WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas removal project

  1. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  2. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  3. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  4. NF ISO 14064-2. Greenhouse gases. Part 2: specifications and guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas emissions and reductions at projects level (activity modifying the conditions identified in a baseline scenario, intended to reduce emissions or to increase the removal of greenhouse gases). Thus it suggests a method for the declarations of inventory of projects greenhouse gases and provides support for the monitoring and the management of emissions. It provides terms and definitions, principles, the introduction to greenhouse gases projects and the requirements for greenhouse gas projects. (A.L.B.)

  5. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. (Parsons (United Kingdom))

    1998-01-01

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H[sub 2]S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H[sub 2]S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. [Parsons (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H{sub 2}S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H{sub 2}S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. South American Source Removal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, Alejandro V.

    2017-01-01

    Main objective of the project: •Thanks to Canada funding and IAEA technical assistance the main objective is to remove 29 disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), from 5 member states in Latin America region (Bolivia - Ecuador - Paraguay – Peru – Uruguay) to an authorized recipient for their final management. •It includes packaging of the DSRS and the DU working shields, customs arrangement for the export from the respective countries and import to the final destination in the Authorized Recipient’s country, transportation, deposit and hand over to an Authorized Recipient

  8. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  9. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  10. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  11. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  12. Technical bases for the use of CIF3 in the MSRE reactive gas removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1997-06-01

    Nearly impermeable, non-volatile deposits in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) off-gas piping are impeding the removal of reactive gases from that system. The deposits almost certainly consist of reduced uranium fluorides or of uranium oxyfluorides. Treatment with ClF 3 is a non-intrusive method capable of chemically converting these compounds back to UF 6 , which can then be removed as a gas. This report discusses the technical bases for the use of ClF 3 treatments in this system. A variety of issues are examined, and where the necessary information exists or has been developed, the resolution discussed. The more important of these issues include the efficacy of ClF 3 at deposit removal under the conditions imposed by the MSRE system, materials compatibility of ClF 3 and its reaction products, and operational differences in the Reactive Gas Removal System imposed by the presence of ClF 3 and its products

  13. Technical bases for the use of CIF{sub 3} in the MSRE reactive gas removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1997-06-01

    Nearly impermeable, non-volatile deposits in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) off-gas piping are impeding the removal of reactive gases from that system. The deposits almost certainly consist of reduced uranium fluorides or of uranium oxyfluorides. Treatment with ClF{sub 3} is a non-intrusive method capable of chemically converting these compounds back to UF{sub 6}, which can then be removed as a gas. This report discusses the technical bases for the use of ClF{sub 3} treatments in this system. A variety of issues are examined, and where the necessary information exists or has been developed, the resolution discussed. The more important of these issues include the efficacy of ClF{sub 3} at deposit removal under the conditions imposed by the MSRE system, materials compatibility of ClF{sub 3} and its reaction products, and operational differences in the Reactive Gas Removal System imposed by the presence of ClF{sub 3} and its products.

  14. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  15. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  16. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  17. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  18. Hot gas cleaning, a targeted project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I. [University of Essen, Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Advanced hot gas cleaning systems will play a key role in future integrated combined cycle technologies. IGCC demonstration plants in operation or under construction are at present equipped with conventional wet gas scrubbing and cleaning systems. Feasibility studies for those IGCC plants have shown that the total efficiency of the processes can be improved using hot gas cleaning systems. However, this technology has not been developed and tested at a technical scale. Six well-known European industrial companies and research centres jointly worked together since January 1996 on a Targeted Project `Hot Gas Cleaning` to investigate and develop new hot gas cleaning systems for advanced clean coal power generation processes. In addition project work on chemical analysis and modelling was carried out in universities in England and Germany. The latest main findings were presented at the workshop. The main project aims are summarised as follows: to increase efficiency of advanced power generation processes; to obtain a reduction of alkalis and environmental emissions e.g. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and dust; and to develop the design basis for future industrial plants based on long-term operation of laboratory, pilot and demo-plants. To cover a range of possible process routes for future hot gas cleaning systems the following research programme is under investigation: removal of trace elements by different commercial and self developed sorbents; gas separation by membranes; separation of gas turbine relevant pollutants by hot filter dust and; H{sub 2}S removal and gas dedusting at high temperatures. 13 figs.

  19. Method to remove methyl iodide131 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage impregnation process for charcoal is presented which is to be used for radioactive iodine or methyl iodide removal from the waste gas of a nuclear reactor. In the first stage, the coal is treated at pH 10 with an aqueous mixture of a salt of iodic acid (hypoiodite, iodate, or periodate) with iodine or iodide. In the second stage, impregnation with a tertiary amine occurs. The concentrations are chosen so that the charcoal will take up between 0.5 and 4% by weight of iodine. (UWI) [de

  20. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  1. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  3. Big gas project for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  5. Dust removal from waste gas arising from fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltys, L.

    1992-01-01

    Two types dust removal equipment mostly useful for dust removal from waste gas from fluidized beds, i.e. electrofilters and pulsatory bag filters were presented. Their features and functional properties were compared. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  6. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidal, H.

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO 2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140 o C, for CO 2 loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO 2 into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO 2 in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO 2 /TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO 2 partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidal, H

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140{sup o}C, for CO{sub 2} loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO{sub 2} into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO{sub 2}/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO{sub 2} partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Black powder removal in a Mexico gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, John R. [TDW Services, Inc., New Castle, DE (United States); Drysdale, Colin; Warterfield, Bob D. [T.D.Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper focuses on the cleaning methodology and operational constrains involved with the removal of black powder in a high pressure natural gas transmission pipeline. In this case, the accumulation of black powder along the pipeline system over the seven year period since it was put into service was creating significant problems in the areas of maintenance, customer relations, and cost to the pipeline operator due to clogging of filters, reduced gas flow, and penalties as result of non-compliant delivery contracts. The pipeline cleaning project consisted of running cleaning pigs or scrappers with batches of cleaning solution through each section of the pipeline while dealing with such factors as three (3) pipeline section lengths in excess of 160 kms (100 miles), gas flow velocity fluctuations, shutdowns, and gas delivery schedule requirements. The cleaning program for the entire pipeline system included the use of chemical and diesel based cleaning solution, running multiple cleaning pigs, liquid injection and separation system, mobile storage tanks, various equipment and personnel for logistical support. Upon completion of the cleaning program, the level of black powder and other solids in all pipeline sections was reduced to approximately 0.5% liquid/solid ratio and the pipeline system returned to normal optimum operation. (author.

  9. Removal of tritium from gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, R.

    1976-01-01

    Tritium contained in the coolant gas in the primary circuit of a gas cooled nuclear reactor together with further tritium adsorbed on the graphite used as a moderator for the reactor is removed by introducing hydrogen or a hydrogen-containing compound, for example methane or ammonia, into the coolant gas. The addition of the hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compound to the coolant gas causes the adsorbed tritium to be released into the coolant gas and the tritium is then removed from the coolant gas by passing the mixture of coolant gas and hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compound through a gas purification plant before recirculating the coolant gas through the reactor. 14 claims, 1 drawing figure

  10. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  11. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  12. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haamsoe, B.; Mashayekhi, A.; Razavi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  13. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850 C at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05)

  14. Analysis of Sustainable Technologies for Acid Gas Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Acid gases, such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen halides and – in a broad sense – carbon dioxide, are typical pollutants generated by combustion processes. Their removal by means of solid sorbents represent an efficient and cost-effective approach in dry acid gas treatment systems for waste incineration flue gas, while for CO2 capture the process is exploratively studied as a promising alternative to amine scrubbing. The present study addressed both aspects. In waste incineration flue gas ...

  15. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  16. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  17. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a ''wavy film,'' while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs

  18. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  19. Jerneh gas project challenges and implementation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreau, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Jerneh gas project is part of Peninsular Malaysia's Gas Utilization Project, a mammoth undertaking to provide gas from the offshore fields off Malaysia's East Coast, to power stations and other industrial users throughout Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Prior to 1992, the only customers of the offshore Peninsular Malaysia gas were a local power station, and a steel mill in Terengganu, linked to the Phase 1 pipeline system. The Bekok platform is Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI)'s gas collection platform for existing associated gas fields. The Duyong and Sotong platforms are gas production/compression platforms operated by PETRONAS. In late 1991, the onshore pipeline system was extended by PETRONAS to cover the west and south coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore depicted in the map as the Phase 2 system. With the completion of the Jerneh platform and offshore trunklines, Jerneh became the primary source of supply to an increased number of customers in the wider Phase 2 gas network. Jerneh is estimated to have three TCF of non-associated gas. Phase 1 customers were utilizing about 120 MSCFD and the demand is expected to initially step-up to 400 MSCFD in 1992 and progressively increase thereafter. This paper provides an overview of the US$400 M Jerneh project for which detailed design commenced in 1989 and was commissioned in 1992. The paper describes the technical challenges, project execution, safety record and actions to achieve the fast track schedule for this project

  20. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  1. Possibilities of Mercury Removal in the Dry Flue Gas Cleaning Lines of Solid Waste Incineration Units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, JAN 15 (2016), s. 499-511 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : waste incineration * mercury removal * flue gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  2. Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Using Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenni, Giulia; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The biomass-derived char (biochar) produced in the gasifier as a residue, is a potential solution for removing tars from producer gas. This work investigates the interaction between tar compounds and biochar. Residual biochar from a TwoStage gasifier was tested as bed material in a laboratory setup....... Phenol and naphthalene were chosen as model tars, and entrained in a nitrogen flow. The gaseous stream was sampled before and after the biochar bed to evaluate the extent of conversion. The biochar bed (30g) was tested at 250°C, 500°C and 600°C, with for 3 consecutive hours. The compounds concentration...... in the gas phase was quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed a significant effect of biochar on the removal of phenol, at all temperatures. Naphthalene was removed less efficiently at higher temperature, and this trend was even more...

  3. Centar's gas centrifuge enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajian, V.V.; Fishman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the building and operating of Centar Associates gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant are described. Operating costs and machine manufacture are considered. Commitments with the utilities are summarised. (U.K.)

  4. Off-gas control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Smith, I.M.

    1978-06-01

    A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

  5. Device to remove hydrogen isotopes from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1977-01-01

    The device described here guarantees the selective removal of hydrogen isotopes from gas phases in order to prevent the occurence of explosive H 2 gas mixtures, or to separate off radioactive tritium in nuclear plants from the gas phase. It consists of a closed container whose walls are selectively penetrable by hydrogen isotopes. It is simultaneously filled compactly and presssure-resistant with a metal bulk (e.g. powder, sponges or the like of titanium or other hydrogen isotope binding metal). Walling and bulk are maintained at suitable working temperatures by means of a system according to the Peltier effect. The whole thing is safeguarded by protective walling. (RB) [de

  6. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  7. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  8. Removal of organic compounds from shale gas flowback water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Faber, Ann-Hélène; Wang, Yue; Grolle, Katja; Hofman-Caris, Roberta; Bruning, Harry; Van Wezel, Annemarie P.; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback

  9. Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....

  10. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH) 2 as the sorbent to remove 14 CO 2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14 C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 -Ca(OH) 2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH) 2 , humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH 4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH) 2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH 4 with 0.5% H 2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO 2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 μL/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH) 2 reactor to 1 μL/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0 C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14 C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  11. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, B.

    1992-01-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min

  12. Improved method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for gas cleanup to remove one or more metallic contaminants present as vapor. More particularly, the invention relates to a gas cleanup process using mass transfer to control the saturation levels such that essentially no particulates are formed, and the vapor condenses on the gas passage surfaces. It addresses the need to cleanup an inert gas contaminated with cadmium which may escape from the electrochemical processing of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel in a hot cell. The IFR is a complete, self-contained, sodium-cooled, pool-type fast reactor fueled with a metallic alloy of uranium, plutonium and zirconium, and is equipped with a close-coupled fuel cycle. Tests with a model have shown that removal of cadmium from argon gas is in the order of 99.99%. The invention could also apply to the industrial cleanup of air or other gases contaminated with zinc, lead, or mercury. In addition, the invention has application in the cleanup of other gas systems contaminated with metal vapors which may be toxic or unhealthy

  13. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  14. Enhancing cuttings removal with gas blasts while drilling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K. A.; Quayle, M. C.; Cooper, G. A.

    2005-04-01

    Future missions to Mars envision use of drills for subsurface exploration. Since the Martian atmosphere precludes the use of liquids for cuttings removal, proposed drilling machines utilize mechanical cuttings removal systems such as augers. However, an auger can substantially contribute to the total power requirements, and in the worst scenario it can choke. A number of experiments conducted under Martian pressures showed that intermittent blasts of gas at low differential pressures can effectively lift the cuttings out of the hole. A gas flushing system could be incorporated into the drill assembly for assistance in clearing the holes of rock cuttings or for redundancy in case of auger jamming. A number of variables such as the particle size distribution of the rock powder, the type of gas used, the bit and auger side clearances, the initial mass of cuttings, and the ambient pressure were investigated and found to affect the efficiency. In all tests the initial volume of gas was close to 1 L and the differential pressure was varied to achieve desired clearing efficiencies. Particles were being lifted out of the hole at a maximum speed of 6 m/s at a differential pressure of 25 torr and ambient pressure of 5 torr. Flushing tests lasted on average for 2 s. The power required to compress the thin Martian atmosphere to achieve a sufficient gas blast every minute or so at 10% efficiency was calculated to be of the order of a few watts.

  15. Heat removal in gas-cooled fuel rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1975-01-01

    For a thermo- and fluid-dynamic analysis of fuel rod cluster subchannels for gas-cooled breeder reactors, the following values must be verified: a) friction coefficient as flow parameter; b) Stanton number as heat transfer parameter; c) influence of spacers on friction coefficient and Stanton number; d) heat and mass exchange between subchannels with different temperatures. These parameters are established by combining results of single experiments and of integral experiments. Mention is made of further studies to be performed in order to determine the heat removal from gas-cooled fast breeder fuel elements. (HR) [de

  16. Method of removing hydrogen sulphide from hot gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Yumura, M.

    1987-12-22

    Hydrogen sulphide can be removed from hot gas mixtures by contacting the hot gas mixture at temperatures in the range of 500-900/sup 0/C with an adsorbent consisting of managanese nodules. The nodules may contain additional calcium cations. In sulphided form, the nodules are catalytically active for hydrogen sulphide decomposition to produce hydrogen. Regeneration of the adsorbent can be accomplished by roasting in an oxidizing atmosphere. The nodules can be used to treat gaseous mixtures containing up to 20% hydrogen sulfide, for example, gases produced during pyrolysis, cracking, coking, and hydrotreating processes. Experiments using the processes described in this patent are also outlined. 6 tabs.

  17. Mercury removal from natural gas and associated condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennico, A.; Barthel, Y.; Courty, P. (Institut Francais du Petrole, 31 - Rueil-Malmaison (France). Direction Industrielle)

    1990-01-01

    IFP mercury trapping systems are based on CMG 273, the recently developed Procatalyse product which is the heart of IFP's gas phase and liquid phase mercury removal technology. This material, made of highly macroporous alumina supporting a metal sulfide, presents a very high reactivity towards mecury within a broad range of operating conditions, including those operating in the liquid phase. Characteristics of CMG 273 are presented. (orig.).

  18. Gas quality analysis and evaluation program for project Gasbuggy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Experimental results of the gas quality analysis program for Project Gasbuggy through August 1969 are presented graphically, addressing the questions raised by the preshot program goals. The chemical composition and the concentrations of tritium, krypton-85, carbon-14 and argon-37, 39 are presented as a function of time and gas production from the nuclear chimney. Chemically, the presence of CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2} served to dilute the formation gas and caused reactions which significantly altered the gas composition at early times. The radionuclide content of the chimney gas at reentry was some 800 pCi/cm{sup 3} of which about 80% was CH{sub 3}T. Lesser quantities of tritium were observed as HT, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}T and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}T. The other major contaminant was Kr{sup 85} which was present at about one-fifth the level of CH{sub 3}T. Small quantities of carbon-14 and argon-39 were also identified. The only other radionuclides identified in the gas were relatively short-lived rare gases. During the production testing, about two and one-half chimney volumes of gas at formation pressure were removed. This removal, accompanied by dilution, has reduced the radionuclide concentrations to about 7% of their levels at reentry. The production characteristics of the Gasbuggy environment prevented an adequate test of the effectiveness of chimney flushing. However, the rapid drawdown concept is supported by the available data as an effective means of reducing contaminant levels. The changes in composition during production or testing are seen to be consistent with a model involving a non-uniform gas influx rate and flow distribution over the chimney region. Mixing times are estimated to be on the order of a few days, so that increasing concentrations following a sudden gas influx can be explained. (author)

  19. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas

  20. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  1. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  2. Project Plan For Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation

  3. Source removal strategy development for manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchin, J.; Nelson, S.

    1994-01-01

    A source removal action plan was developed by Midwest Gas and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to address the source coal tar contamination within the underground gas holder basin at former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites. The procedure utilizes a mixture of coal, contaminated soil and coal rat sludge to provide a material that had suitable material handling characteristics for shipment and burning in high efficiency utility boilers. Screening of the mixture was required to remove oversized debris and ferrous metal. The resulting mixture did not exhibit toxic characteristics when tested under the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Test results on the coal tar sludges have indicated that the more pure coal tar materials may fail the TCLP test and be classified as a RCRA hazardous waste. The processing procedure was designed to stabilize the coal tar sludges and render those sludges less hazardous and, as a result, able to pass the TCLP test. This procedure was adopted by the Edison Electric Institute to develop a national guidance document for remediation of MGP sites. The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response recommended this strategy to the Regional Waste Management Directors as a practical tool for handling wastes that may exhibit the RCRA characteristics

  4. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  5. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  6. The removal of alkali metals from hot gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orjala, M.; Haukka, P. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Polttoaine- ja Polttotekniikan Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    In investigations in progress at the Fuel and Combustion Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland, we have been studying in co-operation with A. Ahlstrom Boiler Works, the removal of alkali metals from flue gases of ash-rich fuel with a dense suspension particle cooler. The applications of the particle cooler can be found in combined cycles and in industrial gas cleaning and heat recovery. We have also developed a general mathematical model of heat and mass transfer as well as chemical and physical reactions in multiphase systems.

  7. Hydroxyl-Containing Aromatic Polyimides for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Natural Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2017-10-01

    Natural gas is among the most dominant resources to provide energy supplies and Saudi Arabia ranks among the top 5 producers worldwide. However, prior to use of methane, natural gas has to be treated to remove other feed gas components, such as H2O, CO2, H2S, N2 and C2+ hydrocarbons. Most NG fields in KSA contain about 10 mol% carbon dioxide that has to be reduced to less than 2 mol% for pipeline delivery. The conventional unit operations for natural gas separations, that is, molecular sieves, amine absorption, cryogenic distillation, and turbo expansion exhibit some disadvantages in terms of economics, operational flexibility or system footprint. One of the most attractive alternative is membrane technology in either standalone- or hybrid system configuration. Currently, the only two membrane materials used in industrial natural gas applications are cellulose acetate and polyimide, which have moderate permeability and fairly low selectivity when tested under realistic industrial conditions. The goal for future research is to develop unique polymeric membranes, which can at least partially replace conventional gas processing in future natural gas projects. This will support global economics and specifically the economy of Saudi Arabia. Newly developed polymeric materials must meet certain criteria to be used on a commercial scale. These criteria include: (i) high permeability and selectivity, (ii) processability into thin films, (iii) mechanical and thermal stability, and (iv) chemical stability against feed gas components. This project focused on the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas by developing and characterizing functionalized aromatic polyimide membrane materials that exhibit very high selectivity under aggressive mixed-gas conditions. 6FDA-DAR demonstrated a mixed-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 78 at a CO2 partial pressure of 10 bar with no pronounced indication of plasticization. Combining hydroxyl- and carboxyl groups in a miscible polyimide blend led

  8. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Contaminated concrete removal: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the removal of contaminated concrete from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the decontamination activities in support of site release in the decommissioning of a nuclear power reactor. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  10. The Ikhil Gas Project: developing the first commercial natural gas project north of the Arctic Circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, G. [AltaGas Services Inc., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Development of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project by the Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation in partnership with Enbridge and AltaGas Services are described in a step-by-step fashion. A minimum of 11 Bcf of recoverable natural gas reserves have been established to date. The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is committed under a 15-year take-or-pay contract to take the gas, and the Town of Inuvik also has a franchise agreement with the project owners for a 15-year period. Challenges faced and overcome in adapting to the regulatory process, the engineering problems that required special solutions (e.g. ice/snow roads, gravel pad to support wellhead and production facilities, reducing temperature of gas to avoid disturbing the permafrost, sand-padding pipeline to supplement high ice/content material), converting a diesel town to a natural gas town, and installing an underground distribution system in ground that is constantly shifting due to permafrost, are some of the examples discussed. Benefits accruing to local people and businesses during construction and the production phases of the project are described, along with details of an assessment and discussion of lessons learned after two years of operation. Overall, the project is considered to have been an engineering success. Financially, it is too early to judge, but it is expected that with economic development in Inuvik taking off, demand for natural gas and electricity will develop and justify the confidence of the developers.

  11. Characterizations of gas purge valves for liquid alignment and gas removal in a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thakur, Raviraj; Wereley, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    Two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gas purge valves for excessive gas removal in general lab-on-a-chip applications are presented in this paper. Both valves are devised based on a three-layer configuration comprising a top layer for liquid channels, a membrane and a bottom layer for gas channels. The pneumatic valves work as a normal gateway for fluids when the membrane is bulged down (open state) by vacuum or pushed up (closed state) by pressure. In the closed state, the air in front of a liquid can be removed through a small notch or a permeable PDMS membrane by compressing the liquid. The purge valve with a small notch across its valve seat, termed surface-tension (ST) valve, can be operated with pressure under 11.5 kPa. The liquid is mainly retained by the surface tension resulting from the hydrophobic channel walls. In contrast, the purge valve with vacuum-filled grooves adjacent to a liquid channel, termed gas-permeation (GP) valve, can be operated at pressure above 5.5 kPa. Based on the principle of gas permeation, the excessive air can be slowly removed through the vent grooves. Detailed evaluations of both valves in a pneumatically driven microfluidic chip were conducted. Specifically, the purge valves enable users to remove gas and passively align liquids at desired locations without using sensing devices or feedback circuits. Finally, a rapid mixing reaction was successfully performed with the GP valves, showing their practicability as incorporated in a microfluidic chip. (paper)

  12. Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Junyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate Univ.; Xu, Wenqing; Zhu, Tingyu; Jing, Pengfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control

    2013-07-01

    The effect of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples has been investigated. The samples were tested for mercury adsorption using a fixed-bed with a simulated gas. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other methods were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is mainly physisorption and chemisorption. Uncompleted burned carbon is an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, especially, the C-M bond may improve the oxidation of mercury, which formed via the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements. The higher specific surface areas and smaller pore diameter are all beneficial for the high mercury removal efficiency. The presence of O{sub 2} plays a positive role on Hg adsorption of modified fly ash, while SO{sub 2} has double role of inhibition because of competitive adsorption and promotion to chemisorption. In addition, sample modified with FeCl{sub 3} has a great performance in Hg removal.

  13. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Removal of piping and equipment and removal of primary system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical synopsis of the removal of contaminated and non-contaminated piping and equipment from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document dismantling activities in support of reactor decommissioning. 5 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  15. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T [Bethel Park, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  16. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  17. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  18. Solid adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hot gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Yumura, Motoo

    1986-04-01

    A wide range of solids have been tested as potential adsorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas. These solids can be divided into two main groups, i.e., the adsorbents containing alkaline earth metals and those containing transition metals. Among the former, calcium oxide and naturally occurring materials such as limestone, dolomite and calcium silicate have attracted a great deal of attention. The adsorbents of the second group include iron oxide alone or in combination with some supports, zinc oxide, zinc ferrite and manganese oxide. The materials containing both the alkaline earth metals and transition metals, e.g., manganese nodules, fly ash and the reject from the aluminium industry (red mud) have been evaluated as well.

  19. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  20. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  1. Lessons learned at the Fernald thorium removal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, IT Corporation was awarded a subcontract through Rust Engineering Co. to provide decontamination and decommissioning services at the US Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Fernald, Ohio. The work included the removal and repackaging of approximately 8,000 cubic feet of thorium oxide from several structures, including a silo, elevated bins, bucket elevators, and the silo understructure. The removal and repackaging project was undertaken because the integrity of the containment structures was questionable. Rust and Westinghouse (the operating contractor at FMPC) also felt that the repackaging and warehousing of the thorium would reduce occupational radiation exposure to site workers. Worker safety and environmental protection being of primary importance, the removal work was performed within specially-designed radiological containment facilities. The project presented challenges which, according to Westinghouse and Rust personnel, made it one of the most hazardous projects ever attempted at Fernald. Challenges included relations between non-union and union personnel, a strike by craft labor, interactions among DOE, EPA, and Westinghouse and their impact on a fixed-price contract, the impact of hazardous waste regulations, safe operations, and the contamination-free release of materials

  2. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP: rationale and experimental protocol for CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Keller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent IPCC reports state that continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate, threatening severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts. Slow progress in emissions reduction to mitigate climate change is resulting in increased attention to what is called geoengineering, climate engineering, or climate intervention – deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget or remove greenhouse gases such as CO2 from the atmosphere. When focused on CO2, the latter of these categories is called carbon dioxide removal (CDR. Future emission scenarios that stay well below 2 °C, and all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5 °C warming by the year 2100, require some form of CDR. At present, there is little consensus on the climate impacts and atmospheric CO2 reduction efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDRMIP was initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDRMIP experiments, which are formally part of the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6. These experiments are designed to address questions concerning CDR-induced climate reversibility, the response of the Earth system to direct atmospheric CO2 removal (direct air capture and storage, and the CDR potential and impacts of afforestation and reforestation, as well as ocean alkalinization.>

  3. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP): rationale and experimental protocol for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David P.; Lenton, Andrew; Scott, Vivian; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Bauer, Nico; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Chris D.; Kravitz, Ben; Muri, Helene; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    The recent IPCC reports state that continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate, threatening severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts. Slow progress in emissions reduction to mitigate climate change is resulting in increased attention to what is called geoengineering, climate engineering, or climate intervention - deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget or remove greenhouse gases such as CO2 from the atmosphere. When focused on CO2, the latter of these categories is called carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Future emission scenarios that stay well below 2 °C, and all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5 °C warming by the year 2100, require some form of CDR. At present, there is little consensus on the climate impacts and atmospheric CO2 reduction efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDRMIP) was initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDRMIP experiments, which are formally part of the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). These experiments are designed to address questions concerning CDR-induced climate reversibility, the response of the Earth system to direct atmospheric CO2 removal (direct air capture and storage), and the CDR potential and impacts of afforestation and reforestation, as well as ocean alkalinization.>

  4. Heat transport and afterheat removal for gas cooled reactors under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas Cooled Reactors Under Accident Conditions was organized within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and supports the conduct of these activities. Advanced GCR designs currently being developed are predicted to achieve a high degree of safety through reliance on inherent safety features. Such design features should permit the technical demonstration of exceptional public protection with significantly reduced emergency planning requirements. For advanced GCRs, this predicted high degree of safety largely derives from the ability of the ceramic coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under normal and accident conditions, the safe neutron physics behaviour of the core, the chemical stability of the core and the ability of the design to dissipate decay heat by natural heat transport mechanisms without reaching excessive temperatures. Prior to licensing and commercial deployment of advanced GCRs, these features must first be demonstrated under experimental conditions representing realistic reactor conditions, and the methods used to predict the performance of the fuel and reactor must be validated against these experimental data. Within this CRP, the participants addressed the inherent mechanisms for removal of decay heat from GCRs under accident conditions. The objective of this CRP was to establish sufficient experimental data at realistic conditions and validated analytical tools to confirm the predicted safe thermal response of advance gas cooled reactors during accidents. The scope includes experimental and analytical investigations of heat transport by natural convection conduction and thermal

  5. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H [Downers Grove, IL; Livengood, C David [Lockport, IL

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  6. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar [Butte, MT

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  7. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  8. Toluene removal in a biofilm reactor for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    A lab-scale trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was investigated. The filter performance was investigated for various loads of toluene. Two levels of the gas flow were examined, 322 m d(-1) and 707 m d(-1). The gas inlet concentrations were varied in the range from 0...

