project is backed by the EU and strongly supported by the United States. Perhaps most importantly, Nabucco would completely bypass Russia. This paper addresses issues surrounding Nabucco project and their implications for the European gas security. (author)

  17. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  18. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  19. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  20. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Nielsen, Malene; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2011-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  1. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, Marianne; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  2. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2009 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2010-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  3. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne [DMU-AU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  4. Gas projects surge in the Middle East as governments seek new revenue sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The rapid development of natural gas and condensate reserves in the Middle East results from a simple motivation: the desire of governments to earn revenues. For the past decade, Middle East governments have run budget deficits, which they funded by drawing down foreign assets and issuing debt. Now in the process of structural economic reform, they have begun to use an under-utilized resource--natural gas, of which Middle East governments own about one third of the world's reserves. Governments receive revenues from several sources in natural gas developments, which makes the projects very attractive. Revenue comes from the sale of the natural gas in the domestic market and, if exported, the international market; the sale of associated condensates; the additional exports of crude oil or refined products if natural gas is substituted for refined products in domestic markets; the increased sale of crude oil if natural gas is injected into reservoirs to maintain pressure; and the sale of petrochemicals where natural gas is used as feedstock. Large projects under way in the Middle East highlight the consequences of multiple revenue sources and interlinked costs of natural gas and condensate development. Other countries in the region are undertaking similar projects, so examples cited represent only a portion of what is occurring. The paper describes Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iran

  5. Gas reactor in-pile safety test project (GRIST-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Arbtin, E.; St Pierre, R.

    1979-01-01

    Although out-of-pile tests may be expected to confirm individual phenomena models in core disruptive accident analysis codes, only in-pile tests are capable of verifying the extremely complex integrated model effects within the appropriate time phase for these accidents. For this reason, the GRIST-2 project, the purpose of which is to design and construct an in-pile helium loop capable of transient safety testing in the TREAT facility in Idaho, forms a cornerstone of the US GCFR safety program. The project organization, experiment program, facility, helium system design, and schedule which have been selected to meet the objectives are described

  6. The anatomy and importance of project finance for oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that project financing can be of great benefit to oil and gas projects because by separately identifying and securing assets and cashflows it can provide large sums not otherwise accessible to whole projects or to individual companies. Project financing is of interest to members of the SPE because it routinely requires the expertise of petroleum engineers and other professionals to vouch for the viability of petroleum projects and the recoverability of reserves. its essential attraction is that risk analysis and the application of precise professional criteria enable large projects and amounts to be financed, which otherwise might not occur. This is particularly the case when there are a number of participants in a large project, none of which is on its own able to support the finance. The growth in the average size of projects means that an increasing number of projects must be financed in this way or not be able to go forward

  7. The development of Middle Eastern gas: analyses of the graveyard of export projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, Robert

    1994-01-01

    There are three types of opportunities for gas developments in the Middle East. The first are those provided by the domestic energy market, the second by regional trade and the third by the potential for exports outside the region. The development of the full gas potential of the region, given the size of the reserves held by several countries, will only be possible through export. Of course, there is still room for the expansion of gas use within the producing countries and their regional neighbours but growth of domestic demand would not make a significant dent in the regional reserves before several decades. The potential for exports is constrained, however, by the uncertainty about future oil prices, the long lead-in time of major gas projects and the associated financing problems. There is a graveyard of gas export projects in the Middle East. New projects are continually conceived and then abandoned or indefinitely postponed. Even the famous Qatargas project which took so long to bring to the threshold of implementation appears in the present climate to be unattractive for both the country and the foreign investors involved. Gas in the Middle East will remain for a very long time a resource for an ever more distant future. There is still too much oil around for its price to rise to a support level for big gas projects in the Middle East. And there is no significant demand yet in Europe for Middle East oil which only leaves the Far East as a potential market. The paradox is that if gas resources are not developed ahead of needs, gas will not be available in sufficient volumes when required. (Author)

  8. Demand of natural gas; methodology for their projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The objective of integrated energetic planning process, is to propose political that assure the full supply of energy in the country, at competitive costs and with a rational use of the resources. Of there that it requires the periodic analysis of the information on the sectors of energy supplies and demand and on their interrelation with the economic, social and environmental environment. Among the variables that should stay upgraded during the planning process, it stands out the energy demand. The fact of to evaluate and to project demands goes to predict the consumer's of energy low uncertain conditions future behavior that it can affect the prospective results, so much in the short term as in the long term. One of the alternatives to face the uncertainty has more than enough future events it consists on building scenarios in those that values different from the variables that are considered with more incidences in the projected results participate. In the case of the energy, the variables that, generally, they are considered determinant, are the economic growth, the prices variation, the technological developments, the substitution among energy, the change of patterns of the population's consumption and the rational use of the energy. The application of the methodology of scenarios allows to settle down, for this case, bands of projection of the energy demand, in global form or for each energy type, specify in each sector and for each use. Once it is had the projection band, it is possible to determine the half growth of long term. The energy planning should respond in immediate form to the scenario changes, through the revision of the state projections. A frequent error, typical of the old sub-sector planning, consists on maintaining, in an irrational way, established growth percentages, when they intend new scenarios of economic growth

  9. Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Reimund; Niles, John O; Olander, Jacob

    2002-08-15

    A major concern about land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the potential for leakage. Leakage refers to a net increase of greenhouse-gas emissions in an area outside the project resulting from the CDM activity. This paper provides an overview of leakage, its definitions and its causes. It describes ways that LULUCF projects may suffer from leakage and attempts to assess the magnitude of leakage risks for different LULUCF project types. It also summarizes some of the approaches, both in terms of policies and project development, to address LULUCF leakage.

  10. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  11. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  12. Arrays of Molecular Rotors with Triptycene Stoppers: Surface Inclusion in Hexagonal Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jiří; Dron, Paul I; Zhao, Ke; Shen, Yongqiang; Císařová, Ivana; Rogers, Charles T; Michl, Josef

    2015-06-19

    A new generation of rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors designed for controlled insertion into channel arrays in the surface of hexagonal tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP) has been designed and synthesized. Triptycene is used as a stopper intended to prevent complete insertion, forcing the formation of a surface inclusion. Two widely separated (13)C NMR markers are present in the shaft for monitoring the degree of insertion. The structure of the two-dimensional rotor arrays contained in these surface inclusions was examined by solid-state NMR and X-ray powder diffraction. The NMR markers and the triptycene stopper functioned as designed, but half of the guest molecules were not inserted as deeply into the TPP channels as the other half. As a result, the dipolar rotators were distributed equally in two planes parallel to the crystal surface instead of being located in a single plane as would be required for ferroelectricity. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed rotational barriers of ∼4 kcal/mol but no ferroelectric behavior.

  13. A new cochlear implant electrode with a "cork"-type stopper for inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennaroğlu, Levent; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, Münir Demir

    2014-08-01

    Gusher in inner ear malformations is common in patients with incomplete partition type I and type III. It is also common in less severe form as oozing in incomplete partition type II and large vestibular aqueduct. It is important to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) escape around the electrode to prevent meningitis. The custom-made device was produced by Med-El Company. It has a "cork"-like stopper instead of the usual silicon ring to prevent gusher. There are two types of electrodes of different lengths. The standard one is 25mm (contact space 1.7mm) and the short one is 20mm (contact space 1.3mm). It was used in 50 patients with different inner ear malformations. Thirteen patients had gusher, and 11 patients oozing during cochleostomy. One patient with initial prototype of the cork electrode had to be revised because of persistent oozing around the electrode. Another patient had slow extrusion of the electrode most probably due to CSF pulsation and had to be revised. Both patients had no more CSF fistula. CSF fistula in inner ear malformations is a serious situation which may lead to recurrent meningitis. The new electrode with "cork" stopper looks promising in preventing the postoperative CSF leak around the electrode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  15. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  17. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March 1979--31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. During March, National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers generally progressed on schedule. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation techniques. Theoretical and experimental work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Sandia Laboratories completed preparations for the NTS evaluation test of the borehole seismic system. M.D. Wood, Inc. monitored the formation of a hydraulic fracture in the Wattenburg gas field, Weld County, Colorado. Measurement of bottom-hole pressure in the Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells for the CIG cyclic gas injection project continued. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse--Duke No. 1 was flowing 4,000 MCFD in March. Efforts to clean out Mobil's PCU F31-13G well continued.

  18. Natural gas projects in the developing world: An empirical evaluation of merits, obstacles, and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amit

    Significant amounts of natural gas have been discovered in developing countries throughout the years during the course of oil exploration. The vast majority of these resources have not been utilized. Some developing countries may benefit from a carefully planned utilization of their indigenous resources, which can either be exported or used domestically to substitute imported or exportable fuels or feedstock. Governments, potential private sector investors, and financiers have been searching for strategies to promote natural gas schemes, some of which have been in the pipeline for more than two decades. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the crucial factors determining the success or failure of launching natural gas projects in the developing world. The methodology used to evaluate these questions included: (1) establishing a representative sample of natural gas projects in developing countries that were either implemented or failed to materialize during the 1980-1995 period, (2) utilizing a Probit limited dependent variable econometric model in which the explained variable is project success or failure, and (3) choosing representing indicators to reflect the assumed factors affecting project success. The study identified two conditions for project success: (1) the economic viability of the project and (2) securing financing for the investment. The factors that explain the ability or inability of the sponsors to secure financing were: (1) the volume of investment that represented the large capital costs of gas transportation, distribution, and storage, (2) the level of foreign exchange constraint in the host country, and (3) the level of development of the country. The conditions for private sector participation in natural gas projects in developing countries were identified in the study by a Probit model in which the explained variable was private sector participation. The results showed that a critical condition for private sector participation is the

  19. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  20. Producing hydrogen from coke-oven gas: the Solmer project. [PSA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, G; Vidal, J

    1984-05-01

    After presenting the energy situation at the Solmer plant, where coke-oven gas is produced to excess, the authors examine the technical and economic possibilities of utilizing this gas for hydrogen extraction. They describe a project (based on the PSA process) for producing some 65 t/d of hydrogen and present the technical features of the scheme. An evaluation of the energy and financial costs of producing the hydrogen confirms the competitive status of the process.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  2. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  3. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  4. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict.

  5. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  7. Uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections: Experiences from Mexico and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel

    This report outlines approaches to quantify the uncertainty associated with national greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections. It does so by describing practical applications of those approaches in two countries – Mexico and South Africa. The goal of the report is to promote uncertainty...

  8. Economic and Strategic Expectations from Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the successful implementation of the oil strategy, Azerbaijan began to define strategic objectives in relation to gas export policy. Currently, Azerbaijan is the only country in the region exporting gas to the international markets (Turkey, Russia, Georgia. For this reason, it is seen as “the provider and participant” of Southern Gas Corridor by EU. In this direction, Azerbaijan aims to be the country of an important and strategic natural gas exporter. From Shahdeniz field to the end European user, it targets to take part in the every ring of the value chain. These assumptions bring Azerbaijan to the position of a remarkable natural gas supplier for the export of large amount of gas to the European markets through Nabucco West. The implementation of the project with financial and technical capabilities of Azerbaijan and Turkey has made it a project to be realized between Turkey-Azerbaijan. TANAP means Turkey and Azerbaijan will emerge together in the European market for energy transportation. Along with Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, TANAP has reinforced Turkey’s position as a necessary energy corridor in delivering the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to the Western markets. In this paper, expected strategic and economic outcomes of TANAP are analyzed.

  9. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  10. Case history of a successful CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpole, Ken

    1998-07-01

    A successful fieldwide CO{sub 2} miscible gas injection project has been underway at the East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) in eastern New Mexico, USA since 1985. This presentation follows the evolution of CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection operations at EVGSAU and discusses some of the significant changes in reservoir strategy management which have been implemented over the past 13 years. These changes parallel the evolution in the industry's understanding of and experience with CO{sub 2} miscible gs injection processes. The operating problems and reservoir management challenges encountered at East Vacuum - injection performance, sweep efficiency, effective management of WAG operations, rapidly changing requirements for handling produced gas, and maintaining efficient utilization of injected CO{sub 2} - reflect the kinds of challenges typically encountered in managing a large CO{sub 2} injection project. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Kyoto protocol flexibility mechanisms in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonova, A.

    2005-02-01

    This PhD thesis evaluates the perspectives of the oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia. From the energy point of view, the relationships between climate policy and energy systems are described and the main sources of GHG emissions reductions in the Russian oil and gas sector are evaluated. From the environmental point of view, the JI is firstly considered as an economic instrument of the international climate agreements. Secondly, are demonstrated the characteristics of the JI perturbing his efficiency and his capacity to ensure the environmental quality of projects. Based on the specificities of Russian climate policy, two scenarios of its development are proposed to estimate the perspectives of JI in the oil and gas sector in the middle term. (author)

  12. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project

  13. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. Approximately 350 new industrial, 800 new commercial, and 12,700 new residential natural gas customers are expected from this project. Incremental gas sales are projected to be about 48.1 million CF/d when the project is completed in 1992. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. The gas for Surabaya will be used for about 400 industrial and 150 commercial customers, and 3,600 households. The additional gas supply for Medan will be used for two power plants operated by the state electric utility, PLN. Incremental natural gas sales from this project are projected to be 68 million CF/d when it is

  14. Summary of the technical guidelines used in the project: The economics of greenhouse gas limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    This document is a summary version of the technical guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Technical guidelines (UNEP 1998). The objectives of this project have been to support the development of a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au)

  15. Modelling gas migration in fractured rock. A contribution to the EU's PROGRESS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.; Robinson, P.; Clark, K.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the performance of a waste repository, it is necessary to be able to predict the rates of gas generation and to understand and evaluate both the way the gas may disperse from the repository and any effects that might be associated with this dispersal. This document describes the modelling work carried out by QuantiSci on behalf of the UK Environment Agency, in conjunction with the CEC PROGRESS Project (Research into Gas Generation and Migration in Radioactive Waste Repository Systems) which has been carried out as part of the European Commission's IV th framework R and D programme. The project was under the PEGASUS (Projects on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities) umbrella. A review is provided of alternative conceptual models for the migration of gas through an initially water saturated fracture. A range of front or interface tracking methods for computing gas migration through a fracture is described: direct discretisation, marker particle, volume of fluids and level set methods. Volume of fluids methods are identified as the most appropriate approach for models of this sort. Subsequently, a description is given of the development of a model of gas injection into a single fracture in a portion of Borrowdale Volcanic Granite. The theoretical approach for the model is described in detail and the model compared to experimental results obtained for the real fracture. The experimental results of the CEC PROGRESS Project (obtained using Positron Emission Tomography) do not show particularly good agreement with the model results. However, there are strong indications that this is largely the result of uncertainties in the interpretation of the PET results. The experimental results are acknowledged to be extremely hard to interpret and the apparent negative gas thicknesses observed experimentally confirm this fact. Given the clearly critical dependence of the gas migration pathways on the aperture distribution, any discrepancies of this sort

  16. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  17. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 September 1979-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on rock-fluid interaction and advanced logging techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory continued work on permeability and porosity determination of core samples and geological support studies. Sandia Laboratories continued work on their EGR Instrumentation and Diagnostic Program. Cyclic gas injection continued at Colorado Interstate Gas Company's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility is continuing to provide technical support to the Gas Research Institute/Rio Blanco Natural Gas MHF experiment. The Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. Natural Buttes Unit wells continued to flow to sales. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was opened after a 28-day shut-in period. The hydraulic fracturing containment experiment continued for the Sandia-mineback program.

  18. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 August-31 August, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This status report summarizes progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques continued at Bartlesville. Work commenced on completing, testing and possible hydraulic fracturing of the Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company well No. 397-19-1 and on the evaluation of seismic data for stratigraphic studies of lenticular sands. LLL continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. LASL worked on developing NMR methods to define fluid saturation, porosity, and permeability of western gas sands at in situ conditions. M.D. Wood, Inc. was involved in design and site preparation for two hydraulic fracture mapping jobs in the Cotton Valley Trend in Texas. Testing and analyses of the borehole seismic system and borehole hydrophone system continued at Sandia. Field tests and related activities for the WGSP progressed as scheduled in August. Cyclic injection of dehydrated natural gas and production in Colorado Interstate Gas Company's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells continued. The Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. wells, Natural Buttes Units 9, 14, 18 and 20 flowed to sales. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was shut-in for a 15-day pressure buildup test. Hydraulic fracture containment experiments and activities in the multi-frac test series continued at the Nevada Test Site for Sandia Laboratories' mineback program.

  19. Multicomponent gas flow computations by a discontinuous Galerkin scheme using L2-projection of perfect gas EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchina, N.; Savini, M.; Bassi, F.

    2016-06-01

    A new formulation of multicomponent gas flow computation, suited to a discontinuous Galerkin discretization, is here presented and discussed. The original key feature is the use of L2-projection form of the (perfect gas) equation of state that allows all thermodynamic variables to span the same functional space. This choice greatly mitigates problems encountered by the front-capturing schemes in computing discontinuous flow field, retaining at the same time their conservation properties at the discrete level and ease of use. This new approach, combined with an original residual-based artificial dissipation technique, shows itself capable, through a series of tests illustrated in the paper, to both control the spurious oscillations of flow variables occurring in high-order accurate computations and reduce them increasing the degree of the polynomial representation of the solution. This result is of great importance in computing reacting gaseous flows, where the local accuracy of temperature and species mass fractions is crucial to the correct evaluation of the chemical source terms contained in the equations, even if the presence of the physical diffusivities somewhat brings relief to these problems. The present work can therefore also be considered, among many others already presented in the literature, as the authors' first step toward the construction of a new discontinuous Galerkin scheme for reacting gas mixture flows.

  20. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  1. Research project RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gas leak detection with autonomous mobile robots; Forschungsprojekt RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gaslecksuche mit autonomen mobilen Robotern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Abdelkarim [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Bonow, Gero; Kroll, Andreas [Fachgebiet Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Hegenberg, Jens; Schmidt, Ludger [Fachgebiet Mensch-Maschine-Systemtechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Barz, Thomas; Schulz, Dirk [Fraunhofer FKIE, Unbemannte Systeme, Wachtberg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    As part of the promotional program AUTONOMIK of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) a consortium of nine project partners developed a prototype of an autonomous mobile robot looking for gas leaks in extended industrial equipment. The autonomous mobility of the system for any systems was implemented using different types of sensors for self-localization and navigation. The tele-operation enables a manual intervention in the process. The robot performs inspection tasks in industrial plants by means of video technology and remote gas measurement technology without driving into the possible risk areas and without the presence of humans. The robot can be used for routine inspections of facilities or for the targeted inspection of specific plant components. Thanks to the remote sensing technique also plant components can be inspected which are difficult to be inspected due to their limited accessibility by conventional measurement techniques.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Behavior of a 2-DOF Spring Resonator with End Stopper for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF spring resonator with end stopper for an energy harvesting application is presented. Then we characterize its nonlinear dynamical behavior by numerical simulations when some suitable parameters are varied. The system is formed by two resonators subject to external vibrational excitation and with an end stopper. We present the continuous time dynamical model of the system in the form of a switched fourth order differential equation. Harmonic vibrations are considered as the main ambient energy source for the system and its frequency response representing the RMS value of the displacement is first computed. The dynamical behavior is unveiled by computing state-space trajectories, timedomain series and FFT spectra and frequency response as the excitation amplitude is varied.

  3. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Materials and Structures Research for Gas Turbine Applications Within the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Janet

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the current materials and structures research geared toward propulsion applications for NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project one of four projects within the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project has selected challenging goals which anticipate an increasing emphasis on aviation s impact upon the global issue of environmental responsibility. These goals are greatly reduced noise, reduced emissions and reduced fuel consumption and address 25 to 30 years of technology development. Successful implementation of these demanding goals will require development of new materials and structural approaches within gas turbine propulsion technology. The Materials and Structures discipline, within the SFW project, comprise cross-cutting technologies ranging from basic investigations to component validation in laboratory environments. Material advances are teamed with innovative designs in a multidisciplinary approach with the resulting technology advances directed to promote the goals of reduced noise and emissions along with improved performance.

  5. Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rubber Packaging Materials and in Parenteral Formulations Stored in Bottles With Rubber Stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Viana, Carine; Barichello, Marcia M; de Moura, Juliane F; de Carvalho, Leandro M; Nascimento, Paulo C

    2017-08-01

    Rubber closures are the primary packaging material for sterile preparations intended for repeated use. Important features of rubber closures are achieved after additives are added to the elastomeric material that compounds the rubber. Among these additives is carbon black. Because of its origin, carbon black may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified 16 priority PAHs on the basis of concerns that they cause or might cause cancer in animals and humans. Regulatory agencies impose carbon black purity specifications based on limits for total PAHs (0.5 mg/kg) and benzo[a]pyrene (5 μg/kg) or benzo[a]pyrene only (250 μg/kg). PAHs in rubber packaging used for pharmaceutical formulations and in parenteral products stored in containers with rubber stoppers were investigated. To this end, the method proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection-was adapted to determine the levels of PAHs in rubber stoppers (gray and red) and in lipid emulsions and amino acid solutions stored in bottles with rubber stoppers. The rubber materials were shown to contain 12 PAHs, in concentrations ranging from 0.25-3.31 µg/g. Only 1 of 18 samples (11 amino acid solutions and 7 lipid emulsions) was uncontaminated. The most prevalent contaminants were pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The total PAH concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.11-5.96 µg/mL. Components of parenteral nutrition may be contaminated with PAHs, and rubber stoppers represent a potential source of these contaminants.

  6. Sealing behavior of Container Closure Systems under Frozen Storage Conditions: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Serum Rubber Stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger

    2018-03-15

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in the assessment of suitable vial/stopper combinations for storage and shipment of frozen drug products. Considering that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of butyl rubber stoppers used in Container Closure Systems (CCS) is between -55°C to -65°C, a storage or shipment temperature of a frozen product below the Tg of the rubber stopper, may require special attention, since below the Tg the rubber becomes more plastic-like and loses its elastic (sealing) characteristics. Thus they risk maintaining Container Closure Integrity (CCI). Given that the rubber regains its elastic properties and reseals after rewarming to ambient temperature, leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are transient and the CCI methods used at room temperature conditions are unable to confirm CCI in the frozen state. Hence, several experimental methods have been developed in recent years in order to evaluate CCI at low temperatures. Finite Element (FE) simulations were applied in order to investigate the sealing behaviour of rubber stoppers for the drug product CCS under frozen storage conditions. FE analysis can help reducing the experimental design space and thus number of measurements needed, as they can be used as an ad-on to experimental testing. Several scenarios have been simulated including the effect of thermal history, rubber type, storage time, worst case CCS geometric tolerances and capping pressure. The results of these calculations have been validated with experimental data derived from laboratory experiments (CCI at low temperatures), and a concept for tightness has been developed. It has been concluded that FE simulations have the potential to become a powerful predictive tool towards a better understanding of the influence of cold storage on the rubber sealing properties (and hence on CCI) when dealing with frozen drug products. Copyright © 2018, Parenteral Drug Association.

  7. Risks Associated with Unconventional Gas Extraction Projects. Induced Seismicity, NORM and Ecological Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling are globally driving the commercial extraction of unconventional resources. Although there is still no commercial exploitation of these resources within the EU, the fact that there are potential reserves in some countries, such as Spain, stimulates the need of performing preliminary studies to define the characteristics that an unconventional gas extraction project should consider. The object of these features are the safety of the project, thus minimizing the probabilities of negative environmental impacts, and especially since there is not any EU Framework Directive focusing on the regulation of the operation of such fossil fuels. A project of this nature, involving natural systems, must start from the knowledge of these systems and from an assessment of its features in order to reach the environmental safety of the operations. Moreover, the implementation of risk management systems, along with the existence of an appropriate legislation and supervision are key elements in the development of unconventional gas extraction projects that are environmentally friendly. The present report includes, among the overall risks associated with such projects, those related to: i) the induced seismicity; ii) the Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and iii) the ecology.

  8. Entanglement in bipartite pure states of an interacting boson gas obtained by local projective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.; Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Bose, Sougato

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the extractable entanglement of excited states of a Lieb-Liniger gas that are obtained from coarse-grained measurements on the ground state in which the boson number in one of two complementary contiguous partitions of the gas is determined. Numerically exact results obtained from the coordinate Bethe ansatz show that the von Neumann entropy of the resulting bipartite pure state increases monotonically with the strength of repulsive interactions and saturates to the impenetrable-boson limiting value. We also present evidence indicating that the largest amount of entanglement can be extracted from the most probable projected state having half the number of bosons in a given partition. Our study points to a fundamental difference between the nature of the entanglement in free-bosonic and free-fermionic systems, with the entanglement in the former being zero after projection, while that in the latter (corresponding to the impenetrable-boson limit) being nonzero.