  9. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

  10. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  11. Preliminary study of the decay heat removal strategy for the gas demonstrator allegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Gusztáv, E-mail: gusztav.mayer@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bentivoglio, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.bentivoglio@cea.fr [CEA/DEN/DM2S/STMF/LMES, F-38054, Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Improved decay heat removal strategy was adapted for the 75 MW ALLEGRO MOX core. • New nitrogen injection strategy was proposed for the DEC LOCA transients. • Preliminary CATHARE study shows that most of the investigated transients fulfill criteria. • Further improvements and optimizations are needed for nitrogen injection. - Abstract: The helium cooled Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the six reactor concepts selected in the frame of the Generation IV International Forum. Since no gas cooled fast reactor has ever been built, a medium power demonstrator reactor – named ALLEGRO – is necessary on the road towards the 2400 MWth GFR power reactor. The French Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) completed a wide range of studies during the early stage of development of ALLEGRO, and later the ALLEGRO reactor concept was developed in several European Union projects in parallel with the GFR2400. The 75 MW thermal power ALLEGRO is currently developed in the frame of the European ALLIANCE project. As a result of the collaboration between CEA and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK) new improvements were done in the safety approach of ALLEGRO. A complete Decay Heat Removal (DHR) strategy was devised, relying on the primary circuits as a first way to remove decay heat using pony-motors to drive the primary blowers, and on the secondary and tertiary circuits being able to work in forced or natural circulation. Three identical dedicated loops circulating in forced convection are used as a second way to remove decay heat, and these loops can circulate in natural convection for pressurized transients, providing a third way to remove decay heat in case of accidents when the primary circuit is still under pressure. The possibility to use nitrogen to enhance both forced and natural circulation is discussed. This DHR strategy is supported by a wide range of accident transient simulations performed using the CATHARE2 code

  12. Natural gas deregulation: have the handcuffs really been removed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The natural gas market in New York State was reviewed and characterized as being very competitive. A brief description of the New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) was given. As regards recent developments, in October 1993, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) instituted a proceeding (93-G-0932) on the restructuring of the gas market. Several guidelines for market restructuring were established as a result. The guidelines were in respect to service to consumers, safety of distribution, environmental implications, consumer concerns, gas rates, regulation, and access for core customers. The speaker noted that these guidelines did not promote deregulation. Competitive issues faced by local gas distributors were enumerated. Among these were (1)service to core and non-core customers (2)transition costs, (3)streaming, (4)unbundling and repackaged services, (5)price differentiation, and (6)small customer aggregation. It was expected that marketers would oppose the Public Service Commission giving local gas distributors additional pricing flexibility

  13. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Miller, Christopher Francis [Macungie, PA

    2008-09-16

    Method for gas purification comprising (a) obtaining a feed gas stream containing one or more contaminants selected from the group consisting of volatile metal oxy-hydroxides, volatile metal oxides, and volatile silicon hydroxide; (b) contacting the feed gas stream with a reactive solid material in a guard bed and reacting at least a portion of the contaminants with the reactive solid material to form a solid reaction product in the guard bed; and (c) withdrawing from the guard bed a purified gas stream.

  14. Toxic Gas Removal by Dielectric Discharge with Corona Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, H.; Pacheco, M.; Mercado, A.; Cruz, A.; Pacheco, J.; Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Benhenni, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a theoretical and experimental study on SO2 and NOx removal by non-thermal plasma technology, more specifically a dielectric barrier (DBD) discharge combined with the Corona effect, is presented. Results obtained from a theoretical study describe the chemical kinetic model of SO2 and NOx removal processes; the effect of OH radicals in removal of both gases is noteworthy. Experimental results of de-SO2 process are reported. Also, optical emission spectroscopy study was applied on some atomic helium lines to obtain temperature of electrons in the non-thermal plasma

  15. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  16. Ranking Canadian oil and gas projects using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Sadjadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns for investment in oil and gas projects is to have a comprehensive understanding on different issues associated with this industry. The industry is mainly influ-enced by the price of oil and gas and in some events, many production units have been forced to shut down solely because of low price of oil and gas. Environmental issues are other important factors, which may put pressure on Canada’s political affairs since the country has strong com-mitment to reduce green gas effect. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision making method, which helps us rank different projects in terms of investment. The proposed study con-siders different investment factors including net present value, rate of return, benefit-cost analy-sis and payback period along with the intensity of green gas effects for ranking the present oil and gas projects in Canada.

  17. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  18. Landfill Gas Energy Project Development Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    View handbook that provides an overview of LFG energy project development guidance and presents the technological, economic and regulatory considerations that affect the feasibility and success of these projects.

  19. Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures

  20. Improved methane removal in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process using immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Yang, Zhi-Man; Fu, Shan-Fei; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    Methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process, which is a greenhouse gas, could cause global warming. The biofilter with immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) is a promising approach for methane removal, and the selections of inoculated MOB culture and support material are vital for the biofilter. In this work, five MOB consortia were enriched at different methane concentrations. The MOB-20 consortium enriched at the methane concentration of 20.0% (v/v) was then immobilized on sponge and two particle sizes of volcanic rock in biofilters to remove methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed that the immobilized MOB performed more admirable methane removal capacity than suspended cells. The immobilized MOB on sponge reached the highest methane removal efficiency (RE) of 35%. The rough surface, preferable hydroscopicity, appropriate pore size and particle size of support material might favor the MOB immobilization and accordingly methane removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  2. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhou, Jianfei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg 0 using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg 0 removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg 0 removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg 0 , NO and SO 2 was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H 2 O 2 concentration, Hg 0 inlet concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg 0 removal were studied. The results indicate that H 2 O 2 concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg 0 removal. Solution temperature, Hg 0 , NO, SO 2 , CO 3 2− and HCO 3 − concentrations also have significant effects on Hg 0 removal. However, Cl − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , O 2 and CO 2 concentrations only have slight effects on Hg 0 removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg 0 removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg 0 , NO and SO 2 were also studied. Hg 0 is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H 2 O 2 . The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO 2 , 100% for Hg 0 and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg 0 removal and simultaneous removal of Hg 0 , SO 2 and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor

  3. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Climax, MN site. The objectives of the project are to evaluate (1) the effectiveness of Kinetico’s Macrolite®...

  4. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  5. Removal of fine particles in wet flue gas desulfurization system by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.J.; Bao, J.J.; Yan, J.P.; Liu, J.H.; Song, S.J.; Fan, F.X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-01-01

    A novel process to remove fine particles with high efficiency by heterogeneous condensation in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is presented. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent employed. When using CaCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na2CO{sub 3} and water, and the morphology and elemental composition of fine particles are changed. This effect can be attributed to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  6. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  7. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  8. Is ram-pressure stripping an efficient mechanism to remove gas in galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilis, Vicent; Planelles, Susana; Ricciardelli, Elena

    2017-07-01

    We study how the gas in a sample of galaxies (M* > 109 M⊙) in clusters, obtained in a cosmological simulation, is affected by the interaction with the intracluster medium (ICM). The dynamical state of each elemental parcel of gas is studied using the total energy. At z ˜ 2, the galaxies in the simulation are evenly distributed within clusters, later moving towards more central locations. In this process, gas from the ICM is accreted and mixed with the gas in the galactic halo. Simultaneously, the interaction with the environment removes part of the gas. A characteristic stellar mass around M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ appears as a threshold marking two differentiated behaviours. Below this mass, galaxies are located at the external part of clusters and have eccentric orbits. The effect of the interaction with the environment is marginal. Above, galaxies are mainly located at the inner part of clusters with mostly radial orbits with low velocities. In these massive systems, part of the gas, strongly correlated with the stellar mass of the galaxy, is removed. The amount of removed gas is subdominant compared with the quantity of retained gas, which is continuously influenced by the hot gas coming from the ICM. The analysis of individual galaxies reveals the existence of a complex pattern of flows, turbulence and a constant fuelling of gas to the hot corona from the ICM, which could mean that the global effect of the interaction of galaxies with their environment is substantially less dramatic than previously expected.

  9. The experiment of the elemental mercury was removed from natural gas by 4A molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cong; Chen, Yanhao

    2018-04-01

    Most of the world's natural gas fields contain elemental mercury and mercury compounds, and the amount of mercury in natural gas is generally 1μg/m3 200μg/m3. This paper analyzes the mercury removal principle of chemical adsorption process, the characteristics and application of mercury removal gent and the factors that affect the efficiency of mercury removal. The mercury in the natural gas is adsorbed by the mercury-silver reaction of the 4 molecular sieve after the manned treatment. The limits for mercury content for natural gas for different uses and different treatment processes are also different. From the environmental protection, safety and other factors, it is recommended that the mercury content of natural gas in the pipeline is less than 28μg / m3, and the mercury content of the raw material gas in the equipment such as natural gas liquefaction and natural gas condensate recovery is less than 0.01μg/m3. This paper mainly analyzes the existence of mercury in natural gas, and the experimental research process of using 4A molecular sieve to absorb mercury in natural gas.

  10. EVEGAS Project (European validation exercise of GAS migration model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, T. [Geostock S.A., Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-03-01

    The EVEGAS project aims at the verification and validation of numerical codes suitable for simulating gas flow phenomenon in low permeability porous media. Physical phenomena involved in gas generation and gas flow are numerous, often complex, and may not be very well described. The existing numerical codes cannot represent all the occurring possible phenomena, but allow a good trade-off betwen simplicity and representativity of such phenomena. Two phase flow (Gas and Water) appear to be the most consequential phenomena in gas migration and pressure sizing. The project is organised in three major steps: (1) a simple problem with analytical solutions. (2) A few problems based on laboratory or in-situ experiments. (3) A 3-D repository scenarios involving the following aspects: a repository design; a source of gas; rock characteristics; and fluid characteristics.

  11. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.S.; Sather, N.F.

    1987-08-21

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gas and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  12. AMMONIA REMOVAL AND NITROUS OXIDE PRODUCTION IN GAS-PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH3), with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas approximately 300 times more reactive to infrared than CO2. The present work intends to provide the relation between NH3 removal d...

  13. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  14. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  16. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  17. A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, M.; Rolker, J.; Witthaut, D.; Schulze, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Hanau (Germany); Buchholz, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    An energy-efficient absorbent formulation fors eparating acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, H2S) from gas streams such as natural gas, syngas or flue gas is important for a number of industrial applications. In many cases, a substantial share of their costs is driven by the operational expenditure (OPEX) of the CO{sub 2} separation unit. One possible strategy for reducing OPEX is the improvement of the absorbent performance. Although a number of absorbents for the separation of CO{sub 2} from gas streams exist, there is still a need to develop CO{sub 2} absorbents with an improved absorption performance, less corrosion and foaming, no nitrosamine formation, lower energy requirement and therefore less OPEX. This contribution aims at giving a brief state-of-the-art overview followed by an introduction and performance characterization of a new family of amine-based CO{sub 2} absorbents. High cyclic capacities in the range of 2.9 to 3.2 mol CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} absorbent and low absorption enthalpies of about -30 kJ mol{sup -1} allow for significant savings in the regeneration energy of the new absorbent system. Calculations with the modified Kremser model indicate a reduction in the specific reboiler heat duty of 45 %. Moreover, the high-performance absorbents developed show much lower corrosion rates than state-of-the-art solutions that are currently employed. (orig.)

  18. Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumatsu, Teruki; Munakata, Kenzo; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamatsuki, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1998-01-01

    The off gas produced by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel includes various radioactivities and these nuclei should be removed. In particular, 14 C mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide is one of the most required gaseous radioactivities to be removed because it has long a half-life. One of the methods to remove gaseous nuclei is the use of adsorption technique. The off gas contains water vapor which influences adsorption process of carbon dioxide. In this report, behavior of adsorption of carbon dioxide on various adsorbent and influence on adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide by containing water vapor are discussed. (author)

  19. Removing method for radon gas exhausted from nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    A centrifugal separator is disposed in the midway of an exhaustion pipe of a nuclear fuel handling facility, and exhausted gases are sent into a rotational cylinder of the separator. Radon gases in the midway of exhaustion are separated from the exhaustion gases by the centrifugal force of the separator and caused to stagnate at the periphery of the circumferential wall of the rotational cylinder. At the same time, the exhaustion gases having the radon gases separated therefrom are exhausted from the periphery of a rotational shaft of the rotational cylinder. Then, the radon gases stagnated in the rotational cylinder are decayed depending on the half-decay time. With such procedures, the radon gases can be removed continuously without discharging them to the outside. Further, it is preferred that an exhaustion blower or the like for putting the inside of the nuclear fuel handing facility to a negative pressure is disposed as in a conventional case. Further, a plurality of centrifugal separators may be disposed to exhaustion pipes, to remove radon gases in the exhaust gases by a multi stage way. Radon gases can be removed in a saved space with no requirement for exchange of adsorbents or temperature control. (T.M.)

  20. Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    PETROBRAS, the Brazilian/International Integrated Oil and Gas Company, is leading US$ 4 billion natural gas project. The goal of this paper is to identify Project challenges and propose solutions. It starts with fundamentals. Natural gas' share in Brazilian primary energy demand is only 2%. Economic aspects and environmental concerns, however, are changing this picture. For the Bolivian economy to be linked to a relatively huge market, in the long-term, is certainly a suitable decision. Besides, this Project will promote regional integration, within and outside Marcosur economies. Reserves, market data and economics give support to a feasible Project Financial structure is the main challenge. INTERGAS, a new subsidiary of PETROBRAS is opened for 49% stock to private sector participation. As an integrated Project, many opportunities will be generated during construction and operation. E ampersand P, pipeline and downstream investments could bring different investors to different sectors

  1. Removal of ammonia from gas streams with dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lanyan; Huang Li; Shu Xiaohong; Zhang Renxi; Dong Wenbo; Hou Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the experimental study of gas-phase removal of ammonia (NH 3 ) via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, in which we mainly concentrated on three aspects-influence of initial NH 3 concentration, peak voltage, and gas residence time on NH 3 removal efficiency. Effectiveness, e.g. the removal efficiency, specific energy density, absolute removal amount and energy yield, of the self-made DBD reactor had also been studied. Basic analysis on DBD physical parameters and its performance was made in comparison with previous investigation. Moreover, products were detected via ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Experimental results demonstrated the application potential of DBD as an alternative technology for odor-causing gases elimination from gas streams

  2. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  3. Landfill Gas Electricity Project Interconnection Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about a webinar LMOP offered to LMOP Partners to address questions associated with connecting electricity generating systems to the grid during LFG energy project planning and implementation.

  4. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  5. Simultaneous removal of water and BTEX from feed gas for a cryogenic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Lee, S.; Evans, M.; Chen, R.

    1999-07-01

    The removal of water and benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) from the feed gas of a cryogenic plant is critical in order to avoid precipitation of these components in the cold section of the plant. The design of the Hannibal Gas Plant in Sfax, Tunisia, accomplishes the removal of water and BTEX simultaneously. The plant receives 7.1 million Nm{sub 3}/day of feed gas and produces high heating value pipeline quality sales gas by removing nitrogen in the cold box. A methyl diethanol amine (MDEA) treating system at the front end of the plant is designed to remove carbon dioxide. The glycol system takes the saturated gas from the MDEA contactor and reduces the water content to 7 lb/MMscf. The glycol system is also designed to remove more than half of the BTEX from the feed gas so that these aromatic components will not precipitate in the cold section of the plant. GPA experimental data were used to fit the interaction parameters for the computer simulator used to design the glycol system. The results of the plant performance test verify the validity of the design.

  6. Natural gas consumption trends and demand projections for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, H.U.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country and heavily depends on imported energy. Natural gas is a dominating source of commercial energy in the country. This paper presents the natural gas consumption trends and future demand projections for Pakistan. The paper also investigates the potential utilization options of natural gas in the country. The study indicates that the natural gas consumption in the country increased rapidly at an average growth rate of about 6.8% per annum during the last three decades. Currently, natural gas contributes about 44.2% of the primary commercial energy supply in the country. Power, Fertilizer, General industry and Domestic sectors are the major consumers of gas in the country. The paper concludes the natural gas demand in the country is projected to increase to about 34-64 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) by the year 2018. Enhancement in the indigenous exploration and modulation of gas and import of gas from central Asian Sates is essential for meeting the growing gas demand, protecting the environment and increasing the economic independence in the country. (author)

  7. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Skagius, K.; Soedergren, S.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic {sup 14}C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose.

  8. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.

    2001-06-01

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic 14 C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose

  9. Gas core nuclear rocket feasibility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-09-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed

  10. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  11. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  13. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about$1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received

  14. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  15. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenham, J.

    2003-01-01

    as a source of CO 2 emission. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of these sectors. However, the report starts with a summary of the emissions with a section for each of the pollutants treated. At the end of each of these section the main differences between the present calculation and the values in Denmark's Second National Communication on Climate Change are described shortly. For each of the pollutants the development of the emissions in the period 1972-2012 and the various emission targets in Danish sector plants or international conventions are shown on a figure. Below the figures the emissions for the main emitting sectors are shown in a table. The years shown in these tables are not the same for all pollutants. When a column is marked with '2010' it means that the values in the columns are averaged over the first commitment period 2008-2012. It is not possible in this report to present all the data from the emission calculations. The data is contained in an EXEL notebook model. Appendix 1 contains a table with time-series for 1975-2012 for the greenhouse gases CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O for all emitting sectors. In Appendix 2 the results of the projections 2000-2012 are shown in the IPCC/CRF Sectoral Tables format in CO 2 equivalents for each greenhouse gas and in total (only source and sink categories with greenhouse gas emissions or removals are shown). The model is structured as a set of worksheets for the primary energy consuming sector and the model contains similar sets for each of the pollutants. Additional sheets have been included for the relevant pollutants, where emissions originate from non-combustion processes. Each of these spreadsheets contains time-series for the emissions from each of the primary fuels consumed in the sector. (ba)

  16. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Yongchun [Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute (Branch of Wuxi), Wuxi 214000 (China); Zhou, Jianfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg{sup 0} using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Hg{sup 0} inlet concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. The results indicate that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Solution temperature, Hg{sup 0}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations also have significant effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. However, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations only have slight effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} were also studied. Hg{sup 0} is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO{sub 2}, 100% for Hg{sup 0} and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, SO{sub 2} and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor.

  17. Possibility of removing condensate and scattered oil from gas-condensate field during bed flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, N.A.; Yagubov, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is set of evaluating the possible removal from the bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed. For this purpose, an experimental study was made of the displacement by water from the porous medium of the oil and condensate saturating it. The obtained experimental results permit evaluation of the possible removal from the gas-condensate bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed.

  18. Removal of calcium and magnesium ions from shale gas flowback water by chemically activated zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haiqing; Liu, Teng; He, Qiping; Li, Duo; Crittenden, John; Liu, Baicang

    2017-07-01

    Shale gas has become a new sweet spot of global oil and gas exploration, and the large amount of flowback water produced during shale gas extraction is attracting increased attention. Internal recycling of flowback water for future hydraulic fracturing is currently the most effective, and it is necessary to decrease the content of divalent cations for eliminating scaling and maintaining effectiveness of friction reducer. Zeolite has been widely used as a sorbent to remove cations from wastewater. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, activation chemical, activation condition, and sorption condition on removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from shale gas flowback water. Results showed that low removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was found for raw zeolite 4A and zeolite 13X, and the efficiency of the mixture of both zeolites was slightly higher. Compared with the raw zeolites, the zeolites after activation using NaOH and NaCl greatly improved the sorption performance, and there was no significant difference between dynamic activation and static activation. Dynamic sorption outperformed static sorption, the difference exceeding 40% and 7-70% for removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. Moreover, powdered zeolites outperformed granulated zeolites in divalent cation removal.

  19. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  20. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  1. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  2. Oman- Decisive progress for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The soon signature of a firm contract with the Korea Gas Corporation and the perspective of an agreement with Thailand will allow the attribution of a construction contract in September 1996. The hypothesis of a third liquefaction train seems to be more and more probable. The project of Oman-India gas pipeline is not given up but only put it back to several years. (N.C.)

  3. Reduction of rectal doses by removal of gas in the rectum during vaginal cuff brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, S.; Sevillano, M.M.; Andres, I.; Berenguer, R. [Complejo Hospitalario Univ. de Albacete (CHUA) (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Machin-Hamalainen, S. [C.S. General Ricardos, Madrid (Spain); Mueller, K.; Arenas, M. [Hospital Univ. Sant Joan, Reus (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-11-15

    Objective: The goal of this work was to evaluate whether the volume reduction related to removal of gas in the rectum could be translated in lower doses to organs at risk (OAR) during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VBT). Material and methods: Fourteen pairs of brachytherapy planning CT scans derived from 11 patients were re-segmented and re-planned using the same parameters. The only difference between pairs of CTs was the presence or lack of gas in the rectum. The first CT showed the basal status and the second was carried out after gas removal with a tube. A set of values derived from bladder and rectum dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose-surface histograms (DSH) were extracted. Moreover the cylinder position related to the patient craniocaudal axis was recorded. Results: Rectum volume decreased significantly from 77.8 {+-} 45 to 55.43 {+-} 17.6 ml (p = 0.0052) after gas removal. Such volume diminution represented a significant reduction on all rectal DVH parameters analyzed except D{sub 25%} and D{sub 50%}. DSH parameter results were similar to previous ones. A nonsignificant increase of the bladder volume was observed and was associated with an increase of the DVH metrics analyzed. Conclusion: Removal of gas pockets is a simple and inexpensive maneuver that decreases rectal dose parameters on VBT, which can be translated as a better therapeutic ratio. It also suggests that other actions directed to empty the rectum could have a similar effect. (orig.)

  4. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  5. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  6. Shell's Caroline gas project on track in southwest Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that western Canada's biggest sour natural gas, sulfur, and natural gas liquids development project in 2 decades is on target to start up late this year. Shell Canada Ltd.'s $950 million (Canadian) Caroline project will produce 2 tcf of gas and associated products from the Swan Hills member of the middle Devonian Beaverhill Lake group. The price tag will reach about $1 billion, including some start-up costs. The project is designed to process an average 300 MMcfd of gas. It will produce 17,500 b/d of pentanes plus, 4,100 metric tons/day of sulfur, 90 MMcfd of sales gas, and 28,000 b/d of NGL-ethane, propane, and butane. A labor force that is peaking at about 2,400 workers is completing a network of processing plants, about 143 miles of pipeline, three field compressors, and other facilities covering an area of 161 sq miles. Dilcon Constructors Ltd., an arm of Delta Catalytic Corp., Calgary, is the main contractor for the project. About 85% of the services and equipment for Caroline are coming from Alberta suppliers, 7% from suppliers elsewhere in Canada, and only 8% from non-Canadian Sources

  7. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  8. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  9. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  10. Summer Student Project: GEM Simulation and Gas Mixture Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo Perhavec, Juan Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This project is a numerical simulation approach to Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors design. GEMs are a type of gaseous ionization detector that have proposed as an upgrade for CMS muon endcap. The main advantages of this technology are high spatial and time resolution and outstanding aging resistance. In this context, fundamental physical behavior of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is analyzed using ANSYS and Garfield++ software coupling. Essential electron transport properties for several gas mixtures were computed as a function of varying electric and magnetic field using Garfield++ and Magboltz.

  11. Off-Gas Treatment: Evaluation of Nano-structured Sorbents for Selective Removal of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek; Aston, D. Eric; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2018-03-30

    Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) is expected to play an important role for sustainable development of nuclear energy by increasing the energy extracted from the fuel and reducing the generation of the high level waste (HLW). However, aqueous reprocessing of UNF is accompanied by emission of off-gas streams containing radioactive nuclides including iodine, krypton, xenon, carbon, and tritium. Volatile iodine (129I), and krypton (85Kr) are long lived isotopes which have adverse effects on the environment as well as human health. Development of methods for the capture and long-term storage of radioactive gases is of crucial importance in order to manage their emissions that are anticipated to increase significantly with the growth of nuclear energy. For more than 70 years, porous solid sorbents have been in the forefront of radioactive contaminant removal due to promising results and their advantages such as high removal efficiency, low maintenance cost, simple equipment design and operation over other techniques. The research conducted in this project has focused on development of a novel nanostructured sorbent and its application for the capture of the above two contaminants of interest. Nanostructured carbon polyhedrons supported on Engelhard Titanosilicate-10 sorbent was synthesized using hydrothermal methods and subjected to structural and compositional characterization using various techniques including electron microscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction and BET surface area analysis. Dynamic sorption experiments conducted using a flow-through column setup yielded information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption in single-contaminant and multi-contaminant streams. Parameters varied in the study included carbon loading, temperature, contact time, contaminant concentration and humidity. The behavior of the system was modeled using models available in literature as well as development of a mass-transfer model from fundamental principles. Experimental

  12. Study on removal technology for thorium in the waste gas-lamp mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yucheng; Wang Chengbao; Zhang Ping; Xu Lingqi; Jiang Shangen

    1999-01-01

    The author describes thorium removal technology and its application in the handling of the waste gas-lamp mantle that produced during the production of gas-lamp process. After laboratory test, pilot test, trial run and engineering scale use, the thorium removal technology is mainly as follows: soak the waste gas-lamp mantle into the ceramic vat with the nitric acid solution twice and wash it with the tap water twice. The volume of the ceramic vat is 500 L and the concentration of the nitric acid solution is 2 mol/L. After handling, the thorium removal rate can reach 99.97% and the residual thorium will be less than 160 Bq/kg. The waste gas-lamp mantle can be buried under the ground or be handled in the other ways just as the harmless waste. The nitric acid solution, in which gas-lamp mantle has been soaked, should be extracted with TBP, then back extracted with diluted hydrochloric acid. After supplementing the thorium nitrate into the back extracted liquid, the liquid can be reused in the gas-lamp mantle production. The waste water from the handling process can be handled together with waste water from production process

  13. Major gas projects in Latin America. Issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Latin American energy demand will reach 677 MTOE by 2010, a 50% increase over 1995. There will be a major shift towards use of natural gas in power generation. US 503 10 9 Dollars will be required over 1995-2010 to discover and develop hydrocarbon reserves, build the pipeline system as well as generate and distribute electricity. US 19 10 9 Dollars will be required for gas pipelines and LNG projects in the region. Improvements in the policy, legal and regulatory framework are required in many countries to attract the needed investments. Several major gas projects are being implemented or planned in the region: Colombia Enron-built pipeline, Peru Camisea project, Chile Nova gas pipeline from Argentina, the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline and others. The World Bank group has been assisting countries in developing a competitive business environment and can provide, when needed, comfort to lenders in project financing through a guarantee scheme in several large complex cross border projects. (au)

  14. Simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg0 from flue gas by ferrate (VI) solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Guo, Tianxiang; Ma, Tianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneously removing SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 from flue gas was examined by ferrate (VI) solution at a bubbling reactor. The removal efficiencies of 100% for SO 2 , 64.8% for NO and 81.4% for Hg 0 were achieved respectively, under the optimum experimental conditions, in which concentration of ferrate (VI) solution was 0.25 mmol/L, solution pH was 8.0, flue gas flow rate was 1 L/min and reaction temperature was 320 K. Based on the discussions of the ferrate (VI) solution characteristics, the comparisons of the standard electrode potential (E 0 ) of ferrate (VI) solution with E 0 values of reactant, and the analysis of the reaction products, a mechanism of simultaneous removal was proposed. In the process of simultaneous removal, FeO 4 2− and HFeO 4 − as the dominant species of ferrate (VI), could rapidly oxidize SO 2 , NO, and Hg 0 into SO 4 2− , NO 3 − and Hg 2+ . - Highlights: • Prepared ferrate (VI) absorbent has excellent property of removing SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 . • 100% of SO 2 , 63.8% of NO and 83.6% of Hg 0 were simultaneously removed. • The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 was proposed

  15. Use of Drinking Water Sludge as Adsorbent for H2S Gas Removal from Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheela Polruang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a research project, which attempts to produce a low-cost adsorbent material from waste (drinking water sludge. The main objective of this work is to study the characteristics of drinking water sludge for its adsorptive properties including morphology, surface area, porosity and chemical composition. The effect of activation conditions on H2S gas adsorption efficiency of drinking water sludge was experimented. In this study, raw drinking water sludge was divided into 3 groups. In the first group, drinking water sludge was only oven dried at 105°C. For the other 2 groups, drinking water sludge was soaked in 2.5 M NaOH solution. After soaking, the sludge was divided into 2 groups (group 2 and 3. The second group was washed with distilled water until pH 7; while the third group was not. Biogas from a swine farm was used with an initial H2S gas concentration in the range of 2,000 - 4,000 ppm. The material analysis showed that more surface area and total volume of sludge can be obtained after activated with NaOH. From the adsorption experiments, it was found that the highest adsorption capacity (qe of 87.94 mg H2S/g adsorptive material can be achieved by using sludge from the third group. Moreover, by adding of 20 wt% iron filing into sludge of the third group the adsorption capacity increased to 105.22 mg H2S/g adsorptive material. Drinking water sludge can be considered as a high potential energy saving and low cost adsorbent for removal of H2S.

  16. Adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas. IV. Characteristics of adsorbents for the adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boki, K

    1974-10-25

    The amount of hydrogen sulfide gas adsorbed was affected by the surface properties (surface pH, acid strength, acid amount, and basic amount), the surface structure (pore volume), and the surface form (scanning electron microscopic observation) of 32 tested adsorbents. In general, the amount adsorption increased in the following order, amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate adsorbents, on the active carbon adsorbents, and on the zeolite adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on magnesium silicate and silica gel adsorbents was mainly affected by the surface structure, and the amount adsorbed on the aluminum silicate adsorbents was affected by the distinctions on the surface forms of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on 10 kinds of active carbon was determined by the surface properties and the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount adsorbed on 12 kinds of zeolites was determined by either the surface properties or by the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate, active carbon, and zeolite adsorbents interacted with the heat of adsorption, and among the same kinds of adsorbents, the amount adsorbed was linearly related to the heat of adsorption.

  17. Bioprocesses for the Removal of Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Gas Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; bosch, van den P.L.M.; Leerdam, van R.C.; Graaff, de C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the biological removal of sulphur compounds from gas streams. First, an overview is given of the toxicity of sulphur compounds to animals and humans whereafter biological and industrial formation routes for (organic) sulphur compounds are given. Microbial degradation routes of

  18. Effects of hydrogen mixture into helium gas on deuterium removal from lithium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Akihito, E-mail: tsuchiya@frontier.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Hino, Tomoaki; Yamauchi, Yuji; Nobuta, Yuji [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Akiba, Masato; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were irradiated with deuterium ions with energy of 1.7 keV and then exposed to helium or helium–hydrogen mixed gas at various temperatures, in order to evaluate the effects of gas exposure on deuterium removal from the pebbles. The amounts of residual deuterium in the pebbles were measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy. The mixing of hydrogen gas into helium gas enhanced the removal amount of deuterium. In other words, the amount of residual deuterium after the helium–hydrogen mixed gas exposure at lower temperature was lower than that after the helium gas exposure. In addition, we also evaluated the pebbles exposed to the helium gas with different hydrogen mixture ratio from 0% to 1%, at 573 K. Although the amount of residual deuterium in the pebbles after the exposure decreased with increasing the hydrogen mixture ratio, the implanted deuterium partly remained after the exposure. These results suggest that the tritium inventory may occur at low temperature region in the blanket during the operation.

  19. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on nitric oxide removal in simulated gas compositions under plasma-dielectric/catalytic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Rout, Satyabrata

    2001-01-01

    Application of pulsed electrical discharges for gas cleaning is gaining prominence, mainly from the energy consideration point of view. This present paper presents recent work on applying the electrical discharge plasma technology for treating gaseous pollutants, in general, and nitric oxide, in particular, as this is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The present work focuses attention on pulsed electrical discharge technique for nitric oxide removal from simulated gas compositions and study of effect of packed dielectric pellets, with and without a coating of catalyst, on the removal process. Experiments were conducted in a cylindrical corona reactor energized by repetitive high voltage pulses. The effects of various parameters, viz. pulse voltage magnitude, pulse frequency, initial nitric oxide concentration and gas mixture composition on nitric oxide removal efficiency, are discussed. When the reactors were filled with different dielectric pellets like, barium titanate, alumina, and alumina coated with palladium catalyst, the improvement in nitric oxide removal efficiency is studied and discussed. The power dissipated in the reactor and the energy consumed per nitric oxide molecule removed was calculated. Further results and comparative study of various cases are presented in the paper

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SPRINGFIELD, OH. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at the Chateau Estates Mobile Home Park in Springfield, OH. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ AD-33 media in removing arsenic to meet t...

  2. Removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Yang Xuefeng; Li Cuihong; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a major indoor air pollutant and can cause serious health disorders in residents. This work reports the removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via alumina-pellet-filled dielectric barrier discharge plasmas at atmospheric pressure and 70 deg. C. With a feed gas mixture of 140 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼92% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed at GHSV (gas flow volume per hour per discharge volume) of 16 500 h -1 and E in = 108 J l -1 . An increase in the specific surface area of the alumina pellets enhances the HCHO removal, and this indicates that the adsorbed HCHO species may have a lower C-H bond breakage energy. Based on an examination of the influence of gas composition on the removal efficiency, the primary destruction pathways, besides the reactions initiated by discharge-generated radicals, such as O, H, OH and HO 2 , may include the consecutive dissociations of HCHO molecules and HCO radicals through their collisions with vibrationally- and electronically-excited metastable N 2 species. The increase of O 2 content in the inlet gas stream is able to diminish the CO production and to promote the formation of CO 2 via O-atom or HO 2 -radical involved reactions

  3. Temperature impact on SO2 removal efficiency by ammonia gas scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Boshu; Zheng Xianyu; Wen Yan; Tong Huiling; Chen Meiqian; Chen Changhe

    2003-01-01

    Emissions reduction in industrial processes, i.e. clean production, is an essential requirement for sustainable development. Fossil fuel combustion is the main emission source for gas pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and coal is now a primary energy source used worldwide with coal combustion being the greatest atmospheric pollution source in China. This paper analyzes flue gas cleaning by ammonia scrubbing (FGCAS) for power plants to remove gaseous pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and presents the conceptual zero emission design for power plants. The byproducts from the FGCAS process can be used in agriculture or for gas recovery. Experimental results presented for SO 2 removal from the simulated flue gas in a continuous flow experiment, which was similar to an actual flue gas system, showed that the effectiveness of the ammonia injection or scrubbing depends on the temperature. The FGCAS process can effectively remove SO 2 , but the process temperature should be below 60 deg. C or above 80 deg. C for SO 2 reduction by NH 3 scrubbing

  4. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A; Gross, R; Renz, U

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  5. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  6. Project on effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste (Pegasus project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular, in the fourth five-year R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (1990-94), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called Pegasus, about 20 organizations and research institutes are involved. The project covers theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations such as clay, salt and granite. In this report the present status of the various research activities are described and 13 papers have been selected

  7. Middle East gas export projects: The case of Abu Dhabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Marzooqi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Abu Dhabi is ranked in the industry journals in the top 5 in the world tables of both oil and gas reserves. Gas is produced both Onshore and Offshore from associated and non-associated fields. Production has tripped during the last ten years and will increase further in the next few years as a result of current and planned investment. Development of Abu Dhabi's gas resources is aimed at enhancing oil production and recovery, meeting local and export demand and eliminating waste. Companies in Abu Dhabi are involved in all the main sectors of gas industry including production, processing, transportation and sales. The first large LNG export project by sea in Arabian Gulf was established in 1977 from Abu to Japan. Development continues and the gas is exported as LNG and is also processed into LPG and Pentane Plus for export. Japan remains the main market. The volume of Condensate available for export and processing will increase significantly in the next few years. In order to ensure a continuing and increasing supply of gas to world markets, in future years, prices will need to provide an adequate return on investment and should also reflect the environmental advantages of gas. 9 tabs

  8. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  9. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  10. Process for the removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshout, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas generated by industrial power plants and boiler systems burning sulfur containing fossil fuels and for converting these contaminants, respectively, into recovered elemental liquid sulfur and nitrogen ammonia and mixtures thereof. It comprises removing at least a portion of the flue gas generated by a power plant or boiler system upstream of the stack thereof; passing the cooled and scrubbed flue gas through an adsorption system; combining a first portion of the reducing gas stream leaving the adsorbers of the adsorption system during regeneration thereof and containing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants with a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream at a temperature of about 400 degrees F to about 600 degrees F and passing the combined gas streams through a Claus reactor-condenser system over a catalyst in the reactor section thereof which is suitable for promoting the equilibrium reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and the sulfur dioxide of the combined streams to form elemental sulfur

  11. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  12. [Removal of toluene from waste gas by honeycomb adsorption rotor with modified 13X molecular sieves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-De; Zheng, Liang-Wei; Zhu, Run-Ye; Yu, Yun-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The removal of toluene from waste gas by Honeycomb Adsorption Rotor with modified 13X molecular sieves was systematically investigated. The effects of the rotor operating parameters and the feed gas parameters on the adsorption efficiency were clarified. The experimental results indicated that the honeycomb adsorption rotor had a good humidity resistance. The removal efficiency of honeycomb adsorption rotor achieved the maximal value with optimal rotor speed and optimal generation air temperature. Moreover, for an appropriate flow rate ratio the removal efficiency and energy consumption should be taken into account. When the recommended operating parameters were regeneration air temperature of 180 degrees C, rotor speed of 2.8-5 r x h(-1), flow rate ratio of 8-12, the removal efficiency kept over 90% for the toluene gas with concentration of 100 mg x m(-3) and inlet velocity of 2 m x s(-1). The research provided design experience and operating parameters for industrial application of honeycomb adsorption rotor. It showed that lower empty bed velocity, faster rotor speed and higher temperature were necessary to purify organic waste gases of higher concentrations.

  13. An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

    2005-03-01

    An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm.

  14. Gas removal technique to maintain global environment. Chikyu kankyo hozen no tame no bojo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-10-12

    This paper describes the removal technique of gases such as CO2, SO2 and NOx which have the deep relation to the maintenance of global environment. This paper describes partially r SO2 and NOx which are the primary cause of acid rain. As for the removal of CO2 generated from fixed sources (thermal power stations and others), the separation technique and isolation-fixation technique have been researched on and developed. Of the separation method, the effect of the chemical absorption method and the adsorption method is proved with the preceding experiments. The isolation method is differently researched on as to store under deep sea or ground but may be urgent and temporary. The fixation of CO2 is a serious global problem which relates to the afforestation and forests. The fixation which uses coral reefs in ocean as the absorption source has a potential. As for the processing of substances causing acid rain, the desulfurization from petroleum and the flue gas desulfurization have the excellent results. The improvement of combustion method or the flue gas denitrification at the fixed sources are used to remove NOx. The removal of NOx from all diesel cars is difficult compared with the exhaust gas cleaning of gasoline cars and is not commercialized. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Removal of Contaminants from Waste Streams at Gas Evolving Flow-Through Porous Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud Saleh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the removal of inorganic and organic toxic materials from industrial waste streams. One of the most important branch of these electrochemical techniques is the flow-through porous electrode. Such systems allow for the continuous operation and hence continuous removal of the contaminants from waste streams at high rates and high efficiency. However, when there is an evolution of gas bubbles with the removal process, the treatment process needs a much different treatment of both the design and the mathematical treatment of the such these systems. The evolving gas bubbles within the electrode decrease the pore electrolyte conductivity of the porous electrodes, decrease the efficiency and make the current more non-uniform. This cause the under utilization of the reaction area and finally make the electrode inoperable. In this work the harmful effects of the gas bubbles on the performance of the porous electrode will be modeled. The model accounts for the effects of kinetic, mass transfer and gas bubbles resistance on the overall performance of the electrode. This will help in optimizing the operating conditions and the cell design

  16. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  17. Decay heat removal and heat transfer under normal and accident conditions in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The meeting was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the IAEA's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. It was attended by participants from China, France, Germany, Japan, Poland, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The meeting was chaired by Prof. Dr. K. Kugeler and Prof. Dr. E. Hicken, Directors of the Institute for Safety Research Technology of the KFA Research Center, and covered the following: Design and licensing requirements for gas cooled reactors; concepts for decay heat removal in modern gas cooled reactors; analytical methods for predictions of thermal response, accuracy of predictions; experimental data for validation of predictive methods - operational experience from gas cooled reactors and experimental data from test facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  19. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  20. Inside Story of Gas Processes within Stormwater Biofilters: Does Greenhouse Gas Production Tarnish the Benefits of Nitrogen Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Emily G I; Pham, Tracey; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E; Fletcher, Tim D

    2017-04-04

    Stormwater biofilters are dynamic environments, supporting diverse processes that act to capture and transform incoming pollutants. However, beneficial water treatment processes can be accompanied by undesirable greenhouse gas production. This study investigated the potential for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) generation in dissolved form at the base of laboratory-scale stormwater biofilter columns. The influence of plant presence, species, inflow frequency, and inclusion of a saturated zone and carbon source were studied. Free-draining biofilters remained aerobic with negligible greenhouse gas production during storm events. Designs with a saturated zone were oxygenated at their base by incoming stormwater before anaerobic conditions rapidly re-established, although extended dry periods allowed the reintroduction of oxygen by evapotranspiration. Production of CH 4 and N 2 O in the saturated zone varied significantly in response to plant presence, species, and wetting and drying. Concentrations of N 2 O typically peaked rapidly following stormwater inundation, associated with limited plant root systems and poorer nitrogen removal from biofilter effluent. Production of CH 4 also commenced quickly but continued throughout the anaerobic interevent period and lacked clear relationships with plant characteristics or nitrogen removal performance. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations were highly variable, but peak concentrations of N 2 O accounted for nitrogen load. While further work is required to measure surface emissions, the potential for substantial release of N 2 O or CH 4 in biofilter effluent appears relatively low.

  1. Project Scheduling Based on Risk of Gas Transmission Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Nurbaity, A.; Mulyadi, Y.; Suntoyo; Chamelia, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    The planning of a project has a time limit on which must be completed before or right at a predetermined time. Thus, in a project planning, it is necessary to have scheduling management that is useful for completing a project to achieve maximum results by considering the constraints that will exists. Scheduling management is undertaken to deal with uncertainties and negative impacts of time and cost in project completion. This paper explains about scheduling management in gas transmission pipeline project Gresik-Semarang to find out which scheduling plan is most effectively used in accordance with its risk value. Scheduling management in this paper is assissted by Microsoft Project software to find the critical path of existing project scheduling planning data. Critical path is the longest scheduling path with the fastest completion time. The result is found a critical path on project scheduling with completion time is 152 days. Furthermore, the calculation of risk is done by using House of Risk (HOR) method and it is found that the critical path has a share of 40.98 percent of all causes of the occurence of risk events that will be experienced.

  2. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guoliang; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg 0 occurred on the surface of M6WN5. • Chemisorption process was an absolute predominant route for Hg 0 removal by M6WN5. • The effect of NO, H 2 O, SO 2 and O 2 on Hg 0 removal by M6WN5 was investigated. • M6WN5 demonstrated to be a promising Hg 0 sorbent in flue gas. - Abstract: Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH 4 Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg 0 occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5 wt.% NH 4 Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg 0 removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH 4 Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O 2 increased Hg 0 adsorption whereas H 2 O inhibited Hg 0 adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO 2 was observed on Hg 0 removal, namely, low concentration of SO 2 promoted Hg 0 removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO 2 suppressed Hg 0 removal. The Hg 0 removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg 0 to form HgCl 2 , and the active state of C−Cl * groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg 0 sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents

  3. Microkinetics of H2S Removal by Zinc Oxide in the Presence of Moist Gas Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Chunhu Li; Hanxian Guo; Kechang Xie

    2003-01-01

    The microkinetics of H2S removal by ZnO desulfurization in H2O-CO2-N2, H2O-CO-N2 andH2O-O2-N2 gas mixtures was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Experiments were carried out with100 120 mesh ZnO powder at temperatures from 473 K to 563 K. The results show that the kineticbehaviors of desulfurization could all be described by an improved shrinking-core model. The activationenergies of the reaction and the diffusion in different gas atmospheres were estimated.

  4. Decontamination by foams: A promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  5. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  6. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  7. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 (2018), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  8. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 ( 2018 ), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  9. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-01-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project

  10. Long-term projections for electricity and gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borggrefe, Frieder; Lochner, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses potential developments of wholesale electricity prices in Germany until 2030. The relevant determinants and their effects on prices are shown. Several projections demonstrate the impact of future fuel prices taking the political framework into account. The importance of carbon and gas prices - and the latter's relationship to oil prices - are discussed extensively. Although forecasting electricity prices is associated with great uncertainties, the article illustrates the relative impacts of the various price determinants and their interactions. (orig.)

  11. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lap-Yan, C.; Wie, T. Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow were evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.

  12. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jinfeng [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • HClO{sub 4} treated AC was developed for effective Hg{sup 0} removal from simulated flue gas. • The exceptional effect of SO{sub 2} on Hg{sup 0} removal by AC{sub 4.5} was discussed. • Possible reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal over AC{sub 4.5} was put forward. - Abstract: This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}) or HClO{sub 4} of varied concentrations, on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO{sub 4} of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg{sup 0} removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg{sup 0}. And SO{sub 2} displayed varied impact in capturing Hg{sup 0} due to the integrated reactions between SO{sub 2} and modified AC. The addition of O{sub 2} could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg{sup 0} removal capacity had a slight declination when H{sub 2}O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg{sup 0} mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg{sup 0} could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (C−O) or chlorine-containing groups (C−Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and mercuric oxide (HgO)

  13. Removal of siloxanes in sewage sludge by thermal treatment with gas stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Omori, Keigo; Takaoka, Masaki; Mizuno, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new treatment of sewage sludge were studied to reduce siloxanes in biogas. • D5 of cyclic siloxane concentrations were the highest in sewage sludge. • Under optimal conditions, most of siloxanes in the sludge were removed previously. • By this treatment, CH 4 was 1.6-fold larger and siloxane in biogas 95% lower. - Abstract: In this study, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion to reduce siloxanes in the sludge and accelerate the anaerobic digestion was studied experimentally. Regarding siloxanes in the sludge, D5 concentrations were the highest. Siloxane concentrations in the digested sludge were decreased, versus those in thickened sludge, because siloxanes in the sludge are moved to the biogas during the anaerobic digestion. Thermal treatment and gas stripping experiments were conducted. The optimum conditions for siloxane removal from sludge were found to be thermal treatment with gas stripping at 80 °C with 0.5 L/min of air flow for 48 h. Under these conditions, approximately 90% of all siloxanes in the sludge were removed. Next, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted with the optimally treated sludge and untreated sludge. The biogas volume of the optimally treated sludge was 1.6-fold larger than that of the untreated sludge. Furthermore, D5 contents in biogas from the optimally treated sludge were 95% lower than in biogas from untreated sludge. Thus, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sludge before anaerobic digestion was effective in increasing biogas amounts, decreasing siloxane concentrations in the biogas, and reducing the need for a siloxane removal process from the biogas

  14. Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, M.K.; Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO 2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO 3 . Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO 2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO 2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO 2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO 2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO 2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

  15. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Project WAGR: The UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - removing the core and looking to completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has built and operated a wide range of nuclear facilities since the late 1940's. UKAEA's present mission is to restore the environment of these facilities in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. This restoration includes the decommissioning of a number of redundant research and power reactors, one of which is the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (WAGR). Following shut down, UKAEA decided to continue the prototype function of the reactor into the decommissioning phase to develop dismantling techniques and establish waste routes. The reactor core and pressure vessel are now being dismantled in a programme of 10 campaigns, seven of which have been completed since 1998. It is anticipated that the current programme will be completed by summer 2005. This paper outlines the history of the reactor, the operation of the waste-processing route, the installed dismantling equipment and the successful completion of the first seven campaigns. This earlier work has been described in a number of publications and conferences, so this paper concentrates on recent work to select and develop cutting equipment to dismantle the core support structures and the pressure vessel. The decommissioning of the Windscale Advance Gas-cooled reactor is being undertaken to demonstrate that a power reactor can be decommissioned shortly after shutdown. The removal of the core and pressure vessel has been broken down into a series of 10 campaigns associated with particular core components. The first 7 campaigns have been successfully completed and the 8., is expected to commence in September 2003 17 months earlier than planned. Dismantling methodologies and tools have been developed specifically for each of these campaigns. Full-scale mock-ups have been used to test the tools, train the operators and assess the duration of operations. However, despite successful trials, operational experience has shown that some of these tools have not

  17. Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.; Reed, W.D.; Pashley, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 10 3 with product concentration factors greater than 10 4 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

  18. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  19. Production of ultrapure D-T gas by removal of molecular tritium by selective adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Hudson, R.S.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Fearon, E.M.; Souers, P.C.; Collins, G.W.

    1991-07-01

    The application of selective adsorption to purification of D-T gas by removal of T 2 has been demonstrated for small quantities of gas typical in research applications. This represents a variation on the production of pure spin isomers of deuterium and hydrogen. The use of an adsorption column offers several advantages over conventional separation techniques, such as low tritium inventory, rapid delivery to prevent radiation damage of the accumulated product, compact size, simplicity of design, construction, and operation, and operation without carrier gas. Because a column can have several thousand equilibrium stages, the purity of the product can be very high. The adsorption column has been shown to be an attractive separation tool for small quantities of hydrogen isotopes

  20. Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejector-venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisans, Xavier; Sarrà, Montserrrat; Lafuente, F Javier

    2002-03-29

    The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed, including the use of a two-stage venturi tube. The results showed a strong influence of the liquid scrubbing flowrate on pollutant removal efficiency. The initial pollutant concentration and the gas flowrate had a slight influence. The use of a two-stage venturi tube considerably improved the absorption efficiency, although it increased energy consumption. The results of this study will be applicable to the optimal design of venturi-based absorbers for gaseous pollution control or chemical reactors.

  1. Decontamination by foams: a promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. They contain a very large surface area of liquid-gas interface in small cells; thus it is possible to achieve rapid capture of airborne particles in the liquid phase, particularly if the aerosol can be incorporated in the foam structure. The foam can be collapsed into a small volume of liquid, immobilising any trapped aerosol in a form that may be treated as liquid waste. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  2. Laboratory tests in support of the MSRE reactive gas removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, J.C.; Del Cul, G.D.; Caja, J.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.; Thomas, K.S.; Clark, D.E.

    1997-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since December 1969, at which time the molten salt mixture of LiF-BeF 2 -ZrF 4 - 233 UF 4 (64.5-30.3-5.0-0.13 mol%) was transferred to fuel salt drain tanks for storage. In the late 1980s, increased radiation in one of the gas lines from the drain tank was attributed to 233 UF 6 . In 1994 two gas samples were withdraw (from a gas line in the Vent House connecting to the drain tanks) and analyzed. Surprisingly, 350 mm Hg of F 2 , 70 mm Hg of UF 6 , and smaller amounts of other gases were found in both of the samples. To remote this gas from above the drain tanks and all of the associated piping, the reactive gas removal system (RGRS) was designed. This report details the laboratory testing of the RGRS, using natural uranium, prior to its implementation at the MSRE facility. The testing was performed to ensure that the equipment functioned properly and was sufficient to perform the task while minimizing exposure to personnel. In addition, the laboratory work provided the research and development effort necessary to maximize the performance of the system. Throughout this work technicians and staff who were to be involved in RGRS operation at the MSRE site worked directly with the research staff in completing the laboratory testing phase. Consequently, at the end of the laboratory work, the personnel who were to be involved in the actual operations had acquired all of the training and experience necessary to continue with the process of reactive gas removal

  3. Overview of DOE Oil and Gas Field Laboratory Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G.; Ciferno, J.; Covatch, G.; Folio, E.; Melchert, E.; Ogunsola, O.; Renk, J., III; Vagnetti, R.

    2017-12-01

    America's abundant unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources are critical components of our nation's energy portfolio. These resources need to be prudently developed to derive maximum benefits. In spite of the long history of hydraulic fracturing, the optimal number of fracturing stages during multi-stage fracture stimulation in horizontal wells is not known. In addition, there is the dire need of a comprehensive understanding of ways to improve the recovery of shale gas with little or no impacts on the environment. Research that seeks to expand our view of effective and environmentally sustainable ways to develop our nation's oil and natural gas resources can be done in the laboratory or at a computer; but, some experiments must be performed in a field setting. The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Lab Observatory projects are designed to address those research questions that must be studied in the field. The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a suite of "field laboratory" test sites to carry out collaborative research that will help find ways of improving the recovery of energy resources as much as possible, with as little environmental impact as possible, from "unconventional" formations, such as shale and other low permeability rock formations. Currently there are three field laboratories in various stages of development and operation. Work is on-going at two of the sites: The Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin and the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) project in the Marcellus Shale Play. Agreement on the third site, the Utica Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (USEEL) project in the Utica Shale Play, was just recently finalized. Other field site opportunities may be forthcoming. This presentation will give an overview of the three field laboratory projects.

  4. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  5. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C S; Albiston, J; Broderick, T E; Stewart, R M

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  6. Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal System-Project A.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin

  7. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  8. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  9. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  10. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  11. Gas Removal in the Ursa Minor Galaxy: Linking Hydrodynamics and Chemical Evolution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Anderson; Lanfranchi, Gustavo Amaral; Baio, Gabriel Henrique Campos; Kowal, Grzegorz [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: anderson.caproni@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a non-cosmological, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the gas in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Assuming an initial baryonic-to-dark-matter ratio derived from the cosmic microwave background radiation, we evolved the galactic gas distribution over 3 Gyr, taking into account the effects of the types Ia and II supernovae. For the first time, we used in our simulation the instantaneous supernovae rates derived from a chemical evolution model applied to spectroscopic observational data of Ursa Minor. We show that the amount of gas that is lost in this process is variable with time and radius, being the highest rates observed during the initial 600 Myr in our simulation. Our results indicate that types Ia and II supernovae must be essential drivers of the gas loss in Ursa Minor galaxy (and probably in other similar dwarf galaxies), but it is ultimately the combination of galactic winds powered by these supernovae and environmental effects (e.g., ram-pressure stripping) that results in the complete removal of the gas content.

  12. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  14. Projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.M.

    1979-02-01

    An analysis was made of the uncertainties associated with the measurements of the declared uranium streams in the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). The total uncertainty for the GCEP is projected to be from 54 to 108 kg 235 U/year out of a measured total of 200,000 kg 235 U/year. The systematic component of uncertainty of the UF 6 streams is the largest and the dominant contributor to the total uncertainty. A possible scheme for reducing the total uncertainty is given

  15. Financial structure of Korea Gas Corporation's LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeongsoo Ko

    1991-01-01

    When an Indonesian LNG tanker arrived in Korea for the first time in October 1986, Korea became the seventh LNG-consuming nation in the world. The imported LNG has contributed greatly to solving pollution problems and ensuring a stable supply of energy to Korea through the diversification of energy sources. So far, the LNG supply has been confined to the Metropolitan area. The Korea Gas Corporation now plans to expand the LNG supply to cover the entire nation. This paper introduces the experience and future plan of Korea's LNG projects with a special reference to their financial structure

  16. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  17. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guoliang [School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shen, Boxiong, E-mail: shenbx@nankai.edu.cn [School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Yongwang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Bin [School of Chemical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg{sup 0} occurred on the surface of M6WN5. • Chemisorption process was an absolute predominant route for Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5. • The effect of NO, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} on Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5 was investigated. • M6WN5 demonstrated to be a promising Hg{sup 0} sorbent in flue gas. - Abstract: Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH{sub 4}Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg{sup 0} occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5 wt.% NH{sub 4}Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg{sup 0} removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH{sub 4}Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O{sub 2} increased Hg{sup 0} adsorption whereas H{sub 2}O inhibited Hg{sup 0} adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO{sub 2} was observed on Hg{sup 0} removal, namely, low concentration of SO{sub 2} promoted Hg{sup 0} removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO{sub 2} suppressed Hg{sup 0} removal. The Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg{sup 0} to form HgCl{sub 2}, and the active state of C−Cl{sup *} groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg{sup 0} sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents.