  9. Improved gas installations and services. Phase 1: Analysis project. Part report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.J.

    1996-05-01

    As Danish gas companies receive a large number of complaints related to the installation and operation of gas installations it was suggested that a course for personnel should be established in order to raise the standard of services and installation requirements. The first phase of the described project was to evaluate the quality of the gas installers' services so as to determine which aspects of installation and services should be emphasized during such a course. Interviews were carried out and questionnaires (illustrated within the document) sent out to installaters etc. Recommendations include that the level of information given to customers should be raised, also in relation to maintenance, and that installation should be improved. Analyses of the degree of customers' satisfaction, of the nature of the quality of services etc. expected, subjects for further training in this area and details of the training system are dealt with

  10. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  11. Cork stoppers as an effective sorbent for water treatment: the removal of mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cláudia B; Oliveira, Joana R; Rocha, Luciana S; Tavares, Daniela S; Silva, Carlos M; Silva, Susana P; Hartog, Niels; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, E

    2014-02-01

    The technical feasibility of using stopper-derived cork as an effective biosorbent towards bivalent mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions was evaluated in this study. Only 25 mg/L of cork powder was able to achieve 94 % of mercury removal for an initial mercury concentration of 500 μg/L. It was found that under the conditions tested, the efficiency of mercury removal expressed as equilibrium removal percentage does not depend on the amount of cork or its particle size, but is very sensitive to initial metal concentration, with higher removal efficiencies at higher initial concentrations. Ion exchange was identified as one of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of Hg onto cork in the absence of ionic competition. Under ionic competition, stopper-derived cork showed to be extremely effective and selective for mercury in binary mixtures, while in complex matrices like seawater, moderate inhibition of the sorption process was observed, attributed to a change in mercury speciation. The loadings achieved are similar to the majority of literature values found for other biosorbents and for other metals, suggesting that cork stoppers can be recycled as an effective biosorbent for water treatment. However, the most interesting result is that equilibrium data show a very rare behaviour, with the isotherm presenting an almost square convex shape to the concentration axis, with an infinite slope for an Hg concentration in solution around 25 μg/L.

  12. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

  13. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  14. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.; Mubin, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to cater for its high energy demand, Pakistan is planning to import natural gas through pipelines from neighboring countries. For fully utilizing the imported gas, providing it to end customers, the infrastructure of gas pipeline needs to be developed. Therefore, huge investment has been done and proposed in this sector in coming future. Considering geological, topographical, geopolitical and climatic conditions of the country, there is added risk of earthquake, landslides and floods. Due to current geopolitical situation there is a persistent threat of unrest and terrorism in the country. Instable Government policies, high rate of inflation, rapid change in material prices are also important risk factors. All these factors make the situation very complex in quantifying the risk especially for a project in which the risk impact factor rises exponentially in case of risk occurrence. In this paper, most appropriate risk classification is made based on technological, organizational, political, natural climatic, security and environmental risk factors. Effort has been made to device a simpler risk management methodology to analyze and manage risks of gas pipeline project. In the proposed risk management model Monte Carlo simulation has been used to identify critical risks. (author)

  15. Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems. The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration.

  16. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  17. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft Environmental... & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is... comments related to the SDG&E Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http...

  18. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental...) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is announcing its... Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent to affected Federal, State...

  19. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  20. Analyzing Drivers of Conflict in Energy Infrastructure Projects: Empirical Case Study of Natural Gas Pipeline Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Young Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructure projects have caused various conflicts between stakeholders, particularly among the residents around construction sites and operators. The conflicts are largely due to the “Not in My Backyard” mentality associated with hazardous projects. In natural gas pipeline (NGP projects, conflicts have been increasing with the increase in a wider range of linear projects, and they have been worsening because of the lack of clear countermeasures. This study proposes an effective conflict management strategy for NGP projects in Korea. To achieve the objectives, 25 conflict drivers were identified and 143 case-based surveys were conducted to determine the causal relationship between the drivers and the level of conflict using structural equation modeling (SEM. The SEM results show that factors such as economic (e.g., decreased value of the land, construction-related (e.g., disturbance due to using the original route and site, and safety-related characteristics (e.g., concerns about explosions and accidents are the most important in understanding the causes of conflicts. Based on the causal relationship, five key strategies were proposed to manage the critical conflicts. This study can serve as a basis for implementing better conflict management plans in the future for a more sustainable project execution.

  1. An overview of turbomachinery project in Malaysian oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd. Rahman Sabri, Harris; Rahim, Abd. Rahman Abdul; Yew, Wong Kuan; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-12-01

    Being the most demanding, challenging and exciting engineering and technological advances has provided escalated interests amongst the engineers at large to venture into the oil and gas (O&G) industry. Although claimed as the most expensive industry in the world via the utilisation of critical equipments, the O&G industry is still recording notorius failures in its project management especially due to turbomachinery issues, the heart equipment of any O&G project. Therefore, it is important for this paper to review turbomachinery project as one of the long lead items during project executions that is also proven to be the most costly and expensive equipment. This paper therefore discusses the gaps in turbomachinery studies via literature review in highlighting its application in O&G projects. It is found that the main components of turbomachinery are driver and driven equipment, which are applied for mechanical equipment, Electric Power Generation and heat generation for Combined Cycled Configuration. Important variables for turbomachinery selection include: (1) process requirement; (2) site location; (3) driver selection; (4) equipment sparing philosophy; (5) efficiency and reliability; (6) operability and maintainability; and (7) cost. It is hoped that this paper would lead to the successful project management of turbomachinery in the O&G industry.

  2. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, April 1--April 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-01

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. Work by the USGS toward resource assessment in the four primary study areas continued. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Gathering of bottom-hole pressure data from the Miller No. 1 well and Sprague No. 1 well in the Wattenberg Field, Colorado continued. Fracturing fluid/rock interaction tests have been completed by Terra Tek for Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc., on sandstone horizons in the lower Mesaverde. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was flowed 4,000 MCFGD in April. Fishing operations on the Mobil PCU F31-13G well were unsuccessful. Six zones of the first horizontal experimental hole in the Sandia Laboratories interface test series were mined back to examine the behavior of the hydraulic fracture at the interface. Data collection by CER Corporation and TRW for GRI's Analysis of Tight Formations project continued.

  3. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 June--30 June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This edition of the WGSP status report summarizes June 1979 progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Background information is provided in the September 1977, status report, NVO/0655-100. Work by the USGS toward resource assessment in the four primary study areas continued. CK GeoEnergy started a core hole in Grand County, Utah. During June, projects of the National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The CER Corporation RB-MHF 3 final report has been distributed. Cyclic gas injection began again on CIG's Sprague No. 1 well. The DOE well test facility was transported to Vernal, Utah for minor repairs and storage. The GPE wells, Natural Buttes Units 9, 14 and 18 flowed to sales. The Mitchell Energy Muse-Duke No. 1 well flowed 3,000 MCFD in June. Attempts to kill the Mobil PCU F31-13G well failed. Exploratory coring of the Sandia Hole No. 6 Formation Interface Fracture Experiment resumed in June.

  4. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 July-31 July, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-01

    National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued projects during July. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on core/fluid testing, fabrication of and improvements to confining pressure apparatus, advanced logging techniques and interpretation and reservoir simulation studies. At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory theoretical analysis and experimental programs continued for hydraulic fracturing. Testing of the borehole seismic and hydrophone systems for fracture mapping continued at Sandia Laboratories. The CER Corporation RB-MHF 3 well has been transferred to Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company for further testing. Cyclic gas injection and production continued at CIG's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE well test facility was transported to the Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company well No. 397-19-1 Government. The cumulative production of Mitchell Energy Muse-Duke No. 1 as of July 31, 1979, was just over one billion cubic ft of gas. A flow log was run on the Mobil PCU F31-13G well. Exploratory coring for the Sandia Hole No. 6 fracture experiment continued in July with the completion of two additional holes.

  5. Feasibility improvement project for the gas turbine power plant in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  6. China's modern day Great Wall : the 40 inch West to East Gas Pipeline Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to fuel China's economic growth, PetroChina began construction of the West to East Natural Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP) in 2001 to transport large quantities of natural gas reserves from the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China to markets in eastern China. The WEPP is the first large diameter, cross-country pipeline project ever constructed in China, and was the first to use automatic welding and automatic ultrasonic inspection on pipelines in China. This paper addressed the management, engineering, procurement and construction challenges of the WEPP. Upon completion of the 3,800 km, 1.016 mm mainline pipeline, construction will begin on other major facilities, such 294 km of lateral line, dual fiber optic conduits with the mainline, 1,100 km of access roads, 23 metering stations, 18 pigging stations, 10 compressor stations, 16 mountain tunnels, 16 aerial crossings, 1 crossing of the Yangtze River, 3 crossings of the Yellow River, a gas control center, and SCADA system. Houston-based Universal Ensco Inc. was awarded a contract to perform a feasibility study as well as a construction supervision contract by PetroChina for the WEPP. Universal also designed a gas turbine drive compressor station at Lunnan and an electric drive compressor station at Zhengzhou. This paper demonstrated that business in China for foreign companies in the pipeline industry is evolving and several changes can be expected as the state planned economy is reformed to a free market economy. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  7. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically

  8. The Asian Development Bank's past and future involvement in financing gas projects in developing member countries of the Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Bank's involvement in financing gas projects in its developing member countries (DMC's). The paper highlights the scope of the Bank's past activities in the sector, the DMC's which had received assistance from the Bank, the types of projects financed by the Bank, the benefits expected to be derived from the projects, and the past problems encountered by the Bank. The operational framework under which past Bank lending to the gas sector was conducted is also described. The prospects of natural gas playing a prominent role as an environmentally preferred energy source to oil and coal are outlined. Indications of the direction of the Bank's future efforts to help its gas-resource-rich as well as its gas-resource-poor DMC's to quicken the use of natural gas are given. While emphasizing the Bank's contributions in helping its DMC's to increase gas supply to alleviate energy shortages, the paper stresses the important role the Bank has played and will play in institution-building and sector-development work. The paper explores the possibility for the Bank to expand its operations in the gas sector which will lead to the efficient and accelerated development of a clean energy source that will help its DMC's avoid a third oil crisis and reduce the damaging build-up of a greenhouse gas which now threatens to harm the global environment

  9. Perencanaan Modifikasi Rangka Busur Baja pada Jembatan Pemali disertai Damper sebagai Longitudinal Stopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintang Mahardhika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jembatan Pemali merupakan jembatan yang terletak di Kota Brebes. Jembatan ini menjadi akses penting yang menghubungkan antara Kota Semarang dan Kota Jakarta. Jembatan Pemali sering mengalami perbaikan dalam segi struktural setiap bulannya, hal ini diakibatkan oleh semakin padat volume kendaraan terutama truk dengan muatan berat. Permasalahan ini yang melatarbelakangi pembangunan Jembatan Pemali yang baru agar menunjang dalam sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini memodifikasi Jembatan Pemali menjadi sistem busur rangka baja. Jembatan didesain dengan tinggi 18 meter, bentang 100 meter dan lebar 9 meter. Penelitian ini menggunakan kombinasi pembebanan sesuai SNI T-02-2005 dan SNI 1725-2016. Dengan menggunakan progam bantu SAP2000, kombinasi KUAT 1 (SNI-1725-2016 menghasilkan output gaya yang lebih besar daripada kombinasi lainnya sehingga kombinasi tersebut digunakan untuk menentukan profil rangka atas jembatan. Analisis pengaruh damper dengan tipe Lock-Up Device menggunakan progam bantu SAP2000 dengan kombinasi beban yang menentukan dalam perencanaan damper sebagai longitudinal stopper adalah kombinasi EKSTREM I (SNI-1725-2016. Hasil dari analisis dengan progam bantu SAP2000 profil utama yang terbesar pada jembatan busur menggunakan BOX 500x500x25 serta dengan adanya damper struktur utama jembatan mampu mengurangi deformasi sebesar 16%. Dalam merencanakan bangunan bawah jembatan, dilakukan kontrol guling dan geser pada abutment jembatan serta untuk tiang pancang jembatan dilakukan kontrol berdasarkan daya dukung tanah dan tipe material yang digunakan. Dari perencanaan tersebut, didapatkan dimensi abutment 11x11x10 meter serta kebutuhan tiang pancang jembatan 36 buah. Hasil seluruh perhitungan Penelitian ini dituangkan dalam gambar teknik standar.

  10. Comparison of microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and Ankaferd Blood Stopper in a rabbit epistaxis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttas, Veysel; Sereflican, Murat; Terzi, Elçin Hakan; Ozyalvaçlı, Gulzade; Kazaz, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological impact, effectiveness, and safety of two hemostatic agents, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and microporous polysaccharide hemospheres (MPH), in an experimental rabbit epistaxis model. Rabbits were randomly assigned, using a computerized random number generator, to the following three groups of six animals: group 1 (control, irrigated with saline); group 2 (ABS-treated); and group 3 (MPH-treated). In all groups, a standardized rabbit epistaxis model was used. Hemostasis time and extent of nasal bleeding were measured to compare the hemostatic effect of ABS and MPH among groups. Septums were removed for histopathological analysis, 7 days after the procedure. ABS reduced hemostasis time to 104.2 s and amount of bleeding to 20.5 mg. MPH reduced hemostasis time to 71.7 s and amount of bleeding to 11.5 mg. Mean bleeding time in wounds administered ABS and MPH was significantly shorter compared with wounds administered isotonic saline solution (p = 0.004). ABS and MPH application decreased bleeding significantly compared with the control group (p = 0.004). Bleeding time and amount in the MPH group was significantly reduced compared with the ABS group (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004, respectively). There was no significant difference in the histopathological evaluation results between the ABS, MPH, and control groups. Our data indicate that both ABS and MPH represent safe, effective, and fast-acting hemostatic agents in the management of epistaxis. MPH was more effective than ABS in terms of hemostasis time and amount of bleeding.

  11. The Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on the Recovery Process in an Experimental Oesophageal Perforation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Gürbüz Sarıkaş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oesophageal perforation is a life-threatening pathology that is generally treated conservatively; however, surgical procedures are frequently performed. A topical haemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, also has beneficial wound-healing effects. Aims: This study aimed to determine the effects of ABS following experimental oesophageal perforations. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: The experimental rats were classified into 6 groups (with 7 rats in each group. Pairs of groups (primary repair alone and primary repair + ABS were terminated in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks following injury. The oesophageal perforations, which were 8-10 mm in length, were created using a nasogastric tube. The perforation sites were repaired with a 6-0 polyglactine thread in the primary repair groups. Additionally, ABS was sprayed over the perforation site in the treatment groups. Each oesophagus was evaluated histopathologically. Results: There were fewer microabscesses and areas of necrosis in the ABS groups compared with the primary repair groups. The histopathological evaluation revealed that the ABS groups had less inflammation and more re-epithelisation compared to the primary repair groups (p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively. Fibrosis in the ABS groups was moderate in the 2nd week and mild in the 3rd week. Comparing the groups with respect to the time intervals, only the 1st week groups showed a significant difference in terms of re-epithelialisation (p=0.044. Conclusion: Topical ABS application on the repaired experimental oesophageal perforation regions led to positive wound-healing effects compared with the rats that were administered the primary repair alone.

  12. Development of a time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, S.X.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Isobe, T.; Gunji, T.; Morino, Y.; Saito, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.; Sawada, S.; Yokkaichi, S.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a prototype time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC) for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. To investigate its performance, we conducted a beam test with three kinds of gases (Ar(90%)-CH 4 (10%), Ar(70%)-C 2 H 6 (30%) and CF 4 ). Detection efficiency of 99%, and spatial resolution of 79μm in the pad-row direction and 313μm in the drift direction were achieved. The test results show that the GEM-TPC meets the requirements for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. The configuration and performance of the GEM-TPC are described

  13. Development of a Time Projection Chamber using CF4 gas for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Kametani, S.; Kajihara, F.; Gunji, T.; Kurihara, N.; Oda, S.X.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) using pure CF 4 gas was developed for possible use in heavy ion experiments. Basic characteristics such as gain, drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and attenuation length of produced electrons were measured with the TPC. At an electric field of 900V/cm, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion for 1cm drift were obtained as 10cm/μs and 60μm, respectively. The relatively large gain fluctuation is explained to be due to the electron attachment process in CF 4 . These characteristics are encouraging for the measurement of the charged particle trajectories under high multiplicity conditions at RHIC

  14. Where in the World are Canadian Oil and Gas Companies? An Introduction to the Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloo Hojjati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, The School of Public Policy formally launched the Extractive Resource Governance Program, a platform to harness Canadian and international research and technical expertise to assist resource-rich jurisdictions in establishing sustainable and mutually beneficial policies for governance of the extractive sector. The program delivers applied policy research, technical assistance and executive training programs to countries with emerging or established extractive resources, working in collaboration with governments, regulatory bodies, academia, civil society, and industry. Begun in 2011 as an internal research tool for the development of the Extractive Resource Governance Program, this project was conceived as a means to identify jurisdictions where Canadian companies had ongoing projects and activities around the world. This paper introduces the methodology used to answer the question: Where in the world are Canadian oil and gas companies? To answer this question, firm-level data from publicly traded Canadian companies were collected and analyzed culminating in the development of an online tool for public use. This paper accompanies an interactive website launched by The School’s Extractive Resource Governance Program and describes the data available online as well as in the annual reports released by The school. The website and annual reports allow interested users to geographically locate jurisdictions around the world where publicly traded Canadian oil and gas companies have activities, over time. The website is available at http://www.policyschool.ca/research-teaching/teachingtraining/extractive-resource-governance/ergp-map/. While Canada is a well-recognized oil and gas jurisdiction within its own borders, the extent of activity that Canadian companies undertake in the international arena is less well known. For instance, while Natural Resources Canada collects and publishes regular data on Canadian mining assets and

  15. Draft environmental statement related to the Union Carbide Corporation, Gas Hills Uranium Project (Natrona County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of Source Material License SUA-648 issued for the operation of the Gas Hills Uranium Project in Wyoming, near Moneta. The project is an acid leach, ion-exchange, and solvent-extraction uranium ore processing mill at an increased capacity of 500,000 tons per year and the construction of two heap leach facilities in Natrona and Fremont Counties for initial processing of low-grade ore. After analysis of environmental impacts and adverse effects, it is the proposed position of NRC that the license be renewed subject to conditions relating to stabilization of the tailings, reclamation, environmental monitoring, evaluation of any future activity not evaluated by NRC, archeological survey, analysis of unexpected harmful effects, and decommissioning

  16. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  17. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict. Keywords: Conflict approaches, effective project manager, EPC contractors, upstream sector of oil and gas industry /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  18. Assessing and Projecting Greenhouse Gas Release due to Abrupt Permafrost Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Ohno, H.; Yokohata, T.; Iwahana, G.; Machiya, H.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost is a large reservoir of frozen soil organic carbon (SOC; about half of all the terrestrial storage). Therefore, its degradation (i.e., thawing) under global warming may lead to a substantial amount of additional greenhouse gas (GHG) release. However, understanding of the processes, geographical distribution of such hazards, and implementation of the relevant processes in the advanced climate models are insufficient yet so that variations in permafrost remains one of the large source of uncertainty in climatic and biogeochemical assessment and projections. Thermokarst, induced by melting of ground ice in ice-rich permafrost, leads to dynamic surface subsidence up to 60 m, which further affects local and regional societies and eco-systems in the Arctic. It can also accelerate a large-scale warming process through a positive feedback between released GHGs (especially methane), atmospheric warming and permafrost degradation. This three-year research project (2-1605, Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan) aims to assess and project the impacts of GHG release through dynamic permafrost degradation through in-situ and remote (e.g., satellite and airborn) observations, lab analysis of sampled ice and soil cores, and numerical modeling, by demonstrating the vulnerability distribution and relative impacts between large-scale degradation and such dynamic degradation. Our preliminary laboratory analysis of ice and soil cores sampled in 2016 at the Alaskan and Siberian sites largely underlain by ice-rich permafrost, shows that, although gas volumes trapped in unit mass are more or less homogenous among sites both for ice and soil cores, large variations are found in the methane concentration in the trapped gases, ranging from a few ppm (similar to that of the atmosphere) to hundreds of thousands ppm We will also present our numerical approach to evaluate relative impacts of GHGs released through dynamic

  19. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2010-05-15

    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The

  20. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenham, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    solvent use and other sources is included as a souce of CO{sub 2} emission. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of these sectors. However, the report starts with a summary of the emissions with a section for each of the pollutants treated. At the end of each of these section the main differences between the present calculation and thevalues in Denmark's Second National Communication on Climate Change are described shortly. For each of the pollutants the development of the emissions in the period 1972-2012 and the various emission targets in Danish sector plants or international conventions are shown on a figure. Below the figures the emissions for the main emitting sectors are shown in a table. The years shown in these tables are not the same for all pollutants. When a column is marked with '2010' it means that the values in the columns are averaged over the first commitment period 2008-2012. It is not possible in this report to present all the data from the emission calculations. The data is contained in an EXEL notebook model. Appendix 1 contains a table with time-series for 1975-2012 for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O for all emitting sectors. In Appendix 2 the results of the projections 2000-2012 are shown in the IPCC/CRF Sectoral Tables format in CO{sub 2} equivalents for each greenhouse gas and in total (only source and sink categories with greenhouse gas emissions or removals are shown). The model is structured as a set of worksheets for the primary energy consuming sector and the model contains similar sets for each of the pollutants. Additional sheets have been included for the relevant pollutants, where emissions originate from non-combustion processes. Each of these spreadsheets contains time-series for the emissions from each of the primary fuels consumed in the sector. (ba)

  1. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  2. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1991 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, April 1991. Gas research insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the gas supply and price outlook in the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. Projected U.S. gas production, gas imports, and other sources of gas supply are discussed along with the sensitivity of the outlook to changes in price expectations. The critical uncertainties and issues affecting the gas supply and price outlook are discussed. Appendixes include a comparison of the 1991 and the 1989 projections of gas supply and price trends; and a description of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model

  3. An evidence-based approach to medication preparation for the surgical patient at risk for latex allergy: is it time to stop being stopper poppers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, James W; Bader, Stephen O

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of latex allergy is increasing in surgical patient populations. Avoidance of exposure to the allergen is essential to minimizing perioperative complications in patients suspected to be at risk. Natural rubber latex has historically been ubiquitous in medical devices containing rubber. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to require the labeling of medical devices made from natural rubber latex; since that time substantial progress has been made in identifying latex-free alternatives. However, the rubber stoppers commonly found in pharmaceutical vial closures are exempt from FDA labeling requirements. Examination of the clinical and basic science literature regarding pharmaceutical vial closures supports limiting the rubber stopper to a single needle puncture as a safer practice, with the caveat that no strategy exists for the complete elimination of risk as long as stoppers made from natural rubber latex are used in pharmaceutical vials intended for human use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short. For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas production increase is obviously restricted. The tight gas development projects represented by the Sulige Gasfield have failed to make profit for a long period, and especially tight gas production has presented a slight decline since 2015. In this paper, a new economic evaluation method was proposed for tight gas development projects. The new method was designed to verify the key parameters (e.g. production decline rate and single-well economic service life depending on tight gas development and production characteristics, and perform the depreciation by using the production method. Furthermore, the possibility that the operation cost may rise due to pressure-boosting production and intermittent opening of gas wells is considered. The method was used for the tight gas development project of Sulige Gasfield, showing that its profit level is much lower than the enterprise's cost level of capital. In order to support a sustainable development of tight gas industry in China, it is recommended that relevant authorities issue value-added tax (VAT refund policy as soon as possible. It is necessary to restore the non-resident gas gate price of the provinces where tight gas is produced to the fair and reasonable level in addition to the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.24/m3, or offer the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.32/m3 directly based on the on-going gate price. With these support policies, tax income is expected to rise directly, fiscal expenditure will not increase, and gas

  5. WISDOM Project - II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Sarzi, Marc

    2017-07-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2-1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (kinms) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3_{-0.17}^{+0.18}) × 108 M⊙ and an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14_{-0.05}^{+0.04} M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.