  18. Projections of emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Amanda; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet; Malcolm, Heath; Henshall, Paul; Broadmeadow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Summary for policy makers: • The UK reports projections for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector to inform policy concerning domestic and international climate change commitments. The full projections data are available on the NAEI website (http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=927) • LULUCF activities can result in net annual emissions or removals of greenhouse gases, and changes in carbon stocks in the pools associated with LULUCF. This report prov...

  19. Projections of emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Buys, Gwen; Malcolm, Heath; Moxley, Janet; Matthews, Robert; Henshall, Paul

    2014-01-01

    • The UK is required to report projections for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector for carbon budgets under the UK Climate Change Act, for the European Union Monitoring Mechanism, and for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. LULUCF activities can result in net emissions or removals of greenhouse gases, and changes in carbon stocks in the pools associated with LULUCF. This report provides projections at the UK and Devolved Administration (DA) lev...

  20. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  1. CENTAR gas centrifuge enrichment project: economics and engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Description of some economic and engineering considerations of the CENTAR Associates' 3000000 SWU/yr gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant project. The need for uranium enrichment facilities is discussed, and the advantages of using the centrifuge process rather than the presently used gaseous diffusion process are reviewed. A description of the CENTAR plant is given, highlighting the major features of the facility. Since the centiruges to be used in the plant account for approximately 50% of the capital cost of the project, the philosophy of their manufacture and procurement is discussed. Various design considerations which bear upon process economics are presented to give the reader an appreciation of the subtleties of the technology and the flexibility possible in plant design. Special attention is given to meeting the needs of the utility customer at the lowest possible cost

  2. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  3. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  4. High-temperature removal of sulphur for biogenic gas products; Hochtemperatur-Entschwefelung fuer biogene Produktgase. Design und Optimierung - Schlussbericht/Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildhauer, T.; Biollaz, S.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the development of basics ideas on the design and optimisation of high-temperature methods for the removal of sulphur from biogenic gas products. Tests made as part of the 'Methane from Wood' project at pilot installations in Switzerland and Austria are discussed. Low temperature and high-temperature methods are examined and discussed. A number of sulphur compounds were tested. Also, experiments made using nickel, HDS and CPO catalysers are discussed.

  5. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  6. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  7. Electrospun metal oxide-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers for elemental mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Yongchun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li, Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Gao, Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zheng, Chuguang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang, Junying, E-mail: jyzhang@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed the metal oxides (CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O) doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibers are applied to control Hg{sup 0} from coal combustion flue gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped TiO{sub 2} greatly enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal under visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-Ag{sub 2}O showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 95% without any light. - Abstract: Nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method were used to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from simulated coal combustion flue gas. The nanofibers composed of different metal oxides (MO{sub x}) including CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O supported on TiO{sub 2} have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersing X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectra. The average diameters of these nanofibers were about 200 nm. Compared to pure TiO{sub 2}, the UV-vis absorption intensity for MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} increased significantly and the absorption bandwidth also expanded, especially for Ag{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2}. Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiencies over the MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were tested under dark, visible light (vis) irradiation and UV irradiation, respectively. The results showed that WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Doping V{sub 2}O{sub 5} into TiO{sub 2} enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency greatly from 6% to 63% under visible light irradiation. Ag{sub 2}O doped TiO{sub 2} showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of around 95% without any light due to the formation of silver amalgam. An extended experiment

  8. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Bessho, Naoki; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Gas phase chemistry and removal of CH3I during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to gather valuable information on the behavior of methyl iodide on the gas phase during a severe accident. The potential of transition metals, especially silver and copper, to remove organic iodides from the gas streams was also studied. Transition metals are one of the most interesting groups in the context of iodine mitigation. For example silver is known to react intensively with iodine compounds. Silver is also relatively inert material and it is thermally stable. Copper is known to react with some radioiodine species. However, it is not reactive toward methyl iodide. In addition, it is oxidized to copper oxide under atmospheric conditions. This may limit the industrial use of copper.(au)

  10. Gas phase chemistry and removal of CH{sub 3}I during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, A. [VTT. Energy, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to gather valuable information on the behavior of methyl iodide on the gas phase during a severe accident. The potential of transition metals, especially silver and copper, to remove organic iodides from the gas streams was also studied. Transition metals are one of the most interesting groups in the context of iodine mitigation. For example silver is known to react intensively with iodine compounds. Silver is also relatively inert material and it is thermally stable. Copper is known to react with some radioiodine species. However, it is not reactive toward methyl iodide. In addition, it is oxidized to copper oxide under atmospheric conditions. This may limit the industrial use of copper.(au)

  11. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.

    2013-05-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  13. New projects developed by COMOTI in gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitulescu, Marian; Silivestru, Valentin; Toma, Niculae; Slujitoru, Cristian; Petrescu, Valentin; Leahu, Mihai; Oniga, Ciprian; Ulici, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    The paper aims to present two new projects developed by the Romanian Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbines (COMOTI) in partnership with City University of London and GHH-Rand Germany, in the field of screw compressors/expanders. COMOTI passed, in recent years, from being a GHH-Rand licensed manufacturer for a range of oil-injected screw compressors, of CU type, to a new phase of range diversification, approaching screw compressors with a maximum discharge pressure of 45 bara. So, in cooperation with City University and GHH-Rand we design, manufacture and test, with air, in COMOTI test bench the new type of screw compressor named CHP 220. Also, the cooperation with GHH-Rand has resulted in the design, manufacture and air testing on the test bench, and then gas testing - in a gas compression station - for an electric generator driven by a screw expander. This paper presents how the tests were carried out, the experimental data and the interpretation of results

  14. CO2 Removal from Multi-component Gas Mixtures Utilizing Spiral-Wound Asymmetric Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, W.B.; Fahmy, M.F.M.; Gad, F.K.; EI-Aleem, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic procedure and a computer program have been developed for simulating the performance of a spiral-wound gas permeate for the CO 2 removal from natural gas and other hydrocarbon streams. The simulation program is based on the approximate multi-component model derived by Qi and Henson(l), in addition to the membrane parameters achieved from the binary simulation program(2) (permeability and selectivity). Applying the multi-component program on the same data used by Qi and Henson to evaluate the deviation of the approximate model from the basic transport model, showing results more accurate than those of the approximate model, and are very close to those of the basic transport model, while requiring significantly less than 1 % of the computation time. The program was successfully applied on the data of Salam gas plant membrane unit at Khalda Petroleum Company, Egypt, for the separation of CO 2 from hydrocarbons in an eight-component mixture to estimate the stage cut, residue, and permeate compositions, and gave results matched with the actual Gas Chromatography Analysis measured by the lab

  15. Quantitative risk management in gas injection project: a case study from Oman oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Mohammad Miftaur Rahman Khan; Piya, Sujan; Shamsuzzoha, Ahm

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the recognition, application and quantification of the risks associated in managing projects. In this research, the management of risks in an oil and gas project is studied and implemented within a case company in Oman. In this study, at first, the qualitative data related to risks in the project were identified through field visits and extensive interviews. These data were then translated into numerical values based on the expert's opinion. Further, the numerical data were used as an input to Monte Carlo simulation. RiskyProject Professional™ software was used to simulate the system based on the identified risks. The simulation result predicted a delay of about 2 years as a worse case with no chance of meeting the project's on stream date. Also, it has predicted 8% chance of exceeding the total estimated budget. The result of numerical analysis from the proposed model is validated by comparing it with the result of qualitative analysis, which was obtained through discussion with various project managers of company.

  16. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  17. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  18. Carcinogenicity of Mustard Gas: Report of the Cancer Registry Project Among Mustard Gas Exposed Iranian Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroush, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center in collaboration with Tehran University has conducted a nationwide cancer registry project among all Iranian Veterans with history of exposure to mustard gas during 1980-1988 Iran Iraq war. The mixed cohort study has a retrospective phase from the exposure time to 2003 and a prospective phase from 2003 to 2013. The main goal is to find any possible relationship between exposure to mustard gas and developing cancer as a long term health effect. A total number of 7500 individual (both military and civilians) with confirmed medical records of exposure to mustard gas have been included in the study to be compared with the same number of control population as well as the statistics of the national cancer registry system. The follow up of all cases is being done as a part of the national health monitoring program of the Janbazan (veterans) organization. In this report the latest findings of this project will be presented.(author)

  19. Simultaneous improvement of waste gas purification and nitrogen removal using a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Hu, Zhen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Xie, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    Insufficient oxygen supply is identified as one of the major factors limiting organic pollutant and nitrogen (N) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). This study designed a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) using waste gas from biological wastewater treatment systems to improve pollutant removal in CWs, its potential in purifying waste gas was also identified. Compared with unaerated VFCW, the introduction of waste gas significantly improved NH 4 + -N and TN removal efficiencies by 128.48 ± 3.13% and 59.09 ± 2.26%, respectively. Furthermore, the waste gas ingredients, including H 2 S, NH 3 , greenhouse gas (N 2 O) and microbial aerosols, were remarkably reduced after passing through the VFCW. The removal efficiencies of H 2 S, NH 3 and N 2 O were 77.78 ± 3.46%, 52.17 ± 2.53%, and 87.40 ± 3.89%, respectively. In addition, the bacterial and fungal aerosols in waste gas were effectively removed with removal efficiencies of 42.72 ± 3.21% and 47.89 ± 2.82%, respectively. Microbial analysis results revealed that the high microbial community abundance in the VFCW, caused by the introduction of waste gas from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), led to its optimized nitrogen transformation processes. These results suggested that the VFCW intermittently aerated with waste gas may have potential application for purifying wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste gas, simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hailong; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  1. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-07-19

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  2. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  4. An overview of ALARA considerations during Yankee Atomic`s Component Removal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, B.; Babineau, G.; Colby, B.; Cox, B. [Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Rowe, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In Februrary 1992, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) permanently shutdown Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, after thirty-two years of efficient operation. Yankee`s plan decommissioning is to defer dismantlement until a low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility is available. The plant will be maintained in a safe storage condition until a firm contract for the disposal of LLRW generated during decommissioning can be secured. Limited access to a LLRW disposal facility may occur during the safe storage period. Yankee intends to use these opportunities to remove components and structures. A Component Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. A Componenet Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. The CRP includes removal of four steam generators, the pressurizer, and segmentation of reactor vessel internals and preparation of LLRW for shipment and disposal at Chem-Nuclear`s Barnwell, South Carolina facility. The CRP is projected to be completed by June 1994 at an estimated total worker exposure of less than 160 person-rem.

  5. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final..., Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Jeff C. Wright, Director, Office of Energy Projects...

  6. Feasibility study of NaOH regeneration in acid gas removal unit using membrane electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufany, Fadlilatul; Pratama, Alvian; Romzuddin, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    The world's energy demand is increasing with the development of human civilization. Due to limited energy resource, after 2020 fossil fuels thus is predicted will be replaced by renewable resources. Taking an example, one of the potential renewable energy to be considered is biogas, as its high content of methane, which can be produced via the fermentation process of the organic compounds under controlled anaerobic environment by utilizing the methanogen bacteria. However, prior the further use, this biogas must be purified from its impurities contents, i.e. acid gas of CO2 and H2S, up to 4% and 16 ppmv, respectively, in the acid gas removal unit. This such of purification efforts, will significantly increase the higher heating value of biogas, approximately from 600 to 900 Btu/Scf. During the purification process in this acid gas removal unit, NaOH solution is used as a liquid absorbent to reduce those acid gases content, in which the by-product of alkali salt (brine) was produced as waste. Here we report the feasibility study of the NaOH regeneration process in acid gas removal unit via membrane electrolysis technology, in which both the technical and economic aspects are taken account. To be precise in procedure, the anode semi-cell was filled with the brine solution, while the cathode semi-cell was filled with demineralized water, and those electrodes were separated by the cation exchange membrane. Furthermore, the applied potential was varied ranging from 5, 10, 15 and to 20 V, while the concentration of KCl electrolyte solutions were varied ranging from 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and to 0.03 M. This study was conducted under controlled temperatures of 30 and 50 °C. Here we found that the % sodium recovery was increased along with the applied potential, temperature, and the decrease in KCl electrolyte concentration. We found that the best results, by means of the highest % sodium recovery, i.e. 97.26 %, was achieved under the experimental condition of temperature at 30

  7. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Environmental assessment statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous by-products and wastes are generated during coal storage and processing, gasification, and gas cleanup. Recovery systems have been designed to collect and utilize by-products. Wastes will be placed in storage areas designed to prevent release of the materials to the environment. The coal gasification plant along with the solid waste disposal area will occupy approximately 115 acres. To prevent, to the fullest extent possible, degradation of groundwater and surface water resources, the coal stockpile, landfill, collection pond, settling basin, and drainage ditches will be constructed to prevent the seepage of potential contaminants into groundwater or the drainage of runoff into surface waters. Cooling water is the primary water requirement of the project. None of the water utilized in the gasification plant will be released into the area surface water system, but will be either recycled or directed into the settling basin. The gasification facility has the potential of emitting a broad spectrum of pollutants into the atmosphere. However, effective emission control procedures such as off-gas recycling, hydrogen sulfide removal, particulate removal, and flaring will be applied to minimize the plant's emissions. The necessity of monitoring the more exotic pollutants such as acid gases, trace elements, metal carbonyls, and a multitude of organic compounds, will be determined as the gasification facility becomes more of a reality and the latest literature and research developments can be surveyed to evaluate the emission rates, biological significance, and monitoring techniques for these pollutants.

  8. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Zhijian; Shen Zhemin; Zhao Qingjie; Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian

    2008-01-01

    The reusability of Co 3 O 4 (AC-Co), MnO 2 (AC-Mn) and CuCoO 4 (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N 2 atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg 0 could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg 0 removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO 2 's crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg 0 capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g -1 and 5.21 mg g -1 , respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg 0 removal efficiency. However, CuCoO 4 and MnO 2 's AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO 2 tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO 2 -poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn

  9. Organic iodine removal from simulated dissolver off-gas systems utilizing silver-exchanged mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The removal of methyl iodide by adsorption onto silver mordenite was studied using a simulated off-gas from the fuel dissolution step of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The adsorption of methyl iodide on silver mordenite was examined for the effect of NO/sub x/, humidity, iodine concentration, filter temperature, silver loadings and filter pretreatment. The highest iodine loading achieved in these tests was 142 mg CH 3 I per g of substrate on fully exchanged zeolite, approximately the same as elemental iodine loadings. A filter using fully exchanged silver mordenite operating at 200 0 C obtained higher iodine loadings than a similar filter operating at 150 0 C. Pretreatment of the sorbent bed with hydrogen rather than dry air, at a temperature of 200 0 C, also improved the loading. Variations in the methyl iodide concentration had minimal effects on the overall loading. Filters exposed to moist air streams attained higher loadings than those in contact with dry air. Partially exchanged silver mordenite achieved higher silver utilizations than the fully exchanged material. The partially exchanged mordenite also achieved higher loadings at 200 0 C than at 250 0 C. The iodine loaded onto these beds was not stripped at 500 0 C by either 4.5% hydrogen or 100% hydrogen; however, the iodine could be removed by air at 500 0 C, and the bed could be reloaded. A study of the regeneration characteristics of fully exchanged silver mordenite indicates limited adsorbent capacity after complete removal of the iodine with 4.5% hydrogen in the regeneration gas stream at 500 0 C. The loss of adsorbent capacity is much higher for silver mordenite regenerated in a stainless steel filter housing than in a glass filter housing

  10. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  11. Process using sorbents for the removal of SOx from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnavaia, T.J.; Amareskera, J.; Polansky, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing the SO x components from a flue gas stream containing oxygen, sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide from the combustion of coal from a coal-fired boiler which comprises combusting the coal in the boiler to provide the flue gas stream and contacting the the gas stream with a heated sorbent composition at 400 degrees to 1000 degrees C wherein the the sorbent before being heated is selected from the group consisting of a layered double hydroxide composition of formula: [M 1-x II M x III (OH) 2 ](A n- ) x/n · yH 2 O wherein M II is a divalent metal cation and M III is a trivalent metal cation selected from the group consisting of Group IIA. IIB and IIIA metals as the cation which form metal oxides and which are capable of reacting with SO 2 to form metal sulfites and SO 3 to form metal sulfates, A is an interlayer anion of charge n- which comprises at least one metal atoms selected from the group consisting of main group metals and transition metals which provide oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide in an amount sufficient that the layered double hydroxide structure promotes the oxidation of the sulfur dioxide to the sulfur trioxide at the combustion conditions within the coal-fired boiler, wherein y is moles of water

  12. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  13. Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m 3 . Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO 2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO 2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO 2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

  14. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 January 1979--31 January 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-01

    Aim is to increase gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western U.S. Progress is reported on: project management, resource assessment, R and D at various facilities, and field tests and demonstrations. (DLC)

  15. Project to support formation of an energy and environment technology demonstration project in fiscal 1999. International joint demonstration and research project (Sichuan Province natural gas DME project); 1999 nendo Shisensho tennen gas DME project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    DME can be manufactured from such raw materials as natural gas, coal bed gas and coal. NKK who is developing a technology to synthesize efficiently the DME being a new energy has been commissioned from NEDO to investigate and study a project to manufacture DME using natural gas produced in Sinchuan Province, and utilize it as fuel for power generation, transportation and LPG substitution. In the present research, the DME manufacturing plant size was assumed to be 500 tons a day (165 x 10{sup 3} tons annually). This output nearly corresponds to the current LPG consumption. The required amount of natural gas as the raw material is 0.2 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, wherein, since the total production quantity of natural gas in Sinchuan Province is 10 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, there is no problem in the supply of natural gas as the raw material. The construction cost was estimated to be 11 billion yen taking into consideration the device fabrication cost and construction labor cost in China. Furthermore, as a result of discussing the economy considering the natural gas material cost, industrial water cost, and labor cost for plant operation, the internal profit rate for the total capital after tax was found a little over 10%, proving the project to have excellent economic performance. (NEDO)

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VILLAGE ON THE PONDS IN DELAVAN, WI. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Vintage on the Ponds at Delavan, WI. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Kine...

  17. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal. U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sabin, MN. Six-Month Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sabin, MN. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico FM-248-AS ars...

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Vintage on the Ponds in Delavan, WI Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Vintage on the Ponds in Delavan, WI. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of a Kinetico Macrolite® press...

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project following one year of operation at the Climax, Minnesota, site. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Kin...

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL AND ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT STEWART, MN. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Stewart, MN facility. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the effectiveness of Siemens¿ Type II AERALA...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BIG SAUK LAKE MOBILE HOME PARK IN SAUK CENTRE, MN. SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park (BSLMHP) in Sauk Centre, MN. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the...

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal and Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Stewart, MN, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the one-year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Stewart, MN facility. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness ...

  4. The outlook for natural gas markets in the GRI baseline projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Research Institute is an independent, not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development program for the mutual benefit of the natural gas industry and its customers. The research program consists of over 500 active research projects in natural gas supply and end use, and in gas industry operations, as well as related basic research. This paper summarizes the U.S. natural gas demand and supply outlook projected in a preliminary version of the 191 edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. The projection used for this paper is from an early run of the GRI modeling structure. As such, it is subject to substantial revision before the Baseline Projection is finalized. The paper presents a projection of natural gas demand in the major end-use sectors and the slate of supply sources expected to meet that demand over the period from 1989 to 2010

  5. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Enhanced Removal of Hydrophobic Gas by Aerial Ultrasonic Waves and Two Kinds of Water Mists of Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Air pollutants can cause health problems, such as bronchitis and cancer, and are now recognized as a social problem. Hence, a method is proposed for the collection and removal of gaseous air pollutants by aerial ultrasonic waves and water mist. Typically, gas removal effects are studied using lemon oil vapor (“lemon gas”), which is a hydrophobic gas. Previous experiments using lemon gas have shown that a removal rate of up to 40% can be achieved in an intense standing wave at 20 kHz, for an amount of water mist of 1.39 cm3/s and an electrical input power of 50 W. Increasing the surface area of the water mist leads to greater removal of hydrophobic gas. In this study, the effects of gas removal are examined by conducting experiments using intense aerial ultrasonic waves to disperse two kinds of water mists, each composed of particles of different sizes: small particles (diameter: ≈3 µm) and conventional large particles (diameter: ≈60 µm).

  7. Removing Dams: Project-Level Policy and Scientific Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, B.

    2010-12-01

    More than 800 dams have been removed around the country, mostly “small” dams, under 25 feet in height. The total number of removals, however, is small relative to the number of deteriorating dams and the ecological impacts those structures continue to have on native riverine species and natural river function. The number of dam removal projects is increasing as aging dams continue to deteriorate and riverine species continue to decline. Practitioners and regulators need to find cost-effective project approaches that minimize short-term environmental impacts and maximize long-term benefits while keeping project costs manageable. Dam removals can be a regulatory challenge because they inherently have short-term impacts in order to achieve larger, self-sustaining, long-term benefits. These short-term impacts include sediment movement, construction access roads, and habitat conversion from lacustrine to riverine. Environmental regulations are designed to prevent degradation and have presented challenges for projects designed to benefit the environment. For example, a short-term release of sediment may exceed water quality standards for some period of time, but lead to a long-term beneficial project. Other regulatory challenges include permitting the loss of wetland area for increased native river function, or allowing the release of some level of contaminated sediment when the downstream sediment is similarly contaminated. Dam removal projects raise a range of engineering and scientific questions on effective implementation techniques such as appropriate sediment management approaches, construction equipment access approaches, invasive species management, channel/floodplain reconstruction, and active versus passive habitat rehabilitation. While practitioners have learned and refined implementation approaches over the last decade, more input is needed from researchers to help assess the effectiveness of those techniques, and to provide more effective techniques

  8. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  9. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  10. An effective device for gas-liquid oxygen removal in enclosed microalgae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenfeng; Kang, Ruijuan; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance gas-liquid transmission device (HPTD) was described in this paper. To investigate the HPTD mass transfer characteristics, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients, K(A)(La,CO(2)) for the absorption of gaseous CO(2) and K(A)(La,O(2)) for the desorption of dissolved O(2) were determined, respectively, by titration and dissolved oxygen electrode. The mass transfer capability of carbon dioxide was compared with that of dissolved oxygen in the device, and the operating conditions were optimized to suit for the large-scale enclosed micro-algae cultivation. Based on the effectiveness evaluation of the HPTD applied in one enclosed flat plate Spirulina culture system, it was confirmed that the HPTD can satisfy the demand of the enclosed system for carbon supplement and excessive oxygen removal.

  11. Research progress of SO2 removal from flue gas by functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle SHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized ionic liquids are receiving increasing attention in the field of flue gas desulfurization due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Research progress on the field of SO2 removal by ionic liquids (ILs including guanidinium-based, amines-based and ether-based ILs is summarized. Industrial application of polymerization ILs and loaded ILs to desulfurization is reviewed. Relevant suggestions on industrial application of ionic liquids based on fundamental research are put forward. The first thing is to develop functional ionic liquid for desulfurization,and thus investigate and propose its desulfurization mechanism and model; the second is to carry out the research work on immobilized ionic liquid, and explore its recycling properties, thus prolonging its service life.

  12. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  13. Safeguarding public values in gas infrastructure expansion. A comparison of two investment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2007-02-01

    The realisation of new gas infrastructure projects affects overall gas market performance with respect to the public values of affordability and security of supply. However, the actual contribution of a gas infrastructure expansion project to system affordability and security of supply depends upon the institutional design of the market (legislation, regulatory codes and arrangements, market rules, etc.). In this paper we link the institutional design applicable to two specific gas infrastructure projects with the safeguarding of the aforementioned public values. We conclude that path dependencies can cause large differences in the contribution of the projects to the safeguarding of public values

  14. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  15. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple

  16. Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  18. Cervical Spine Collar Removal by Emergency Room Nurses: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Forgione, Massimo; Lusignan, Francis; Lanoue, Marc-André; Drouin, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) is a clinical decision aid to facilitate the safe removal of cervical collars in the alert, orientated, low-risk adult trauma patient. Few health care settings have assessed initiatives to train charge nurses to use the CCR. This practice improvement project conducted in a secondary trauma center in Canada aimed to (1) train charge nurses of the emergency room to use the CCR, (2) monitor its use throughout the project period, and (3) compare the assessments of the charge nurses with those of emergency physicians. The project began with the creation of an interdisciplinary team. Clinical guidelines were established by the interdisciplinary project team. Nine charge nurses of the emergency room were then trained to use the CCR (3 on each 8-hour shift). The use of the CCR was monitored throughout the project period, from June 1 to October 5, 2016. The 3 aims of this practice improvement project were attained successfully. Over a 5-month period, 114 patients were assessed with the CCR. Charge nurses removed the cervical collars for 54 of 114 patients (47%). A perfect agreement rate (114 of 114 patients, 100%) was attained between the assessments of the nurses and those of physicians. This project shows that the charge nurses of a secondary trauma center can use the CCR safely on alert, orientated, and low-risk adult trauma patients as demonstrated by the agreement in the assessments of emergency room nurses and physicians. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Zhijian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: pnyql520@hotmail.com; Zhao Qingjie [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science, 508 Qin-Zhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-04-01

    The reusability of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (AC-Co), MnO{sub 2} (AC-Mn) and CuCoO{sub 4} (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N{sub 2} atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg{sup 0} could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO{sub 2}'s crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg{sup 0} capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g{sup -1} and 5.21 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency. However, CuCoO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2}'s AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO{sub 2} tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO{sub 2}-poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn.

  20. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h. The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components.

  1. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood

    OpenAIRE

    Arazawa, D. T.; Kimmel, J. D.; Finn, M.C.; Federspiel, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (< 500 mL/min) ECCO2R devices necessitates more efficient gas exchange devices. Since over 90% of blood CO2 is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3−), we previously reported development of a carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal ...

  2. Development and implementation of a 600-MW natural gas cogeneration project - a financial case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, N.K.; Sherrill, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In February 1990, General Electric Capital Corporation (GECC), through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Electric Power Funding Corporation (GEPFC), provided a number of commitments to a partnership (the Partnership) formed by a company that develops, owns, and operates cogeneration facilities to fund the development, construction, and permanent debt and equity financing of a 614 megawatt (M) cogeneration facility (the Project) to be located near a large refinery in the northeastern United States. The Project is unusual both for the magnitude of its natural gas requirements and for its contractual configuration. The Project's entire transportation needs and a substantial portion of its gas requirements will be met by a joint venture between two local gas distribution companies (the Joint Venture), one of which is a large gas-consuming utility in the eastern United States. The Project's power purchase customer, (the Utility Host), is another very large gas-consuming utility. Thus, the fuel cost recovery of the Project is determined by the Utility Host's gas costs while its actual bill for fuel will be heavily influenced by the Joint Venture's gas commodity and transportation costs. Therefore, in appraising the credit quality of the Project's proposed fuel supply arrangements, the key issue to be answered is: Are the Project's natural gas supply and transportation arrangements compatible with the fuel cost recovery provisions of the power sales agreement with the Utility Host? If so, then the sensitivity of the Project's financing to adverse gas price movements would be minimized

  3. Photochemical removal of NpF6 and PuF6 from UF6 gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel photochemical method of removing reactive fluorides from UF 6 gas has been discovered. This method reduces generated waste to little more than the volume of the removed impurities, minimizes loss of UF 6 , and can produce a recyclable by-product, fluorine gas. In our new method, impure UF 6 , is exposed to ultraviolet light which dissociates the UF 6 to UF 5 and fluorine atom. Impurities which chemically react with UF 5 are reduced and form solid compounds easily removed from the gas while UF 5 is converted back to UF 6 . Proof-of-concept testing involved UF 6 containing NpF 6 and PuF 6 with CO added as a fluorine atom scavenger. In a single photolysis step, greater than 5000-fold reduction of PuF 6 was demonstrated while reducing NpF 6 by more than 40-fold. This process is likely to remove corrosion and fission product fluorides that are more reactive than UF 6 and has been demonstrated without an added fluorine atom scavenger by periodically removing photogenerated fluorine gas. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed

    In this porcine lung injury model, apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous CO2 removal provided sufficient gas exchange and stable hemodynamics, indicating that the method might have a potential in the treatment of severe ARDS.   Acknowledgements The membrane lungs were kindly provided by Novalung GmbH, Germany.......Background and aim of study We hypothesized that continuous high airway pressure without ventilatory movements (apneic oxygenation), using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal, pumpless, arterio-venous, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung...

  5. Possibilities for reduction of transverse projected emittances by partial removal of transverse to longitudinal beam correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.

    2014-09-01

    We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.

  6. Radioactive liquid wastes lines removal project at Los Alamos (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.C.; Cox, E.J.; Hohner, D.P.; Valentine, A.M.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the abandoned liquid waste lines removal operations conducted at Los Alamos in the period 1981 to 1986. Particular emphasis has been placed on as-left conditions, that is, on the location of sections of waste lines or contaminated soil which were left in place on the basis of ALARA decisions. Contaminated items were left when interfering utilities, roads, structures, or great depth made complete removal not cost effective or not safe. Left items were either not highly contaminated or they were not near the surface. Total cost of the project was $4.2 million. Approximately 5800 m 3 of contaminated waste was placed in the Solid Waste Management Site at TA-54 Area G. The project accomplished the removal of approximately 34,500 ft (6.5 miles) of abandoned waste lines under carefully controlled conditions. Procedures for excavation, waste disposal, personnel protection, and radiation monitoring are described. Environmental monitoring criteria and methods for determining acceptable levels of contamination in soils and on surfaces are discussed

  7. Catalytic removal of phenol from gas streams by perovskite-type catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dai Ling; Pan, Kuan Lun; Chang, Moo Been

    2017-06-01

    Three perovskite-type catalysts prepared by citric acid method are applied to remove phenol from gas streams with the total flow rate of 300mL/min, corresponding to a GHSV of 10,000/hr. LaMnO 3 catalyst is first prepared and further partially substituted with Sr and Cu to prepare La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 and La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Mn 0.8 Cu 0.2 O 3 , and catalytic activities and fundamental characteristics of these three catalysts are compared. The results show that phenol removal efficiency achieved with La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Mn 0.8 Cu 0.2 O 3 reaches 100% with the operating temperature of 200°C and the rate of mineralization at 300°C is up to 100%, while the phenol removal efficiencies achieved with La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 and LaMnO 3 are up to 100% with the operating temperature of 300°C and 400°C, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the addition of Sr and Cu increases the lattice oxygen of La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Mn 0.8 Cu 0.2 O 3 , and further increases mobility or availability of lattice oxygen. The results indicate that La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Mn 0.8 Cu 0.2 O 3 has the best activity for phenol removal among three catalysts prepared and the catalytic activity of phenol oxidation is enhanced by the introduction of Sr and Cu into LaMnO 3 . Apparent activation energy of 48kJ/mol is calculated by Mars-Van Krevelen Model for phenol oxidation with La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Mn 0.8 Cu 0.2 O 3 as catalyst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  9. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  10. Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hank Seiff

    2008-12-31

    Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

  11. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  12. Landfill Gas Energy Project Data and Landfill Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides data from the LMOP Database for U.S. landfills and LFG energy projects in Excel files, a map of project and candidate landfill counts by state, project profiles for a select group of projects, and information about Project Expo sites.

  13. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  14. Decontamination of the Scrap Removal Room at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridenbaker, W.A.; Clemons, L.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Scrap Removal Room (SRR) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The SRR is an area in the former reprocessing plant that is required for use in support of D and D for other plant areas. The SRR contained a 6.8 Mg (7.5-ton) crane for loading waste material into a shielded truck cask. It became radioactively contaminated during fuel reprocessing from 1966 to 1972. This report describes the work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of removing existing piping and equipment and of reducing radiation and contamination levels, to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA) levels for the installation of new equipment. Also reported are pre- and post-radiological conditions, personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume collected, cost and schedule data, and lessons learned

  15. Orthogonal Projection-Based Harmonic Signal Removal for Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Andersen, Palle; Hoen, C.

    2019-01-01

    A presence of a high amplitude periodic signals in the output responses from operating structures often pose a challenge for output-only system identification and, in case of health monitoring, damage detection/localization methods. This paper introduces a pre-processing approach that removes...... the harmonic part from the output signals directly in the time domain. The new method uses orthogonal projections of the harmonic realization of the signal onto the raw time series within the stochastic subspace framework. Proposed algorithm is tested on two experimental examples. First, an aluminum plate...... excited with both random white and periodic excitations. Second, a full-scale industrial case of a ferry excited by a random environmental load with harmonic interference from a rotating machinery on-board. In both cases the proposed method removes the harmonics from the structural responses while leaving...

  16. 75 FR 30021 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Teleconference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Teleconference With the National Marine... from Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Headquarters, commencing at 2 p.m. (Eastern Standard... Project. The South Carolina Electric and Gas Company will also participate in the teleconference. All...

  17. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 8, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: Effective... of Subjects in 18 CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  18. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 9, 2012. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  19. Integrated removal of NO and mercury from coal combustion flue gas using manganese oxides supported on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shibo; Zhao, Yongchun; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Lulu; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-03-01

    A catalyst composed of manganese oxides supported on titania (MnO x /TiO 2 ) synthesized by a sol-gel method was selected to remove nitric oxide and mercury jointly at a relatively low temperature in simulated flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts were investigated by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, etc. The effects of Mn loading, reaction temperature and individual flue gas components on denitration and Hg 0 removal were examined. The results indicated that the optimal Mn/Ti molar ratio was 0.8 and the best working temperature was 240°C for NO conversion. O 2 and a proper ratio of [NH 3 ]/[NO] are essential for the denitration reaction. Both NO conversion and Hg 0 removal efficiency could reach more than 80% when NO and Hg 0 were removed simultaneously using Mn0.8Ti at 240°C. Hg 0 removal efficiency slightly declined as the Mn content increased in the catalysts. The reaction temperature had no significant effect on Hg 0 removal efficiency. O 2 and HCl had a promotional effect on Hg 0 removal. SO 2 and NH 3 were observed to weaken Hg 0 removal because of competitive adsorption. NO first facilitated Hg 0 removal and then had an inhibiting effect as NO concentration increased without O 2 , and it exhibited weak inhibition of Hg 0 removal efficiency in the presence of O 2 . The oxidation of Hg 0 on MnO x /TiO 2 follows the Mars-Maessen and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gas Hydrates Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    The Gas Hydrates Project at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) focuses on the study of methane hydrates in natural environments. The project is a collaboration between the USGS Energy Resources and the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Programs and works closely with other U.S. Federal agencies, some State governments, outside research organizations, and international partners. The USGS studies the formation and distribution of gas hydrates in nature, the potential of hydrates as an energy resource, and the interaction between methane hydrates and the environment. The USGS Gas Hydrates Project carries out field programs and participates in drilling expeditions to study marine and terrestrial gas hydrates. USGS scientists also acquire new geophysical data and sample sediments, the water column, and the atmosphere in areas where gas hydrates occur. In addition, project personnel analyze datasets provided by partners and manage unique laboratories that supply state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to advance national and international priorities related to gas hydrates.

  1. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Gas cooling in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has a long history, the corresponding reactor types developed in France, the UK and the US having been thermal neutron spectrum systems using graphite as the moderator. The majority of NPPs worldwide, however, are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. These NPPs - of the so-called second generation - will soon need replacement, and a third generation is now being made available, offering increased safety while still based on light water technology. For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, R and D is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure

  2. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A. S.

    2010-09-01

    The majority of NPPs worldwide are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. (...) For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, Research and Development is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Since the very beginning of the international cooperation on Generation IV, viz. the year 2000, the main research interest in Europe as regards the advanced fast-spectrum systems needed for achieving complete fuel cycle closure, has been for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). However, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is currently considered as the main back-up solution. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For depressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be

  3. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Helen C; Richardson, Patricia R; Campbell, Gaynor A; Jones, Anita C; Baxter, Robert L; Kovalev, Valeri I; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S; DeLarge, Greg; Casey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  4. Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.

  5. Inventory greenhouse gas emissions and removal by sinks in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This publication is a result of a several months of analysis and cooperation between the experts group from the Center for energy, informatics and materials within Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, and the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, related to preparation of the national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks. The inventory is prepared according to IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 1996), with consideration of the three main greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). The investigations were conducted by three working teams: the first team dealt with the energy sector, the second team focused on the industrial processes and waste sectors, and the third team worked on the agriculture and land use change and forestry sectors. The sufficiency and applicability of the existing annual and monthly publications of the State Statistical Office were checked for each sector. Complete and high quality input data concerning the economy activities in the country were provided, to remove all initial uncertainties. The correlation factors which determine the quality of the processes were mostly taken as prescribed by the methodology. Within all sectors, the annual reports of the State Statistical Office were main information sources. although for the waste and agriculture sectors (where lack and uncertainty of data were prevalent) other sources and local experts had to be extensively consulted. Special treatment was applied to the energy sector, considering the complexity of this sector an its contribution to the total emissions with about 70%. The analyses were performed according to the type of final energy used: electricity production, heat production and transformation of mechanical energy for transport. Furthermore, separate detailed analyses were made for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The approach ensured the quality of input data for annual

  6. Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Dopson, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    UNCORRECTED PROOF J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2007), 17(4), ¿ Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor Bijmans, Martijn F. M.1*, Mark Dopson2, Frederick Ennin1, Piet N. L. Lens1, and Cees J. N. Buisman1 1Sub Department of Environmental Technology,

  7. Calcium and organic matter removal by carbonation process with waste incineration flue gas towards improvement of leachate biotreatment performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Xuedong; Wu, Liang; Li, Qingtao; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren

    2017-09-01

    Municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) flue gas was employed as the carbon source for in-situ calcium removal from MSWI leachate. Calcium removal efficiency was 95-97% with pH of 10.0-11.0 over 100min of flue gas aeration, with both bound Ca and free Ca being removed effectively. The fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, protein-like and humic acid-like compounds increased after carbonation process. The decrease of bound Ca with the increase of precipitate indicated that calcium was mainly converted to calcium carbonate precipitate. It suggested that the interaction between dissolved organic matter and Ca 2+ was weakened. Moreover, 10-16% of chemical oxygen demand removal and the decrease of ultraviolet absorption at 254nm indicated that some organics, especially aromatic compound decreased via adsorption onto the surface of calcium carbonate. The results indicate that introduce of waste incineration flue gas could be a feasible way for calcium removal from leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of H2S and CO2 Removal from Gas Streams Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas–liquid Contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mirfendereski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical absorption of H2S and CO2 from CH4 was carried out in a polypropylene porous asymmetric hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC. A 0.5 mol L–1 aqueous solution of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA was used as chemical absorbent solution. Effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, H2S concentration and CO2 concentration on the H2S outlet concentrations and CO2 removal percentage were investigated. The results showed that the removal of H2S with aqueous solution of MDEA was very high and indicated almost total removal of H2S. Experimental results also indicated that the membrane contactor was very efficient in the removal of trace H2S at high gas/ liquid flow ratio. The removal of H2S was almost complete with a recovery of more than 96 %. Using feed gas mixtures containing 5000 ppm H2S with CO2 concentrations in the range of 4–12 vol.%, the outlet H2S concentration of less than 1.0 ppm was attained with less than 4.0 vol.% of CO2 permeated and absorbed.

  9. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA - USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DESERT SANDS MDWCA, NM SIX MONTH EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during, and the results obtained from, the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The object...

  11. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagvardieff, Pierre; Barré, Yves; Blin, Virginie; Faure, Sylvain; Fornier, Anne; Grange, Didier; Grandjean, Agnès; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henner, Pascale; Siroux, Brice; Leybros, Antoine; Messalier, Marc; Paillard, Hervé; Prévost, Thierry; Rennesson, Malvina; Sarrobert, Catherine; Vavasseur, Alain; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2017-09-01

    As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA) proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor …) and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction) which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  12. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sabin, MN Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from January 30, 2006 to April 29, 2007 at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration site in Sabin, MN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the eff...

  13. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Tingzhen; de Richter, Renaud; Shen, Sheng; Caillol, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Even if humans stop discharging CO2 into the atmosphere, the average global temperature will still increase during this century. A lot of research has been devoted to prevent and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one of the technologies that might help to limit emissions. In complement, direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere has been proposed after the emissions have occurred. But, the removal of all the excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will not be enough, due to the fact that CO2 outgases from the ocean as its solubility is dependent of its atmospheric partial pressure. Bringing back the Earth average surface temperature to pre-industrial levels would require the removal of all previously emitted CO2. Thus, the atmospheric removal of other greenhouse gases is necessary. This article proposes a combination of disrupting techniques to transform nitrous oxide (N2O), the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of current radiative forcing, which is harmful for the ozone layer and possesses quite high global warming potential. Although several scientific publications cite "greenhouse gas removal," to our knowledge, it is the first time innovative solutions are proposed to effectively remove N2O or other GHGs from the atmosphere other than CO2.

  14. Study on the associated removal of pollutants from coal-firing flue gas using biomass activated carbon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cuiping; Yuan, Wanli [Qingdao Univ., Shandong (China). Electrical and Mechanical Engineering College; Qi, Haiying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A pilot-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg from flue gas (real flue gases of an heating boiler house) at various operating conditions, including operating temperature and activated carbon materials. Excellent SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg removal efficiency was achieved with the multi-layer design with carbons pellets. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed clearly decreased as the operating temperature was increased due to the decrease of physisorption performance. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency measured at the second layer adsorption bed was very higher when the particle carbon impregnated with NH{sub 3}. The higher amounts of Hg absorbed by cotton-seed-skin activated carbon (CSAC) were mainly contributed by chlorinated congeners content. The simultaneously removal of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg was optimization characterized with different carbon layer functions. Overall, The alkali function group and chloride content in CSAC impelled not only the outstanding physisorption but also better chemisorptions. The system for simultaneously removal of multi-pollutant-gas with biomass activated carbon pellets in multi-layer reactor was achieved and the removal results indicated was strongly depended on the activated carbon material and operating temperature.

  15. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted fr....../min. Thus, the method provided adequate gas exchange in this experimental model, suggesting that it might have potential as an alternative treatment modality in acute lung injury.......We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted from...

  16. Removal of pyridine from liquid and gas phase by copper forms of natural and synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehakova, Maria; Fortunova, Lubica; Bastl, Zdenek; Nagyova, Stanislava; Dolinska, Silvia; Jorik, Vladimir; Jona, Eugen

    2011-01-01

    Zeoadsorbents on the basis of copper forms of synthetic zeolite ZSM5 and natural zeolite of the clinoptilolite type (CT) have been studied taking into account their environmental application in removing harmful pyridine (py) from liquid and gas phase. Sorption of pyridine by copper forms of zeolites (Cu-ZSM5 and Cu-CT) has been studied by CHN, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) and analysis of the surface areas and the pore volumes by low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen. The results of thermal analyses of Cu-ZSM5, Cu-(py) x ZSM5, Cu-CT and Cu-(py) x CT zeolitic products with different composition (x depends on the experimental conditions of sorption of pyridine) clearly confirmed their different thermal properties as well as the sorption of pyridine. In the zeolitic pyridine containing samples the main part of the pyridine release process occurs at considerably higher temperatures than is the boiling point of pyridine, which proves strong bond and irreversibility of py-zeolite interaction. FTIR spectra of Cu-(py) x zeolite samples showed well resolved bands of pyridine. The results of thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy are in a good agreement with the results of other used methods.

  17. Continuous biological waste gas treatment in stirred trickle-bed reactor with discontinuous removal of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, A; Heits, H; Wübker, S; Heinze, U; Friedrich, C; Werner, U

    1998-02-20

    A new reactor for biological waste gas treatment was developed to eliminate continuous solvents from waste gases. A trickle-bed reactor was chosen with discontinuous movement of the packed bed and intermittent percolation. The reactor was operated with toluene as the solvent and an optimum average biomass concentration of between 5 and 30 kg dry cell weight per cubic meter packed bed (m3pb). This biomass concentration resulted in a high volumetric degradation rate. Reduction of surplus biomass by stirring and trickling caused a prolonged service life and prevented clogging of the trickle bed and a pressure drop increase. The pressure drop after biomass reduction was almost identical to the theoretical pressure drop as calculated for the irregular packed bed without biomass. The reduction in biomass and intermittent percolation of mineral medium resulted in high volumetric degradation rates of about 100 g of toluene m-3pb h-1 at a load of 150 g of toluene m-3pb h-1. Such a removal rate with a trickle-bed reactor was not reported before. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Blurred Lines: The Ethics and Policy of Greenhouse Gas Removal at Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Cox

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR for climate geoengineering is becoming increasingly salient following the IPCC's 5th Assessment Report and the Paris Agreement. GGR is thought of as a separate category to mitigation techniques such as low-carbon supply or demand reduction, yet multiple social, ethical and acceptability concerns cut across categories. We propose moving beyond classifying climate strategies as a set of discrete categories (which may implicitly homogenize diverse technologies, toward a prioritization of questions of scale of both technology and decision-making in the examination of social and ethical risks. This is not just a theoretical issue: important questions for policy, governance and finance are raised, for instance over the future inclusion of GGR in carbon markets. We argue that the conclusions drawn about how best to categorize, govern and incentivize any strategy will depend on the framing used, because different framings could lead to very different policy recommendations being drawn. Because of this, a robust approach to developing, governing and financing GGR should pay attention first to urgent concerns regarding democracy, justice and acceptability.

  19. Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.-H.; Chu Hsin; Lin, H.-P.; Peng, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773 K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H 2 S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl 2 O 4 was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency

  20. SO2 and NO removal from flue gas over V2O5/AC at lower temperatures - role of V2O5 on SO2 removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianrong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Qingya; Guo, Shijie; Huang, Zhanggen; Xiao, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Supporting V 2 O 5 onto an activated coke (AC) has been reported to significantly increase the AC's activity in simultaneous SO 2 and NO removal from flue gas. To understand the role of V 2 O 5 on SO 2 removal, V 2 O 5 /AC is studied through SO 2 removal reaction, surface analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. It is found that the main role of V 2 O 5 in SO 2 removal over V 2 O 5 /AC is to catalyze SO 2 oxidation through a VOSO 4 -like intermediate species, which reacts with O 2 to form SO 3 and V 2 O 5 . The SO 3 formed transfers from the V sites to AC sites and then reacts with H 2 O to form H 2 SO 4 . At low V 2 O 5 loadings, a V atom is able to catalyze as many as 8 SO 2 molecules to SO 3 . At high V 2 O 5 loadings, however, the number of SO 2 molecules catalyzed by a V atom is much less, due possibly to excessive amounts of V 2 O 5 sites in comparison to the pores available for SO 3 and H 2 SO 4 storage. (author)

  1. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  2. Case study: I-95 Landfill gas recovery project Fairfax County, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, M.J.; Peterson, E.R.; Smithberger, J.M.; Owen, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the landfill gas (LFG) recovery project at the I-95 Landfill in Fairfax County, Virginia. The project originally was conceived more than 10 years ago and has overcome numerous obstacles enroute to its present success. The efforts of the landfill owner (Fairfax County) and the project developer (Michigan Cogeneration Systems, Inc.) to surmount these obstacles are presented

  3. Design of project management system for 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yan; Xu Yuanhui

    1998-01-01

    A framework of project management information system (MIS) for 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor is introduced. Based on it, the design of nuclear project management information system and project monitoring system (PMS) are given. Additionally, a new method of developing MIS and Decision Support System (DSS) has been tried

  4. Potential Fish Production Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms off the Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, J.; Pondella, D.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  5. Support services for the automative gas turbine project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Support was provided to DOE and NASA in their efforts to inform industry, the public, and Government on the benefits and purpose of the gas turbine programs through demonstrations and exhibits. Tasks were carried out for maintenance, repair, and retrofit of the experimental gas turbine engines being used by NASA in their gas turbine technology programs and in program demonstrations. Limited support testing was conducted at Chrysler in which data were generated on air bearing rotor shaft dynamics, heavy duty variable sheave rubber belts, high temperature elastomer regenerator drive mounting and graphite regenerator seal friction characteristics.

  6. Analytical treatment of gas flows through multilayer insulation, project 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system was made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was also investigated. It was shown that when the relaxation time is less than the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparisons with experimental data were made.

  7. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren

    2004-08-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered.

  8. Chlorinated organic compound removal by gas phase pulsed streamer corona electrical discharge with reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.J.; Finney, W.C.; Locke, B. R.

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride removal by pulsed corona discharge was investigated with attention to energy efficiency and byproduct identification. Approximately, 50 to 95 percent removal of TCE and vinyl chloride was observed depending on the energy density applied to the gas. Water vapor had no significant effect on TCE removal. Evidence was found for post-corona reactions leading to removal of vinyl chloride downstream of the plasma discharge. Energy efficiencies of 100-900 g/kw-hr in the case of 1000 ppm feed of TCE and efficiencies of 2-24 g/kw-hr for a 100 ppm feed of vinyl chloride were found. In TCE experiments, the formation of dichloroacetyl chloride was observed, while chloro-ethane formation was found for vinyl chloride. In both cases, Cl- was measured downstream of the pulsed corona reactor in a water trap using an ion-selective electrode, although measured amounts varied widely due to condensation in the gas lines between the reactor and the water trap. The addition of a platinum-rhodium coated electrode was found only to reduce the downstream removal of vinyl chloride at low energy density. (author)

  9. NOx removal from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler using a multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Youl; Deshwal, Bal Raj; Moon, Seung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The study on removal of NO x from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler has been carried out using non-thermal plasma cum catalyst hybrid reactor at 150 C. Propylene (C 3 H 6 ) was used as a reducing agent. A multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor was newly designed and successfully operated to clean up the flue gas stream having a flow rate of 30 Nm 3 /h. TiO 2 and Pd/ZrO 2 wash-coated on cordierite honeycomb were used as catalysts in the present study. Though the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with TiO 2 showed good activity on the removal of NO yet it removed only 50-60% of NO x because a significant portion of NO oxidized to NO 2 . On the contrary, the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with Pd/ZrO 2 removed about 50% of inlet NO with a negligible amount of NO oxidation into NO 2 . The plasma/dual-catalysts hybrid system (front two units of plasma-Pd/ZrO 2 + rear two units of plasma/TiO 2 ) proved to be very promising in NO x removal in the presence of C 3 H 6 . DeNO x efficiency of about 74% has been achieved at a space velocity of 3300/h at 150 C. (author)

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA -- USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT ROLLINSFORD, NH, SIX MONTH EVALUTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Rollinsford Water and Sewer District facility in Rollinsford, NH. The objectives of the project are to...

  11. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA, USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT RIMROCK, AZ, SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Rimrock, AZ. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Arsenic Package Uni...

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTION MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BROWN CITY, MI SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project in Brown City, MI. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services (...

  13. The cyclotron gas stopper project at the NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenaut, C., E-mail: guenaut@nscl.msu.edu; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Marti, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Lawton, D.; Ottarson, J.; Pang, G. K.; Schwarz, S.; Sherrill, B. M. [Michigan State University (United States); Wada, M. [RIKEN (Japan); Zeller, A. F. [Michigan State University (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Gas stopping is becoming the method of choice for converting beams of rare isotopes obtained via projectile fragmentation and in-flight separation into low-energy beams. These beams allow ISOL-type experiments, such as mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, to be performed with projectile fragmentation products. Current gas stopper systems for high-energy beams are based on linear gas cells filled with 0.1-1 bar of helium. While already used successfully for experiments, it was found that space charge effects induced by the ionization of the helium atoms during the stopping process pose a limit on the maximum beam rate that can be used. Furthermore, the extraction time of stopped ions from these devices can exceed 100 ms causing substantial decay losses for very short-lived isotopes. To avoid these limitations, a new type of gas stopper is being developed at the NSCL/MSU. The new system is based on a cyclotron-type magnet with a stopping chamber filled with Helium buffer gas at low pressure. RF-guiding techniques are used to extract the ions. The space charge effects are considerably reduced by the large volume and due to a separation between the stopping region and the region of highest ionization. Cyclotron gas stopper systems of different sizes and with different magnetic field strengths and field shapes are presently investigated.

  14. The cyclotron gas stopper project at the NSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaut, C.; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Marti, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Lawton, D.; Ottarson, J.; Pang, G. K.; Schwarz, S.; Sherrill, B. M.; Wada, M.; Zeller, A. F.

    2006-01-01

    Gas stopping is becoming the method of choice for converting beams of rare isotopes obtained via projectile fragmentation and in-flight separation into low-energy beams. These beams allow ISOL-type experiments, such as mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, to be performed with projectile fragmentation products. Current gas stopper systems for high-energy beams are based on linear gas cells filled with 0.1-1 bar of helium. While already used successfully for experiments, it was found that space charge effects induced by the ionization of the helium atoms during the stopping process pose a limit on the maximum beam rate that can be used. Furthermore, the extraction time of stopped ions from these devices can exceed 100 ms causing substantial decay losses for very short-lived isotopes. To avoid these limitations, a new type of gas stopper is being developed at the NSCL/MSU. The new system is based on a cyclotron-type magnet with a stopping chamber filled with Helium buffer gas at low pressure. RF-guiding techniques are used to extract the ions. The space charge effects are considerably reduced by the large volume and due to a separation between the stopping region and the region of highest ionization. Cyclotron gas stopper systems of different sizes and with different magnetic field strengths and field shapes are presently investigated.

  15. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The main objective of this project has been to disseminate the results and experiences achieved during the former projects in Kaunas to other Lithuanian gas companies and the gas sector in general. Also new subjects selected in co-operation with Kaunas Gas Company, the Lithuanian Energy Institute and the Lithuanian Gas Training Centre, where improvements were required, have been implemented. The components of the project were the following: (1) A training course in cathodic protection. One course concerning measuring and registration and one course concerning design and implementation. (2) A pilot project to develop methods for measuring cathodic protection on coherent steel pipe network. (3) Analysis of gas losses related to types of gas meters and calibration of meters. (4) A training course and technology transfer concerning relations between gas companies and consumers. (5) Dissemination of the experience of 1998 from the preparation of an operation and maintenance manual for Kaunas Gas Company. Dissemination of the ideas to other Lithuanian gas companies. (EHS)

  16. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  17. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  18. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Nielsen, Malene

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates ...... on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency....

  19. Basic survey project for joint implementation, etc. for associated gas utilization project at Kokdumalak Gas Field in Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a survey was conducted of the recovery/utilization of the associated gas in the Kokdumalak gas field in the Republic of Uzbekistan. In this area, crude oil and natural gas are produced, but the associated gas, etc. are released burning in the atmospheric air. This plan aims to recover LPG, NGL, etc. from these. In the plan, studies were made on the installation in the Karaulbazar area of production facilities of LPG of 369t/d and NGL of 107t/d by the feed of raw gas of 5,748,000 Sm{sup 3}/d and of LPG storage facilities, and on the installation of a 80km-LPG pipeline. The construction work will start in April, 2001 and is planned to be completed in 33 months. The investment required is estimated at approximately 82,003M US$. The substituting energy generated in this plan will be 168,418 toe/y and will total 5,052,546 toe in the term. Moreover, the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions will be 4.52 million t/y in CO2 and will total 135 million t in CO2 in the term. (NEDO)

  20. Draft evaluation of the frequency for gas sampling for the high burnup confirmatory data project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802041, “Draft Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burn-up Storage Demonstration Project” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations. Gas sampling will provide information on the presence of residual water (and byproducts associated with its reactions and decomposition) and breach of cladding, which could inform the decision of when to open the project cask.

  1. Evaluation of process costs for small-scale nitrogen removal from natural gas. Topical report, January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echterhoff, L.W.; Pathak, V.K.