  6. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 deg. C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range ( -1 releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d 5 ) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  7. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 degrees C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d(5)) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  9. Gas hydrates and clathrates. Flow assurance, environmental and economic perspectives and the Nigerian liquefied natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbaruko, B.C.; Igwe, J.C.; Nwokeoma, R.C.; Gbaruko, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Gas hydrates are nonstoichiometric crystalline compounds that belong to the inclusion group known as clathrates. They occur when water molecules attach themselves together through hydrogen bonding and form cavities which can be occupied by a single gas or volatile liquid molecule. Gas hydrates, asphaltenes and waxes are three major threats to flow assurance that must be well assessed by design team uptime. Gas hydrates are also looked upon as a future energy source and as a potential climate hazard. The purpose of this review is to show the chemistry and mechanism of gas hydrate formation, the problems they pose, especially to flow assurance, their system implications, their environmental and economic perspectives with respect to their prospects as storage and transport alternative to the liquefied natural gas technology. (author)

  10. Notice of availability, final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) is proposing to develop the Northstar Unit, located approximately 6 miles offshore of Point Storkensen in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. BPXA's proposed action is a self-contained development/production facility located on a reconstructed gravel island in 39 feet of water. Also proposed is construction of two buried subsea pipelines between the island and shoreline to transport oil and gas. The pipelines would connect with onshore facilities and the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). In response to BPXA's submittal of a permit application under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the US Army Corps of engineers, Alaska District (Corps) determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting by the EPA for BPXA's proposed project also constituted a major federal action that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternates, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  11. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  12. Sceneries and projections of demands of natural gas in Brazil; Cenario e projecoes das demandas de gas natural no pais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianca, Marcos Duilio de Oliveira; Marques, Ziney Dias [SENAI - Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sistema FIRJAN

    2004-07-01

    Interest in Natural Gas in Brazil emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, against a background in which the global giants of the petroleum and gas industries stated that reserves within the country were not commercially viable. This scenario changed with the discovery of numerous oil and gas fields and resulted in the participation of numerous foreign companies bidding for exploration and production rights in the new fields established by ANP. Natural Gas has come to assume a new dimension with further recent discoveries in Santos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe and Urucu, with proven reserves in the order of 490 billion m3. This new dimension is reinforced by PETROBRAS's current strategic plan which considers investments in the order of 3.5 Billion U$ dollars for the production, processing and transport of Natural Gas and half a billion dollars for thermoelectric power stations. The use of Natural Gas in industries, in general, and in the generation of electricity will provide a strong push for the country's economy, substituting other sources of energy with the recognized advantages for production and reduced environmental impact. In this new era 24 gas distribution companies, widely distributed throughout Brazil, are also programming new investments to make best the use of Natural Gas for industry, commerce, for the residential sector and throughout all the national territory. (author)

  13. Sceneries and projections of demands of natural gas in Brazil; Cenario e projecoes das demandas de gas natural no pais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianca, Marcos Duilio de Oliveira; Marques, Ziney Dias [SENAI - Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sistema FIRJAN

    2004-07-01

    Interest in Natural Gas in Brazil emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, against a background in which the global giants of the petroleum and gas industries stated that reserves within the country were not commercially viable. This scenario changed with the discovery of numerous oil and gas fields and resulted in the participation of numerous foreign companies bidding for exploration and production rights in the new fields established by ANP. Natural Gas has come to assume a new dimension with further recent discoveries in Santos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe and Urucu, with proven reserves in the order of 490 billion m3. This new dimension is reinforced by PETROBRAS's current strategic plan which considers investments in the order of 3.5 Billion U$ dollars for the production, processing and transport of Natural Gas and half a billion dollars for thermoelectric power stations. The use of Natural Gas in industries, in general, and in the generation of electricity will provide a strong push for the country's economy, substituting other sources of energy with the recognized advantages for production and reduced environmental impact. In this new era 24 gas distribution companies, widely distributed throughout Brazil, are also programming new investments to make best the use of Natural Gas for industry, commerce, for the residential sector and throughout all the national territory. (author)

  14. Fire and Gas Detection in the LHC Experiments The Sniffer Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, R W

    2001-01-01

    The LHC experiments, due to their complexity and size, present many safety challenges. Cryogenic gases are used in large quantities as well as certain flammable mixtures. The electrical power involved calls for analysis of the fire risks. Access is restricted to the minimum and environmental conditions are extremely harsh, due to strong magnetic fields and ionising radiation. This paper will describe the Combined Fire/Gas/Oxygen deficiency Detection systems proposed for inside the ATLAS and CMS Experiments and possibly for the two others, if they deem it necessary. The requirements of the experiments and the development and implementation of such a system will be discussed. In parallel, commercial procedures to implement these systems by industry shall be described, taking into consideration that a previous development has already been undertaken by CERN for the LEP experiments. The stage is set for inter-divisional collaboration in a project of utmost importance for the safety of people and protection of the...

  15. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  16. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  17. Air quality impacts of projections of natural gas-fired distributed generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jeremy R.; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Lemar, Paul; Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Shah, Tejas; Yarwood, Greg; Young, David; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts on emissions and air quality from the increased adoption of natural gas-fired distributed generation of electricity (DG), including displacement of power from central power generation, in the contiguous United States. The study includes four major tasks: (1) modeling of distributed generation market penetration; (2) modeling of central power generation systems; (3) modeling of spatially and temporally resolved emissions; and (4) photochemical grid modeling to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of increased DG penetration, which includes both power-only DG and combined heat and power (CHP) units, for 2030. Low and high DG penetration scenarios estimate the largest penetration of future DG units in three regions - New England, New York, and California. Projections of DG penetration in the contiguous United States estimate 6.3 GW and 24 GW of market adoption in 2030 for the low DG penetration and high DG penetration scenarios, respectively. High DG penetration (all of which is natural gas-fired) serves to offset 8 GW of new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) units, and 19 GW of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations by 2030. In all scenarios, air quality in the central United States and the northwest remains unaffected as there is little to no DG penetration in those states. California and several states in the northeast are the most impacted by emissions from DG units. Peak increases in maximum daily 8-h average ozone concentrations exceed 5 ppb, which may impede attainment of ambient air quality standards. Overall, air quality impacts from DG vary greatly based on meteorological conditions, proximity to emissions sources, the number and type of DG installations, and the emissions factors used for DG units.

  18. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Environmental assessment statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous by-products and wastes are generated during coal storage and processing, gasification, and gas cleanup. Recovery systems have been designed to collect and utilize by-products. Wastes will be placed in storage areas designed to prevent release of the materials to the environment. The coal gasification plant along with the solid waste disposal area will occupy approximately 115 acres. To prevent, to the fullest extent possible, degradation of groundwater and surface water resources, the coal stockpile, landfill, collection pond, settling basin, and drainage ditches will be constructed to prevent the seepage of potential contaminants into groundwater or the drainage of runoff into surface waters. Cooling water is the primary water requirement of the project. None of the water utilized in the gasification plant will be released into the area surface water system, but will be either recycled or directed into the settling basin. The gasification facility has the potential of emitting a broad spectrum of pollutants into the atmosphere. However, effective emission control procedures such as off-gas recycling, hydrogen sulfide removal, particulate removal, and flaring will be applied to minimize the plant's emissions. The necessity of monitoring the more exotic pollutants such as acid gases, trace elements, metal carbonyls, and a multitude of organic compounds, will be determined as the gasification facility becomes more of a reality and the latest literature and research developments can be surveyed to evaluate the emission rates, biological significance, and monitoring techniques for these pollutants.

  19. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  20. WISDOM project - I. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics in NGC 3665

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kyoko; Iguchi, Satoru; Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotator early-type galaxy NGC 3665. We obtained the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) B and C array observations of the 12CO(J = 2 - 1) emission line with a combined angular resolution of 0.59 arcsec. We analysed and modelled the three-dimensional molecular gas kinematics, obtaining a best-fitting SMBH mass M_BH=5.75^{+1.49}_{-1.18} × 108 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio at H-band (M/L)H = 1.45 ± 0.04 (M/L)⊙,H and other parameters describing the geometry of the molecular gas disc (statistical errors, all at 3σ confidence). We estimate the systematic uncertainties on the stellar M/L to be ≈0.2 (M/L)⊙,H, and on the SMBH mass to be ≈0.4 × 108 M⊙. The measured SMBH mass is consistent with that estimated from the latest correlations with galaxy properties. Following our older works, we also analysed and modelled the kinematics using only the major-axis position-velocity diagram, and conclude that the two methods are consistent.

  1. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  2. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  3. An empirical study on key factors for purchasing strategy on project based organizations: A case study of gas field development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Kazazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in development of oil and gas resources is to find the critical success factors associated with different important projects. Purchasing and procurement plays a key role in these projects. There is no doubt that in history of similar studies, there are not much studies to determine key factors. The proposed study of this paper presents an empirical study to find these factors in one of the most important gas filed in Iran is now South Pars Gas Field. The study distributes a questionnaire consists of various questions associated with purchasing activities. We investigate the feedbacks gathered from decision makers using factor analysis. The results of our survey reveal that there are three categories of organizational strategy, the relative importance of strategy and risk according to factor analysis. Each factor consists of many other factors and the relative importance of all factors are investigated.

  4. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  5. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  6. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  7. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  8. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khene, D.

    1997-01-01

    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  9. Impacts of Mackenzie gas project on water supply systems of northern communities : Fort Simpson as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathrani, M.; Johnson, K.

    2007-01-01

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) is a 1220-kilometre natural gas pipeline system along the Mackenzie Valley of Canada's Northwest Territories. The line will connect northern onshore gas fields with North American markets. Four major Canadian oil and gas companies and a group representing the Aboriginal peoples of Canada's Northwest Territories are partners in the proposed MGP. The MGP is currently in the project definition stage that involves examining the effect of the project on northern communities. Fort Simpson is located on an island, on the forks of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers and is proposed as the major route for the MGP with the construction of barge handling areas, storage areas, camps/housing units and use of air and highway facilities. These activities are expected to result in burden on local civil infrastructure systems including water supply systems. Although the environmental impacts of the project on the community's infrastructure systems are projected by the MGP proponents, the local authority wanted to conduct its own assessment of the impacts on local water supply system. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the amount of water used by the community based upon available water use records and the current operational and maintenance costs based upon available financial documents. The study also estimated future water requirements based upon MGP activities and associated population growth. Current and future economic rates were also determined. 13 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  11. Generalising via the Case Studies and Adapting the Oil and Gas Industry's Project Execution Concepts to the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mejlænder-Larsen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether it is possible to generalise findings on project execution in the oil and gas industryrelated to the use of project execution models and a 3D design environment, based on case study research. Besides, sufficientsimilarities between the two industries were assessed and the applicability of the findings from the cases in the oil and gasindustry was assessed. The selected cases (the ongoing ...

  12. The political economy of trans-Pakistan gas pipeline project: assessing the political and economic risks for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing realisation among Indian policy makers to consider the import of natural gas to address India's growing energy demand. Among many policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long-term energy demands. Such a pipeline would have to traverse Pakistani territory thereby necessitating a role for Pakistan in the pipeline project. Though security guarantees have been offered, India refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for a fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of a military conflict with Pakistan. This paper argues that gas pipeline project is not only aimed at addressing India's energy concerns but also to further its strategic objectives. This paper contends that India, Iran and Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project a political and commercial reality. India's stakes in the overland pipeline project are high as India's economic interests in the pipeline project are not in congruence with the politico-economic and strategic objectives of Iran and Pakistan. (author)

  13. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.

    2013-06-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning.

  14. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A

    2013-01-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)

  15. High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiOx etch stopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyu; Jeong, Jong Han; Lee, Hun Jung; Ahn, Tae Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Mo, Yeon-Gon; Kim, Hye Dong

    2007-05-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFTs), which use an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel, by rf sputtering at room temperature and for which the channel length and width are patterned by photolithography and dry etching. To prevent plasma damage to the active channel, a 100-nm-thick SiOx layer deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was adopted as an etch stopper structure. The a-IGZO TFT (W /L=10μm/50μm) fabricated on glass exhibited a high field-effect mobility of 35.8cm2/Vs, a subthreshold gate swing value of 0.59V/decade, a thrseshold voltage of 5.9V, and an Ion/off ratio of 4.9×106, which is acceptable for use as the switching transistor of an active-matrix TFT backplane.

  16. High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiOx etch stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minkyu; Jeong, Jong Han; Lee, Hun Jung; Ahn, Tae Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Mo, Yeon-Gon; Kim, Hye Dong

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFTs), which use an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel, by rf sputtering at room temperature and for which the channel length and width are patterned by photolithography and dry etching. To prevent plasma damage to the active channel, a 100-nm-thick SiO x layer deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was adopted as an etch stopper structure. The a-IGZO TFT (W/L=10 μm/50 μm) fabricated on glass exhibited a high field-effect mobility of 35.8 cm 2 /V s, a subthreshold gate swing value of 0.59 V/decade, a thrseshold voltage of 5.9 V, and an I on/off ratio of 4.9x10 6 , which is acceptable for use as the switching transistor of an active-matrix TFT backplane

  17. Low-Frequency MEMS Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester With Corona-Charged Vertical Electrets and Nonlinear Stoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports for the first time a MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH) with corona-charged vertical electrets on its electrodes. The bandwidth of the 1-cm2 device is extended in low and high frequencies by nonlinear elastic stoppers. With a bias voltage of 46 V (electret@21 V + DC external source@25 V) between the electrodes, the RMS power of the device reaches 0.89 μW at 33 Hz and 6.6 μW at 428 Hz. The -3dB frequency band including the hysteresis is 223∼432 Hz, the one excluding the hysteresis 88∼166 Hz. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47 μF capacitor used for powering a wireless and autonomous temperature sensor node with a data transmission beyond 10 m at 868 MHz.

  18. Destruction of chloroanisoles by using a hydrogen peroxide activated method and its application to remove chloroanisoles from cork stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Eliseo; Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Rumbero, Angel; Garzón, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2011-12-14

    A chemical method for the efficient destruction of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in aqueous solutions by using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant catalyzed by molybdate ions in alkaline conditions was developed. Under optimal conditions, more than 80.0% TCA and 75.8% PCA were degraded within the first 60 min of reaction. Chloroanisoles destruction was followed by a concomitant release of up to 2.9 chloride ions per TCA molecule and 4.6 chloride ions per PCA molecule, indicating an almost complete dehalogenation of chloroanisoles. This method was modified to be adapted to chloroanisoles removal from the surface of cork materials including natural cork stoppers (86.0% decrease in releasable TCA content), agglomerated corks (78.2%), and granulated cork (51.3%). This method has proved to be efficient and inexpensive with practical application in the cork industry to lower TCA levels in cork materials.

  19. Mineral and chemical composition of rock core and surface gas composition in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Naoto; Ishii, Eiichi

    2008-02-01

    The following three kinds of analyses were conducted for the 1st phase of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. Mineral composition analysis of core sample. Whole rock chemical composition analysis of core sample. Surface gas composition analysis. This document summarizes the results of these analyses. (author)

  20. Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Projections to 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Global growth in natural gas use slowed measurably in 2012, although it still exceeded that of oil and total energy use. Among the headwinds facing gas are continuing weak demand in Europe, resilience of coal in North America as well as persistent bottlenecks and disruptions in the LNG value chain that in 2012 caused an exceptional global decline of LNG supply. At the same time, Asian demand for gas remains red-hot, and gas is beginning to gain traction as a transport fuel. The IEA new Medium-Term Gas Market Report provides a detailed analysis of demand, upstream investment and trade developments through 2018 that will shape the gas industry and the role of gas in the global energy system. Its special sections investigate the economic viability of gas-fired power generation in Europe, the prospects for an LNG trading hub in Asia as well as the potentially transformational role of natural gas in transport. Amid a continuous regional divergence between North American abundance, European weakness and Asian thirst for LNG, the 2013 Medium Term Gas Market Report will investigate the key questions that the gas industry faces. These include the prospect of the United States becoming a major gas exporter, the challenges of securing enough gas to meet China’s growth, and the ability of Russian gas – spurred both by weak EU demand and resurgent domestic production – to find its manifest destiny in Asia.

  1. Effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on Skin Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities in Warfarin-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktop, Sertaç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Gönül, Onur; Göçmen, Gökhan; Garip, Hasan; Yarat, Ayşen; Göker, Kamil

    2017-03-01

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a new promising local hemostatic agent, and its mechanism on hemostasis has been shown by many studies. However, the effects of ABS on skin superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities have not been investigated before. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this new generation local hemostatic agent on warfarin-treated rats focusing on its the antioxidant potential in short-term soft tissue healing. Twelve systemically warfarin treated (warfarin group) and 12 none treated Wistar Albino rats (control group) were selected for the trial. Rats in the warfarin group were treated intraperitonally with 0.1 mg/kg warfarin, and rats in the control group were given 1 mL/kg saline 3 days earlier to surgical procedure and continued until killing. All rats had incisions on dorsal dermal tissue, which was applied ABS or no hemostatic agent before suturing. Six of each group were killed on day 4, and the other 6 were killed on day 8. Blood and skin samples were taken. Prothrombin time (PT) in blood samples, CAT, and SOD activities in skin samples were determined. Warfarin treatment dose was found to be convenient and warfarin treatment increased the PT levels as expected. Warfarin treatment decreased CAT activity significantly compared to the control group. The ABS treatment significantly increased SOD activities in the warfarin group at the end of the eighth day. Ankaferd Blood Stopper acted positively in short-term tissue healing by increasing SOD activity in warfarin-treated rats. Therefore, ABS may be suggeted as a promoting factor in tissue healing.

  2. Evaluation of different end-of-life management alternatives for used natural cork stoppers through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Matos, Arlindo; Arroja, Luís Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An important aspect of sustainable development is the implementation of effective and sustainable waste management strategies. The present study focuses on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to different waste management strategies for natural cork stoppers, namely incineration at a municipal solid waste incinerator, landfilling in a sanitary landfill, and recycling. In the literature, there are no LCA studies analyzing in detail the end-of-life stage of natural cork stoppers as well as other cork products. In addition, cork is usually treated as wood at the end-of-life stage. Thus, the outcome of this study can provide an important insight into this matter. The results showed that different management alternatives, namely incineration and recycling, could be chosen depending on the impact category considered. The former alternative presented the best environmental results in the impact categories of climate change, ozone depletion and acidification, while the latter for photochemical ozone formation and mineral and fossil resource depletion. The landfilling alternative did not present the best environmental performance in any of the impact categories. However, when the biogenic carbon dioxide emission was assessed for the climate change category, the landfilling alternative was found to be the most effective since most of the biogenic carbon would be permanently stored in the cork products and not emitted into the atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis was performed and the results showed that there are various parameters that can significantly influence the results (e.g., carbon content in cork and decay rate of cork in the landfill). Thus, LCA studies should include a detailed description concerning their assumptions when the end-of-life stage is included in the boundaries since they can influence the results, and furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of different end-of-life scenarios. The present study and the obtained results could be useful for the

  3. Europe's gas imports via pipelines. Projects and safety aspects; Europas Gasimporte durch Pipelines. Projekte und Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2008-08-15

    By the year 2030 Europe's gas imports will have risen to approximately 200 bn m{sup 3}, necessitating the installation of new pipelines and LNG terminals. The largest growth in imports is not expected from Russia but from Africa and the Near East. An analysis of projected pipelines demonstrates these regions' contribution to securing Europe's gas supply. Because they help to establish market dominance or to fend off potential competitors these pipelines also serve corporate strategies. The most reliable supply will continue to come from Norway. By contrast, gas imports via pipelines from North Africa, Russia and the Persian Gulf all carry high risks of approximately the same degree. The greatest risks are associated with gas imports from the Caspian Sea.

  4. Presenting a Model Based on Fuzzy Application to Optimize the Time of IBS Projects in Gas Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderpour Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the construction industry has started to embrace IBS as a method of attaining better construction quality and productivity and reducing risks related to occupational safety and health. The built of pre-fabricated component in factories reduces many problems related to lack of purposing uncertainty in scheduling calculation and time management of projects. In the case of using IBS method for managing time in projects, former studies such as Allan Tay’s research, indicates that this method can save up at least 29% of overall completion period versus the conventional method. But beside mentioned advantages of this technical method, the projects could be optimized more and more in scheduling calculations. This issue is critical in gas refineries, since special parameters such as risk of spreading poison H2S gas and mandatory of performing projects in short time period events such as maintenance overhauls demands to perform projects in optimum time. Custom scheduling calculation of project planning uses the Critical Path Method (CPM as a tool for Planning Project’s activities. The researches of this paper’s authors indicated that Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM is the best technique to manage the uncertainty in project scheduling and can save up the construction project’s time versus the custom methods. This paper aims to present a model based on fuzzy application in CPM calculations to optimize the time of Industrial Building System.

  5. Baseline greenhouse gas emissions for the lower Churchill hydroelectric generation project in Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDrew, L.; Bastien, J.; Tremblay, A.

    2007-01-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro has proposed to develop the hydroelectric potential of the lower Churchill River by constructing generating facilities at Gull Island and Muskrat Falls. This paper presented the results of a study that was conducted to collect baseline data on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes/emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from the lower Churchill River, Smallwood reservoir, and natural lakes in the upper and lower Churchill regions. The purpose of the study was to compare GHG fluxes between the lower Churchill River, Smallwood reservoir and those of the nearby natural lakes and to compare GHG fluxes between the Smallwood reservoir and those of boreal reservoirs in northern Quebec. The paper provided a description of the site and the methodology for GHG flux measurement. The results and discussion focused on physical-chemical variables and GHG fluxes. The study results were to be used in the environmental assessment of the project. It was concluded that the lower Churchill River has higher CO 2 fluxes and lower CH 4 fluxes than the Smallwood reservoir and higher CO 2 fluxes than natural lakes in the region. There was no significant difference in N 2 O fluxes between the sampled waterbodies. Both CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes from the lower Churchill River were comparable to other Canadian reservoirs. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO(sub 2) emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO(sub 2) removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge

  7. Collecting lessons learned : How project-based organizations in the oil and gas industry learn from their projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Project-based organizations collect lessons learned in order to improve the performance of projects. They aim to repeat successes by using positive lessons learned, and to avoid repeating negative experiences by using negative lessons learned. Cooke-Davies (2002) claimed that the ability to learn

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  9. The role of Project Finance in the viability of infrastructure projects: case of the petroleum and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Viviana Cardoso de Sa e; Rodrigues, Adriano Pires

    2000-01-01

    Project finance represents neither recent news nor a panacea in the fields of long term financing. It is not able to solve the chronicle scarcity of resources applied in big projects financing in developing countries. In fact, underdeveloped markets as the Brazilian one offer, at the beginning, almost no chances to the project finance solution. In this case a path full of barriers overcome the solutions that project finance may offer. The process to adapt this instrument to the Brazilian reality presents the following hindrances: a different law framework, capital market underdevelopment; economical instability; political and regulating risks; incapability of the national insurance companies to insure big projects; cultural differences and lack of know-how in this area, and lastly, the out of date tax system. (author)

  10. Integrating a Procurement Management Process into Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM: A Case-Study on Oil and Gas Projects, the Piping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Jo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC of oil and gas megaprojects often experience cost overruns due to substantial schedule delays. One of the greatest causes of these overruns is the mismanagement of the project schedule, with the piping works (prefabrication and installation occupying a majority of that schedule. As such, an effective methodology for scheduling, planning, and controlling of piping activities is essential for project success. To meet this need, this study used the Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM to develop a piping construction delay prevention methodology, incorporating material procurement processes for EPC megaprojects. Recent studies indicate that the traditional scheduling method used on oil and gas mega projects has critical limitations regarding resource scarcity, calculation of activity duration, and dealing with uncertainties. To overcome these limitations, the Theory of Constraints-based CCPM was proposed and implemented to provide schedule buffers management. Nonexistent in literature, and of critical importance, is this paper’s focus on the resource buffer, representing material uncertainty and management. Furthermore, this paper presents a step-by-step process and flow chart for project, construction, and material managers to effectively manage a resource buffer through the CCPM process. This study extends the knowledge of traditional resource buffers in CCPM to improve material and procurement management, thus avoiding the shortage of piping materials and minimizing delays. The resultant process was validated by both deterministic and probabilistic schedule analysis through two case studies of a crude pump unit and propylene compressor installation at a Middle Eastern Refinery Plant Installation. The results show that the CCPM method effectively handles uncertainty, reducing the duration of piping works construction by about a 35% when compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, the

  11. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  12. Project baselines and boundaries for project-based GHG emission reduction trading : a report to the Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Kartha, S.; Bernow, S. [Tellus Inst., Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-04-01

    One of the great challenges for policy makers in the twenty first century is turning out to be global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Recent setbacks in international negotiations do not preclude the imposition of national emission targets. One option being studied to increase the economic efficiency of meeting these targets is the creation of emissions trading markets. The exploration of credit trading in the field of greenhouse gas emissions is carried out under the banner of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) Pilot Project. One of its objectives is the development of the institutional framework required for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI), and other international credit trading programs. To ensure credits are awarded to projects in a fair and transparent manner, technical, methodological, and administrative processes must be put in place. The determination of project baselines and project boundaries represent two of the main challenges confronting policy makers in awarding the credits. A review of baseline and boundary methods was initiated by GERT, and this report also contains a description of the main advantages and drawbacks of the various methods being considered. Lessons learned and opportunities are especially important for GERT to provide proper guidance to developers. The context and rationale for baselines and boundary setting are first explored in this report, as well as the issues of importance, and common criteria for the evaluation of alternative methods. The principal options for baseline determination, advantages and disadvantages, and applicability in various contexts were reviewed in section 2. The topic of avoided electricity use, and how to set consistent baselines for it are discussed in section 3. Project boundary is the topic of section 4, including leakage, upstream and downstream emissions, rebound and positive spillover effects, and means by which these issues can de

  13. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Project of diffusing gas driven cooling systems in Oman; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru gas reibo fukyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind, a study is made about the diffusion of gas driven cooling systems in Oman. The project under study aims to replace the motor driven turbo cooling systems, now in use at the Royal Hospital and other buildings in various areas, with gas driven cooling systems. It is then found that, when the Royal Hotel is equipped with such systems, energy will be saved by 1,855 tons/year in terms of oil, and greenhouse gas reduced by 5,129 tons/year in terms of CO2. When the Royal Hospital and other large buildings with heavy cooling loads, situated at or near the center of Muscat City and in the vicinity of the existing natural gas pipelines, are taken into account, energy will be saved by 13,049 tons/year in terms of oil and greenhouse gas will be reduced by 31,636 tons/year in terms of CO2, thanks to the presence of universities, hotels, and a sector occupied by government offices. As for the time necessary for investment recovery, it will be 4.7-5.3 years in case the investment does not cover a gas decompression station construction cost and 6.2-6.8 years in case it covers such. The new system will cost 7% less than the existing system. When a comparison is made in terms of electricity charges, the new system will be 30% lower than the existing system. The Omani Government is critical of a plan for allowing Japan to establish there an energy supply company (financed by Japan). (NEDO)

  14. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  15. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-07-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  16. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  17. WISDOM Project - III. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in the barred lenticular galaxy NGC4429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; van de Voort, Freeke; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Liu, Lijie; North, Eve V.; Sarzi, Marc; Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses project we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC4429, that is barred and has a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-2 observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission line with a linear resolution of ≈13 pc (0.18 arcsec × 0.14 arcsec). NGC4429 has a relaxed, flocculent nuclear disc of molecular gas that is truncated at small radii, likely due to the combined effects of gas stability and tidal shear. The warm/dense 12CO(3-2) emitting gas is confined to the inner parts of this disc, likely again because the gas becomes more stable at larger radii, preventing star formation. The gas disc has a low velocity dispersion of 2.2^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. Despite the inner truncation of the gas disc, we are able to model the kinematics of the gas and estimate a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1^{+0.15}_{-0.35}) × 108 M⊙ for the SMBH in NGC4429 (where the quoted uncertainties reflect the random and systematic uncertainties, respectively), consistent with a previous upper limit set using ionized gas kinematics. We confirm that the V-band mass-to-light ratio changes by ≈30 per cent within the inner 400 pc of NGC4429, as suggested by other authors. This SMBH mass measurement based on molecular gas kinematics, the sixth presented in the literature, once again demonstrates the power of ALMA to constrain SMBH masses.