    1991-08-01

    The report establishes the cost of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high nitrogen subquality natural gas. Three processing technologies are evaluated: cryogenic, Nitrotec Engineering Inc.'s pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and lean oil absorption. Comparison of the established costs shows that the cryogenic process exhibits the lowest total plant investment for nitrogen feed contents up to about 22%, above which the PSA process exhibits the lowest investment cost. The lean oil process exhibits the highest total plant investment at the 25% nitrogen feed studied. Opposite to the total plant investment for the cryogenic process, the total plant investment for the PSA process decreases with increasing nitrogen content primarily due to increasing product gas compression requirements. The cryogenic process exhibits the lowest gas processing costs for the nitrogen content range under study. However, the difference between the gas processing costs for the PSA and cryogenic processes narrows as the nitrogen content approaches 15-25%. The lean oil gas processing cost is very high compared to both the cryogenic and PSA processes. The report verifies that nitrogen removal from natural gas is expensive, especially for small-scale applications, and several avenues are identified for improving the cryogenic and PSA technologies

  2. The role of the Industrial Bank of Japan in financing gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns liquefied natural gas projects, or LNG projects for short, and more specifically, how the Industrial Bank of Japan, IBJ, as a private bank has been involved in many projects, and how the bank has solved a range of problems encountered in the process of financing such projects. After that, the author's personal views are expressed on how to tackle the future development of LNG, an energy source that will become increasingly important in the future

  3. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  4. A review on disaster risk mitigation in the oil and gas project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhi, N. N.; Anwar, N.; Wiguna, I. P. A.

    2018-01-01

    In addition to the very complex risks, hazards potentially lead to disasters in the oil and gas projects. These risks can certainly be anticipated with the application of risk management, but an unsystematic and ineffective implementation of risk management will still bring adverse impacts. According to the eleven risk management principles in ISO 31000:2009, the application of risk management must pay attention to all aspects, both internal and external factors. Thus, this paper aims to identify variables that could affect the disaster mitigation efforts of oil and gas projects. This research began with literature study to determine the problems of risk management in oil and gas projects, so the affecting variables as the study objectives can be specified subsequently based on the literature review as well. The variables that must be considered in the efforts of disaster risk mitigation of oil and gas project are the risk factors and sustainability aspect.

  5. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammad Javad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p 3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream.

  6. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity...

  7. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2009 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity r...

  8. A Fine-Tuned MOF for Gas and Vapor Separation: A Multipurpose Adsorbent for Acid Gas Removal, Dehydration, and BTX Sieving

    KAUST Repository

    Haja Mohideen, Mohamed Infas; Pillai, Renjith S.; Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Maurin, Guillaume; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Summary The development of highly stable separation agents is recognized as a decisive step toward the successful deployment of energy-efficient and cost-effective separation processes. Here, we report the synthesis and construction of a metal-organic framework (MOF), kag-MOF-1, that has adequate structural and chemical features and affords a stable adsorbent with unique and appropriate adsorption properties for gas processing akin to acid gas removal, dehydration, and benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) sieving. A combination of X-ray diffraction experiments, adsorption studies, mixed-gas breakthrough adsorption column testing, calorimetric measurements, and molecular simulations corroborated the exceptional separation performance of kag-MOF-1 and its prospective use as a multifunctional adsorbent. The unique adsorption properties of kag-MOF-1, resulting from the contracted pore system with aligned periodic array of exposed functionalities, attest to the prominence of this new generation of ultra-microporous material as a prospective practical adsorbent toward cost-effective and more simplified gas and vapor processing flowcharts for natural gas upgrading and flue gas scrubbing.

  9. A Fine-Tuned MOF for Gas and Vapor Separation: A Multipurpose Adsorbent for Acid Gas Removal, Dehydration, and BTX Sieving

    KAUST Repository

    Haja Mohideen, Mohamed Infas

    2017-10-19

    Summary The development of highly stable separation agents is recognized as a decisive step toward the successful deployment of energy-efficient and cost-effective separation processes. Here, we report the synthesis and construction of a metal-organic framework (MOF), kag-MOF-1, that has adequate structural and chemical features and affords a stable adsorbent with unique and appropriate adsorption properties for gas processing akin to acid gas removal, dehydration, and benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) sieving. A combination of X-ray diffraction experiments, adsorption studies, mixed-gas breakthrough adsorption column testing, calorimetric measurements, and molecular simulations corroborated the exceptional separation performance of kag-MOF-1 and its prospective use as a multifunctional adsorbent. The unique adsorption properties of kag-MOF-1, resulting from the contracted pore system with aligned periodic array of exposed functionalities, attest to the prominence of this new generation of ultra-microporous material as a prospective practical adsorbent toward cost-effective and more simplified gas and vapor processing flowcharts for natural gas upgrading and flue gas scrubbing.

  10. High temperature gasification and gas cleaning – phase II of the HotVegas project

    OpenAIRE

    Meysel, P.; Halama, S.; Botteghi, F.; Steibel, M.; Nakonz, M.; Rück, R.; Kurowski, P.; Buttler, A.; Spliethoff, H.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the research project HotVeGas is to lay the necessary foundations for the long-term development of future, highly efficient high-temperature gasification processes. This includes integrated hot gas cleaning and optional CO2 capture and storage for next generation IGCC power plants and processes for the development of synthetic fuels. The joint research project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and five industry partners. It is coordi...

  11. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenham, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    solvent use and other sources is included as a souce of CO{sub 2} emission. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of these sectors. However, the report starts with a summary of the emissions with a section for each of the pollutants treated. At the end of each of these section the main differences between the present calculation and thevalues in Denmark's Second National Communication on Climate Change are described shortly. For each of the pollutants the development of the emissions in the period 1972-2012 and the various emission targets in Danish sector plants or international conventions are shown on a figure. Below the figures the emissions for the main emitting sectors are shown in a table. The years shown in these tables are not the same for all pollutants. When a column is marked with '2010' it means that the values in the columns are averaged over the first commitment period 2008-2012. It is not possible in this report to present all the data from the emission calculations. The data is contained in an EXEL notebook model. Appendix 1 contains a table with time-series for 1975-2012 for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O for all emitting sectors. In Appendix 2 the results of the projections 2000-2012 are shown in the IPCC/CRF Sectoral Tables format in CO{sub 2} equivalents for each greenhouse gas and in total (only source and sink categories with greenhouse gas emissions or removals are shown). The model is structured as a set of worksheets for the primary energy consuming sector and the model contains similar sets for each of the pollutants. Additional sheets have been included for the relevant pollutants, where emissions originate from non-combustion processes. Each of these spreadsheets contains time-series for the emissions from each of the primary fuels consumed in the sector. (ba)

  13. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented

  14. Removal of NO from flue gas by aqueous chlorine-dioxide scrubbing solution in a lab-scale bubbling reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshwal, Bal Raj; Jin, Dong Seop; Lee, Si Hyun; Moon, Seung Hyun; Jung, Jong Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2008-02-11

    The present study attempts to clean up nitric oxide from the simulated flue gas using aqueous chlorine-dioxide solution in the bubbling reactor. Chlorine-dioxide is generated by chloride-chlorate process. Experiments are carried out to examine the effect of various operating variables like input NO concentration, presence of SO(2), pH of the solution and NaCl feeding rate on the NO(x) removal efficiency at 45 degrees C. Complete oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurred on passing sufficient ClO(2) gas into the scrubbing solution. NO is finally converted into nitrate and ClO(2) is reduced into chloride ions. A plausible reaction mechanism concerning NO(x) removal by ClO(2) is suggested. DeNO(x) efficiency increased slightly with the increasing input NO concentration. The presence of SO(2) improved the NO(2) absorption but pH of solution showed marginal effect on NO(2) absorption. NO(x) removal mechanism changed when medium of solution changed from acidic to alkaline. A constant NO(x) removal efficiency of about 60% has been achieved in the wide pH range of 3-11 under optimized conditions.

  15. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  16. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO(sub 2) emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO(sub 2) removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge

  17. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagvardieff Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor … and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  18. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  19. Reliability analysis of 2400 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor natural circulation decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Bassi, C.; Bentivoglio, F.

    2012-01-01

    In support to a PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) performed at the design level on the 2400 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, the functional reliability of the decay heat removal system (DHR) working in natural circulation has been estimated in two transient situations corresponding to an 'aggravated' Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) and a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The reliability analysis was based on the RMPS methodology. Reliability and global sensitivity analyses use uncertainty propagation by Monte Carlo techniques. The DHR system consists of 1) 3 dedicated DHR loops: the choice of 3 loops (3*100% redundancy) is made in assuming that one could be lost due to the accident initiating event (break for example) and that another one must be supposed unavailable (single failure criterion); 2) a metallic guard containment enclosing the primary system (referred as close containment), not pressurized in normal operation, having a free volume such as the fast primary helium expansion gives an equilibrium pressure of 1.0 MPa, in the first part of the transient (few hours). Each dedicated DHR loop designed to work in forced circulation with blowers or in natural circulation, is composed of 1) a primary loop (cross-duct connected to the core vessel), with a driving height of 10 meters between core and DHX mid-plan; 2) a secondary circuit filled with pressurized water at 1.0 MPa (driving height of 5 meters for natural circulation DHR); 3) a ternary pool, initially at 50 C. degrees, whose volume is determined to handle one day heat extraction (after this time delay, additional measures are foreseen to fill up the pool). The results obtained on the reliability of the DHR system and on the most important input parameters are very different from one scenario to the other showing the necessity for the PSA to perform specific reliability analysis of the passive system for each considered scenario. The analysis shows that the DHR system working in natural circulation is

  20. Assessing the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanjun; Yoo, Han Kyul; Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas and has a global warming potential at least 28 times as high as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In the United States, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are reported to be the third-largest source of human-made methane emissions, responsible for 18% of methane emissions in 2011. Capturing landfill gas (LFG) for use as an energy source for electricity or heat produces alternative energy as well as environmental benefits. A host of federal and state policies encourage the development of landfill gas to energy (LFGE) projects. This research provides the first systematic economic assessment of the role of these policies on adoption decisions. Results suggest that Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credits have contributed to the development of these projects, accounting for 13 of 277 projects during our data period from 1991 to 2010. These policy-induced projects lead to 10.4 MMTCO 2 e reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and a net benefit of $41.8 million. - Highlights: • Examine the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects • Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credit had impacts. • Investment tax credit policy is cost-effectiveness in promoting these projects. • Policy-induced projects lead to significant environmental benefits

  1. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing; Regan, John M.

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered

  2. Evaluation of process costs for small-scale carbon dioxide removal from natural gas. Topical report, September 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changela, M.K.; Reading, G.J.; Echterhoff, L.W.

    1991-08-01

    The report establishes the cost of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high carbon dioxide subquality natural gas. Two processing technologies are evaluated: conventional diethanolamine (DEA) absorption and membrane separation. Comparison of the established costs shows both capital and operating cost advantages for small-scale membrane applications. Membranes offer higher cost savings at low feed flow rates and high carbon dioxide feed contents. Membranes are produced in modules, thus they do not exhibit economies of scale. This works to their advantage for removing carbon dioxide on a small scale. Processing costs for amine systems are more sensitive to economies of scale, and thus decrease more rapidly than for membranes at higher feed flow rates. The report shows that membranes have a definite market niche within the natural gas processing arena. For economic reasons, membranes will likely become the technology of choice for small-scale systems that treat high carbon dioxide content natural gas streams. However, amines will continue to service large-scale systems and applications where deep carbon dioxide removal is required. A related report (GRI Report No. GRI-91/0093 entitled, 'Technical Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane/DEA Modeling') shows that hybrid systems, the integration of membranes and amines, also offer the potential to lower processing costs

  3. The synthesis of a new type adsorbent for the removal of toxic gas by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Jiro; Sugo, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    A new type of adsorbent containing sulfuric acid group for the removal of ammonia gas was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene onto fibrous and nonwoven type polypropylene followed by sulufonation with chlorosulfonic acid. The rate of the adsorption of ammonia gas by H-type adsorbent is independent of the ion-exchange capacity. The amount of ammonia gas adsorbed by the chemical adsorption was dependent on the ion-exchange capacity of H-type fibrous adsorbent and was kept constant value in spite of the equilibrium pressure of ammonia gas. Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-types fibrous adsorbent were prepared by the ion exchange reaction of Na-type fibrous adsorbent with metal nitrate solutions. Although, the rate of adsorption of ammonia gas by metal-type fibrous adsorbent is lower than that of H-type adsorbent, the amount of ammonia gas adsorbed increases compared to H-type adsorbent with the same ion exchange capacity. It was related to the highest coordination number of metal ion. The ratio of the number of ammonia molecules adsorbed chemically and the number of metal ion adsorbed in fibrous adsorbent was 4 for Cu-type and 6 for Ni-type fibrous adsorbent, respectively. (author)

  4. Introduction to the Gas Hydrate Master Project of Energy National Science and Technology Program of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Research Team of Gas Hydrate Project of CGS of Taiwan

    2011-12-01

    Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs), which have been considered as one of major indicators of the gas hydrate in sub-seafloor, have been detected and widely distributed in offshore SW Taiwan. The Central Geological Survey of Taiwan launched a 4-year multidisciplinary gas hydrate investigation program in 2004 to explore the potential of gas hydrate resources in the area. The results indicate that enormous amounts of gas hydrate should occur beneath the seafloor, although none of solid gas hydrate samples have been found. Therefore, a second stage of another 4-year program started in 2008 to extend the studies/investigation. In the ongoing projects, some specific areas will be studied in detail to assess the components of gas hydrate petroleum system and provide a better assessment of the energy resource potential of gas hydrate in the target area. In addition to the field investigations, phase equilibrium of gas hydrate via experiment, theoretical modeling, and molecular simulations has also been studied. The results can provide insights into gas hydrate production technology. Considering the high potential energy resources, the committee of the energy national science and technology program suggests initiating a master project to plan the strategy and timeline for the gas hydrate exploration, exploitation and production in Taiwan. The plan will be introduced in this presentation.

  5. Removal of H/sub 2/S from hot gas in the presence of Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tomita, A.; Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1989-01-01

    Three solids containing Cu oxides were tested as sorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas at 600 degrees C. The formation of a surface layer of sulphides on pellet exterior affected Cu utilization for the sorbent prepared from Cu oxides alone. This improved for the sorbent prepared by impregnation of zeolite with Cu oxides, although complete utilization of Cu was not achieved. The combination of Cu oxides with SiO/sub 2/ gave the most efficient sorbent. Oxidation of H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ on admission of hot gas to the fixed bed was a common observation for all sorbents. The addition of steam to hot gas suppressed the SO/sub 2/ formation. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Helen C; Richardson, Patricia R; Campbell, Gaynor A; Jones, Anita C; Baxter, Robert L [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Chemistry Building, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Kovalev, Valeri I; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S [School of Engineering and Physical Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); DeLarge, Greg [Plasma Etch Inc, 3522 Arrowhead Drive, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Casey, Mark [Sterile Services Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4AS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.baxter@ed.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  7. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  8. Device for removing hydrogen gas from the safety containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The safe processing of all concentrations of gas mixtures should be possible with such a device using a thermal recombiner of compact construction. A recombiner consisting of a metal case and diverter sheets situated in it is heated by induction. The incoming pipe for the gas mixture enriched with hydrogen and the outgoing pipe for the gas mixture with low hydrogen content are connected together by a three way valve. The third connection to the safety valve takes the larger port of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content back to the safety containment vessel. Sufficient amount of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content is taken via the three way valve to the safety containment vessel to ensure that the hydrogen content of the gas mixture taken to the recombiner remains below the 4% by volume limit. (orig./PW)

  9. PROJECT OF POLLUTANTS SEPARATOR FROM THE GAS STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kościelnik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oily wastewater are dangerous for the environment, because they can contaminate ground water or surface, which can lead to contamination of the biosystem or poisoning of humans and animals. The treatment plant of this kind may include petroleum products or substances derived from natural gas, crude oil, asphalt or natural wax. Of course, in the wastewater oily you cannot forget about vegetable oils used in catering. Waste water of this type to be cleaned are subjected to the following processes: flotation, sedimentation, filtration, flowing out, thermal methods, biodegradation, adsorption or chemical and thermal methods to destabilize the emulsion. The aim of this study was to design a separator pollution from the gas station. We present the investment and operating costs. In designing the system chosen individual process units based on the requirements of the quality of wastewater specified in PN - EU 858.

  10. Bolivia-Brazil natural gas project: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the natural gas reserves in Bolivia and Brazil is discussed. The development of these reserves is being conducted by the Private Corporation for Gas Development. The Corporation was created to promote participation of the private sector in an area that was exclusively managed by federal or state governments. In order to promote participation by the private sector and at the same time to motivate foreign investors, the corporation is conducting a program of activities and studies that includes a legal and institutional analysis, a feasibility study in accordance with the viewpoints of the private sector, and also the structure of a business development plan, according to the perspective of private investors

  11. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  12. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  13. Bypassing Russia: Nabucco project and its implications for the European gas security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Restrictions on CO 2 emissions, the nuclear phase-out announced by some member states, high emissions from coal-fired power plants, and barriers to rapid development of renewable generation are factors that make the European Union (EU) highly dependent on natural gas. With three non-EU countries (Russia, Algeria and Norway) currently supplying more than half the gas consumed within the EU and with projections pointing out that by 2030 internal sources will only be able to meet 25% of demand, the EU desperately looks for means to secure new sources of gas supply. In this context, the Nabucco pipeline is planned to deliver gas from Caspian and Middle East regions to the EU market. It runs across Turkey and then through Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary before connecting with a major gas hub in Austria. On paper, Nabucco project makes perfect sense, offering a new export route to the EU markets for Caspian gas producers (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) as well as Iran and, in time, Iraq. The project is backed by the EU and strongly supported by the United States. Perhaps most importantly, Nabucco would completely bypass Russia. This paper addresses issues surrounding Nabucco project and their implications for the European gas security. (author)

  14. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  15. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  16. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  17. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Nielsen, Malene; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2011-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  18. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, Marianne; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  19. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2009 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2010-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  20. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne [DMU-AU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  1. Gas projects surge in the Middle East as governments seek new revenue sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The rapid development of natural gas and condensate reserves in the Middle East results from a simple motivation: the desire of governments to earn revenues. For the past decade, Middle East governments have run budget deficits, which they funded by drawing down foreign assets and issuing debt. Now in the process of structural economic reform, they have begun to use an under-utilized resource--natural gas, of which Middle East governments own about one third of the world's reserves. Governments receive revenues from several sources in natural gas developments, which makes the projects very attractive. Revenue comes from the sale of the natural gas in the domestic market and, if exported, the international market; the sale of associated condensates; the additional exports of crude oil or refined products if natural gas is substituted for refined products in domestic markets; the increased sale of crude oil if natural gas is injected into reservoirs to maintain pressure; and the sale of petrochemicals where natural gas is used as feedstock. Large projects under way in the Middle East highlight the consequences of multiple revenue sources and interlinked costs of natural gas and condensate development. Other countries in the region are undertaking similar projects, so examples cited represent only a portion of what is occurring. The paper describes Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iran

  2. Development of Nano-Sulfide Sorbent for Efficient Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal Combustion Fuel Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-09-06

    The surface area of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully enlarged using nanostructure particles synthesized by a liquid-phase precipitation method. The ZnS with the highest surface area (named Nano-ZnS) of 196.1 m(2)·g(-1) was then used to remove gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion fuel gas at relatively high temperatures (140 to 260 °C). The Nano-ZnS exhibited far greater Hg(0) adsorption capacity than the conventional bulk ZnS sorbent due to the abundance of surface sulfur sites, which have a high binding affinity for Hg(0). Hg(0) was first physically adsorbed on the sorbent surface and then reacted with the adjacent surface sulfur to form the most stable mercury compound, HgS, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and a temperature-programmed desorption test. At the optimal temperature of 180 °C, the equilibrium Hg(0) adsorption capacity of the Nano-ZnS (inlet Hg(0) concentration of 65.0 μg·m(-3)) was greater than 497.84 μg·g(-1). Compared with several commercial activated carbons used exclusively for gas-phase mercury removal, the Nano-ZnS was superior in both Hg(0) adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. With this excellent Hg(0) removal performance, noncarbon Nano-ZnS may prove to be an advantageous alternative to activated carbon for Hg(0) removal in power plants equipped with particulate matter control devices, while also offering a means of reusing fly ash as a valuable resource, for example as a concrete additive.

  3. Gas reactor in-pile safety test project (GRIST-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Arbtin, E.; St Pierre, R.

    1979-01-01

    Although out-of-pile tests may be expected to confirm individual phenomena models in core disruptive accident analysis codes, only in-pile tests are capable of verifying the extremely complex integrated model effects within the appropriate time phase for these accidents. For this reason, the GRIST-2 project, the purpose of which is to design and construct an in-pile helium loop capable of transient safety testing in the TREAT facility in Idaho, forms a cornerstone of the US GCFR safety program. The project organization, experiment program, facility, helium system design, and schedule which have been selected to meet the objectives are described

  4. The anatomy and importance of project finance for oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that project financing can be of great benefit to oil and gas projects because by separately identifying and securing assets and cashflows it can provide large sums not otherwise accessible to whole projects or to individual companies. Project financing is of interest to members of the SPE because it routinely requires the expertise of petroleum engineers and other professionals to vouch for the viability of petroleum projects and the recoverability of reserves. its essential attraction is that risk analysis and the application of precise professional criteria enable large projects and amounts to be financed, which otherwise might not occur. This is particularly the case when there are a number of participants in a large project, none of which is on its own able to support the finance. The growth in the average size of projects means that an increasing number of projects must be financed in this way or not be able to go forward

  5. The development of Middle Eastern gas: analyses of the graveyard of export projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, Robert

    1994-01-01

    There are three types of opportunities for gas developments in the Middle East. The first are those provided by the domestic energy market, the second by regional trade and the third by the potential for exports outside the region. The development of the full gas potential of the region, given the size of the reserves held by several countries, will only be possible through export. Of course, there is still room for the expansion of gas use within the producing countries and their regional neighbours but growth of domestic demand would not make a significant dent in the regional reserves before several decades. The potential for exports is constrained, however, by the uncertainty about future oil prices, the long lead-in time of major gas projects and the associated financing problems. There is a graveyard of gas export projects in the Middle East. New projects are continually conceived and then abandoned or indefinitely postponed. Even the famous Qatargas project which took so long to bring to the threshold of implementation appears in the present climate to be unattractive for both the country and the foreign investors involved. Gas in the Middle East will remain for a very long time a resource for an ever more distant future. There is still too much oil around for its price to rise to a support level for big gas projects in the Middle East. And there is no significant demand yet in Europe for Middle East oil which only leaves the Far East as a potential market. The paradox is that if gas resources are not developed ahead of needs, gas will not be available in sufficient volumes when required. (Author)

  6. Removal of CO2 from a Gas Stream Using an Experimental Centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bil, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental separation of contaminants from a natural gas mixture using a centrifuge. The experimentally measured equilibrium separations are compared to theory, and spin-up times are evaluated. For realistic throughputs such as those from commercial gas fields (ca.

  7. Demand of natural gas; methodology for their projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The objective of integrated energetic planning process, is to propose political that assure the full supply of energy in the country, at competitive costs and with a rational use of the resources. Of there that it requires the periodic analysis of the information on the sectors of energy supplies and demand and on their interrelation with the economic, social and environmental environment. Among the variables that should stay upgraded during the planning process, it stands out the energy demand. The fact of to evaluate and to project demands goes to predict the consumer's of energy low uncertain conditions future behavior that it can affect the prospective results, so much in the short term as in the long term. One of the alternatives to face the uncertainty has more than enough future events it consists on building scenarios in those that values different from the variables that are considered with more incidences in the projected results participate. In the case of the energy, the variables that, generally, they are considered determinant, are the economic growth, the prices variation, the technological developments, the substitution among energy, the change of patterns of the population's consumption and the rational use of the energy. The application of the methodology of scenarios allows to settle down, for this case, bands of projection of the energy demand, in global form or for each energy type, specify in each sector and for each use. Once it is had the projection band, it is possible to determine the half growth of long term. The energy planning should respond in immediate form to the scenario changes, through the revision of the state projections. A frequent error, typical of the old sub-sector planning, consists on maintaining, in an irrational way, established growth percentages, when they intend new scenarios of economic growth

  8. Development of a new decay heat removal system for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Park, Rae Young; Kim, Seyun

    2007-01-01

    The heat removal capacity of a RCCS is one of the major parameters limiting the capacity of a HTGR based on a passive safety system. To improve the plant economy of a HTGR, the decay heat removal capacity needs to be improved. For this, a new analysis system of an algebraic method for the performance of various RCCS designs was set up and the heat transfer characteristics and performance of the designs were analyzed. Based on the analysis results, a new passive decay heat removal system with a substantially improved performance, LFDRS was developed. With the new system, one can have an expectation that the heat removal capacity of a HTGR could be doubled

  9. Simplified model of SO2 removal from industrial gas in e-beam process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzyk, J.; Sowinski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of SO 2 and, on the part, NO x removal mechanism by e-beam process has been discussed. It is estimated that radiation contribution to SO 2 removal amounts to 40% while in the case of NO x it appears to reach about 70%. Taking into account the main reactions responsible for SO 2 oxidation as well as the assumption presented in our previous paper an algorithm has been developed to describe linear kinetics of the process. The principal assumption referred to depends on OH radical concentration to be nearly stable. The concept of an extended model of NO x /SO 2 removal has been presented and the literature data have been used to check the suggested model. On that basis the general idea has been proposed for controlling SO 2 /NO x removal which comprises both the simplified and extended pathway. (author)

  10. Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Reimund; Niles, John O; Olander, Jacob

    2002-08-15

    A major concern about land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the potential for leakage. Leakage refers to a net increase of greenhouse-gas emissions in an area outside the project resulting from the CDM activity. This paper provides an overview of leakage, its definitions and its causes. It describes ways that LULUCF projects may suffer from leakage and attempts to assess the magnitude of leakage risks for different LULUCF project types. It also summarizes some of the approaches, both in terms of policies and project development, to address LULUCF leakage.

  11. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  12. Pulsed sub-microsecond dielectric barrier discharge treatment of simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas: removal of SO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacef, A; Cormier, J M

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the removal of SO 2 and NOx from simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas containing O 2 , N 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 and H 2 O using a sub-microsecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. Removal efficiencies of SO 2 and NOx (NO+NO 2 ) were achieved as a function of gas temperature for two specific energies and two initial NO, NO 2 and SO 2 concentrations. The higher SO 2 and NOx removal efficiencies were achieved in a gas stream containing 163 ppm of SO 2 , 523 ppm of NO, 49 ppm of NO 2 , 14% of CO 2 , 8% of O 2 , 16% of H 2 O and N 2 as balance. The experimental results were evaluated using the energy cost or W-value (eV/molecule removed). About 100% of SO 2 and 36% of NOx were removed at a gas temperature of 100 deg. C with an energy cost of about 45 eV/molecule removed and 36 eV/molecule removed, respectively. These results indicate that DBD plasmas have the potential to remove SO 2 and NOx from gas streams without additives

  13. NOx and PAHs removal from industrial flue gas by using electron beam technology in the alcohol addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.X.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Kubica, K.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The preliminary test of NO x and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from flue gas were investigated in the alcohol addition by using electron beam irradiation in EPS Kaweczyn. Experimental conditions were as follows: flue gas flow rate 5000 nM 3 /hr; humidity 4-5%; inlet concentrations of SO 2 and NO x , which were emitted from power station, were 192 ppm and 106 ppm, respectively; ammonia addition is 2.75 m 3 /hr; alcohol addition is 600 l/hr. It was found that NO x removal efficiency in the presence of alcohol was increased by 10% than without alcohol addition when the absorbed dose was below 6 kGy. The NO x removal efficiency was decreased when the absorbed dose was higher than 10 kGy. In order to understand PAHs' behavior under EB irradiation, inlet PAHs (emitted from coal combustion process) sample and outlet PAHs (after irradiation) sample were collected by using a condensed bottle connected with XAD-2 adsorbent and active carbon adsorbent and were analyzed by a GC-MS. It is found that: at the 8 kGy adsorbed dose, concentrations of PAHs with small aromatic rings (≤3, except Acenaphthylene) are reduced and concentrations of PAHs with large aromatic rings (≤4) are increased. A possible mechanism is proposed

  14. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  15. Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded

  16. Effective bias removal for fringe projection profilometry using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William Wai-Lam; Lun, Daniel Pak-Kong

    2012-08-20

    When reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) object height profile using the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) technique, the light intensity reflected from the object surface can yield abruptly changing bias in the captured fringe image, which leads to severe reconstruction error. The traditional approach tries to remove the bias by suppressing the zero spectrum of the fringe image. It is based on the assumption that the aliasing between the frequency spectrum of the bias, which is around the zero frequency, and the frequency spectrum of the fringe is negligible. This, however, is not the case in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) technique to eliminate the bias in the fringe image using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT). The new approach successfully identifies the features of bias, fringe, and noise in the DT-CWT domain, which allows the bias to be effectively extracted from a noisy fringe image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional methods and facilitates accurate reconstruction of objects' 3D models.