  18. The gas turbine modular helium reactor. An international project to develop a safe, efficient, flexible product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    As originally scheduled, the Conceptual Design Report of the 600 Mwt Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor has been issued in October 1997 by OKBM in Nizhny Novgorod, a keystone Russian Engineering Institute fully involved in the realization of this International Project. The plutonium burning, graphite moderated helium cooled reactor design results from the work done on the basis of General Atomics original concept combined with the goal of optimizing safety power and efficiency with multi contributions in specific fields from the Russian organizations: MINATOM, OKBM, VNIINM, Lutch, Kurchatov Institute, Seversk Chemical Combinat, Fuji Electric and FRAMATOME. The objective to concentrate the engineering work in Russia has met a full success due principally to the quality and experience of the people, to the international support and to the progressive integration of new techniques of communication, of project management culture and utilization of modern computerized design tools and methods. To day the best international standard of quality is reached in the engineering activity and expected to stay at this level for future developments, when including experimental facilities operation and components manufacturing activities, thanks to the diffusion of the common culture, acquired by the main actors during the conceptual design phase, that will be exported to Russian third parties. At this stage we are planning to start design verification and sensitive components and systems qualification, with the same original actors. The European Commission has already shown some significant interest through the MICHELANGELO Initiative in supporting the HTR concepts assessment and identification of the R and D needs. We are looking forward for further support from the International Community and particularly from European Institutions in the frame of the 5th PCRD to pursue the GT MHR R and D program. Furthermore we are looking for funding the building of a prototype in Russia

  19. ETDR, The European Union's Experimental Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poette, Christian; Brun-Magaud, Valerie; Morin, Franck; Dor, Isabelle; Pignatel, Jean-Francois; Bertrand, Frederic; Stainsby, Richard; Pelloni, Sandro; Every, Denis; Da Cruz, Dirceu

    2008-01-01

    In the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) development plan, the Experimental Technology Demonstration Reactor (ETDR) is the first necessary step towards the electricity generating prototype GFR. It is a low power (∼50 MWth) Helium cooled fast reactor. The pre-conceptual design of the ETDR is shared between European partners through the GCFR Specifically Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the European Commission's 6. R and D Framework Program. After recalling the place of ETDR in the GFR development plan, the main reactor objectives, the role of the European partners in the different design and safety tasks, the paper will give an overview of the current design with recent progresses in various areas like: - Sub-assembly technology for the starting core (pin bundle with MOX fuel and stainless steel cladding). - The design of experimental advanced ceramic GFR fuel sub-assemblies included in several locations of the starting core. - Starting Core reactivity management studies model including experimental GFR sub-assemblies. - Neutron and radiation shielding calculations using a specific MCNP model. The model allows evaluation of the neutron doses for the vessel and internals and radiation doses for maintenance operations. - System design and safety considerations, with a reactor architecture largely influenced by the Decay Heat Removal strategy (DHR) for de-pressurized accidents. The design of the reactor raises a number of issues in terms of fuel, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics codes qualification as well as critical components (blowers, IHX, thermal barriers) qualification. An overview of the R and D development on codes and technology qualification program is presented. Finally, the status of international collaborations and their perspectives for the ETDR are mentioned. (authors)

  20. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  1. Identifying and implementing gas-fired private power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The approach to emerging energy markets in Asia of Enron, one of the major independent producers and developers of natural gas, is described. The interest of the company has been stimulated both by the availability of gas resources in Asia and the interest shown in many countries in using natural gas as a fuel for power generation. Possibilities for development are being created by plans for major new pipelines from Russia and the central Asian states and the availability of liquefied natural gas. (UK)

  2. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 4: Chapters 8 through 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 8--13 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the following: effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments; effects of noise on the biological and human environments; cumulative effects on the environment; and comparison of project alternatives and their impacts

  3. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  4. A survey of financing possibilities of projects in energetics with emphasis to the market with natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the present expansion of globalization within economic competition of individual countries are stability and economicdevelopment inevitably bound with the term of energy, therefore also the natural gas. Presently, energy is still the most important factorof economic and social development.The critical tempo of energy consumption, entering of new players on the energetic market, quick industrialization of Asiancountries and accordingly growing difference between supply and demand, worries of depletion of the existing sources and worseningof our living environment are all worldwide global problems.The subject of the presented paper is a survey of market with natural gas in Slovakia, possibilities of diversification of sourcesof natural gas, its transport and distribution with the emphasis to the possibilities of financing of projects in energetics.

  5. Designing a gas cooled ADS for enhanced waste transmutation. The PDS-XADS European Project contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.; Sunderland, R.; Mueller, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator driven system (ADS) are complex in their conception. It is the reason why studies proceed step by step. At the moment, one can take advantage of the work performed within the PDS-XADS project (Preliminary Design Studies of an eXperimental ADS) of the 5. European programme. The PDS-XADS project has been the first one to define rather detailed plants for a demonstration of the ADS technology, making a full use of European expertise from different research organizations, industries and universities. This first step was using MOX fuel technology with a design mostly devoted to the technology demonstration. Elaborated designs are sufficiently advanced to confirm the good prospects in the feasibility of such ADS plants. Also weak points have been identified and it is not a surprise that the open issues appear in the most unusual parts of reactor design i.e. in the spallation module. For what concerns the accelerator, the high reliability/availability requirements remain an important issue. The strategy to overcome these difficulties is a standard practice in reliability engineering, a technical discipline for risk estimation and management that is followed for many industrial applications or products in various fields. The gas technology exhibits clear interests in terms of coolant chemical inertness, overall simplicity of the reactor (internals, components) that can be based on proven helium cooled reactor experience but the chosen volume power (56 W/cm 3 ) for this concept is an upper limit due to constraints to the mechanical behaviour of the steel of the cladding. On the other hand, the removal of the decay heat is very much associated to the use of active systems even in protected transients i.e. with proton beam interruption. The statistical safety analysis has demonstrated however that the heat exchangers are the less reliable part of the DHR system. A solution to overcome this difficulty is the use of redundant and diversified systems. The final

  6. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendices B through K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US. Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices B--K of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  7. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  8. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendices L through P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices L-P of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  9. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 3: Chapters 5 through 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 5--7 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments

  10. Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force report: A joint FERC/DOE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the FERC/DOE Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force Report was threefold: (1) to review current deliverability data for utility, accuracy, and timeliness; (2) to identify mechanisms for closing significant gaps in information resulting from changing market structures; and (3) to ensure that technologies are available to meet the needs of the emerging, competitive natural gas industry

  11. Flammable gas project expert elicitation results for Hanford Site double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the second phase of parameter quantification by the flammable gas expert panel. This second phase is focused on the analysis of flammable gas accidents in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks. The first phase of parameter quantification, performed in 1997 was focused on the analysis of Hanford single-shell tanks

  12. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest. December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  13. Incorporating regional growth into forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions from project-level residential and commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowangould, Dana; Eldridge, Melody; Niemeier, Deb

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of land use planning decisions, regional planning organizations have developed tools to forecast the emissions from project-level residential and commercial development. This paper reviews the state of GHG emissions forecasting methods for project-level development. We argue that when forecasting changes in regional emissions it is important to make explicit what is assumed about a project′s effect on the population of residents and businesses in the region. We present five regional growth assumptions capturing the range of ways that project-level development might influence (i) construction and occupancy of similar developments elsewhere in a region and (ii) relocation of the initial activities that occur on-site before the project is built. We show that current forecasting tools inconsistently address the latter when they are interpreted as forecasted changes in regional emissions. Using a case study in Yolo County, California we demonstrate that forecasted changes in regional emissions are greatly affected by the regional growth assumption. In the absence of information about which regional growth assumption is accurate, we provide guidelines for selection of a conservative regional growth assumption. - Highlights: • Current tools inconsistently forecast GHG emissions from project-level development. • We outline five assumptions about how projects may affect regional growth. • Our assumptions capture a range of economic and population effects of projects. • Our case study shows that growth assumptions greatly affect regional GHG estimates. • We provide guidelines for selecting a conservative regional growth assumption

  14. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adhi Cahyono; Yanki Hartijasti

    2012-01-01

    Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988) to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents w...

  15. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  16. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Projects. The cost limits for calendar year 2013, as published in Table I.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authority delegated by 18 CFR 375.308(x)(1), the Director of the Office of Energy Projects (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for...

  17. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  18. Gas cooled fast reactor research in Europe (GCFR and GoFastR projects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainsby, Richard; Peers, Karen; Mitchell, Colin; Poette, Christian; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Somers, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarises the achievements of Euratom's research efforts into the GFR system, starting with the 5th Framework programme (FP5) GCFR project in 2000, through the FP6 project between 2005 and 2009 and looking ahead to the proposed activities within the current 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It consists of the following sections: (i) Introduction; (ii) The potential of GFR; (iii) EURATOM GFR projects - (a) ALLEGRo: a GFR Demonstrator; (b) GFR Development; (c) Fuel concepts development; (d) Dissemination of project information; (e) Education and training; (f) Future direction of the project; and (g) International collaboration

  19. Postlaminectomy Bone and Scar Formations in Presence of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia): An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoglu, Enis; Onger, Mehmet Emin; Marangoz, Abdullah Hilmi; Kocacan, Suleyman Emre; Cokluk, Cengiz; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative model of postlaminectomy was designed in rats. The effects of Momordica Charantia (MC) and Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) on the bone and scar formation after laminectomy were concurrently evaluated. Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats underwent lumbar laminectomy at L2-L3 vertebral levels, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups of six rats each. The Treatment group received MC and ABS treatment and the Control group was left untreated. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Then; the lumbar spine was excised en-block, fixed and decalcified. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson"s trichrome, and evaluated for peridural fibrosis (PF), new bone formation, and vascular proliferation. Total volume of new bone in the MC group was significantly increased in comparison to the Control group (p < 0.05). Also; there was highly significant increase in terms of the total volume of fibrous tissue in the MC and ABS groups when compared with the Control group (p < 0.01). Besides; there was a highly significant difference between the MC and the Control groups (p < 0.01) in point of total volume of vessel. Both MC and ABS are not convenient to prevent the PF formation and MC may promote new bone formation and angiogenesis after lumbar laminectomy in rats.

  20. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-01

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e + e - collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC

  1. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  2. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to comply with Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska (Corps). The application initiated the review process for BPXA's proposed project to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prior to any federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The EIS is intended to provide federal agencies with information about the consequences of a proposed project and to disclose that information to the public, soliciting their comments, prior to the agencies making decisions on the project

  3. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 2: Chapters 1 through 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska (Corps) to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. The Corps determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significant affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), upon review of BPXA's permit application, determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternatives, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  4. FINANCING OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS OF GAS DISTRIBUTION ENTERPISES AS A FACTOR OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Korol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article theoretical questions of formation sources of financing investments   are  considered, the analysis of investment activities is carried out by the sources of funding for gas  utility. The purpose of this article is to identify priority sources of financing investment activities of gas distribution enterprises. The  methodology  of  research.  To  achieve  this  goal  the  author  used  methods  of  theoretical generalization; statistical and financial methods in the study of dynamics and structure of  investment; tabular methods to display the structure of the main sources of financing of  the  investment program of gas distribution enterprises; consistency and comparison, to determine the relationship between the main components of investment sources of financing. As a result of research by critical retrospective analysis to determine the structure of sources of financing investment activities of gas distribution enterprises. It is established that the main sources of financing the investment program are the tariffs for transportation and supply of gas, says the national Commission, carrying out state regulation in the areas of energy and  utilities (NCREU. It is filed the structure of the main financing sources of the investment  program of gas distribution enterprises. It is proved that the level of funding depends on the size  of NCREU rates and gas consumption. Scientific novelty of the article is lack in domestic and foreign areas of research priority  selection of sources financing of the investment program for gas distribution enterprises. The practical significance is that the theoretical concepts, practical results and conclusions of  articles that reveal the essence of the problem of investment sources of financing, can be used in  the activity of gas distribution enterprises taking into account the current state of development  of the economy. Keywords: investment  resources,  financing

  5. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  6. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  7. Arrays of Molecular Rotors with Triptycene Stoppers: Surface Inclusion in Hexagonal Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaleta, Jiří; Dron, P. I.; Zhao, K.; Shen, Y.; Císařová, I.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 12 (2015), s. 6173-6192 ISSN 0022-3263 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : compound based approach * phosphonitrilic compounds * polysilanes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.785, year: 2015

  8. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for gas turbine power plant in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran gas turbine hatsuden plant no koritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  9. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  10. Organic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas. Risk Analysis in the Initial Phases of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are promoting a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in several regions of the world. Although there is still no commercial scale extraction in the Member States of the EU, potential stocks in some of them, as in the case of Spain, stimulate the need to carry out precautionary previous studies. These, based on the experience in the USA, will allow to define the characteristics that a priori should include a project of unconventional gas extraction, so that their safety is maximized by minimizing the likelihood of adverse effects on the environment. In unconventional gas production a fracturing fluid, typically water, with different types of additives is injected into the reservoir at very high pressure in order to create fractures to increase the porosity and permeability of the rock. In this scenario the flowback and produced water (water brought to the surface during the extraction of gas or oil) is usually a mixture of fluids injected and brines present in the repository. The quality of the flowback and produced water is variable. Its salinity varies from similar to drinking water to several times more saline than seawater. Furthermore, different compounds other than salt can be present in various amounts in the flowback and produced water: oil and other organic compounds, solids in suspension, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any of the elements injected with the hydraulic fracturing fluid. Due to the high variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water as well as potentially large volumes involved, composition of flowback and produced water and the analysis of the risks associated with them is an important aspect to consider from the initial phases of project development of unconventional gas extraction. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the

  11. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-05-13

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Efforts to find a better measuring system for climatic gas discharges. CICERO in a new EU project which aims to improve GWP and radiation contribution expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the problems with the present system used by the Kyoto protocol and the project efforts for improving the formulas and models of expressing climatic gas discharge measurements through a common measuring unit

  14. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam cycle/cogeneration: lead project strategy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The strategy, contained herein, for developing the HTGR system and introducing it into the energy marketplace is based on using the most developed technology path to establish a HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) Lead Project. Given the status of the HTGR-SC/C technology, a Lead Plant could be completed and operational by the mid 1990s. While there is remaining design and technology development that must be accomplished to fulfill technical and licensing requirements for a Lead Project commitment, the major barriers to the realization a HTGR-SC/C Lead Project are institutional in nature, e.g. budget priorities and constraints, cost/risk sharing between the public and private sector, Project organization and management, and Project financing. These problems are further complicated by the overall pervading issues of economic and regulatory instability that presently confront the utility and nuclear industries. This document addresses the major institutional issues associated with the HTGR-SC/C Lead Project and provides a starting point for discussions between prospective Lead Project participants toward the realization of such a Project

  15. Diffusion of oxygen through cork stopper: is it a Knudsen or a Fickian mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce-Tachon, Aurélie; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Gougeon, Régis; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this work is to identify which law governs oxygen transfer through cork: Knudsen or Fickian mechanism. This is important to better understand wine oxidation during post-bottling aging. Oxygen transfer through cork wafers is measured at 298 K using a manometric permeation technique. Depending on the mechanism, we can extract the transport coefficients. Increasing the initial pressure of oxygen from 50 to 800 hPa leads to a change in the values of the transport coefficients. This implies that oxygen transport through cork does not obey the Knudsen law. From these results, we conclude that the limiting step of oxygen transport through cork occurs in the cell wall following Fickian law. From the diffusion dependence's coefficients with pressure, we also extract by applying transition state theory an apparent activation volume of 45 ± 4 nm(3). This high value indicates that oxygen molecules also diffuse from one site to another by passing through a gas phase.

  16. Modeling gas migration experiments in repository host rocks for the MEGAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.; Impey, M.; Volckaert, G.; DePreter, P.

    1993-01-01

    In response to concerns over the possibility of hydrogen gas generation within an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste, and its implications for repository safety, a joint European research study (MEGAS) is underway. Its aims are to understand and characterize the behavior of gas migration within an argillacious, host-rock. Laboratory experiments are being carried out by SCK/CEN, BGS and ISMES. SCK/CEN are also conducting in situ experiments at the underground laboratory at Mol, Belgium. Modeling of gas migration is being done in parallel with the experiments, by Intera Information Technologies. A two-phase flow code, TOPAZ, has been developed specifically for this work. In this paper the authors report on the results of some preliminary calculations performed with TOPAZ, in advance of the in situ experiments

  17. Project management as a tool to implement the strategy, the realities and prospects of oil and gas enterprises in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Medet Sapiuly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Project leadership is an important part of organizations’ activities. Project management makes it possible to solve some business tasks more effectively than the means of traditional and operational management. Projects hold a key role in the implementation of the organization’s strategy. Using the project leadership approach yielded uniting the functional units of the organization in a whole single team to achieve the goals and indicators of the strategy. Employing of project management in commercial and government organizations gets common in the CIS countries, including Republic of Kazakhstan. It is revealed that the implementation of a strategic management system will make it possible to minimize the consequences of the economic crisis for the oil and gas producing companies of Kazakhstan. A specific feature of Kazakhstan’s oil and gas industry lays in management system based on a functional approach, insufficient level of strategic management system and project management implementation. It is established that there are significant prospects for the development of project management in the oil and gas industry of Kazakhstan. Adoption and optimization of project leadership at the enterprises of the oil and gas industry in Kazakhstan will lead to the appropriate implementation of a strategic management system. In this regard, following measures are suggested to implement by enterprises: development of unified industry standards for project leadership; design of a training system for managers and employees; implementation of the process approach in the company’s management system; design and implementation of a Project Management Office (PMO in the company; development of a fair and progressive employees incentive program based on key performance indicators (KPI; implementation of specialized software for project management. The fulfillment of the above suggestions will significantly improve efficiency of the project management system

  18. Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by PLSR with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shihong; Lu, Changqi; Li, Meifeng; Ye, Yulong; Wei, Xu; Tong, Huarong

    2018-04-13

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is the most frequently used method to estimate the sensory contribution of single odorant, but disregards the interactions between volatiles. In order to select the key volatiles responsible for the aroma attributes of Congou black tea (Camellia sinensis), instrumental, sensory and multivariate statistical approaches were applied. By sensory analysis, nine panelists developed 8 descriptors, namely, floral, sweet, fruity, green, roasted, oil, spicy, and off-odor. Linalool, (E)-furan linalool oxide, (Z)-pyran linalool oxide, methyl salicylate, β-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol which identified from the most representative samples by GC-O procedure, were the essential aroma-active compounds in the formation of basic Congou black tea aroma. In addition, 136 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), among which 55 compounds were determined as the key factors for the six sensory attributes by partial least-square regression (PLSR) with variable importance of projection (VIP) scores. Our results demonstrated that HS-SPME/GC-MS/GC-O was a fast approach for isolation and quantification aroma-active compounds. PLSR method was also considered to be a useful tool in selecting important variables for sensory attributes. These two strategies allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the sensorial contribution of single volatile from different perspectives, can be applied to related products for comprehensive quality control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas laser spectrometer for nuclear investigation at nucleonic stability limit. (project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myshinskij, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed to obtain the atomic beam of the proton-rich and neutron-rich nuclides with half-lives of up to 1 ms, by using the gas-jet technique. Subsequently their properties are investigated using the methods of laser resonance ionization and nuclear spectroscopy. 8 refs.; 4 figs

  20. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  1. Coordination of Project and Current Activities on the Basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel in the Oil and Gas Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Dashkov

    2017-01-01

    s departments. This model and the Networks of Goals and Strategies of the project and current activities, which are produced on its basis, have found practical application in the realization of construction project of production line of the LNG plant (Liquefied Natural Gas and have led to effective communication between the Project office, departments and external stakeholders. Conclusions and Relevance: these studies show that the Strategy Alignment Metamodel is effective in the coordination of the project and current activities; as a result it is possible to agree the Contexts and Assumptions as well as Goals and Strategies. Forming Networks of Goals and Strategies, it is easier to monitor the activities of the departments of the company in case of their participation in the execution of the project phases and divide responsibilities between them. Application of Strategy Alignment Metamodel leads to better identification and management of risks that arise due to poor communication of the Project office with the departments of the company in delegation of works on the project Phases execution. Single database for Networks of Goals and Stretegies, Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices can serve as templates for future projects and training of the company’s project managers. 

  2. Estimation and control of droplet size and frequency in projected spray mode of a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzehaee, Mohammad Mousavi; Haeri, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    New estimators are designed based on the modified force balance model to estimate the detaching droplet size, detached droplet size, and mean value of droplet detachment frequency in a gas metal arc welding process. The proper droplet size for the process to be in the projected spray transfer mode is determined based on the modified force balance model and the designed estimators. Finally, the droplet size and the melting rate are controlled using two proportional-integral (PI) controllers to achieve high weld quality by retaining the transfer mode and generating appropriate signals as inputs of the weld geometry control loop. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Baseline recommendations for greenhouse gas mitigation projects in the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael [Stockholm Environment Institute/Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Bosi, Martina [International Energy Agency, Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-03-01

    The success of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and other credit-based emission trading regimes depends on effective methodologies for quantifying a project's emissions reductions. The key methodological challenge lies in estimating project's counterfactual emission baseline, through balancing the need for accuracy, transparency, and practicality. Baseline standardisation (e.g. methodology, parameters and/or emission rate) can be a means to achieve these goals. This paper compares specific options for developing standardised baselines for the electricity sector - a natural starting point for baseline standardisation given the magnitude of the emissions reductions opportunities. The authors review fundamental assumptions that baseline studies have made with respect to estimating the generation sources avoided by CDM or other emission-reducing projects. Typically, studies have assumed that such projects affect either the operation of existing power plants (the operating margin) or the construction of new generation facilities (the build margin). The authors show that both effects are important to consider and thus recommend a combined margin approach for most projects, based on grid-specific data. They propose a three-category framework, according to projects' relative scale and environmental risk. (Author)

  4. Enhancement of a-IGZO TFT Device Performance Using a Clean Interface Process via Etch-Stopper Nano-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Moon; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shang, Fei; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shuai; Yang, Baoguo; Xiang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    To overcome the technological and economic obstacles of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO)-based display backplane for industrial production, a clean etch-stopper (CL-ES) process is developed to fabricate a-IGZO-based thin film transistor (TFT) with improved uniformity and reproducibility on 8.5th generation glass substrates (2200 mm × 2500 mm). Compared with a-IGZO-based TFT with back-channel-etched (BCE) structure, a newly formed ES nano-layer ( 100 nm) and a simultaneous etching of a-IGZO nano-layer (30 nm) and source-drain electrode layer are firstly introduced to a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure to improve the uniformity and stability of device for large-area display. The saturation electron mobility of 8.05 cm2/V s and the V th uniformity of 0.72 V are realized on the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure. In the negative bias temperature illumination stress and positive bias thermal stress reliability testing under a ± 30 V bias for 3600 s, the measured V th shift of CL-ES-structured device significantly decreased to - 0.51 and + 1.94 V, which are much lower than that of BCE-structured device (- 3.88 V, + 5.58 V). The electrical performance of the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure implies that the economic transfer from a silicon-based TFT process to the metal oxide semiconductor-based process for LCD fabrication is highly feasible.

  5. Enhancement of a-IGZO TFT Device Performance Using a Clean Interface Process via Etch-Stopper Nano-layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Moon; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shang, Fei; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shuai; Yang, Baoguo; Xiang, Yong

    2018-05-29

    To overcome the technological and economic obstacles of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO)-based display backplane for industrial production, a clean etch-stopper (CL-ES) process is developed to fabricate a-IGZO-based thin film transistor (TFT) with improved uniformity and reproducibility on 8.5th generation glass substrates (2200 mm × 2500 mm). Compared with a-IGZO-based TFT with back-channel-etched (BCE) structure, a newly formed ES nano-layer (~ 100 nm) and a simultaneous etching of a-IGZO nano-layer (30 nm) and source-drain electrode layer are firstly introduced to a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure to improve the uniformity and stability of device for large-area display. The saturation electron mobility of 8.05 cm 2 /V s and the V th uniformity of 0.72 V are realized on the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure. In the negative bias temperature illumination stress and positive bias thermal stress reliability testing under a ± 30 V bias for 3600 s, the measured V th shift of CL-ES-structured device significantly decreased to - 0.51 and + 1.94 V, which are much lower than that of BCE-structured device (- 3.88 V, + 5.58 V). The electrical performance of the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure implies that the economic transfer from a silicon-based TFT process to the metal oxide semiconductor-based process for LCD fabrication is highly feasible.

  6. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, J.A.; Crowe, R.D.; Apthorpe, R.; Plys, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  8. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  9. BP-Statoil to study Caspian oil project; S. Korea eyes Yakut gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a combine of British Petroleum Co. plc and Den norske stats oljeselskap AS has agreed to pay $40 million for exclusive rights to study development of a Caspian Sea oil field off Azerbaijan and explore a nearby prospect. Meanwhile, the South Korean press said South Korea and Russia have agreed to form a joint venture to develop undisclosed gas fields in the Yakut Autonomous Republic of eastern Siberia and lay gas pipelines from Yakut to the Korean peninsula. In a 50-50 joint venture with the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan, BP-Statoil will evaluate undeveloped Dostlug field, previously known as Kaverochkin, 75 km southeast of Baku. It also will study the adjacent Shak Deniz prospect, formerly known as Shakhovo More

  10. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-08-13

    The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2) of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  11. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  12. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  13. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  14. Technical note: Analysis of claims and disputes in contracts for oil and gas development projects in Iran with solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Sajedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contracts for oil and gas development projects are naturally complex, they are explained with some of maps and technical specifications. To supply the goals of contracts, it is necessary to construct by a team having owner, consulting engineer and contractor. The unique aspects of each project and team working are resulting to disagreements. It should be noted that the majority of team workers have not previously worked together. It may not be expected to forecast all project aspects in design and preparation of tender documents process. However, in some cases it will occur inconsistencies in contract documents and possibly may be disagreements on commentary of the cases which there are in the provisions of the contract. Every root of disagreement resulted in to claim and finally dispute. Lack of foresight and/or existing ambiguous texts in some provisions of contract, not being aware of components of the project to conditions and obligations and rules of contract will complex and sometimes impossible the agreement on implementation problems. Therefore, the claims will be resulted in disputes and inflict financial losses to contractors and/or owners and then the projects will not be completed. In Iran many activities have not been carried out about claims and disputes in different orientations especially in areas futures and hence, it was studied in this research. Firstly, research history was considered and the causes of claims and disputes were identified in process of different levels of oil projects construction from primary to exploitation and then a questionnaire was prepared using the comments of experts. Finally, the questionnaire was analysed by SPSS and the approved factors in creation of claims and disputes and in their roots were ranked.

  15. Validation of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer within the European project THINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, A., E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de; Buchholz, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • ANSYS CFX is validated for gas and liquid metal flows. • L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments are simulated. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modelled. • Conjugate heat transfer has to be considered in CFD analyses. - Abstract: Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), numerical tools for the simulation of the thermal-hydraulics of next generation rector systems were developed, applied and validated for innovative coolants. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH participated in THINS with activities related to the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) – CFD codes. High quality measurements from the L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments were used to assess the numerical results. Two-equation eddy viscosity and scale resolving turbulence models were used in the validation process of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer. This paper provides a brief overview on the main results achieved at GRS within the project.

  16. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  17. Long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends

  18. Swedish methane gas project: a proposal with three alternatives. Svenskt metangasprojekt: ett foerslag med tre alternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A proposal concerning a BIOGAS project is given. The proposal includes: (a) microbiological research on, e.g., needs for additives to optimize the process, influence of the content of dry substance, high rate digesters, one- or two-stage processing, temperature tolerance, pH regulation, pressure dependence, methods for process regulation, hygienics, foam-quenching; (b) construction of a test plant equipped with instruments for analysis and supervision; and (c) construction of prototype plants at a swine farm and at a slaughterhouse. Detailed budgets and schedules are given for the project at three different possible total costs.

  19. Projected changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells in a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Pascale, Salvatore; Lucarini, Valerio; Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare; ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2016-01-01

    In this diagnostic study we analyze changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells by the end of the twenty-first century under the most extreme IPCC5 emission scenario (RCP8.5) as projected by twenty-four coupled climate models contributing to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). We use estimates of the centroid of the monthly rainfall distribution as an index of the rainfall timing and a threshold-independent, information theory-based quantity such as relative entropy (RE) to qu...

  20. Linking project-based mechanisms with domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bygrave, S.; Bosi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are a number of possible links between emission trading and project-based mechanisms, the focus of this paper is on linking domestic GHG emission trading schemes with: (1) domestic; and, (2) international (JI and CDM) GHG reduction project activities. The objective is to examine some of the challenges in linking DETs and project-based mechanisms, as well as some possible solutions to address these challenges. The link between JI / CDM and intergovernmental international emissions trading (i.e. Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol) is defined by the Kyoto Protocol, and therefore is not covered in this paper. The paper is written in the context of: (a) countries adhering to the Kyoto Protocol and elaborating their strategies to meet their GHG emission commitments, including through the use of the emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. For example, the European Union (EU) will be commencing a GHG Emissions Trading Scheme in January 2005, and recently, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament agreed on a text for an EU Linking Directive allowing the use of JI and CDM emission units in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); and (b) all countries (and/or regions within countries) with GHG emission obligations that may choose to use domestic emissions trading and project-based mechanisms to meet their GHG commitments. The paper includes the following elements: (1) an overview of the different flexibility mechanisms (i.e. GHG emissions trading and PBMs), including a brief description and comparisons between the mechanisms (Section 3); (2) an exploration of the issues that emerge when project-based mechanisms link with domestic emissions trading schemes, as well as possible solutions to address some of the challenges raised (Section 4); (3) a case study examining the EU-ETS and the EU Linking Directive on project-based mechanisms, in particular on how the EU is addressing in a practical context relevant linking issues (Section 5); (4) a

  1. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [Owens Valley Radio Observatory, MC 105-24 OVRO, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sstorm@astro.umd.edu [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup –1}. We imaged ∼150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup –1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  2. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  3. Comparing projections of industrial energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in long-term energy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412493373; Kermeli, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411260553; Crijns-Graus, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Bibas, R.; Fais, B.; Fujimori, S.; Kyle, P.; Sano, F.; van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    The industry sector is a major energy consumer and GHG emitter. Effective climate change mitigation strategies will require a significant reduction of industrial emissions. To better understand the variations in the projected industrial pathways for both baseline and mitigation scenarios, we compare

  4. Greenhouse gas scenario sensitivity and uncertainties in precipitation projections for central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, E.; Willems, P.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change impact assessment on meteorological variables involves large uncertainties as a result of incomplete knowledge on the future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate model physics, next to the inherent internal variability of the climate system. Given that the alteration in greenhouse gas concentrations is the driver for the change, one expects the impacts to be highly dependent on the considered greenhouse gas scenario (GHS). In this study, we denote this behavior as GHS sensitivity. Due to the climate model related uncertainties, this sensitivity is, at local scale, not always that strong as expected. This paper aims to study the GHS sensitivity and its contributing role to climate scenarios for a case study in Belgium. An ensemble of 160 CMIP5 climate model runs is considered and climate change signals are studied for precipitation accumulation, daily precipitation intensities and wet day frequencies. This was done for the different seasons of the year and the scenario periods 2011-2040, 2031-2060, 2051-2081 and 2071-2100. By means of variance decomposition, the total variance in the climate change signals was separated in the contribution of the differences in GHSs and the other model-related uncertainty sources. These contributions were found dependent on the variable and season. Following the time of emergence concept, the GHS uncertainty contribution is found dependent on the time horizon and increases over time. For the most distinct time horizon (2071-2100), the climate model uncertainty accounts for the largest uncertainty contribution. The GHS differences explain up to 18% of the total variance in the climate change signals. The results point further at the importance of the climate model ensemble design, specifically the ensemble size and the combination of climate models, whereupon climate scenarios are based. The numerical noise, introduced at scales smaller than the skillful scale, e.g. at local scale, was not considered in this study.

  5. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  6. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacuta, Norm [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada); Young, Aleana [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada); Worth, Kyle [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered

  7. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  8. Optimization of the steam generator project of a gas cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Massao

    1978-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the modeling of the primary and secondary circuits of a gas cooled nuclear reactor in order to obtain the relation between the parameters of the two cycles and the steam generator performance. The procedure allows the optimization of the steam generator, through the maximization of the plant net power, and the application of the optimal control theory of dynamic systems. The heat balances for the primary and secondary circuits are carried out simultaneously with the optimized - design parameters of the steam generator, obtained using an iterative technique. (author)

  9. Baseline options and greenhouse gas emission reduction of clean development mechanism project in urban solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hanaki, K. [Department of Urban Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aramaki, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904(Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol as a flexibility mechanism to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) and has been started with such projects as improving efficiency of individual technology. Although applying various countermeasures to urban areas has significant potentials for reducing GHGs, these countermeasures have not been proposed as CDM projects in the practical stage. A CDM project needs to be validated that it will reduce GHGs additionally compared with a baseline, that is, a predictive value of GHG emissions in the absence of the project. This study examined the introduction of solid waste incineration with electricity generation into three different cities, A, B and C. The main solid waste treatment and the main fuel source are landfill and coal, respectively, in City A, incineration and natural gas in City B, and landfill and hydro in City C. GHG emission reductions of each city under several baseline options assumed here were evaluated. Even if the same technology is introduced, the emission reduction greatly varies according to the current condition and the future plan of the city: 1043-1406 kg CO2/t of waste in City A, 198-580 kg CO2/t in City B, and wide range of zero to over 1000 kg CO2/t in City C. Baseline options also cause significant difference in the emission reduction even in the same city (City C). Incinerating solid waste after removing plastics by source separation in City B increased GHG emission reduction potential up to 730-900 kg CO2/t, which enhances the effectiveness as a CDM project.

  10. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Measurement on four different engines. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2010-10-15

    The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean burn natural gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units have been chosen to be representative for the natural gas engine based on power production in Denmark. The NO{sub x} emissions were varied from around 200 to 500 mg/m3(n) by varying the ignition timing and the excess of air. For each of the examined engines measurements were conducted at different combinations of ignition timing and excess of air. The measurements showed the NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n)) the UHC emission were increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0,5 to 1,0 % point. (Author)

  11. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  12. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Lingfeng Kong; Min Du; Chenhui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short). For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas productio...

  13. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  14. Greenhouse Gas CCI Project (GHG-CCI): Overview and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Noel, S.; Bovensmann, H.; Notholt, J.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Lichtenberg, G.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Chedin, A.; Stiller, G. P.; Laeng, A.; Butz, A.; Blumenstock, T.; Orphal, J.; Sussmann, R.; De Maziere, M. M.; Dils, B.; Brunner, D.; Popp, C. T.; Buchmann, B.; Chevallier, F.; Bergamaschi, P. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    The GHG-CCI project is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms will be further developed and the corresponding data products will be inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given. Focus will be on a discussion and intercomparison of the various data products focusing on CO2.

  15. The effects of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper on transcription factors in HUVEC and the erythrocyte protein profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS is an herbal extract that has historically been used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS is comprised of a standardized herbal mixture of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, V. vinifera, A. officinarum, and U. dioica. ABS’s basic mechanism of action is the formation of an encapsulated protein web, which represents the focal point for vital erythrocyte masses. The hemostatic effects of ABS have been observed in vitro and in vivo. ABS was registered as a hemostatic agent for external hemorrhages and dental bleeding following phase I randomized, double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical research, and safety and efficacy reports. In terms of the potential use of ABS, transcription factors may be novel factors that play a role in the hemostatic and other pleiotropic effects of ABS. Materials and Methods: Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium, and possible transcription factor changes in HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the erythrocyte membrane profile. ABS (5 μL and 50 μL was administered to HUVEC (in 75 cm2; ~75% fullness for 5 min and 15 min. Results: ABS caused significant increases in the level of activation of the following transcription factors; AP2, AR, CRE/ATF1, CREB, E2F1-5, E2F6, EGR, GATA, HNF-1, ISRE, Myc-Max, NF-1, NFkB, p53, PPAR, SMAD 2/3, SP1, TRE/AP1, and YY1. Following erythrocyte membrane isolation, protein complexes were undissolved, but denatured. The protein complex formed was resistant to heat and detergent. Trypsin and sonication were used in order to break this complex; the complex dissolved and erythrocyte membrane proteins were released in SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: ABS established a very fast and solid protein web, and increased the level of transcription factor activation. Therefore the cellular effects of ABS could be related to different intracellular biological pathways.

  16. The Externe project. Assessment of the external costs of the natural gas fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed bottom-up methodology for assessment of the external costs of energy has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, pan-European team as part of the European Commissions's JOULE Programme. The consequences of the generation of electricity from fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, in terms of damages to human health, buildings and the wider environment, have been assessed within a consistent framework. The potential application of the results in cost-benefit analysis, power system optimisation, emissions charging, etc. is also now under investigation. The analysis starts with definition of the fuel cycle, and specification of the technologies and locations to be considered. Results to date show that for typical modern examples of power plants burning different fossil fuels, externalities (including possible global warming effects) are lowest for gas-burning plant. (R.P.)

  17. Impact of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline construction on water quality: Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the construction of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline, concern was expressed for the potential defilement of community domestic water supplies when the construction work occurred in community watersheds. When drinking water becomes turbid from rainfall runoff passing through construction sites, the community disinfection process is rendered inefficacious. At a specified turbidity level, the water becomes too risky to drink without alternative disinfection such as boiling. This situation creates significant administrative problems for local health officials, intolerable social problems for residents and processing problems for industries which require clean water. This document is a review of the weekly environmental surveillance reports submitted by D. Tripp Biological Consultants to the B.C. Utilities Commission. The material is organized to relate construction practices with weather patterns thereby showing the resultant effects on water quality (turbidity).

  18. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Michelle; Butman, David; Hawbaker, Todd; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; McDonald, Cory; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and to improve understanding of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the Great Plains region in the central part of the United States. The assessment examined carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and other GHG fluxes (methane and nitrous oxide) in all major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and freshwater aquatic systems (rivers, streams, lakes, and impoundments) in two time periods: baseline (generally in the first half of the 2010s) and future (projections from baseline to 2050). The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  19. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  20. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  1. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, M H J; Briquet-Laugier, F; Epstein, A; Sheldon, S; Beloeuvre, E; Gabriel, A; Hervé, C; Kocsis, M; Koschuch, A; Laggner, P; Leingartner, W; Raad-Iseli, C D; Reimann, T; Golding, F; Torki, K

    2001-01-01

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  2. Sustaining Petroleum Exploration and Development in Mature Basins: Production Sharing Contracts and Financing of Joint Venture Oil and Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwueke, T.

    2002-01-01

    Oil companies make a business by bearing the risks of investing in, and making profits from, oil and gas operations. International Oil Companies (IOC) are the recognised leaders in technology and develop expertise in the management of technical such as subsurface and surface uncertainties through seismic surveys, well drilling and production facilities. In export oriented oil and gas developments, IOCs also carry the commercial risks associated with the export market (ups and downs in the demand for oil and gas) that could make the project non-profitable, if not properly managed.Conversely, Local Oil Companies (LOCs), i.e. indigenous private or state owned companies, are more adapt at developing expertise in the management of the local environmental, domestic market and political risks associated with the area or country of operations. It is recognised that in certain countries some LOCs are also making significant progress in the acquisition of modern technology. Any critical business risks which cannot be adequately managed by either the IOC or the LOC will require the involvement of third party, who will normally provide guarantee or securitisation in one form or another.A partnership between local and international oil companies has become accepted to be the most secure and profitable arrangement in international oil and gas business. In the Niger Delta, which is mature oil and gas province and as such non-market related risks, particularly technical and supply risks, are substantially reduced, Joint Venture type of arrangement is considered the most suitable form of partnership. Joint Venture arrangement allows each partner to fund the venture in direct proportion to its participation interest. Because of the reduced risks profile, the joint venture is more bankable; each partner can therefore secure funding for its share with its revenue profile. In Nigeria, however, where the revenue profile (and consequently development budget) of the dominant local player

  3. Integrated biomass utilization system developments (Kyoto-Bio-Cycle Project) and the effects of greenhouse gas reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hori, Hiroaki; Deguchi, Shinguo; Yano, Junya; Sakai, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The biomass available in Kyoto City located in urban area of Japan was estimated to be 2.02x10 6 t-wet/ yr (0.14x10 6 k liter/ yr oil equivalent), of which waste paper, waste timber, waste food, unused forest wood from the surrounding mountains and sewage sludge account for the largest amounts on an energy basis. These types of biomass can contribute to utilize for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Therefore we started the Kyoto-Bio-Cycle Project (FY 2007-2009), which is the demonstration of renewable energy conversion technologies from the biomass. Specifically, we aimed for the greening of necessary materials such as methanol and the cyclic use of byproducts, with the bio diesel fuel production from used cooking oil (5 k liter-methyl ester/ day) as the core activity. Two technologies are being developed as part of the project. One is gasification and methanol synthesis to synthesize methanol with the pyrolytic gas generated from woody biomass. The other is high efficiency bio gasification that treats waste food, waste paper, and waste glycerin. This technology can improve the production rate of biogas and reduce the residue through the introduction of 80 degree Celsius-hyper-thermophilic hydrolysis in the 55 degree Celsius-thermophilic anaerobic fermentation process. These systems can produce 4 types of renewable energy such as bio diesel fuel, biogas, electricity and heat. And we conducted the life-cycle system analysis of GHG reduction effect for the demonstrating technologies, additionally we examined an optimum method of biomass utilization in the future low-carbon-society. As a result, the method that produces the liquid fuel (methanol, Ft oil) from dry biomass (waste timber, etc.) and the biogas from wet biomass (waste food, etc.) can reduce GHG emission highly at present and in the future, compared with the current direct combustion of biomass for the power generation. (author)

  4. A different challenge: the directional drilled crossing for the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Line Project - GASYRG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Wayne; Garcia, Francisco [Bolinter Ltda., Santa Cruz (Bolivia); Montano, Ruben [Transierra, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2003-07-01

    The Rio Grande River's directional drilling, 2002 m. long and 25 m. deep was a great challenge for Transierra - Owner - as well as Laney - Bolinter - Contractor - to accomplish a feat yet to be done in the entire world. The dedication of the people involved showed their degree of professionalism that these companies have obtained and the determination in doing the job overcoming unforeseen obstacles and still being able to finish on time, mitigating environmental impacts and leaving a first class crossing. This document presents a description of the technical, logistic and construction factors that were involved in the project and which allowed to perform 7 directional drillings, including Rio Grande River, which during the pull got the last 60 m. of pipe stuck, being freed only after using a pneumatic hammer. (author)

  5. Godiva, a European Project for Ozone and Trace Gas Measurements from GOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Tanzi, C. P.; Aben, I.; Burrows, J. P.; Weber, M.; Perner, D.; Monks, P. S.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G. K.; Arlander, D. W.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Taalas, P.; Kelder, H.; Piters, A.

    GODIVA (GOME Data Interpretation, Validation and Application) is a European Commission project aimed at the improvement of GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) data products. Existing data products include global ozone, NO2 columns and (ir)radiances. Advanced data products include O3 profiles, BrO, HCHO and OCIO columns. These data are validated by ground-based and balloon borne instruments. Calibration issues are investigated by in-flight monitoring using several complementary calibration sources, as well as an on-ground replica of the GOME instrument. The results will lead to specification of operational processing of the EUMETSAT ozone Satellite Application Facility as well as implementation of the improved and new GOME data products in the NILU database for use in the European THESEO (Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone) campaign of 1999

  6. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.

  7. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  8. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  9. Summary of the GNWT Dehcho regional workshop on the social impacts of the Mackenzie Valley gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project will span at least 20 years and is expected to have significant social impacts. This workshop provided a forum for communities and government to evaluate the social impacts of the project, as well as a means for initiating collaborative planning to monitor and manage them over the next 20 years. Local plans for managing the impacts during the construction of the pipeline were discussed, as well as issues concerning future economic activity, demographic changes and long-lasting social impacts. Participants included government and community representatives from various areas in the Northwest Territories (NT). Impacts on employment and income were reviewed, as well as issues concerning housing, health and wellness. The role of the NT bureau of statistics in the monitoring of social trends was examined. Current government resources for managing impacts were evaluated as well as various social envelope departments. Community resources for managing social impacts were reviewed. Positive and negative impacts were discussed for each of the topics presented at the workshops, as well as current and future mitigation efforts. Participants developed concrete suggestions for monitoring impacts, assessing resource needs and collaborating. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Engineering and construction projects for oil and gas processing facilities: Contracting, uncertainty and the economics of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, Kees

    2007-01-01

    The amount of oil and gas processing capacity required to meet demand during the next 20 years is more than twice the amount realised during the last decades. Engineering and Construction contractors (ECs) play a key role in the development and implementation of Large Engineering and Construction Projects (LECPs) for these facilities. We examine the characteristics of LECPs, demand and supply of the contracting market and the strategies traditionally adopted by owners to contract out the development and implementation of these projects to ECs. We demonstrate that these traditional strategies are not longer effective, in the current 'sellers market', to mitigate the oligopolistic economic inefficiencies. As the 'overheating' of the contracting market is expected to continue for a considerable period of time, alternative contracting strategies are required. Contract theory, particularly the economics of information on LECPs, indicates how alternative contracting strategies can be used to overcome economic inefficiencies. The effective use of these alternative strategies requires increased owner involvement and their effectiveness is contingent upon owner competency and ECs acting as the owner's agent rather than its adversary. This will require an organisational and behavioural change process for both owners and ECs

  11. Mackenzie Gas Project reasons for decision GH-1-2004: Respecting all voices: our journey to a decision (Vol. 1); Technical decisions: implementing the decision (Vol 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) will deliver natural gas from 3 onshore natural gas fields via a 1,196 km pipeline extending from the Beaufort Sea to northwestern Alberta. This document described the MGP as a whole, as well as its production, gathering and processing systems and the transmission pipelines. The MGP is designed to transport 1.2 Bcf of natural gas per day, enough to supply about two-thirds of the 6 million Canadian households that used natural gas to heat their homes in 2009. The estimated cost of the project is $16 billion. Upon reviewing evidence of those who supported and those who opposed the project, the National Energy Board (NEB) decided that the project is in the public interest. In December 2010, the NEB approved the applications for the construction and operation of the MGP. In reaching this decision, the NEB considered the social, environmental and economic effects and listened to the views of Northerners and other parties. Approval of the applications for the MGP depends on more than 200 conditions regarding engineering, safety and environmental protection. If built, the NEB will monitor the project throughout its service life to ensure that all requirements are met. New economic activity from the project is expected to contribute to improved social conditions in the Mackenzie Valley and Beaufort Delta regions. Economic benefits would include purchases of services and materials from local businesses, creation of jobs, and increased flow of royalties, revenues and taxes. The engineering challenges in the North include cold temperatures, the presence of permafrost, and the potential for ground movement due to frost heave, thaw settlement, earthquakes and slope instability. The NEB is confident that the companies involved in the project are capable of designing, constructing and operating the proposed facilities. Actual construction must begin by the end of 2015 for this NEB approval to remain valid. tabs., figs.