  17. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  18. The gas cushion technique as a handling means for the remote removal of tokamak segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removille, J.; Stephano, R.

    1983-01-01

    The gas cushion technique has been studied as offering a compact, flexible and safe way of handling massive objects. The evolution of the gas-cushion handling philosophy is discussed and examples presented related to the displacements of different loads in the torus and in the reactor hall. A short technical comparison with the C-frame handling concept is made in the conclusion. (author)

  19. High temperature fluidized bed zero valent iron process for flue gas nitrogen monoxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chen, S.S.; Tang, C.H.; Chang, Y.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Liu, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are generated from a variety of sources, and are critical components of photochemical smog. Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been used to remove NO x in a number of studies. The ZVI process requires no extra chemicals or catalysts. In this study, a fluidized ZVI process for removing NO x from flue gases was proposed. The study examined the effects of temperature, ZVI dosage and influent NO concentrations, and observed the kinetic effects between the fluidized ZVI and NO x . A life cycle analysis of the process was also provided. The parametric analysis was conducted in a series of column studies using a continuous emissions monitoring system. Minimum fluidization velocity equations were provided, and the drag coefficient was determined. Capacities of ZVI for NO removal at different temperatures were calculated. Results of the study suggested that temperature, influent concentrations, and flow rates all influenced kinetic coefficients. Different temperatures resulted in different rates of NO removal. It was concluded that between 673 K and 773 K, almost complete NO removals were achieved. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The main objective of the...

  1. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...

  2. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  3. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  5. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March 1979--31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. During March, National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers generally progressed on schedule. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation techniques. Theoretical and experimental work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Sandia Laboratories completed preparations for the NTS evaluation test of the borehole seismic system. M.D. Wood, Inc. monitored the formation of a hydraulic fracture in the Wattenburg gas field, Weld County, Colorado. Measurement of bottom-hole pressure in the Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells for the CIG cyclic gas injection project continued. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse--Duke No. 1 was flowing 4,000 MCFD in March. Efforts to clean out Mobil's PCU F31-13G well continued.

  6. Aerosol and iodine removal system for the dissolver off-gas in a large fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.; Wilhelm, J.G.; Jannakos, K.

    1979-01-01

    A newly developed filter combination for the dissolver off-gas in a reprocessing plant with a throughput of 1400 t/y of heavy metal is presented and single filter components are described. The design principle chosen provides for remote handling and direct disposal in waste drums of 200 l volume. The optimization of housings and filter units is studied on true scale components in the simulated dissolver off-gas of a test facility named PASSAT. This facility will be described. PASSAT will be also used for final testing of the SORPTEX process which is under development. Its concept is included in the paper. The design and function of the new multiway sorption filter providing for complete loading of the iodine sorption material and maintaining continuously high decontamznation factors will also be given. Removal efficiencies measured for aerosols and iodine in an existing reprocessing plant are indicated

  7. Natural gas projects in the developing world: An empirical evaluation of merits, obstacles, and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amit

    Significant amounts of natural gas have been discovered in developing countries throughout the years during the course of oil exploration. The vast majority of these resources have not been utilized. Some developing countries may benefit from a carefully planned utilization of their indigenous resources, which can either be exported or used domestically to substitute imported or exportable fuels or feedstock. Governments, potential private sector investors, and financiers have been searching for strategies to promote natural gas schemes, some of which have been in the pipeline for more than two decades. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the crucial factors determining the success or failure of launching natural gas projects in the developing world. The methodology used to evaluate these questions included: (1) establishing a representative sample of natural gas projects in developing countries that were either implemented or failed to materialize during the 1980-1995 period, (2) utilizing a Probit limited dependent variable econometric model in which the explained variable is project success or failure, and (3) choosing representing indicators to reflect the assumed factors affecting project success. The study identified two conditions for project success: (1) the economic viability of the project and (2) securing financing for the investment. The factors that explain the ability or inability of the sponsors to secure financing were: (1) the volume of investment that represented the large capital costs of gas transportation, distribution, and storage, (2) the level of foreign exchange constraint in the host country, and (3) the level of development of the country. The conditions for private sector participation in natural gas projects in developing countries were identified in the study by a Probit model in which the explained variable was private sector participation. The results showed that a critical condition for private sector participation is the

  8. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  9. Producing hydrogen from coke-oven gas: the Solmer project. [PSA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, G; Vidal, J

    1984-05-01

    After presenting the energy situation at the Solmer plant, where coke-oven gas is produced to excess, the authors examine the technical and economic possibilities of utilizing this gas for hydrogen extraction. They describe a project (based on the PSA process) for producing some 65 t/d of hydrogen and present the technical features of the scheme. An evaluation of the energy and financial costs of producing the hydrogen confirms the competitive status of the process.

  10. Effects of flue gas components on removal of elemental mercury over Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Chuan; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Fukuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited high Hg"0 removal activity. • SO_2 restrained Hg"0 oxidation and adsorption due to the formation of SO_4"2"−. • The formation of NH_3 to NH_4"+ restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation. - Abstract: The adsorption and oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg"0) under various flue gas components were investigated over a series of Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC catalysts, which were synthesized by an impregnation method. To discuss the mechanism, the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as N_2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the presence of 500 ppm SO_2 in the flue gas significantly restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation over 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the formation of SO_4"2"− species. Hg"0 could be oxidized to HgCl_2 in the presence of HCl, because the Deacon process occurred. NO would react with active oxygen to form NO_2-containing species, which facilitated Hg"0 oxidation. While the presence of NO limited the Hg"0 adsorption on 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the competitive adsorption of NO with Hg"0. The addition of NH_3 in the flue gas significantly restrained Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation, because the formed NH_4"+ species covered the active adsorption sites on the surfaces, and further limited Hg"0 oxidation. However, when NO and NH_3 were simultaneously added into the flue gas, the Hg"0 oxidation efficiency of 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited a relatively high value (72%) at 250 °C, which indicated the practicability to use Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC for Hg"0 removal under SCR conditions.

  11. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated eac...

  12. Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Mixtures Using Ion-Exchanged Silicoaluminophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J (Inventor); Rivera-Ramos, Milton E (Inventor); Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Na+-SAPO-34 sorbents were ion-exchanged with several individual metal cations for CO2 absorption at different temperatures (273-348 K) and pressures (SAPO-34 sorbents are by far the best option for CO2 removal from CH4 mixtures, especially at low concentrations.

  13. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...

  14. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and

  15. Microbial Community in a Biofilter for Removal of Low Load Nitrobenzene Waste Gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhai

    Full Text Available To improve biofilter performance, the microbial community of a biofilter must be clearly defined. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale polyurethane biofilter for treating waste gas with low loads of nitrobenzene (NB (< 20 g m-3 h-1 was investigated when using different empty bed residence times (EBRT (64, 55.4 and 34 s, respectively. In addition, the variations of the bacterial community in the biofilm on the longitudinal distribution of the biofilters were analysed by using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that NB waste gas was successfully degraded in the biofilter. High-throughput sequencing data suggested that the phylum Actinobacteria and genus Rhodococcus played important roles in the degradation of NB. The variations of the microbial community were attributed to the different intermediate degradation products of NB in each layer. The strains identified in this study were potential candidates for purifying waste gas effluents containing NB.

  16. ETDR, The European Union's Experimental Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poette, Christian; Brun-Magaud, Valerie; Morin, Franck; Dor, Isabelle; Pignatel, Jean-Francois; Bertrand, Frederic; Stainsby, Richard; Pelloni, Sandro; Every, Denis; Da Cruz, Dirceu

    2008-01-01

    In the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) development plan, the Experimental Technology Demonstration Reactor (ETDR) is the first necessary step towards the electricity generating prototype GFR. It is a low power (∼50 MWth) Helium cooled fast reactor. The pre-conceptual design of the ETDR is shared between European partners through the GCFR Specifically Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the European Commission's 6. R and D Framework Program. After recalling the place of ETDR in the GFR development plan, the main reactor objectives, the role of the European partners in the different design and safety tasks, the paper will give an overview of the current design with recent progresses in various areas like: - Sub-assembly technology for the starting core (pin bundle with MOX fuel and stainless steel cladding). - The design of experimental advanced ceramic GFR fuel sub-assemblies included in several locations of the starting core. - Starting Core reactivity management studies model including experimental GFR sub-assemblies. - Neutron and radiation shielding calculations using a specific MCNP model. The model allows evaluation of the neutron doses for the vessel and internals and radiation doses for maintenance operations. - System design and safety considerations, with a reactor architecture largely influenced by the Decay Heat Removal strategy (DHR) for de-pressurized accidents. The design of the reactor raises a number of issues in terms of fuel, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics codes qualification as well as critical components (blowers, IHX, thermal barriers) qualification. An overview of the R and D development on codes and technology qualification program is presented. Finally, the status of international collaborations and their perspectives for the ETDR are mentioned. (authors)

  17. Removal of halogenated organic compounds in landfill gas by top covers containing zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Winther, K.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Transformation of gaseous CCl3F and CCl4 by zero-valent iron was studied in systems unsaturated with water under anaerobic conditionssin an N2 gas and in a landfill gas atmosphere. The transformation was studied in batch as well as flow-through column tests. In both systems, the transformation....... During continuous aerobic conditions, the transformation of CCl3F decreased toward zero. Model calculations show that use of zero-valent iron in landfill top covers is a potential treatment technology for emission reduction of halogenated trace compounds from landfills....

  18. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    sources of mercury in the cement kiln flue gas. Cement plants are quite different from power plants and waste incinerators regarding the flue gas composition, temperature, residence time, and material circulation. Cement kiln systems have some inherent ability to retain mercury in the solid materials due...... to the adsorption of mercury on the solids in the cold zone. However, recirculation of the kiln dust to the kiln will cause release of the captured mercury. The mercury chemistry in cement kiln systems is complicated and knowledge obtained from power plants and incinerators cannot be directly applied in cement...

  19. Radioactive gas and hydrogen removal after a LOCE at the LOFT Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick-Barger, J.W.; Sumpter, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a silver-zeolite halogen adsorber placed in series with a hydrogen catalytic recombiner and a cryogenic noble gas adsorber assembly constitutes a waste gas processing system (WGPS) capable of handling hydrogen and fission product gases following a Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE). This paper describes: the types and quantities of gases expected to be found at the facility after a failed-fuel LOCE; the purpose of the WGPS; and the general configuration and expected decontamination factors associated with the LOFT WGPS

  20. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Absorptive Media-U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Desert Sands MDWCA, NM Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The objectives of the project were to evalu...

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of an Aquatic Treatme...

  2. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at LEADS Head Start Building in Buckeye Lake, OH - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Licking Economic Action Development Study (LEADS) Head Start School in Buckeye Lake, Ohio. The objectives of the project were to evaluate...

  3. Hydrodynamic behaviour and comparison of technologies for the removal of excess biomass in gas-phase biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J A; Prado, O J; Veiga, M C; Kennes, C

    2004-01-01

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of a biofilter fed toluene and packed with an inert carrier was evaluated on start-up and after long-term operation, using both methane and styrene as tracers in Residence Time Distribution experiments. Results indicated some deviation from ideal plug flow behaviour after 2-year operation. It was also observed that the retention time of VOCs gradually increased with time and was significantly longer than the average residence time of the bulk gas phase. Non-ideal hydrodynamic behaviour in packed beds may be due to excess biomass accumulation and affects both reactor modeling and performance. Therefore, several methods were studied for the removal of biomass after long-term biofilter operation: filling with water and draining, backwashing, and air sparging. Several flow rates and temperatures (20-60 degrees C) were applied using either water or different chemicals (NaOH, NaOCl, HTAB) in aqueous solution. Usually, higher flow rates and higher temperatures allowed the removal of more biomass, but the efficiency of biomass removal was highly dependent on the pressure drop reached before the treatment. The filling/draining method was the least efficient for biomass removal, although the treatment did basically not generate any biological inhibition. The efficiency of backwashing and air sparging was relatively similar and was more effective when adding chemicals. However, treatments with chemicals resulted in a significant decrease of the biofilter's performance immediately after applying the treatment, needing periods of several days to recover the original performance. The effect of manually mixing the packing material was also evaluated in duplicate experiments. Quite large amounts of biomass were removed but disruption of the filter bed was observed. Batch assays were performed simultaneously in order to support and quantify the observed inhibitory effects of the different chemicals and temperatures used during the treatments.

  4. Removal and recovery of ammonia from livestock wastewater using hydrophobic gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The costs of fertilizers have rapidly increased in recent years, especially nitrogen fertilizer such as anhydrous ammonia which is made from natural gas. Thus, new treatment technologies for abatement of ammonia emissions in livestock operations are being focused on nitrogern (N) recovery in additio...

  5. Tritium removal by hydrogen isotopic exchange between hydrogen gas and water on hydrophobic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, T.; Isomura, S.; Izawa, H.; Nakane, R.

    1980-01-01

    Many kinds of the hydrophobic catalysts for hydrogen isotopic exchange between hydrogen gas and water have been prepared. The carriers are the hydrophobic organic materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), monofluorocarbon-PTFE mixture(PTFE-FC), and styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer(SDB). 0.1 to 2 wt % Pt is deposited on the carriers. The Pt/SDB catalyst has much higher activity than the Pt/PTFE catalyst and the Pt/PTFE-FC catalyst shows the intermediate value of catalytic activity. The observation of electron microscope shows that the degrees of dispersion of Pt particles on the hydrophobic carriers result in the difference of catalytic activities. A gas-liquid separated type column containing ten stages is constructed. Each stage is composed of both the hydrophobic catalyst bed for the hydrogen gas/water vapor isotopic exchange and the packed column type bed for the water vapor/liquid water isotopic exchange. In the column hydrogen gas and water flow countercurrently and hydrogen isotopes are separated

  6. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  7. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  8. Optimizing The Efficiency of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor for Removal of Nitric Oxides in Gas Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Wong, C.S.; Abas, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was built and used to remove nitric oxides in gas phase. In the preliminary work, it was found that the DBD reactor can used for direct processing of contaminated air stream. It was observed that if the applied energy is sufficiently high, reduction can overcome the oxidation process. The other characteristics that can affect the efficiency of the reactor are the processing flow rate, number of DBD tubes used and how the tubes are connected. The composition of the feed gas also plays important role. To improve the efficiency, more tubes were added and configured in combination of serial and parallel connections to achieve the best result. The reactor was found to be most efficient when using 6 tubes configured to have 2 sets of 3 tubes in series connected in parallel. The maximum flow rate that can be treated is 5 scfh. When operated with the optimum input voltage of 32 kV, the reactor can remove up to 80 % nitric oxide in the reduction mode. This means that the energy is sufficiently high to sustain the reduction mode and prevent further oxidation. (author)

  9. Study on efficient methods for removal and treatment of graphite blocks in a gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Shirakawa, M.; Murakami, T.

    2001-01-01

    Tokai Power Station (GCR, 166 MWe) started its commercial operation on July 1966 and ceased activities at the end of March 1998 after 32 years of operation. The decommissioning plans are being developed, to prepare for near future dismantling. In the study, the methods for removal of the graphite blocks of about 1,600 ton have been developed to carrying it out safely and in a short period of time, and the methods of treatment of graphite have also been developed. All technological items have been identified for which R and D work will be required for removal from the core and treatment for disposal. (1) In order to reduce the programme required for the dismantling of reactor internals, an efficient method for removal of the graphite blocks is necessary. For this purpose the design of a dismantling machine has been investigated which can extract several blocks at a time. The conceptual design has being developed and the model has been manufactured and tested in a mock-up facility. (2) In order to reduce disposal costs, it will be necessary to segment the graphite blocks, maximising the packing density available in the disposal containers. Some of the graphite blocks will be cut into pieces longitudinally by a remote machine. Relevant technical matters have been identified, such as graphite cutting methods, the nature of fine particles arising from the cutting operation, the treatment of fine particles for disposal, and the method of mortar filling inside the waste container. (author)

  10. Designing a gas cooled ADS for enhanced waste transmutation. The PDS-XADS European Project contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.; Sunderland, R.; Mueller, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator driven system (ADS) are complex in their conception. It is the reason why studies proceed step by step. At the moment, one can take advantage of the work performed within the PDS-XADS project (Preliminary Design Studies of an eXperimental ADS) of the 5. European programme. The PDS-XADS project has been the first one to define rather detailed plants for a demonstration of the ADS technology, making a full use of European expertise from different research organizations, industries and universities. This first step was using MOX fuel technology with a design mostly devoted to the technology demonstration. Elaborated designs are sufficiently advanced to confirm the good prospects in the feasibility of such ADS plants. Also weak points have been identified and it is not a surprise that the open issues appear in the most unusual parts of reactor design i.e. in the spallation module. For what concerns the accelerator, the high reliability/availability requirements remain an important issue. The strategy to overcome these difficulties is a standard practice in reliability engineering, a technical discipline for risk estimation and management that is followed for many industrial applications or products in various fields. The gas technology exhibits clear interests in terms of coolant chemical inertness, overall simplicity of the reactor (internals, components) that can be based on proven helium cooled reactor experience but the chosen volume power (56 W/cm 3 ) for this concept is an upper limit due to constraints to the mechanical behaviour of the steel of the cladding. On the other hand, the removal of the decay heat is very much associated to the use of active systems even in protected transients i.e. with proton beam interruption. The statistical safety analysis has demonstrated however that the heat exchangers are the less reliable part of the DHR system. A solution to overcome this difficulty is the use of redundant and diversified systems. The final

  11. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  12. Removal of dust from flue gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Roeggasrensning for stoev ved hoej temperatur og hoejt tryk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D. V.; Rasmussen, J.

    1989-06-15

    Several new coal-based power generation systems are now ready for commercial application. Especially Integrated coal Gasification with combined Cycle (IGCC) and pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion possess the potential for reducing emissions of SOx, NOx and particulates compared to conventional technology. In addition to this a decrease in heat-rate is possible. However, the decrease in heat-rate is dependant on the temperature of which the removal of particulated and gaseous pollutants takes place. Using state-of-the-art technology this temperature is 25-40 deg. C, but the efficiency improvement will only be substantial if the temperature can be raised to 400-500 deg. C or more. The coal gasification, which is the heart of an IGCC-system, can be caried out in a number of ways. Since the hot gas clean-up equipment (HGCU) to some extent is dependant on the gasification technology used, a description of the leading coal gasification systems is given. It is concluded that special interest should be given to gasifiers of the entrained flow type. The aim is to develope a HGCU-system for the removal of gaseous pollutants as well as particulate matter. The operating principles and stage of development of the competing technologies for dust removal at high temperature and pressure are described. Special attention is paid to the electrostatic precipitator, and possible solutions to problems related ot this technology are given. (AB) 165 refs.

  13. Two-stage gas-phase bioreactor for the combined removal of hydrogen sulphide, methanol and alpha-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Jin, Yaomin; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2009-11-01

    Biological treatment systems have emerged as cost-effective and eco-friendly techniques for treating waste gases from process industries at moderately high gas flow rates and low pollutant concentrations. In this study, we have assessed the performance of a two-stage bioreactor, namely a biotrickling filter packed with pall rings (BTF, 1st stage) and a perlite + pall ring mixed biofilter (BF, 2nd stage) operated in series, for handling a complex mixture of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methanol (CH3OH) and alpha-pinene (C10H16). It has been reported that the presence of H2S can reduce the biofiltration efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when both are present in the gas mixture. Hydrogen sulphide and methanol were removed in the first stage BTF, previously inoculated with H2S-adapted populations and a culture containing Candida boidinii, an acid-tolerant yeast, whereas, in the second stage, alpha-pinene was removed predominantly by the fungus Ophiostoma stenoceras. Experiments were conducted in five different phases, corresponding to inlet loading rates varying between 2.1 and 93.5 g m(-3) h(-1) for H2S, 55.3 and 1260.2 g m(-3) h(-1) for methanol, and 2.8 and 161.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for alpha-pinene. Empty bed residence times were varied between 83.4 and 10 s in the first stage and 146.4 and 17.6 s in the second stage. The BTF, working at a pH as low as 2.7 as a result of H2S degradation, removed most of the H2S and methanol but only very little alpha-pinene. On the other hand, the BF, at a pH around 6.0, removed the rest of the H2S, the non-degraded methanol and most of the alpha-pinene vapours. Attempts were originally made to remove the three pollutants in a single acidophilic bioreactor, but the Ophiostoma strain was hardly active at pH elimination capacities (ECs) reached by the two-stage bioreactor for individual pollutants were 894.4 g m(-3) h(-1) for methanol, 45.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for H2S and 138.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for alpha-pinene. The results from this

  14. Removal of volatile iodine from gas bubbles rising in water pools: review and assessment of pool scrubbing codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo, J; Herranz, L E; Peyres, V; Escudero, M [CIEMAT, Nuclear Technology Institute, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident with core damage the fission products released from the degrading fuel bundles often pass through aqueous beds before entering the containment, mitigating in part the source term. Several computer codes have been developed for predicting the fission product and aerosols removal in pool scrubbing scenarios. In addition to particle removal, these codes simulate the retention of some volatile iodine compounds. In this work a review of volatile iodine removal models included in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Besides, the results and discussions of a validation of both codes against the available experimental data are summarized. SPARC and BUSCA codes model the diffusion of iodine toward the bubble interface by using the film penetration theory, which assumes a double layer gas-liquid at the interface. However, there are some differences between the two models, mainly related to the boundary conditions in the aqueous volume for the diffusion of molecular iodine. In SPARC, a set of fast reactions in the liquid phase control both the molecular iodine concentration in the pool and the partition coefficient of iodine at the interface. Thus, the aqueous chemistry plays an important role in the boundary conditions for the diffusion process. On the contrary, the BUSCA model has no chemical considerations at all, and assumes a null iodine concentration in the water bulk. Several sensitivity studies have been made in order to weight the effect of these differences. The variables examined in these studies were the pool temperature and the incoming iodine concentration in the pool. Additionally, sensitivity studies focused on the steam mass fraction of the injected gas were performed to study the effect of the different approach of both models for the condensation process. The results showed a different sensitivity of SPARC and BUSCA to the incoming concentration. (author) 5 tabs., 26 refs.

  15. Removal of volatile iodine from gas bubbles rising in water pools: review and assessment of pool scrubbing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Peyres, V.; Escudero, M.

    1996-01-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident with core damage the fission products released from the degrading fuel bundles often pass through aqueous beds before entering the containment, mitigating in part the source term. Several computer codes have been developed for predicting the fission product and aerosols removal in pool scrubbing scenarios. In addition to particle removal, these codes simulate the retention of some volatile iodine compounds. Nonetheless, experimental data on the matter are rather scarce and further validation remains to be done. In this work a review of volatile iodine removal models included in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Besides, the results and discussions of a validation of both codes against the available experimental data are summarized. SPARC and BUSCA codes model the diffusion of iodine toward the bubble interface by using the film penetration theory, which assumes a double layer gas-liquid at the interface. However, there are some differences between the two models, mainly related to the boundary conditions in the aqueous volume for the diffusion of molecular iodine. In SPARC, a set of fast reactions in the liquid phase control both the molecular iodine concentration in the pool and the partition coefficient of iodine at the interface. Thus, the aqueous chemistry plays an important role in the boundary conditions for the diffusion process. On the contrary, the BUSCA model has no chemical considerations at all, and assumes a null iodine concentration in the water bulk. Several sensitivity studies have been made in order to weight the effect of these differences. The variables examined in these studies were the pool temperature and the incoming iodine concentration in the pool. Additionally, sensitivity studies focused on the steam mass fraction of the injected gas were performed to study the effect of the different approach of both models for the condensation process. The results showed a different sensitivity of SPARC

  16. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict.

  17. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  19. Uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections: Experiences from Mexico and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel

    This report outlines approaches to quantify the uncertainty associated with national greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections. It does so by describing practical applications of those approaches in two countries – Mexico and South Africa. The goal of the report is to promote uncertainty...

  20. Economic and Strategic Expectations from Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the successful implementation of the oil strategy, Azerbaijan began to define strategic objectives in relation to gas export policy. Currently, Azerbaijan is the only country in the region exporting gas to the international markets (Turkey, Russia, Georgia. For this reason, it is seen as “the provider and participant” of Southern Gas Corridor by EU. In this direction, Azerbaijan aims to be the country of an important and strategic natural gas exporter. From Shahdeniz field to the end European user, it targets to take part in the every ring of the value chain. These assumptions bring Azerbaijan to the position of a remarkable natural gas supplier for the export of large amount of gas to the European markets through Nabucco West. The implementation of the project with financial and technical capabilities of Azerbaijan and Turkey has made it a project to be realized between Turkey-Azerbaijan. TANAP means Turkey and Azerbaijan will emerge together in the European market for energy transportation. Along with Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, TANAP has reinforced Turkey’s position as a necessary energy corridor in delivering the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to the Western markets. In this paper, expected strategic and economic outcomes of TANAP are analyzed.

  1. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  2. Innovative in-line separators: removal of water or sand in oil/water and gas/liquid/solid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepson, Paul; Cheolho Kang; Gopal, Madan [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase mixtures are often separated before downstream processing. The separators are large, often 20 - 40 feet long and large diameter and use sophisticated internals. The costs are in the millions of dollars. Further, the sand and water in the flow can cause severe internal erosion and corrosion respectively before the flow reaches the separators. The CC Technologies/MIST In line Separation System is a cost-effective, efficient device for use in multiphase environments. The device is applicable for gas/solid, gas/liquid/solid and oil/water systems and offers exceptional separation between phases for a fraction of the cost of expensive gravity separators and hydro cyclones. The System contains no moving parts and is designed to be of the same diameter as the pipe, and experiences low shear forces. It can be fabricated with standard pipes. The efficiency of the separator has been determined in an industrial scale, pilot plant test facility at CC Technologies in 4-inch diameter pipes and has been found to be in excess of 98-99% for the removal of sand. Two phase oil/water separation effectiveness is in excess of 90% in 1-stage and 95% in 2 - stage. (author)

  3. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves; Tognetti, Érica Rodrigues; Aguiar, Mônica Lopes; Gonçalves, José Antônio Silveira; Coury, José Renato

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency var...

  4. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  5. Case history of a successful CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpole, Ken

    1998-07-01

    A successful fieldwide CO{sub 2} miscible gas injection project has been underway at the East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) in eastern New Mexico, USA since 1985. This presentation follows the evolution of CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection operations at EVGSAU and discusses some of the significant changes in reservoir strategy management which have been implemented over the past 13 years. These changes parallel the evolution in the industry's understanding of and experience with CO{sub 2} miscible gs injection processes. The operating problems and reservoir management challenges encountered at East Vacuum - injection performance, sweep efficiency, effective management of WAG operations, rapidly changing requirements for handling produced gas, and maintaining efficient utilization of injected CO{sub 2} - reflect the kinds of challenges typically encountered in managing a large CO{sub 2} injection project. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Kyoto protocol flexibility mechanisms in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonova, A.