  12. Carbon Disclosures: Comparability, the Carbon Disclosure Project and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon disclosures have become increasingly commonplace and are often presented as a useful voluntary mechanism for internal and external decision making. The production of the data is said to assistcorporations position themselves strategically in terms of the carbon risks and opportunities they may face. External to the firm, carbon disclosures hold the promise of assisting capital allocation decisions that are ‘carbon responsible’. It is claimed that the process of disclosure can sensitise the market to globalenvironmental problems such as climate change. In order to consider these claims, the broad purpose of this paper is to question whether the voluntary information that is produced can live up to its expectations and provide a meaningful basis for climate change related decision making. To that end, this exploratory studyexamines the carbon disclosures of Australasian mining companies over three years in compliance with a voluntary carbon disclosure regime – the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP – and assesses those disclosureswith respect to comparability, an important criterion for information usefulness.

  13. Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project: Development-Friendly Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, P.

    1998-10-30

    This paper provides an overview of TCAPP, including the methodology, the results to date, and proposed future activities. It includes a detailed description of the technology cooperation frameworks completed by each country, the process that produced them and the plans for how TCAPP will help to implement the directions articulated by the country teams. The US Government initiated the Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project (TCAPP) in August 1997 in recognition of the need to establish a mechanism for implementing Article 4.5 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. ''The developed country partners shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention.'' TCAPP builds support for implementing clean energy technologies by facilitating collaboration among the participating countries, the US and other OECD countries, international donors, and the private sector. The governments of Brazil, China, Kazakhstan, Mexico and the Philippines are currently participating and helping to shape this initiative. International donors and the private sector have also been actively engaged in the design and implementation of this pilot program.

  14. Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) in cold gas of Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechetoille, E; Mathez, H; Zoccarato, Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on a 8-channel low noise Front-End electronic coupled to a Liquid Argon (LAr) TPC (Time Projection Chamber). Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), a band pass filter and a 50 Ohms buffer as line driver. A serial link based on a 'i2c-like' protocol, provides multiple configuration features to the circuit by accessing slow control registers. In this paper, we describe the CSA, the shaper and the slow control part. The feedback network of the CSA is made of a capacitance and a resistor. Their values are respectively 250 fF and 4 MΩ. An input referred noise of, at most, 1500 e- rms must be achieved at -100 deg. C with an input detector capacitance of 250 pF to ensure a correct measurement of the minimal signal of 18000e- (2.88 fC). The power consumption in this cryogenic setup must be less than 40 mW from a 3.3 V power supply.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  16. The URban Greenhouse gas Emissions assessment through inverse modeling (URGE) project: a pilot study in the Oslo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, I. J.; Lopez-Aparicio, S.; Schneider, P.; Schmidbauer, N.; Vogt, M.

    2017-12-01

    Norway has set the target of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. This goal will require the implementation of policy measures aiming at strong reductions of GHGs emissions, especially in the urban environment. The implementation of urban policy measures is still a challenging task and it requires control and verification for success. The URGE project aims at assessing the emission flux of GHGs including comprehensive uncertainty estimates based on inverse transport modelling techniques and optimized use of measurements. The final goal is to establish a coherent and consistent GHG urban emission inventory. This will be carried out in a case study in Oslo (Norway), where CO2 will be the priority compound. The overall outcome of the project will provide support in the development of strategies to effectively reduce GHG emissions in the urban environment. The overall goal will be reached through establishing the baseline urban CO2 emission inventory for Oslo; determining the optimal measurement locations based on transport modelling (with flexpart-wrf); designing and carrying out a pilot measurement campaign of the CO2-rich air downwind of the city plume combining state-of-the-art instruments (Picarro) and small sensors; assessing the feasibility of determining the background concentration surrounding the city with satellite measurements (OCO2); and providing optimised estimates of the emissions and their uncertainties via inverse modelling (source-receptor relationship). One of our main interests is the interoperability and exchange of information with similar activities in other urban areas. We will present the overall project and the preliminary results of the network design. We will discuss the data exchange formats, the algorithms and data structures that could be used for results and methodology intercomparisons as well as the suitability to apply the same techniques to other atmospheric compounds.

  17. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  18. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  19. The LLAMA Project: A SINFONI Study of Gas Outflows and Feeding in Local, X-ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro; Davies, Richard; Burtscher, Leonard; Lin, Ming-yi

    2018-01-01

    We present new results from our survey of the inner few hundred parsecs of nearby galaxies as part of our Local Luminous AGN with Matched Analogues (LLAMA) project. AGN within the LLAMA sample were selected based on detection at ultra-hard X-rays (14-195 keV) by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope ensuring the definitive presence of an AGN. We further imposed a redshift (z 42.5) cutoff to create a complete and volume-limited sample of nearby, luminous AGN. Inactive galaxies were chosen carefully by matching in redshift, host galaxy morphology, inclination, and stellar mass to create a clean sample with which to compare to the AGN. A subset of LLAMA AGN and inactive galaxies were observed with VLT/SINFONI using adaptive optics producing high spatial resolution integral field unit spectra in the H and K band. This unique IFU data allows for analysis of a suite of NIR emission lines including [FeII], H2 (1-0) S(1), [SiVI], and Br-gamma to probe the ionized and warm molecular gas in the circumnuclear region as well as CO absorption lines to probe the stellar disk. I will present initial results from our study including the prevalence of AGN outflows along with their geometry, kinematics, and mass outflow rates and compare the mass, state, and excitation mechanisms of circumnuclear gas between AGN and inactive galaxies. Finally, I will discuss our results in the context of AGN fuelling and feedback and provide insight on interpreting similar data at higher redshift.

  20. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  1. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Analysis, registration and recommendations on the existing Lithuanian gas measuring practice. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is recommended that the Lithuanian Gas Industry considers: (1) To adopt a base temperature (T{sub b}) of 15 deg. C in order to uniform with the European preferable base temperature [cf. clause. 3.1]. (2) To use TC domestic gas meters at outdoor located gas meters and even when the gas meter is located just inside the exterior wall, in order to avoid too large error on the annual volume measured. Such TC meters should comply with EN 1359 clause B.23 (or alternatively the more strictly Danish type approval requirements) [cf. clause 3.2]. (3) To carry out supplementary high pressure calibration on turbine gas meters intended to be used at operating pressures of 3 or 6 bar in order to check if used makes and types are sensible to Reynolds number. If so, it would result in a measuring error at operating pressures higher than as determined by calibration with air at atmospheric pressure [cf. clause 3.3]. Similar tests should be considered for the existing Vortex gas meters. (4) To adopt the Danish legislation on legal metrology on gas meters in absence of a similar Lithuanian one due to its up to date requirements towards the distribution companies [cf. clause 3.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the Danish legislation, at least into English. (5) To adopt the Danish in sevice inspection programme on domestic gas meters and on larger gas meters and gas measuring systems as well as on in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices [cf. clause 3.5.2 - 2.5.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the 3 existing Danish manuals on calibration and in-situ check programmes, at least into English. Another approach would be a visit at HNG by 2-3 people from the Lithuanian Gas Industry in order to get acquainted with the Danish practice on laboratory calibration and in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices. However, it should be noticed that in-situ check measuring

  2. Generating end plug potentials in tandem mirror plasma confinement by heating thermal particles so as to escape low density end stoppering plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Logan, B.G.

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for raising the potential of a magnetic mirror cell by pumping charged particles of the opposite sign of the potential desired out of the mirror cell through excitation, with the pumping being done by an externally imposed field at the bounce frequence of the above charged particles. These pumped simple mirror cells then provide end stoppering for a center mirror cell for the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus. For the substantially complete pumping case, the end plugs of a tandem mirror can be up to two orders of magnitude lower in density for confining a given center mirror cell plasma than in the case of end plugs without pumping. As a result the decrease in recirculating power required to keep the system going, the technical state of the art required, and the capital cost are all greatly lowered.

  3. Software Project Management Plan for the Integrated Systems Code (ISC) of New Production Reactor -- Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1990-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) as one of the concepts for the New Production Reactor (NPR). DOE has also established several Technical Working Groups (TWG's) at the national laboratories to provide independent design confirmation of the NPR-MHTGR design. One of those TWG's is concerned with Thermal Fluid Flow (TFF) and analysis methods to provide independent design confirmation of the NPR-MHTGR. Analysis methods are also needed for operational safety evaluations, performance monitoring, sensitivity studies, and operator training. The TFF Program Plan includes, as one of its principal tasks, the development of a computer program (called the Integrated Systems Code, or ISC). This program will provide the needed long-term analysis capabilities for the MHTGR and its subsystems. This document presents the project management plan for development of the ISC. It includes the associated quality assurance tasks, and the schedule and resource requirements to complete these activities. The document conforms to the format of ANSI/IEEE Std. 1058.1-1987. 2 figs

  4. Coalbed gas environmental resource information project : fish population and habitat study review : Similkameen and Tulameen coalfields : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This paper provided an overview of fish and fish habitats in the Similkameen and Tulameen coalfields area. The report consisted of a literature review as well as the examination of a regional-specific database. Discussions and interviews were conducted with First Nations, members of the oil and gas industry, and various governmental and non-governmental organizations. The report identified fish species in the region, and provided details of fish distribution and habitat, and obstructions and constraints to fish populations. Information on sensitive species was also provided. Watershed and hydrological overviews were provided, as well as summary tables for all relevant data. Online mapping and resource databases were used to prepare a profile of fish and fish habitat studies. Sensitive species information was obtained from online governmental mapping resources. The acquired data were then used to produce resource lists and habitat tables for streams and rivers residing within or transiting through the area. Four fish species were identified as species at risk, and an additional fish species was considered to be endangered. It was concluded that a centralized and mandatory reporting system must be developed to ensure that all documents are deposited within a single central library. Approximately 80 per cent of the information gathered for the report did not exist in the Environmental Resources Information Project (ERIP) database. 16 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. The design, safety and project development status of the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, L.D.; Dean, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The cooperative government and industry Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Program in the United States has advanced a 350 MW(t) plant design through the conceptual development stage. The system incorporates an annular core of prismatic fuel elements within a steel pressure vessel connected, in a side-by-side arrangement, by a concentric duct to a second steel vessel containing a steam generator and helium coolant circulator. The reference plant design consists of four reactor modules installed in separate below-grade silos, providing steam to two conventional turbine generators. The nominal net plant output is 540 MW(e). The small reactor system takes unique advantage of the high temperature capability of the refractory coated fuel and the large thermal inertia of the graphite moderator to provide a design capable of withstanding a complete loss of active core cooling without causing excessive core heatup and significant release of fission products from the fuel. Present program activities are concentrated on interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission aimed at obtaining a Licensability Statement. A project initiative to build a prototype plant which would demonstrate the MHTGR-unique licensing process, plant performance, costs and schedule plus establish an industrial infrastructure to proceed with follow-on commercial MHTGR plants by the turn of the century, is being undertaken by the utility/vendor participants (author)

  6. Proceedings of the GNWT Beaufort-Delta regional workshop on the social impacts of the Mackenzie Valley Gas Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This workshop provided a forum for communities and governments to discuss the potential social impacts of the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP). The purpose of the workshop was to ensure that communities will have the capacity to manage the social impacts of the pipeline and related exploration and development activities in the future. The workshop was organized around key questions that solicited community perspectives on social impacts from various governmental agencies. The construction of the MGP will result in increased needs for housing, medical services, and social work programs in affected communities. It is expected that construction camps located near communities will create the need for additional drug abuse, and domestic violence counsellors. Inventories of social programs and baseline profiles of social conditions were presented. Local plans for managing impacts during construction of the MGP were discussed, and potential mitigation efforts were reviewed. Issues related to funding and social assistance were also examined. It was concluded that the workshop will serve as the basis for future collaboration and cooperation amongst the various levels of government in managing the social impacts of the pipeline. Six presentations were given at the workshop. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  8. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  9. The ATLAS3D project - XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  10. Method for evaluating natural gas demand scenarios (Demangas Project); Metodologia para avaliacao de cenarios de demanda pelo gas natural (Projeto Demangas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Luis Antonio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas de Transportes; Santos, Gilberto T. dos; Silva, Silvio C. da; Ribeiro, Jose Luis D.; Fogliatto, Flavio S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Produtos e Processos

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed for the evaluation of the existing and potential market for natural gas in the industrial, automotive, residential and commercial sectors of Rio Grande do Sul. The methodology is based upon a marketing research framework and consists of the definition of the problem; application of qualitative, quantitative and stated-preference enquiries; review of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice; and, also, interviews with specialists. The methodology is consolidated in four software that enable the simulation of different demand scenarios of natural gas up to the year 2010. The development of this methodology comprised the participation of more than 1,000 potential users of natural gas and allowed the state company in charge of distributing natural gas to: structure the problem of forecasting the consumption of natural gas within a new context of competition in the energy industry; help the formulation of the strategic plan of the company with regard to investment strategies and incrementing the number of clients; and propose marketing efforts to promote the adoption of natural gas as an alternative energy source. (author)

  11. International research cooperation project. Assessment report on the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of energy of gas hydrate resource; Gas hydrate shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to 'the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource,' assessment was conducted and reported from an aspect of the third party. This R and D is a timely project being aimed at establishing the basic technology on gas hydrate from both aspects of fundamental research and practical research. In the development of gas hydrate resource in the tundra zone, the development of measuring methods for thermal conductivity and dielectric constants advanced the establishment of a guide for exploration and possibilities of assessment of the resource amount. In the development/production, it can be said that the knowledge/information collected by exchanging methane in gas hydrate with CO2 means no needs for new supply of heat and also contributes to the isolation of CO2. As to the utilization technology, the results were rated very high also internationally of tackling the quantitative evaluation method at molecular levels of the gas included in hydrate using Raman spectroscopy to establish the industrial gas separation method using the low-temperature environment in the tundra zone. (NEDO)

  12. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1991-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  13. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M; Wuschke, D M; Brown, A; Hayles, J G; Kozak, E T; Lodha, G S; Thorne, G A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1992-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  14. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  15. Risks Associated with Unconventional Gas Extraction Projects. Induced Seismicity, NORM and Ecological Risks; Riesgos Asociados a los Proyectos de Extracción de Gas no Convencional. Sismicidad Inducida, NORM y Riesgos Ecológicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-07-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling are globally driving the commercial extraction of unconventional resources. Although there is still no commercial exploitation of these resources within the EU, the fact that there are potential reserves in some countries, such as Spain, stimulates the need of performing preliminary studies to define the characteristics that an unconventional gas extraction project should consider. The object of these features are the safety of the project, thus minimizing the probabilities of negative environmental impacts, and especially since there is not any EU Framework Directive focusing on the regulation of the operation of such fossil fuels. A project of this nature, involving natural systems, must start from the knowledge of these systems and from an assessment of its features in order to reach the environmental safety of the operations. Moreover, the implementation of risk management systems, along with the existence of an appropriate legislation and supervision are key elements in the development of unconventional gas extraction projects that are environmentally friendly. The present report includes, among the overall risks associated with such projects, those related to: i) the induced seismicity; ii) the Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and iii) the ecology.

  16. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  17. Using high temperature gas-cooled reactors for energy neutral mineral development processes – A proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneklaus, N.; Reitsma, F.; Tulsidas, H.; Dyck, G.; Koshy, T.; Tyobeka, B.; Schnug, E.; Allelein, H-J.; Birky, B.

    2014-01-01

    Today, uranium mined from various regions is the predominant reactor fuel of the present generation of nuclear power plants. The anticipated growth in nuclear energy may require introducing uranium/thorium from unconventional resources (e.g. phosphates, coal ash or sea water) as a future nuclear reactor fuel. The demand for mineral commodities is growing exponentially and high-grade, easily-extractable resources are being depleted rapidly. This shifts the global production to low-grade, or in certain cases unconventional mineral resources, the production of which is constrained by the availability of large amounts of energy. Numerous mining processes can benefit from the use of so-called “thermal processing”. This is in particular beneficial for (1) low grade deposits that cannot be treated using the presently dominant chemical processing techniques; (2) the extraction of high purity end products; and (3) the separation of high value or unwanted impurities (e.g. uranium, thorium, rare earths, etc.) that could be used/sold, when extracted, which will result in cleaner final products. The considerably lower waste products also make it attractive compared to chemical processing. In the future, we may need to extract nuclear fuel and minerals from the same unconventional resources to make nuclear fuel- and low grade ore processing feasible and cost-effective. These processes could be sustainable only if low-cost, carbon free, reliable energy is available for comprehensive extraction of all valuable commodities, for the entire life of the project. Nuclear power plants and specifically High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) can produce this energy and heat in a sustainable way, especially if enough uranium/thorium can be extracted to fuel these reactors.

  18. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Opportunities for Civil Works Projects Unique to the US Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    petroleum gas ( LPG ) (4% of emissions). Figure 1 shows Tableau Software results for USACE MSCs GE GHG emissions. MVD, ERDC, and NAD (including Washington...ventilating, and air-conditioning LED light emitting diode LPG liquid petroleum gas LRC US Army Corps of Engineers — Chicago District MMBTU million...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 12 -1 9 Center for the Advancement of Sustainability Innovations (CASI) Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

  19. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  20. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine; Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Glover, Simon; Israel, Frank; Li, Aigen

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380 −130 +250 ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200 −420 +1600 ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M ☉  pc –2 in the LMC and 0.03 M ☉  pc –2 in the SMC, corresponding to A V ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H 2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X CO to be 6 × 10 20  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z ☉ ) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10 21  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z ☉ ) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H 2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H 2 . Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X CO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H 2

  1. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling

  2. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  3. The SAURON project : XVI. On the sources of ionization for the gas in elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Shields, Joseph C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Shapiro, Kristen; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glen; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    Following our study on the incidence, morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in early-type galaxies, we now address the question of what is powering the observed nebular emission. To constrain the likely sources of gas excitation, we resort to a variety of ancillary data we draw from

  4. The SAURON project - XVI. On the sources of ionization for the gas in elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Shields, Joseph C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Shapiro, Kristen; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glen; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    Following our study on the incidence, morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in early-type galaxies, we now address the question of what is powering the observed nebular emission. To constrain the likely sources of gas excitation, we resort to a variety of ancillary data we draw from

  5. Modelling of fission gas release in rods from the International DEMO-RAMP-II Project at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.

    1983-01-01

    The DEMO-RAMP-II rods had a burn-up of 25-30 MWd/kg U. They were ramped to powers in the range 40-50 kW/m with hold times between 10 s and 4.5 minutes. In spite of the short hold times the fission gas release at the higher powers was more than 1%. With these short hold times it is natural to assume that mixing of released gas with plenum gas is limited. Modelling has been performed using GAPCONSV (a modified GAPCON-THERMAL-2) both with and without mixing of released gas with plenum gas. In particular for the high power-short duration ramps only the ''no mixing'' modelling yields release fractions comparable to the experimental values. (author)

  6. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock - final report for the joint UKDOE/AECL project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A.

    1991-12-01

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model derived from Thunvik and Braester (1987). Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determined the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 37 figs

  7. Fission gas release and swelling in the fuel pins M1-3 and F9-3: Risoe Fission Gas Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C T; Ray, I L.F.; Coquerelle, M; Blank, H

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results for the microscopic swelling local swelling and local gas release in the pin sections M1-3-11 and F9-3-44. The local gas release was derived from the concentration of retained xenon which was measured with the electron microprobe. In addition to xenon, the radial distributions of caesium and neodymium were also determined by EMPA. Caesium is assumed to contribute to microscopic swelling because it results mainly from the decay of /sup 133/Xe, /sup 135/Xe and /sup 137/Xe and, therefore, is trapped together with xenon in bubbles and pores. Neodymium, on the other hand, is soluble in UO/sub 2/ and does not migrate under the influence of the temperature gradients that exist during irradiation. Therefore, the radial distribution of this fission product is an indelible imprint of the burn-up from which the average flux depression can be deduced. 1 ref., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The paper summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices. The gas prices in the 1992 projection support growth in all major U.S. gas supply sources: lower-48, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and LNG. By about 2005, U.S. gas supply is at its highest level ever. By 2010, U.S. gas supply has grown to almost 25 quads. U.S. gas production increases 2.6 quads between 1990 and 2010; imports increase 2.2 quads. Although imports do not increase as much as U.S. gas production, they account for an increased share of U.S. gas supply. The import share grows from 7 percent to 12 percent over the projection period. Supplemental gas sources provide about 1 percent of U.S. gas supply

  9. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  10. Origin and incidence of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a compound with a "fungal" and "corky" aroma found in cork stoppers and oak chips in contact with wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, Pascal; Fleury, Antoine; Boutou, Stéphane

    2010-12-08

    This study identifies a previously isolated bacterium as Rhizobium excellensis, a new species of proteobacteria able to form a large quantity of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (MDMP). R. excellensis actively synthesizes MDMP from L-alanine and L-leucine and, to a lesser extent, from L-phenylalanine and L-valine. MDMP is a volatile, strong-smelling substance detected in wines with cork stoppers that have an unpleasant "corky", "herbaceous" (potato, green hazelnut), or "dusty" odor that is very different from the typical "fungal" nose of a "corked" wine that is generally due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The contamination of cork by MDMP is not correlated with the presence of TCA. It appears possible that R. excellensis is the microorganism mainly responsible for the presence of this molecule in cork bark. However, other observations suggest that MDMP might taint wine through other ways. Oak wood can also be contaminated and affect wines with which it comes into contact. Nevertheless, because 93% of the MDMP content in wood is destroyed after 10 min at 220 °C, sufficiently toasted oak barrels or alternatives probably do not represent a major source of MDMP in most of the cases. Due to MDMP's relatively low detection threshold estimated at 2.1 ng/L, its presence in about 40% of the untreated natural cork stoppers sampled at concentrations above 10 ng/cork suggests that this compound, if extracted from the stoppers, may pose a risk for wine producers.

  11. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  12. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on supply chain management in the oil and gas industry : major capital construction projects, maintenance, repair and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Many companies are now being forced to focus on careful budgeting to ensure that the capital costs of large-scale construction projects do not exceed their budgets. Operators are now investigating the role of supply chain management in reducing project costs. This conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to large construction projects for supply chain management in the oil and gas industry. Participants at the conference discussed methods of negotiating with contractors in order to manage higher prices for steel and other commodities. Best practices for maintaining effective purchaser-contractor relations were discussed along with cost benchmarks in contracts and management planning techniques for supply chain processes. The benefits of adopting vendor-managed inventory systems were also examined. Sourcing strategies were presented and issues related to transportation were reviewed along with various planning models. The conference featured 16 presentations. tabs., figs

  13. Project and implementation of advanced controls in a natural gas reformation unit; Projeto e implementacao de controles avancados em unidade de reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoni, Bruno [Andreoni Servicos de Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bueno, Roberto Galvao [Prosint S.A., XX (Brazil); Cruz, Luiz Alfredo A [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an effective implementation of advanced controls using a DCS previously loaded with conventional controls only. The advanced control system for a multiple fuel natural gas reform furnace consists of material and energy on-line balances, multivariable feedback trims, dynamic compensations and adaptive controls. The system performed well without an analyzer despite wide variations in fuel composition. A few items were implemented to improve the system after startup of the original strategies. All implementations were made possible through great involvement of plant personnel, aided by a consulting firm. The system provided tangible benefits and adequate return on the investment. (author)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on community-oriented practical photovoltaic power systems (Practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems); 1999 nendo metan hakko gas nenryo denchi hatsuden system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the research cooperation with developing countries on practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems in 1999-2002. This research aims to construct the methane gas fermentation fuel cell power facility using livestock excreta which can supply power to the facility and peripheral areas. The facility controls various substance concentrations in waste water within environmental standards, and uses waste as compost. This project is very promising in use of environment-friendly energy, effective use of unused energy and power supply to unelectrified areas for China under serious conditions such as rapid increase in energy demand and various environment problems. There are such various issues to achieve this target as securing livestock (pig breeders) and excreta, and fermentation and recovery of suitable methane gas necessary for fuel cell power systems from excreta. This report is composed of 2 parts, (1) Current use of energy resources and use of unused energy in Guangdong province, and (2) Technical requirements for practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems. (NEDO)

  15. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  16. Methodological issues in developing a community forestry greenhouse gas emissions mitigation project in Mancherial forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, I.K.; Hegde, G.T.; Sudha, P.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are several contentious issues related to forestry mitigation projects. The special report of the IPCC and literature published so far have shown that permanence, leakage, baseline establishment, measurement, monitoring, etc., could be addressed satisfactorily using existing scientific methods and accounting rules. To understand the methodological issues of developing community forestry projects, a case study was conducted in Mancherial forest division of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This paper addresses: the setting of project boundaries, baseline selection, establishment of additionality and the calculation of carbon sequestration as a result of the project, prior to project implementation. The steps involved in development of the project and the different methods used for establishing baseline, estimating leakage and transaction cost of developing a community forestry project are presented. The stock is projected to increase by 1480 x 10 3 t C during 2000-2012 over the baseline scenario under the modeling approach and the cost of establishing a baseline and project formulation for a project extending over 32,956 ha is estimated to be US$ 1.25 ha -1 and US$ 4 t C -1

  17. The spatio-temporal perspective used in the projection of the demand for natural gas; A perspectiva espaco-temporal empregada na projecao de demanda de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Gas e Energia; Silva, Alexandre Pinto Alves da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The increase of the demand for energy resulted in a diversification of world-wide energy matrix. Specifically in the Brazilian scene, that historically prioritized the exploration of the oil and hydro electric power generation, it saw to grow the slice of participation of the natural gas in energy matrix, seen its versatility and low cost and environment impact. In the energy segment, the activity of demand forecast it has developed mainly using the boarding of time series, especially for the use of econometrics assumptions. However, in the econometric context, has been ignored the effect related with the spatial autocorrelation and the spatial heterogeneity, and not to consider these questions violate the premises of Gauss-Markov applied in the regression modeling. This article analyzes the influence and the use of the perspective time-space in the development of models of forecast of Natural Gas demand, with attention in the characteristics of the relationships between events in the time and the space. (author)

  18. The Effectiveness of a New Hemostatic Agent (Ankaferd Blood Stopper for the Control of Bleeding following Tooth Extraction in Hemophilia: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Oğuz Kazancıoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of a new local hemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. Materials and Methods: Simple tooth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. In the treatment group (n=17 local hemostasis was achieved via application of ABS to the extraction sockets, whereas in the control group (n=10 local hemostasis was achieved via direct packing with gauze. Results: In all, 57 (21 primary and 36 permanent teeth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. There were no significant differences in age or factor VIII level distribution between the 2 groups (p>0.05. The most significant clinical difference between the groups was associated with the use of ABS; those in the treatment group had significantly shorter duration of bleeding (p=0.002. Conclusion: This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of ABS for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. ABS can be considered an alternative local hemostatic agent for reducing clotting factor concentrates in hemophilia patients.

  19. Application of robust NiTi-ZrO2-PEG SPME fiber in the determination of haloanisoles in cork stopper samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber obtained using sol-gel technology was applied in the determination of off-flavor compounds (2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) and pentachloroanisole (PCA)) present in cork stopper samples. A NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide was used as the substrate for a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating. Scanning electronic microscopy showed good uniformity of the coating and allowed the coating thickness to be estimated as around 17 μm. The optimization of the main parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as cork sample mass, sodium chloride mass, extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized using a full factorial design, followed by a Doehlert design. The optimum conditions were: 20 min of extraction at 70 deg. C using 60 mg of the cork sample and 10 mL of water saturated with sodium chloride in a 20 mL amber vial with constant magnetic stirring. Satisfactory detection limits between 2.5 and 5.1 ng g -1 were obtained, as well as good precision (R.S.D. in the range of 5.8-12.0%). Recovery tests were performed on three different cork samples, and values between 83 and 119% were obtained. The proposed SPME fiber was compared with commercially available fibers and good results were achieved, demonstrating its applicability

  20. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The charge for each gas atomization experiment was provided by Alcoa and consisted of cast blocks cut into 1 inch by 1 inch square rods of the chosen aluminum alloys. The atmosphere in the melting chamber and connected atomization system was evacuated with a mechanical pump prior to backfilling with ultrahigh purity (UHP grade) Ar. The melt was contained in a bottom tapped alumina crucible with an alumina stopper rod to seal the exit while heating to a pouring temperature of 1000 – 1400°C. When the desired superheat was reached, the stopper rod was lifted and melt flowed through pour tube and was atomized with Ar from a 45-22-052-409 gas atomization nozzle (or atomization die), having a jet apex angle of 45 degrees with 22 cylindrical gas jets (each with diameter of 1.32 mm or 0.052 inches) arrayed around the axis of a 10.4 mm central bore. The Ar atomization gas supply regulator pressure was set to produce nozzle manifold pressures for the series of runs at pressures of 250-650 psi. Secondary gas halos of Ar+O2 and He also were added to the interior of the spray chamber at various downstream locations for additional cooling of the atomized droplets, surface passivation, and to prevent coalescence of the resulting powder.

  1. Stomach gas analyses in canine acute gastric dilatation with volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, H J; Gargamelli, C; Havier, J; Frueh, S; Jin, L; Suib, S

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed. We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia. Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively. With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%. Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miller, Scott [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ku, Anthony [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Polishchuk, Kimberly [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wei, Wei [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shisler, Roger [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wickersham, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McEvoy, Kevin [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Alberts, William [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Barton, Thomas [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  3. NF ISO 14064-2. Greenhouse gases. Part 2: specifications and guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas emissions and reductions at projects level (activity modifying the conditions identified in a baseline scenario, intended to reduce emissions or to increase the removal of greenhouse gases). Thus it suggests a method for the declarations of inventory of projects greenhouse gases and provides support for the monitoring and the management of emissions. It provides terms and definitions, principles, the introduction to greenhouse gases projects and the requirements for greenhouse gas projects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Health symptoms in residents living near shale gas activity: A retrospective record review from the Environmental Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Weinberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates an association between health symptoms and exposure to unconventional natural gas development (UNGD. The purpose of this study is to describe the health of adults in communities with intense UNGD who presented for evaluation of symptoms. Records of 135 structured health assessments conducted between February 2012 and October 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Publicly available data were used to determine proximity to gas wells. Analysis was restricted to records of adults who lived within 1km of a well in Pennsylvania and denied employment in the gas industry (n=51. Symptoms in each record were reviewed by a physician. Symptoms that could be explained by pre-existing or concurrent conditions or social history and those that began or worsened prior to exposure were excluded. Exposure was calculated using date of well drilling within 1km. The number of symptoms/participant ranged from 0 to 19 (mean=6.2; SD=5.1. Symptoms most commonly reported were: sleep disruption, headache, throat irritation, stress or anxiety, cough, shortness of breath, sinus problems, fatigue, nausea, and wheezing. These results are consistent with findings of prior studies using self-report without physician review. In comparison, our results are strengthened by the collection of health data by a health care provider, critical review of symptoms for possible alternative causes, and confirmation of timing of exposure to unconventional natural gas well relative to symptom onset or exacerbation. Our findings confirm earlier studies and add to the growing body of evidence of the association between symptoms and exposure to UNGD. Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Health, Fracking, Shale gas, Unconventional gas

  5. Characterization and analysis of structural isomers of dimethyl methoxypyrazines in cork stoppers and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Legrum, Charlotte; Meusinger, Reinhard; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2014-10-01

    The three constitutional isomers of dimethyl-substituted methoxypyrazines: 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine 1; 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine 2; and 2,3-dimethyl-5-methoxypyrazine 3 are potent flavor compounds with similar mass spectrometric, gas chromatographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic behavior. Therefore, unambiguous analytical determination is critical, particularly in complex matrices. The unequivocal identification of 1-3 could be achieved by homo- and heteronuclear NMR correlation experiments. The observed mass fragmentation for 1-3 is proposed and discussed, benefitting from synthesized partially deuterated 1 and 2. On common polar and apolar stationary phases used in gas chromatography (GC) 1 and 2 show similar behavior whereas 3 can be separated. In our focus on off-flavor analysis with respect to wine aroma, 1 has been described as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork and 2 as a constituent in Harmonia axyridis contributing to the so-called "ladybug taint," whereas 3 has not yet been described as a constituent of wine aroma. A successful separation of 1 and 2 could be achieved on octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin as stationary phase in GC. Applying heart-cut multidimensional GC analysis with tandem mass spectrometric detection we could confirm the presence of 1 as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork. However, in the case of Harmonia axyridis, a previous identification of 2 has to be reconsidered. In our experiments we identified the constitutional isomer 1, which was also found in Coccinella septempunctata, another species discussed with respect to the "ladybug taint." The analysis of such structurally related compounds is a demonstrative example for the importance of a chromatographic separation, as mass spectrometric data by itself could not guarantee the unequivocal identification.

  6. Gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system complying with multiple fuels (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagyu, Sumio; Maekawa, Koich; Sugawara, Koich; Hayashida, Masaru; Fujishima, Ichiro; Fukuyama, Yuji; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Yamato, Tadao; Obata, Norio [Advanced Technology Lab., Kubota Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes recent results at Kubota to develop a gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system. Utilizing a gas mixture which consists of CO and H{sub 2} supplied from a broad area energy utilization network, the system produces four heat sources (263 K, 280 K, 318 K, and 353 K) for air-conditioning, hot water supply, and refrigeration in a single system. It also conforms to fuel systems that utilize methane and hydrogen. This multi-functional heat supply system is composed of an efficient gas engine (methanol gas engine) and a freon-free heat pump (heat-assisted Stirling heat pump). The heat-assisted Stirling heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power provided by engine exhaust heat. By proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the heat pump is supplied with the maximum share of the original energy fueling the engine. Developing the system will establish freon-free thermal utilization system technology that satisfies both wide heat demands and various fuel systems. (orig.)

  7. Survey of consolidation for gas turbine re-powering combined WPP (waste power plant) project; Gas turbine repowering haikibutsu fukugo hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the survey of gas turbine re-powering combined WPP (or super WPP), which was commercialized by Gunma Prefecture for the first time as an electric power wholesaler in Japan. An outline of the survey is introduced. The system optimization for the commercialization of WPP was studied by considering waste as un-utilized energy. A successful condition and preparation method of the commercialization of a public power plant was also studied, which is a combination of the garbage collection business of a local government and an electric power generation business of a municipal company. For the introduction of the aforementioned system, the problems and supporting methods were studied by making allowance for the profitability of the WPP introduction, because they also need to deliberate it from the economical point of view as electric power companies. Based on the results of foregoing items, commercialization plans, problems encountered from the construction phase through the maintenance and service phase, and the supporting method were arranged. 30 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  9. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  10. An assessment of investment projects in terms of gas and oil sectors of Ukraine’s and Russia’s industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dzebykh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of investment projects with the usage of characteristic examples, taken from gas and oil sectors of the industries, which are of crucial importance for the economies of Ukraine and Russia. These branches of industry are characterized by insufficient definition and complicacy, which necessitates the financial analysis of these sectors in Ukraine and Russia, especially if it is made for the assessment of the investment projects. In the long-term investment budget planning of the company the financial analysis is carried out to determine the investment possibilities, the value of which for the company is more than the money necessary for the ensurance of such possibilities. A few proposed methods can help specialist-analysts to take right decisions concerning investments.

  11. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  12. Diagnosis of dynamic systems based on explicit and implicit behavioural models: an application to gas turbines in Esprit Project Tiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Milne, R.

    1995-12-31

    We are interested in the monitoring and diagnosis of dynamic systems. In our work, we are combining explicit temporal models of the behaviour of a dynamic system with implicit behavioural models supporting model based approaches. This work is drive by the needs of and applied to, two gas turbines of very different size and power. In this paper we describe the problems of building systems for these domains and illustrate how we have developed a system where these two approaches complement each other to provide a comprehensive fault detection and diagnosis system. We also explore the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The work described here is currently working continuously, on line to a gas turbine in a major chemical plant. (author) 24 refs.

  13. Diagnosis of dynamic systems based on explicit and implicit behavioural models: an application to gas turbines in Esprit Project Tiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Milne, R

    1996-12-31

    We are interested in the monitoring and diagnosis of dynamic systems. In our work, we are combining explicit temporal models of the behaviour of a dynamic system with implicit behavioural models supporting model based approaches. This work is drive by the needs of and applied to, two gas turbines of very different size and power. In this paper we describe the problems of building systems for these domains and illustrate how we have developed a system where these two approaches complement each other to provide a comprehensive fault detection and diagnosis system. We also explore the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The work described here is currently working continuously, on line to a gas turbine in a major chemical plant. (author) 24 refs.

  14. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project on methane gas recovery use in the Donetsk coal field/coal mine; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Donetsk tanden tanko methane gas kaishu riyo keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of getting petroleum substitution energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was carried out of the project for methane gas recovery/utilization at the Donbassa coal mine in Ukraine. At the Donbassa coal mine, degassing by test boring is being conducted to reduce the gas emission at coal face for safety, but most of the gas is discharged into the air. In this project, the following were studied: degassing boring/gas induction from bore hole/measurement in gas induction pipe, gas recovery system combined with gas induction in flyash, and installation/operation of gas engine power generation facilities (1,710kW x 7 units) with exhaust heat recovery boiler using the recovered methane gas as fuel. The results obtained were the petroleum substitution amount of 31,000 toe/y and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction of 480,000 t/y. In the economical estimation, the initial investment amount was 3 billion yen, the profitability of the total investment used was 2.9%, and the internal earning rate was 6.5%. (NEDO)

  15. Design and construction of a large-scale sand-bentonite seal for controlled gas release from a L/ILW repository - The GAST project at GTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueedi, J.; Marschall, P.; Vaissiere, R. de la; Jung, H.; Reinhold, M.; Steiner, P.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    experiments on the real scale are needed for benchmarking the performance of the two-phase flow models. The Gas-Permeable Seal Test (GAST) was initiated in 2010 as a GTS partner project with Andra and KRMC as project partners. The experiment was emplaced at Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in 2011/2012. The S/B seal with a length of 8 m and a diameter of 3m was emplaced to demonstrate the effective functioning of gas permeable seals at realistic scales and under realistic hydraulic boundary conditions ('proof of concept'). The latter condition required the experiment to be emplaced in an existing TBM (tunnel boring machine) drilled tunnel at GTS where the surrounding granite has shown to provide a negligible excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and the stiff rock enables water injection at pressures similar to those expected for a L/ILW repository seal, i.e. 3-5 MPa corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure at 300-500 m depth. The S/B body was compacted manually in horizontal sheets of about 10 cm thickness with a target dry density of 1.7 g/cm 3 . The remaining head space as well as all S/B interfaces (i.e. towards granite and concrete plug) were sealed with granular bentonite and/or with bentonite blocks. The experiment is planned to be saturated until 2014 followed by gas injection from the far end of the tunnel in 2015. The experiment aims at validating and, if necessary, improving current conceptual models for the re-saturation and gas invasion processes into S/B seals and the determination of up-scaled gas / water permeabilities of S/B seals (i.e. two-phase flow parameters for large-scale models). For this reason material saturation, water pressures and earth pressures are monitored continuously by more than 150 sensors distributed among 15 instrumentation cross sections, comprising of piezometers for pore pressure, relative humidity sensors, psychrometers and TDRs for water saturation, total pressure cells for stress state and piezo-crystals for seismic tomography. All instruments and

  16. Improving and Assessing Aircraft-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Rate Measurements at Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburger, A. M. F.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Susdorf, C.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Copenhagen accord in 2009, several countries have affirmed their commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States and Canada committed to reduce their emissions by 17% below 2005 levels, by 2020, Europe by 14% and China by ~40%. To achieve such targets, coherent and effective strategies in mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions must be implemented in the next decades. Whether such goals are actually achieved, they require that reductions are "measurable", "reportable", and "verifiable". Management of greenhouse gas emissions must focus on urban environments since ~74% of CO2 emissions worldwide will be from cities, while measurement approaches are highly uncertain (~50% to >100%). The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was established to develop, assess and improve top-down and bottom-up quantifications of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Based on an aircraft mass balance approach, we performed a series of experiments focused on the improvement of CO2, CH4 and CO emission rates quantification from Indianapolis, our final objective being to drastically improve the method overall uncertainty from the previous estimate of 50%. In November-December 2014, we conducted nine methodologically identical mass balance experiments in a short period of time (24 days, one downwind distance) for assumed constant total emission rate conditions, as a means to obtain an improved standard deviation of the mean determination. By averaging the individual emission rate determinations, we were able to obtain a method precision of 17% and 16% for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95%C.L. CH4 emission rates are highly variable day to day, leading to precision of 60%. Our results show that repetitive sampling can enable improvement in precision of the aircraft top-down methods through averaging.

  17. Early site review report for the Sundesert site, San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Project No. 558

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to present the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of several of the matters relating to the suitability of the Sundesert site near Blythe, California, on which the San Diego Gas and Electric Company proposes to build the Sundesert Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. The report summarizes the results of the technical evaluation of the suitability of the proposed Sundesert site for a nuclear plant and delineates the scope of the technical matters considered in evaluating the suitability of the site

  18. PO.RA project. An analysis on gas radon concentrations in soil versus fluctuations in the groundwater table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serentha', C.; Torretta, M.

    2001-01-01

    Man is daily exposed to natural radiation, mainly due to cosmic rays and natural radioactive elements, whose most important radioactive daughters are 222 Rn (radon) and 220 Rn (thoron). Being these ones gaseous, they can spread through the ground, reaching the atmosphere and accumulating in rooms, where their concentrations may be very high. As radon exhalation is strongly connected with the hydrogeological features of the environment, this study tried to find a relationship between fluctuations in the groundwater table and gas radon concentrations in soil, in order to try estimates of indoor radon concentrations [it

  19. Project, construction and assembling of a compact heat exchanger for natural gas generator; Nacionalizacao de um recuperador de calor destinado ao reaproveitamento energetico dos gases de combustao de uma microturbina alimentada com gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Raphael Chaves; Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Santos, Thiago Victor de Oliveira; Oliveira, Guilherme Lacerda Batista de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the construction of a heat exchanger developed for reuse of hot gases from a natural gas microturbine installed at the Laboratory of Micro-CHP at Federal University of Pernambuco. As in Brazil there was no manufacturer of similar equipment that could be used with this microturbine and imported equipment is very expensive, it, has proposed a project to CNPq for development of a national prototype, capable of replacing imports. The work talks about the design, construction, assembly, instrumentation and operation. The paper presents data taken from heat exchanger in operation. We recorded the temperature of fluids and held thermal exchange, which allowed the calculation of its effectiveness. The results show that the heat exchanger reached a satisfactory performance with maximum effectiveness of 0.8, condition for the full load of microturbine, and that represents a maximum heat recovered around 50 kW. (author)

  20. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  1. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  2. Report on the obligation to make a greenhouse gas emission assessment as foreseen in article 26 of the 'National Commitment for Environment' project bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the measures defined in articles 23 and 26 of the 'National Commitment for the Environment' project bill after it has been voted by the French Senate, this report explains why companies, public institutions and local communities are asked to assess their greenhouse gas emissions. The aim is to mobilise the main French actors on the emission reduction objectives, to decentralize the measures adopted in the 'Grenelle 1' bill, to define specific objectives for companies, public institutions and local communities. In its second part, the report proposes an overview of the current situation in terms of emission assessment (main international systems of reference, methods and tools, scopes). Recommendations are formulated to perform such an assessment

  3. Monitoring Marcellus: A Case Study of a Collaborative Volunteer Monitoring Project to Document the Impact of Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction on Small Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candie C. Wilderman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the natural gas extraction industry in Pennsylvania and neighboring states has stirred concerned citizens to seek ways to collect data on water quality impacts from the extraction activities. As a response to requests from community members, the Alliance for Aquatic Resource Monitoring (ALLARM developed a volunteer-friendly protocol in 2010 for early detection and reporting of surface water contamination by shale gas extraction activities in small streams. To date, ALLARM has trained more than 2,000 volunteers in Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia to monitor water quality (conductivity, barium, strontium, and total dissolved solids and physical parameters (stream stage and visual observations prior to, during, and after shale gas wells have been developed. This paper documents the operational models of Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR used by ALLARM, describes the volunteer monitoring protocol developed, and examines three years of water quality results from hundreds of monitoring sites in Pennsylvania and New York. The majority of watersheds monitored are small, forested, headwater streams. Results indicate that mean conductivity in streams is strongly and positively related to the percentage of development and the percentage of limestone in the watersheds. Mean conductivity is not significantly related to number or density of drilled wells, although the dataset did not lend itself to finding a signal from shale gas activities because only 20% of the watersheds had wells drilled at the time of sampling. This fact enables the use of these data as baseline data for future documentation of shale gas impacts on water quality. Volunteers have reported multiple cases of visual pollution related to shale gas activities, but have not identified water contamination events based on stream water chemistry. The results of the volunteer dataset are compared with results from the scientific literature, affirming

  4. The BioSCWG Project: Understanding the Trade-Offs in the Process and Thermal Design of Hydrogen and Synthetic Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the main findings from a collaborative research project between Aalto University in Finland and partner universities. A comparative process synthesis, modelling and thermal assessment was conducted for the production of Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG and hydrogen from supercritical water refining of a lipid extracted algae feedstock integrated with onsite heat and power generation. The developed reactor models for product gas composition, yield and thermal demand were validated and showed conformity with reported experimental results, and the balance of plant units were designed based on established technologies or state-of-the-art pilot operations. The poly-generative cases illustrated the thermo-chemical constraints and design trade-offs presented by key process parameters such as plant organic throughput, supercritical water refining temperature, nature of desirable coproducts, downstream indirect production and heat recovery scenarios. The evaluated cases favoring hydrogen production at 5 wt. % solid content and 600 °C conversion temperature allowed higher gross syngas and CHP production. However, mainly due to the higher utility demands the net syngas production remained lower compared to the cases favoring BioSNG production. The latter case, at 450 °C reactor temperature, 18 wt. % solid content and presence of downstream indirect production recorded 66.5%, 66.2% and 57.2% energetic, fuel-equivalent and exergetic efficiencies respectively.

  5. Particle deposition and resuspension in gas-cooled reactors—Activity overview of the two European research projects THINS and ARCHER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T., E-mail: t.barth@hzdr.de [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lecrivain, G. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Jayaraju, S.T. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hampel, U. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A summary on particle deposition and resuspension experiments is provided. • Similarities between single and multilayer particle deposits are found. • Numerical models for simulation of particle deposits are successfully developed. - Abstract: The deposition and resuspension behaviour of radio-contaminated aerosol particles is a key issue for the safety assessment of depressurization accidents of gas-cooled high temperature reactors. Within the framework of two European research projects, namely Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS) and Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D (ARCHER), a series of investigations was performed to investigate the transport, the deposition and the resuspension of aerosol particles in turbulent flows. The experimental and numerical tests can be subdivided into four different parts: (1) Monolayer particle deposition, (2) Monolayer particle resuspension, (3) Multilayer particle deposition and (4) Multilayer particle resuspension. The experimental results provide a new insight into the formation and removal of aerosol particle deposits in turbulent flows and are used for the development and validation of numerical procedures in gas-cooled reactors. Good agreement was found between the numerical and the experimental results.

  6. Dragon project reference design assessment study for a 528 MW (E) thorium cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosegood, S.B.