    2005-02-01

    This PhD thesis evaluates the perspectives of the oil and gas investment projects in the frame of the Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia. From the energy point of view, the relationships between climate policy and energy systems are described and the main sources of GHG emissions reductions in the Russian oil and gas sector are evaluated. From the environmental point of view, the JI is firstly considered as an economic instrument of the international climate agreements. Secondly, are demonstrated the characteristics of the JI perturbing his efficiency and his capacity to ensure the environmental quality of projects. Based on the specificities of Russian climate policy, two scenarios of its development are proposed to estimate the perspectives of JI in the oil and gas sector in the middle term. (author)

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project

  8. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. Approximately 350 new industrial, 800 new commercial, and 12,700 new residential natural gas customers are expected from this project. Incremental gas sales are projected to be about 48.1 million CF/d when the project is completed in 1992. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. The gas for Surabaya will be used for about 400 industrial and 150 commercial customers, and 3,600 households. The additional gas supply for Medan will be used for two power plants operated by the state electric utility, PLN. Incremental natural gas sales from this project are projected to be 68 million CF/d when it is

  9. Summary of the technical guidelines used in the project: The economics of greenhouse gas limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    This document is a summary version of the technical guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Technical guidelines (UNEP 1998). The objectives of this project have been to support the development of a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au)

  10. Modelling gas migration in fractured rock. A contribution to the EU's PROGRESS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.; Robinson, P.; Clark, K.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the performance of a waste repository, it is necessary to be able to predict the rates of gas generation and to understand and evaluate both the way the gas may disperse from the repository and any effects that might be associated with this dispersal. This document describes the modelling work carried out by QuantiSci on behalf of the UK Environment Agency, in conjunction with the CEC PROGRESS Project (Research into Gas Generation and Migration in Radioactive Waste Repository Systems) which has been carried out as part of the European Commission's IV th framework R and D programme. The project was under the PEGASUS (Projects on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities) umbrella. A review is provided of alternative conceptual models for the migration of gas through an initially water saturated fracture. A range of front or interface tracking methods for computing gas migration through a fracture is described: direct discretisation, marker particle, volume of fluids and level set methods. Volume of fluids methods are identified as the most appropriate approach for models of this sort. Subsequently, a description is given of the development of a model of gas injection into a single fracture in a portion of Borrowdale Volcanic Granite. The theoretical approach for the model is described in detail and the model compared to experimental results obtained for the real fracture. The experimental results of the CEC PROGRESS Project (obtained using Positron Emission Tomography) do not show particularly good agreement with the model results. However, there are strong indications that this is largely the result of uncertainties in the interpretation of the PET results. The experimental results are acknowledged to be extremely hard to interpret and the apparent negative gas thicknesses observed experimentally confirm this fact. Given the clearly critical dependence of the gas migration pathways on the aperture distribution, any discrepancies of this sort

  11. Effects of slash removal in an experimental nitrogen gradient. Final report for the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Ring, Eva; Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten

    2000-04-01

    During four years after clear-felling, the effects of slash removal, including needles, were studied on a productive spruce site (site index G30) in the province of Vaermland, western Sweden. The study was made in an old fertilization experiment, in which at the most 2400 kg N/ha had been added during a twenty-year period. Despite the fact that the site is rich in nitrogen and that much slash was removed (100 ton d. m./ha), there were only very minor effects of the slash removal on the variables under study. These were the composition of soil water, the content of inorganic nitrogen in soil, the biomass of the field layer and the development of the planted spruce seedlings. The only statistically significant effect was that the content of nitrate was reduced in the humus layer. No data supported the idea that the previous fertilization influenced the effect of the slash removal, even though the fertilization had increased the content of total nitrogen in soil and the nitrogen leaching. Thus, we have not been able to repeat the observation from another Swedish study that slash removal reduces leaching of nitrogen and accompanying base cations, e. g. potassium. The effect of slash removal seems to depend on site conditions. Research is needed to reveal the variation in response and decisive factors. Our results, that the survival of spruce seedlings tends to be favoured by slash removal and that the early height growth is unaffected, are in accordance with results from previous studies. Our result, that the biomass of the total field layer is unaffected by slash removal, is not possible to compare with results from other studies, since these were mainly of a qualitative nature

  12. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  13. Estimating and managing uncertainties in order to detect terrestrial greenhouse gas removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Baritz, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    Inventories of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases will be used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to demonstrate compliance with obligations. During the negotiation process of the Kyoto Protocol it has been a concern that uptake of carbon in forest sinks can be difficult to verify. The reason for large uncertainties are high temporal and spatial variability and lack of representative estimation parameters. Additional uncertainties will be a consequence of definitions made in the Kyoto Protocol reporting. In the Nordic countries the national forest inventories will be very useful to estimate changes in carbon stocks. The main uncertainty lies in the conversion from changes in tradable timber to changes in total carbon biomass. The uncertainties in the emissions of the non-CO 2 carbon from forest soils are particularly high. On the other hand the removals reported under the Kyoto Protocol will only be a fraction of the total uptake and are not expected to constitute a high share of the total inventory. It is also expected that the Nordic countries will be able to implement a high tier methodology. As a consequence total uncertainties may not be extremely high. (Author)

  14. Estimating and managing uncertainties in order to detect terrestrial greenhouse gas removals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Baritz, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    Inventories of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases will be used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to demonstrate compliance with obligations. During the negotiation process of the Kyoto Protocol it has been a concern that uptake of carbon in forest sinks can be difficult to verify. The reason for large uncertainties are high temporal and spatial variability and lack of representative estimation parameters. Additional uncertainties will be a consequence of definitions made in the Kyoto Protocol reporting. In the Nordic countries the national forest inventories will be very useful to estimate changes in carbon stocks. The main uncertainty lies in the conversion from changes in tradable timber to changes in total carbon biomass. The uncertainties in the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} carbon from forest soils are particularly high. On the other hand the removals reported under the Kyoto Protocol will only be a fraction of the total uptake and are not expected to constitute a high share of the total inventory. It is also expected that the Nordic countries will be able to implement a high tier methodology. As a consequence total uncertainties may not be extremely high. (Author)

  15. Essential Factors in Removing Carbonyl Sulfide from Coal Gas with Lime and Limestone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2000), s. 302-306 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072711; GA ČR GA203/98/0101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.154, year: 2000

  16. Removal of pyridine from liquid and gas phase by copper forms of natural and synthetic zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reháková, M.; Fortunová, L.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Nagyová, S.; Dolinská, S.; Jorík, V.; Jóna, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 1 (2011), s. 699-706 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : natural zeolite * clinoptilolite * ZSM5 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  17. Development of a selective oxidation CO removal reactor for methanol reformate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Shunji; Takatani, Yoshiaki; Terada, Seijo; Ohtani, Shinichi [Kawasaki Heavy Industry, Ltd., Hyogo-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report forms part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns laboratory-scale tests aimed at reducing by selective oxidation to a level below 10 ppm the carbon monoxide (CO) contained to a concentration of around 1% in reformate gas.

  18. SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas by activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Ilkun Orbak; Reha Yavuz; Ayse Ozyuguran [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2007-07-01

    Adsorption of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) onto activated carbons prepared from Tuncbilek lignite with different methods was investigated. Experimental results showed that the adsorption temperature, initial SO{sub 2} concentration, particle size of the activated carbon and H{sub 2}O content in the flue gas had significantly effect on the amounts of SO{sub 2} adsorbed. Textural (BET surface area, micropore surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and average pore size) characteristics of activated carbons also played an important role on adsorption of SO{sub 2}. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 September 1979-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on rock-fluid interaction and advanced logging techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory continued work on permeability and porosity determination of core samples and geological support studies. Sandia Laboratories continued work on their EGR Instrumentation and Diagnostic Program. Cyclic gas injection continued at Colorado Interstate Gas Company's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility is continuing to provide technical support to the Gas Research Institute/Rio Blanco Natural Gas MHF experiment. The Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. Natural Buttes Unit wells continued to flow to sales. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was opened after a 28-day shut-in period. The hydraulic fracturing containment experiment continued for the Sandia-mineback program.

  20. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 August-31 August, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This status report summarizes progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques continued at Bartlesville. Work commenced on completing, testing and possible hydraulic fracturing of the Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company well No. 397-19-1 and on the evaluation of seismic data for stratigraphic studies of lenticular sands. LLL continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. LASL worked on developing NMR methods to define fluid saturation, porosity, and permeability of western gas sands at in situ conditions. M.D. Wood, Inc. was involved in design and site preparation for two hydraulic fracture mapping jobs in the Cotton Valley Trend in Texas. Testing and analyses of the borehole seismic system and borehole hydrophone system continued at Sandia. Field tests and related activities for the WGSP progressed as scheduled in August. Cyclic injection of dehydrated natural gas and production in Colorado Interstate Gas Company's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells continued. The Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. wells, Natural Buttes Units 9, 14, 18 and 20 flowed to sales. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was shut-in for a 15-day pressure buildup test. Hydraulic fracture containment experiments and activities in the multi-frac test series continued at the Nevada Test Site for Sandia Laboratories' mineback program.

  1. Development of a biofiltration system to remove hydrogen sulphide from small oil and gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombroski, E.C.; Gaudet, I. D.; Coleman, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental regulations require sulphur separation in any processing operation that produces more than one tonne of sulphur per day. This leaves about 50 small operations in Alberta where the daily production of sulphur is less than one tonne. In these cases, the extracted acid gases are usually flared. Since flares are often inefficient and do not completely oxidize the hydrogen sulfide, an alternate, cost-effective technology that could replace flaring and eliminate atmospheric discharge would be of considerable interest. Biofiltration is known to be capable of oxidizing hydrogen sulfide in an air stream to non-volatile sulphate. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effectiveness of this technology in controlling H 2 S and SO 2 emissions from sour gas plants. Results of this laboratory-scale experiment were encouraging, justifying further studies on a demonstration-scale to determine if a full-scale biofilter could provide a practical, cost-effective technology for sulfur emission control from gas plants. 9 refs., 7 figs

  2. Production of ultrapure D-T gas by removal of molecular tritium by selective adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Hudson, R.S.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Fearon, E.M.; Souers, P.C.; Collins, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Production of molecular deuterium-tritium (D-T) with very low molecular tritium (T 2 ) is necessary for application as a nuclear spin polarized fuel. Selective adsorption of hydrogen isotopes on zeolites or alumina can provide the separation needed to produce D-T with very low T 2 . Use of an absorption column at 20-25 K offers low inventory, compact size, and rapid operation, in comparison with conventional separation techniques such as cryogenic distillation or thermal diffusion. In this paper, the authors discuss principles of absorption, and describe a calculational model of the absorption column and operational implications revealed by it. The authors show experimental proof-of-principle data for removal of T 2 from D-T with an adsorption column operated at 23 K

  3. Multicomponent gas flow computations by a discontinuous Galerkin scheme using L2-projection of perfect gas EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchina, N.; Savini, M.; Bassi, F.

    2016-06-01

    A new formulation of multicomponent gas flow computation, suited to a discontinuous Galerkin discretization, is here presented and discussed. The original key feature is the use of L2-projection form of the (perfect gas) equation of state that allows all thermodynamic variables to span the same functional space. This choice greatly mitigates problems encountered by the front-capturing schemes in computing discontinuous flow field, retaining at the same time their conservation properties at the discrete level and ease of use. This new approach, combined with an original residual-based artificial dissipation technique, shows itself capable, through a series of tests illustrated in the paper, to both control the spurious oscillations of flow variables occurring in high-order accurate computations and reduce them increasing the degree of the polynomial representation of the solution. This result is of great importance in computing reacting gaseous flows, where the local accuracy of temperature and species mass fractions is crucial to the correct evaluation of the chemical source terms contained in the equations, even if the presence of the physical diffusivities somewhat brings relief to these problems. The present work can therefore also be considered, among many others already presented in the literature, as the authors' first step toward the construction of a new discontinuous Galerkin scheme for reacting gas mixture flows.

  4. Baseline options and greenhouse gas emission reduction of clean development mechanism project in urban solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hanaki, K. [Department of Urban Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aramaki, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904(Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol as a flexibility mechanism to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) and has been started with such projects as improving efficiency of individual technology. Although applying various countermeasures to urban areas has significant potentials for reducing GHGs, these countermeasures have not been proposed as CDM projects in the practical stage. A CDM project needs to be validated that it will reduce GHGs additionally compared with a baseline, that is, a predictive value of GHG emissions in the absence of the project. This study examined the introduction of solid waste incineration with electricity generation into three different cities, A, B and C. The main solid waste treatment and the main fuel source are landfill and coal, respectively, in City A, incineration and natural gas in City B, and landfill and hydro in City C. GHG emission reductions of each city under several baseline options assumed here were evaluated. Even if the same technology is introduced, the emission reduction greatly varies according to the current condition and the future plan of the city: 1043-1406 kg CO2/t of waste in City A, 198-580 kg CO2/t in City B, and wide range of zero to over 1000 kg CO2/t in City C. Baseline options also cause significant difference in the emission reduction even in the same city (City C). Incinerating solid waste after removing plastics by source separation in City B increased GHG emission reduction potential up to 730-900 kg CO2/t, which enhances the effectiveness as a CDM project.

  5. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  6. Integrating Waste Heat from CO2 Removal and Coal-Fired Flue Gas to Increase Plant Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, Nick [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Kowalczyk, Joseph [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In project DE-FE0007525, Southern Company Services demonstrated heat integration methods for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide produced from pulverized coal combustion. A waste heat recovery technology (termed High Efficiency System) from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America was integrated into an existing 25-MW amine-based CO2 capture process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®1) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry to evaluate improvements in the energy performance of the pulverized coal plant and CO2 capture process. The heat integration system consists of two primary pieces of equipment: (1) the CO2 Cooler which uses product CO2 gas from the capture process to heat boiler condensate, and (2) the Flue Gas Cooler which uses air heater outlet flue gas to further heat boiler condensate. Both pieces of equipment were included in the pilot system. The pilot CO2 Cooler used waste heat from the 25-MW CO2 capture plant (but not always from product CO2 gas, as intended). The pilot Flue Gas Cooler used heat from a slipstream of flue gas taken from downstream of Plant Barry’s air heater. The pilot also included a 0.25-MW electrostatic precipitator. The 25-MW High Efficiency System operated for approximately six weeks over a four month time period in conjunction with the 25-MW CO2 capture facility at Plant Barry. Results from the program were used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. The test program quantified energy efficiency improvements to a host power plant that could be realized due to the High Efficiency System. Through the execution of this project, the team verified the integrated operation of the High Efficiency System and Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®. The ancillary benefits of the High Efficiency System were also quantified, including reduced water consumption

  7. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the &apos

  8. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  9. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Exit Position Effect in Ejector Gas Removal System in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The single stage ejector is used to extract the Non CondensableGas (NCG in the condenser using the working principle of the Venturi tube. Three dimensional computational simulation of the ejector according to the operating conditions was conducted to determine the flow in the ejector. Motive steam entering through the convergent – divergent nozzle with increasing flow velocity so that the low pressure exist around the nozzle. Comparison is done also in a two dimensional simulation to know the differences occurring phenomena and flow inside ejector. Different simulation results obtained between two dimensional and three dimensional simulation. Reverse flow which occurs in the mixing chamber made the static pressure in the area has increased dramatically. Then the variation performed on Exit Nozzle Position (NXP to determine the changes of the flow of the NCG and the vacuum level of the ejector. Keywords: Ejector, NCG, CFD, Compressible flow.

  10. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Development of a hydrogen sulfide removing technology; 1980 nendo ryuka suiso jokyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    As part of geothermal development promotion program in the Sunshine Project, a hydrogen sulfide removing technology development has been worked on since fiscal 1977 for the purpose of environment preservation and multi-purpose utilization. Hydrogen sulfide in downstream fluid in a turbine is removed by more than 90% (as the target value), and the removed hydrogen sulfide is converted into single sulfur having an added value. For condenser waste gas processing, selection was made in fiscal 1980 on the RET process (sulfur is obtained by removing hydrogen sulfide in a suction column and an oxidation column), and for condensate processing, the stripping process (gas having been sent into a stripping column and stripped is fed into the RET device via demister for processing). Field tests were carried out by using fluid generated in a geothermal power plant. Conclusions were reached at high accuracy on optimal process selection corresponding to conditions of the fluid on the turbine outlet side and on the hydrogen sulfide removing cost. A process to treat fluid on the turbine inlet side is available, but not as economically effective as the downstream fluid processing. Same applies to the chemical processing method. A method to measure continually hydrogen sulfide in geothermal steam has been established. (NEDO)

  11. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Fuel Removal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI

  12. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page

  13. The desulfurization mechanism of iron-manganese compound oxide desulfurizer for removal of COS from coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fang-fang; Zhao Hai; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology. Shanghai (China). School of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The sorbent, atmospheric and components of outlet gas were analyzed by mass spectra, XRD, SEM, EDS etc. Desulfurisation performance of sorbents is good at 240 - 400 {sup o}C, atmospheric pressure and space speed of 500 - 2,000 h {sup -1}. The possible mechanism of desulfurisation reactions was obtained by analyzing the reduction- adsorption-sulfidation process. Carbon oxysulfide (COS) was converted to H{sub 2}S by hydrogen in strongly reducing atmosphere firstly. Then H{sub 2}S was adsorbed on the surface of desulfurizers, reacted with active component and transformed metal sulfides and water. Efficiency of removal of carbonyl sulfur is better in an atmosphere without carbonaceous oxide than in one with it, under test conditions. The existence of carbonaceous oxide restrains hydrogenation and the hydrolytic process of COS, which leads to a higher concentration of COS in the outlet. It is shown that chemical conversion is the main pathway in the reaction system of COS. Hydrogenation is the main process in the removal of COS from syngas. COS is preferentially catalyzed with active components n desulfurization sorbents, and generates H{sub 2}S which is subsequently absorbed. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  15. Gas removal in free-flow electrophoresis using an integrated nanoporous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Christin; Jochem, Georg F. W.; Glaeser, Petra; Nagl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of continuous microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) is often compromised by the formation of gaseous products caused by electrolysis of water. We show that this adverse effect can be overcome by employing a nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane attached to a μFFE system which results in efficient removal of any gases formed. The respective assembly was manufactured via laser cutting and lamination. The complete microfluidic FFE chips consist of five layers, viz. (a) two supporting layers, one made of an adhesive transfer foil and the other from poly(ethylene terephthalate), (b) a hydrophobic membrane, (c) a microfluidic structure in a layer of PTFE, and (d) a bottom glass slide. Such a platform warrants a stable flow of electric current over hours of operation at electric field strength of around 500 V∙cm -1 . This is in contrast to conventional FFE microchips where the current decreases to zero within a few minutes (using the same separation parameters). Micropreparative separation of a mixture of three fluorophores was successfully accomplished continuously over 3 h using this micro-FFE chip and was not accompanied by any disturbances caused by formation of gases. (author)

  16. Photooxidative removal of Hg0 from simulated flue gas using UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: Influence of operational parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Yu, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    Element mercury (Hg 0 ) from flue gas is difficult to remove because of its low solubility in water and high volatility. A new technology for photooxidative removal of Hg 0 with an ultraviolet (UV)/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation process is studied in an efficient laboratory-scale bubble column reactor. Influence of several key operational parameters on Hg 0 removal efficiency is investigated. The results show that an increase in the UV light power, H 2 O 2 initial concentration or H 2 O 2 solution volume will enhance Hg 0 removal. The Hg 0 removal is inhibited by an increase of the Hg 0 initial concentration. The solution initial pH and pH conditioning agent have a remarkable synergistic effect. The highest Hg 0 removal efficiencies are achieved at the UV light power of 36W, H 2 O 2 initial concentration of 0.125 mol/L, Hg 0 initial concentration of 25.3 - g/Nm 3 , solution initial pH of 5, H 2 O 2 solution volume of 600 ml, respectively. In addition, the O 2 percentage has little effect on the Hg 0 removal efficiency. This study is beneficial for the potential practical application of Hg 0 removal from coal-fired flue gas with UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation process

  17. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  18. Post Remedial Action Report, Lansdowne Radioactive Residence Complex, Dismantlement/Removal Project. Volume 1. Government Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    to molecules of-hydrogen peroxide (and other oxydizing agents) which may produce other chemical reactions abnormal to the cells functioning. t If...antique mahogany furniture were carried from the house down to the OSF and successfully decontaminated by removing the finish with isopropyl alcohol (Figs

  19. Research project RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gas leak detection with autonomous mobile robots; Forschungsprojekt RoboGas{sup Inspector}. Gaslecksuche mit autonomen mobilen Robotern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Abdelkarim [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Bonow, Gero; Kroll, Andreas [Fachgebiet Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Hegenberg, Jens; Schmidt, Ludger [Fachgebiet Mensch-Maschine-Systemtechnik, Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Barz, Thomas; Schulz, Dirk [Fraunhofer FKIE, Unbemannte Systeme, Wachtberg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    As part of the promotional program AUTONOMIK of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) a consortium of nine project partners developed a prototype of an autonomous mobile robot looking for gas leaks in extended industrial equipment. The autonomous mobility of the system for any systems was implemented using different types of sensors for self-localization and navigation. The tele-operation enables a manual intervention in the process. The robot performs inspection tasks in industrial plants by means of video technology and remote gas measurement technology without driving into the possible risk areas and without the presence of humans. The robot can be used for routine inspections of facilities or for the targeted inspection of specific plant components. Thanks to the remote sensing technique also plant components can be inspected which are difficult to be inspected due to their limited accessibility by conventional measurement techniques.

  20. Adsorption removal of carbon dioxide from the helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varezhin, A.V.; Fedoseenkov, A.N.; Khrulev, A.A.; Metlik, I.V.; Zel venskii, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper conducts experiments on the removal of CO 2 from helium by means of a Soviet-made adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cleaning systems. The adsorption of CO 2 from helium was studied under dynamic conditions with a fixed layer of adsorbent in a flow-through apparatus with an adsorber 16 mm in diameter. The analysis of the helium was carried out by means of a TVT chromatograph. In order to compare the adsorption of CO 2 on CaA zeolite under dynamic conditions from the helium stream under pressure with the equilibrium adsorption on the basis of pure CO 2 , the authors determined the adsorption isotherm at 293 K by the volumetric method over a range of CO 2 equilibrium pressures from 260 to 11,970 Pa. Reducing the adsorption temperature to 273 K leads to a considerable reduction in the energy costs for regeneration, owing to the increase in adsorption and the decrease in the number of regeneration cycles; the amount of the heating gas used is reduced to less than half

  1. A standalone decay heat removal device for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for intermediate to atmospheric pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, A., E-mail: aaron@epiney.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Alpy, N., E-mail: nicolas.alpy@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service d' Etudes des Systemes Innovants, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Mikityuk, K., E-mail: konstantin.mikityuk@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: rakesh.chawla@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model predicting Brayton cycle off-design steady states, is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is used to design an autonomous decay heat removal system for the GFR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictions of the analytical model are verified using CATHARE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CATHARE code is used to simulate a set of GFR safety depressurization transients using this device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient turbo-machine designs exist for the targeted autonomous decay heat removal for a wide pressure range. - Abstract: This paper reports a design study for a Brayton cycle machine, which would constitute a dedicated, standalone decay heat removal (DHR) device for the Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - with the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping model', is described first. This is based on simplified thermodynamic and aerodynamic equations, and was developed to highlight design choices. Two different machine designs are analyzed: a Brayton loop turbo-machine working with helium, and a second one working with nitrogen, since nitrogen is the heavy gas foreseen to be injected into the primary system to enhance the natural convection under loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions. Simulations of the steady-state and transient behavior of the proposed device have then been carried out using the CATHARE code. These serve to confirm the insights obtained from usage of the

  2. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  3. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Materials and Structures Research for Gas Turbine Applications Within the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Janet

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the current materials and structures research geared toward propulsion applications for NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project one of four projects within the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project has selected challenging goals which anticipate an increasing emphasis on aviation s impact upon the global issue of environmental responsibility. These goals are greatly reduced noise, reduced emissions and reduced fuel consumption and address 25 to 30 years of technology development. Successful implementation of these demanding goals will require development of new materials and structural approaches within gas turbine propulsion technology. The Materials and Structures discipline, within the SFW project, comprise cross-cutting technologies ranging from basic investigations to component validation in laboratory environments. Material advances are teamed with innovative designs in a multidisciplinary approach with the resulting technology advances directed to promote the goals of reduced noise and emissions along with improved performance.

  5. Risks Associated with Unconventional Gas Extraction Projects. Induced Seismicity, NORM and Ecological Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling are globally driving the commercial extraction of unconventional resources. Although there is still no commercial exploitation of these resources within the EU, the fact that there are potential reserves in some countries, such as Spain, stimulates the need of performing preliminary studies to define the characteristics that an unconventional gas extraction project should consider. The object of these features are the safety of the project, thus minimizing the probabilities of negative environmental impacts, and especially since there is not any EU Framework Directive focusing on the regulation of the operation of such fossil fuels. A project of this nature, involving natural systems, must start from the knowledge of these systems and from an assessment of its features in order to reach the environmental safety of the operations. Moreover, the implementation of risk management systems, along with the existence of an appropriate legislation and supervision are key elements in the development of unconventional gas extraction projects that are environmentally friendly. The present report includes, among the overall risks associated with such projects, those related to: i) the induced seismicity; ii) the Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and iii) the ecology.

  6. Entanglement in bipartite pure states of an interacting boson gas obtained by local projective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.; Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Bose, Sougato

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the extractable entanglement of excited states of a Lieb-Liniger gas that are obtained from coarse-grained measurements on the ground state in which the boson number in one of two complementary contiguous partitions of the gas is determined. Numerically exact results obtained from the coordinate Bethe ansatz show that the von Neumann entropy of the resulting bipartite pure state increases monotonically with the strength of repulsive interactions and saturates to the impenetrable-boson limiting value. We also present evidence indicating that the largest amount of entanglement can be extracted from the most probable projected state having half the number of bosons in a given partition. Our study points to a fundamental difference between the nature of the entanglement in free-bosonic and free-fermionic systems, with the entanglement in the former being zero after projection, while that in the latter (corresponding to the impenetrable-boson limit) being nonzero.

  7. Improved gas installations and services. Phase 1: Analysis project. Part report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.J.

    1996-05-01

    As Danish gas companies receive a large number of complaints related to the installation and operation of gas installations it was suggested that a course for personnel should be established in order to raise the standard of services and installation requirements. The first phase of the described project was to evaluate the quality of the gas installers' services so as to determine which aspects of installation and services should be emphasized during such a course. Interviews were carried out and questionnaires (illustrated within the document) sent out to installaters etc. Recommendations include that the level of information given to customers should be raised, also in relation to maintenance, and that installation should be improved. Analyses of the degree of customers' satisfaction, of the nature of the quality of services etc. expected, subjects for further training in this area and details of the training system are dealt with

  8. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  9. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

  11. ISU Team Project: An Integral View on Space Debris Mitigation and Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Philipp; Ricote Navarro, Carmon; Jehn, Rudiger; Gini, Andrea; Faure, Pauline; Adriaensen, Maarten; Datta, Iman; Hilbich, Daniel; Jacimovic, Aleksandar; Jacques, Lionel; Penent, Guilhem; Sinn, Thomas; Shioi, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    The issue of space debris poses challenges not only in technical, but also legal, political and economic dimensions. A sustainable solution needs to take into account all of them. This paper investigates such a potential solution in a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, it addresses the effectiveness of the existing debris mitigation guidelines, and identifies technical improvements for mitigation. It continues examining technical concepts for debris removal and performing proper cost-benefit trade-offs. The results of new simulations to assess the damage cost caused by space debris are presented. Based on these findings, an organizational framework and political recommendations are developed which will enable a sustainable use of space starting in 2020. The findings are compiled into a roadmap, which outlines 1) a path to the full adherence to debris mitigation guidelines and 2) the removal of ten large pieces of debris per year by a dedicated international organization, including expected expenditures necessary for its implementation.

  12. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  13. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.; Mubin, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to cater for its high energy demand, Pakistan is planning to import natural gas through pipelines from neighboring countries. For fully utilizing the imported gas, providing it to end customers, the infrastructure of gas pipeline needs to be developed. Therefore, huge investment has been done and proposed in this sector in coming future. Considering geological, topographical, geopolitical and climatic conditions of the country, there is added risk of earthquake, landslides and floods. Due to current geopolitical situation there is a persistent threat of unrest and terrorism in the country. Instable Government policies, high rate of inflation, rapid change in material prices are also important risk factors. All these factors make the situation very complex in quantifying the risk especially for a project in which the risk impact factor rises exponentially in case of risk occurrence. In this paper, most appropriate risk classification is made based on technological, organizational, political, natural climatic, security and environmental risk factors. Effort has been made to device a simpler risk management methodology to analyze and manage risks of gas pipeline project. In the proposed risk management model Monte Carlo simulation has been used to identify critical risks. (author)

  14. Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems. The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration.

  15. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park in Sauk Centre, MN Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the one-year arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park (BSLMHP) in Sauk Centre, MN. The objectives of the project are to evaluate (1) the effective...

  16. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  17. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  18. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft Environmental... & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is... comments related to the SDG&E Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http...

  19. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental...) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is announcing its... Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent to affected Federal, State...

  20. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08