    1967-05-01

    The report presents an assessment of the feasibility, safety and cost of a large nuclear power station employing a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A thermal output 1250 MW was chosen for the study, resulting in a net electrical output of 528.34 MW from a single reactor station, or 1056.7 MW from a twin reactor station. A reference design has been developed and is described. The reactor uses a U-235/Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle, on a feed and breed basis. It is believed that such a reactor could be built at an early date, requiring only a relatively modest development programme. Building costs are estimated to be Pound46.66/kW for a single unit station and Pound42.6/kW for a twin station, with power generation costs of 1.67p/kWh and 1.50p/kWh respectively. Optimisation studies have not been carried out and it should be possible to improve on the costs. The design has been made as flexible as possible to allow units of smaller or larger outputs to be designed with a minimum of change. (U.K.)

  7. Risk management system in the natural gas distribution of Lima and Callao according guidelines “Recommendations on transmission and distribution practice” and risk management of the PMI Project (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Ruiz, Roger Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to analyze quantitative operational risk according to the guidelines of the practice recommendation “Recommendations on Transmission and Distribution Practice” , published by The Institution of Gas Engineers of Great Britain and the PMBOK . Chapter 11 , Managing Project Risk . This study was conducted in the Trunk pipeline system operated by Cálidda the Peru - Natural Gas from the City Gate located in Lurín , to Callao Terminal Station . The purpose of th...

  8. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  9. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  10. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  11. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.

    1994-08-01

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO 2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  12. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  13. Projected alignment of non-sphericities of stellar, gas, and dark matter distributions in galaxy clusters: analysis of the Horizon-AGN simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Taizo; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Peirani, Sébastien; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    While various observations measured ellipticities of galaxy clusters and alignments between orientations of the brightest cluster galaxies and their host clusters, there are only a handful of numerical simulations that implement realistic baryon physics to allow direct comparisons with those observations. Here we investigate ellipticities of galaxy clusters and alignments between various components of them and the central galaxies in the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN, which contains dark matter, stellar, and gas components in a large simulation box of (100h-1 Mpc)3 with high spatial resolution (˜1 kpc). We estimate ellipticities of total matter, dark matter, stellar, gas surface mass density distributions, X-ray surface brightness, and the Compton y-parameter of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, as well as alignments between these components and the central galaxies for 120 projected images of galaxy clusters with masses M200 > 5 × 1013M⊙. Our results indicate that the distributions of these components are well aligned with the major-axes of the central galaxies, with the root mean square value of differences of their position angles of ˜20°, which vary little from inner to the outer regions. We also estimate alignments of these various components with total matter distributions, and find tighter alignments than those for central galaxies with the root mean square value of ˜15°. We compare our results with previous observations of ellipticities and position angle alignments and find reasonable agreements. The comprehensive analysis presented in this paper provides useful prior information for analyzing stacked lensing signals as well as designing future observations to study ellipticities and alignments of galaxy clusters.

  14. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru koro gas atsuryoku energy yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    From the viewpoint of energy utilization stated above, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) unit installability was studied at Bhilai Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., Bokaro Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., and Visakhapatnum Steel Works of Rashtriya Ispat Nigem. The energy consumption rate at an Indian steelmaking plant is 8Gcal/t-steel, which is larger than 5-6Gcal/t-steel of Japan and therefore needs improvement. Out of the blast furnaces in India, 26 are larger than 1,000m{sup 3}, and two of them are provided with a TRT device of now-defunct Soviet Union manufacture. The blast furnaces were examined for pressure at the top, amount of gas at the top, amount of dust, and safeness in operation. The No. 2 blast furnace of the Borkaro plant was selected for the project, and studies were made for a wet type TRT device. Improvements to be achieved by TRT device installation were calculated to be a TRT output of 5,900kW, power output of 49,100MWh/year, saved crude oil amount of 12,990toe/year, and CO2 reduction of 40,200 tons-CO2/year. (NEDO)

  15. Oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Kyoto protocol flexibility mechanisms in Russia; Projets d'investissement dans l'industrie petroliere et gaziere russe dans le cadre des mecanismes de flexibilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonova, A

    2005-02-01

    This PhD thesis evaluates the perspectives of the oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia. From the energy point of view, the relationships between climate policy and energy systems are described and the main sources of GHG emissions reductions in the Russian oil and gas sector are evaluated. From the environmental point of view, the JI is firstly considered as an economic instrument of the international climate agreements. Secondly, are demonstrated the characteristics of the JI perturbing his efficiency and his capacity to ensure the environmental quality of projects. Based on the specificities of Russian climate policy, two scenarios of its development are proposed to estimate the perspectives of JI in the oil and gas sector in the middle term. (author)

  16. District heat production by means of a heat-pump operated by natural gas. Draft design of a 1 MW heat pump operated by a gas engine. Project sponsored by energy research program 1981 of the Danish Ministry of Energy. Fjernvarmeproduktion med naturgasdrevet varmepumpe. Skitseprojektering af 1 MW gasmotordrevet varmepumpe. Udfoert under Energiministeriets energiforskningsprogram 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evald, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this project is an investigation of the technical and economic aspects of using natural gas in a gas engine driven heat pump for heat production in district heating nets and large housing blocks. The gas engine is a turbocharged spark-ignition gas engine with a performance of 35%. The heat produced by the engine in cylinderjackets, exhaust gas etc. is utilized in the heating system. The engine drives a screw-, piston- or turbocompressor heat pump, applicated with a heat exchanger for liquid refrigerant from the condenser and an economizer for flashing off vapour at an intermediate pressure. Waste water, seawater, ground water or even outdoor air can be used as heat source for the evaporator. The COP for the heat pump is calculated to 3.1 to 3.3 under normal operating conditions. For the total system containing gas engine and heat pump, the primary energy ratio - defined as the ratio of heat production to heat of combustion of the gas - is calculated to be 1.61 to 1.66. The size of the plant is 1 MW heat production. The economy seems to be reasonable good with a payback period of 4 years and a payout period of 5 years wich should be compared with the expected life time of 15 years for the plant. The projected plant shows several advantages as regards the environmental considerations compared with heat production in a boiler based on oil or coal.

  17. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  18. Burden differentiation: criteria for evaluation and development of burden sharing rules. The Joint CICERO-ECN project on sharing the burden of greenhouse gas reduction among countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Ringius, Lasse

    2000-02-01

    This article discusses nine criteria for evaluation of potential Burden Sharing Rules (BSRs) in climate policy agreements. Three of the criteria reflect fairness principles while six of them are operational requirements. These criteria are useful for identifying potential BSRs that could be promising in future climate policy negotiations. The two sector approaches, Multi-sector Convergence Approach and Triptych, received the highest score according to the criteria presented in this article. The Multi-sector Convergence Approach was developed in the joint ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) and CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo) project on burden sharing in climate policy agreements. This is a sector-oriented approach that comprises convergence of per capita emissions to the same level for all countries, and has a global coverage. The Triptych approach has been employed by the European Union for their internal differentiation of national abatement targets. Sector approaches have some specific advantages in linking burden sharing to the economic structure of countries. This indicates that the Multi-sector Convergence Approach could play a useful role in climate policy negotiations among a larger group of countries, and could encourage developing countries to take on greenhouse gas abatement targets. (author)

  19. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  20. Methodological aspects of market study on residential, commercial and industrial sectors, of the Conversion Project for natural gas of existing network in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinami, R.I.; Perazza, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The methodological aspects of market study, developed at the geographical area served by existing network of naphtha gas, which will be converted to natural gas in a two years conversion program are presented. (author)

  1. Financial and tax risks at implementation of ''Chayanda- Lensk'' section of ''Sila Sibiri'' gas transportation system construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharf, I V; Chukhareva, N V; Kuznetsova, L P

    2014-01-01

    High social and economic importance of large-scale projects on gasification of East Siberian regions of Russia and diversifying gas exports poses the problem of complex risk analysis of the project. This article discusses the various types of risks that could significantly affect the timing of the implementation and effectiveness of the project for the construction of the first line of ''Sila Sibiri'', the ''Chayanda-Lensk'' section. Special attention is paid to financial and tax aspects of the project. Graphically presented analysis of the dynamics of financial indicators reflect certain periods of effectiveness in implementing the project. Authors also discuss the possible causes and consequences of risks

  2. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  3. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology (research on a pressurized and fluidized gasification system for coal and heavy oil mixed materials); Sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan oyobi jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in developing a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Pulverized coal and heavy oil are heated and stirred to make it a slurry, which is forced into a fluidized bed gasification furnace together with spraying steam, and pyrolyzed by using a unique slurry feeding system (a hydrohoist). Carbon-like material as a by-product (char) is partially oxidized (burned) by steam and oxygen at the lower part of the gasification furnace. The material is gasified in the furnace, where the generated heat is sent to the pyrolysis zone in the upper part by the gas and fluidized bed media particles (char), and utilized as a heat source for the slurry pyrolysis. The produced gas is cooled by an indirect heat exchanger of the fluidized bed system and a scrubber to separate tar, dust and unreacted steam. Part of the sensible heat is recovered as steam. Thus, high-calorie gas of 6,000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} can be obtained, which is rich in methane, CO and hydrogen. Fiscal 1981 has performed a continuous test by using an internal heat type low-pressure gasification equipment to evaluate its compatibility to the diversification of materials. (NEDO)

  4. The participation of the production sector in the research projects financed by CTPETRO - National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas; A participacao do setor produtivo nos projetos financiados pelo CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fabiana; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: fabiana@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper emphasizes the participation of the equipment and services suppliers for the petroleum sector in the projects financially supported by CTPETRO (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas), according to the edit 03/2000.

  5. Fiscal 1999 report on result on the model project for systematization of high-efficiency combustion of by-product gas in ironworks. Part 2/2; 1999 nendo seitetsusho fukusei gas kokoritsu nensho system ka model jigyo. 2/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption of the steel industry, a large energy consuming industry in China, a model project was carried out for systematization of high-efficiency combustion of by-product gasses in ironworks, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled in the form of detailed design/documents, and the like. This project is intended for demonstration and dissemination of technologies for improving energy consumption efficiency, by controlling mixed gas calorie and oxygen content, in the reheating furnaces that consume as fuels various combustible gasses produced in iron and steel making processes. Arranged in the detailed design documentation were numerous drawings including a list of mixed gas equipment, design drawing of mixed gas orifice, specification of mixed gas control valves, list of reheating furnace equipment and devices for No.1 small plant, specification of control valves of reheating furnace for No.1 plant, list of reheating equipment and devices for slab plant, specification of calorimeter, specification of oxygen concentration meter, No.1 mixed gas wiring system diagram, and No.3 mixed gas piping/assembling manual. Also prepared were a manual for pre-shipment inspection and report on inspection findings, as well as notes on transportation, program for receiving Chinese engineers, schedule for dispatching engineers, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland). Varkaus Global New Products

    1997-12-31

    Laempoevoima Oy`s Kymijaervi power plant gasification project is to demonstrate the direct gasification of wet biofuel and the use of hot, raw and very low-calorific gas directly in the existing coal-fired boiler. The gasification of biofuels and co-combustion of gases in the existing coal-fired boiler offers many advantages such as: recycling of CO{sub 2}, decreased SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, efficient way to utilize biofuels and recycled refuse fuels, low investment and operation costs, and utilization of the existing power plant capacity. Furthermore, only small modifications are required in the boiler, possible disturbances in the gasifier do not shut down the power plant. (author)

  7. Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland). Varkaus Global New Products

    1998-12-31

    Laempoevoima Oy`s Kymijaervi power plant gasification project is to demonstrate the direct gasification of wet biofuel and the use of hot, raw and very low-calorific gas directly in the existing coal-fired boiler. The gasification of biofuels and co-combustion of gases in the existing coal-fired boiler offers many advantages such as: recycling of CO{sub 2}, decreased SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, efficient way to utilize biofuels and recycled refuse fuels, low investment and operation costs, and utilization of the existing power plant capacity. Furthermore, only small modifications are required in the boiler, possible disturbances in the gasifier do not shut down the power plant. (author)

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 of energy and environment technology verification project formation assisting project and international joint verification and research project. Verification of discrete power generation system utilizing mini-power generation that utilizes micro gas turbine; 1999 nendo micro gas turbine riyo mini hatsuden wo riyoshita bunsangata hatsuden system no kensho seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the verification test on power generation by using natural gas driven micro gas turbines (rated at 28 kW) in Thailand. The turbine presented excellent result of providing a maximum power generation output of 25 kW, having no efficiency deterioration even at the 50% output point (about 22%). Its exhaust gas emitted under the normal operation is clean. The waste heat is as low as 290 degrees C, which can be used for hot water supply, but may be difficult for steam generation. Under the severe condition for building large power plants in remote areas due to environmental issues and power transmission loss, proliferation of the discrete power generation system in the suburbs of the city of Bangkok draws expectation. This system can be more advantageous than the existing facilities if the end user gas price is 6.7 Bht/m{sup 3} or less. Discussions were given on a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus driven by electric power generated from the gas turbine mounted on the bus. The bus is overwhelmingly superior in the environmental aspect to diesel fueled buses. The HEV bus emits no black smoke at all, and NOx emission is as low as about 1/70. Fuel consumption is less than half (when regenerative braking is used). However, the vehicle body cost is higher by 40%. Smooth operation of the buses requires indispensably deployment of compressed natural gas service stations (to be located at 40-km interval ideally). Assistance is required also on the fund for gas line installations, and civil engineering construction technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Blades and disks in gas turbines. Material and component behaviour. Project department D. Final report; Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen. Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten. Projektbereich D. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Special Research Department No. 339, ``Disks and Blades in Gas Turbines - Material and Component Characteristics`` received financial support from 1988 through 1996. This final report discusses activities of the years 1994, 1995, and 1996. Project group D, ``Production and Quality Assurance``, investigated rotors and blades. Grinding techniques were developed and optimized for nickel base materials, and the effects of grinding on the marginal zones was investigated, including an analysis of intrinsic stresses induced by machining. In the field of ceramics, separation and production of reinforced ceramics was investigated, and techniques for vacuum soldering of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal compounds for high-temperature applications were developed. In the framework of a part-project carried out at HMI, neutron diffraction was used for nondestructive analysis of volume intrinsic stresses near the joint both on model geometries and on the joint between metal shaft and ceramic rotor. The development and application of computerized tomography for testing of ceramic rotors and joints was an important contribution to quality assurance. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Der Sonderforschungsbereich 339 `Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen - Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten` wurde von 1988 bis Ende 1996 gefoerdert. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht behandelt vor allem die Arbeiten der Jahre 1994, 1995 und 1996. Am Bauteil Rotor und Schaufel orientierten sich die Arbeiten des Projektbereichs D `Fertigung und Qualitaetssicherung`. Zum einen wurden hier Schleifverfahren fuer Nickelbasis-Werkstoffe entwickelt und optimiert und der Einfluss der Schleifbearbeitung auf die Randzoneneigenschaften studiert. Zur Randzonencharakterisierung gehoerte insbesondere auch die Analyse bearbeitungsinduzierter Eigenspannungen. Auf der Seite der Keramiken wurde zum einen die trennende Fertigung verstaerkter Keramiken untersucht. Zum anderen wurden Techniken fuer das Hochvakuumloeten von Keramik

  10. Opening up to gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing number of gas-fired generation projects in Eastern Europe, and the need for the different countries who wish to join the European Union to approximate their laws with EU legislation which requires the opening up of each member's gas market. Projects in Poland, Croatia, Turkey, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are considered, and project financing, the financial backing provided by the European Bank for Restructuring and Development (EBRD), and the anticipated growth in gas are discussed. (uk)

  11. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  12. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, Felix T; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO 2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO 2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971–2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27–50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11–39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%. (letter)

  13. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  14. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  15. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  16. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  17. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  18. Regulatory stability of the national gas sector to attraction of investments: a juridical approach about the buyer creditory under the mode project finances; Estabilidade regulatoria do setor gaseifero nacional para atracao de investimentos: uma abordagem juridica acerca dos financiamentos sob a modalidade 'project finances'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Junior, Helio Varela de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-36-ANP/MCT. Curso de Direito

    2008-07-01

    A stability of the Natural Gas regulation's framework assumes nowadays, for sure, a relevant position, once means a way of attracting new investments to the Oil and Gas Industry's sector. Following a logic sequence - regulation stability brings legal certainty witch reduces, on the other hand, the risks and attracts investment - the idea of a regulation's commitment on the natural gas sector sets as a key element for investment's attraction. Likewise, the financial agents position is extremely important, especially for the 'Project Finances' funding, witch inherent peculiarity (market risk's reduction) keep full compatibility with the needs of today's Brazilian natural gas sector framework. (author)

  19. On Evaluation Indicators of Overseas Oil-gas Project Investment and Financing Environment and Method Selection%海外油气项目投融资环境评价指标及方法选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭民; 马海超; 李义鹏

    2012-01-01

    海外油气项目投融资环境评价是降低油气项目投资风险的一项重要工作。从制度、金融、政治、经济四方面研究海外油气项目投融资环境评价指标体系,并运用层次结构分析法和多因素及关键因素分析法对其投融资环境进行评价。两种方法评价结果对比发现,二者有一定的吻合度,结果稍有不同,说明两种方法可同时用于油气项目投融资环境评价中。%Environmental evaluation of investment and financing of overseas oil-gas project is to reduce the risk of oil-gas project investment, which is an important task. From four aspects of system, finance, politics, economies, a study has been made of overseas oil-gas project financing environmental evaluation index system, and evaluation is carried out with the use of hierarchical structure analysis approach and multi-factor and key factor analysis approach. Comparing the two methods, it is found that they have a certain degree of matching, with the result being slightly different, thus illustrating that the two methods can be used for oil-gas project financing environmental evaluation.

  20. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  1. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  2. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  3. International oil and natural gas demand projections: an econometric model for 2008-2030; Projecao das demandas mundiais de petroleo e de gas natural: aplicacao de um modelo agregado para o periodo 2008-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani; Aragao, Amanda; Valle, Ricardo Nascimento e Silva do [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This study forecasts the world oil and gas demands for 2008-2030 by applying econometric formulations. The basic variables are world GDP and Brent price. The forecast assumptions are: sound world economic growth remains, despite falling rates during the period; Brent prices continue high, but in a lower level, in 2006 constant prices, in harmony with Energy Information Administration reference scenario. Findings show that, should assumptions prove to be correct, world oil and gas demands will reach 118 million bbl/d and 5 trillion cubic meters in 2030, respectively. In other words, world oil demand will grow at 1.4% per year, while world gas demand will increase at 2.5% per year. Although such figures are similar to those from other institutions (EIA, IEA and OPEC), structural changes in oil and gas markets, catalyzed by high oil prices and energy and environmental policies, may reduce forecast strength of the specifications proposed. (author)

  4. The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) Decommissioning Project A Close Out Report for WAGR Decommissioning Campaigns 1 to 10 - 12474

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Chris [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The reactor core of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) has been dismantled as part of an ongoing decommissioning project. The WAGR operated until 1981 as a development reactor for the British Commercial Advanced Gas cooled Reactor (CAGR) power programme. Decommissioning began in 1982 with the removal of fuel from the reactor core which was completed in 1983. Subsequently, a significant amount of engineering work was carried out, including removal of equipment external to the reactor and initial manual dismantling operations at the top of the reactor, in preparation for the removal of the reactor core itself. Modification of the facility structure and construction of the waste packaging plant served to provide a waste route for the reactor components. The reactor core was dismantled on a 'top-down' basis in a series of 'campaigns' related to discrete reactor components. This report describes the facility, the modifications undertaken to facilitate its decommissioning and the strategies employed to recognise the successful decommissioning of the reactor. Early decommissioning tasks at the top of the reactor were undertaken manually but the main of the decommissioning tasks were carried remotely, with deployment systems comprising of little more than crane like devices, intelligently interfaced into the existing structure. The tooling deployed from the 3 tonne capacity (3te) hoist consisted either purely mechanical devices or those being electrically controlled from a 'push-button' panel positioned at the operator control stations, there was no degree of autonomy in the 3te hoist or any of the tools deployed from it. Whilst the ATC was able to provide some tele-robotic capabilities these were very limited and required a good degree of driver input which due to the operating philosophy at WAGR was not utilised. The WAGR box proved a successful waste package, adaptable through the use of waste box furniture specific to the

  5. Highlights and Lessons from the EU CCS Demonstration Project Network: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016. 14 November 2016 through 18 November 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapetaki, Z.; Hetland, J.; Guenan, T. le; Mikunda, T.; Scowcroft, J.

    2017-01-01

    The European Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration Project Network (the “Network”) is currently composed of projects located in the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and the UK. The goal of the Network is to accelerate deployment of CCS by sharing project development experiences about technology

  6. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  7. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  8. Local content strategies in the oil and gas sector: how to maximise benefits to host communities - Theme paper For the IFRI/CIEP project for TF3 IGU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Mathieu, Carole

    2015-06-01

    Revisiting the geopolitical scene and the current areas of strategic importance, the New Dimensions of Geopolitics and Natural Gas report illustrates the growing role of various stakeholders and their impact on shaping policies. This emerging trend adds new dimensions to the issues already prevalent in the gas industry and leads to higher scrutiny and rising expectations from stakeholders. This theme paper addresses in particular the social impact issue associated with oil and gas extraction activities and the stance of stakeholders in this context. It presents the increasing focus on the creation of productive links between the oil and gas industry and the rest of the domestic economy, showing how the promotion of 'local content' can actually contribute to reversing the 'resource curse' when robust and collaborative strategies are put in place. (authors)

  9. Natural gas tariffs peak-free with freedom of choice for contracts. Final report of the project 'Balancing with cost-effectiveness with regard to the profile contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Market gardeners who approach the profile boundary of 170,000 m 3 gas may face high gas prices in certain situations. LTO Glaskracht Nederland (the Dutch association of entrepreneurs in this sector) examined this problem together with LTO Groeiservice (Organisation for Agriculture and Horticulture Growing). The final report provides recommendations for market gardeners and the organizations LTO Glaskracht Nederland and Productschap Tuinbouw (Commodity Board for Horticulture) [nl

  10. Isotropic, anisotropic, and borehole washout analyses in Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, Alaminos Canyon well 21-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of three-dimensional seismic amplitude mapping, several gas hydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of the prospects were drilled as part of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Program Leg II in May 2009, and a suite of logging-while-drilling logs was acquired at each well site. Logging-while-drilling logs at the Alaminos Canyon 21–A site indicate that resistivities of approximately 2 ohm-meter and P-wave velocities of approximately 1.9 kilometers per second were measured in a possible gas-hydrate-bearing target sand interval between 540 and 632 feet below the sea floor. These values are slightly elevated relative to those measured in the hydrate-free sediment surrounding the sands. The initial well log analysis is inconclusive in determining the presence of gas hydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because large washouts in the target interval degraded well log measurements. To assess gas-hydrate saturations, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities is required. To meet this need, a method is presented that models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with seawater (drilling fluid). Owing to the anisotropic nature of this geometry, the apparent anisotropic resistivities and velocities caused by the vertical layer are used to correct measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis of the washout-corrected well logs, the gas-hydrate saturation at well site AC21–A was estimated to be in the range of 13 percent. Because gas hydrates in the vertical fractures were observed, anisotropic rock physics models were also applied to estimate gas-hydrate saturations.

  11. Pros and cons of an expansion of the natural gas system in the Nordic Countries - sensitivity analysis of the scenario results from stage one of the Nordleden project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The report shows that the maximum economic profit from a transnordic gas grid amounts to 5-30 billion SEK (0.5-3 billion USD), depending on scenarios. This holds even under relatively strict CO 2 limitations. The profit is in the same range as the profits from emissions trading or from free trade in electricity in the Nordic market. In absolute numbers, the profit increases with increased energy demand. The natural gas supply could amount to about 300 TWh in year 2030, if the price at the border does not surpass 70 SEK/MWh (7 USD/MWh). The main expansion would be in central power and heat production. However, the report also shows that the transnordic gas grid could become a burden for the Nordic energy system, as the profit could be negative in the case where the investment is done according to the design case, but the gas price gets higher. The worst case could result in a loss of about 30 billion SEK. However, it is probably more realistic to assume that the market actors try to minimize their own risks through long term contracts with fixed prices and volumes, leading to a transfer of the risk to the society as a whole, being forced to renounce cheaper solutions for reaching the environmental goals in the case where natural gas becomes a more expensive fuel than supposed in the planning stage. The corresponding risk is much lower from a CO 2 point of view, i.e. if future CO 2 reduction limit become more strict than in the planning stage, the value of the gas grid is only marginally affected. Sensitivity analysis where the Nordic cooperation is widened to include trade in electricity (which already is a fact) and emission rights show that the optimum natural gas supply is affected, but to a small degree only. The net effect is a certain redistribution of the natural gas use between the countries

  12. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combinat