WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas production technique

  1. Nuclear techniques in oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.; Orr, W.L.; Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of some of the most significant new developments that have occurred during the past three years in the area of nuclear techniques applied to the exploration for and production of oil and gas deposits. Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out aimed at improving pulsed neutron logging tools and upgrading interpretation of data from such tools. Pulsed neutron borehole generators and gamma-ray spectroscopy have been combined in carbon/oxygen logging to provide a means of determining formation oil saturation in cased holes that is independent of water salinity. Use of pulsed neutron logs in the log-inject-log technique has been tested and evaluated in several field studies. The combination of a gamma-gamma density log and a borehole gravimeter has been used to detect economically important gas accumulations at distances from a borehole that are well beyond the depth of investigation of conventional logging techniques. The depths of investigation of several commercial nuclear logging tools have been studied in laboratory investigations. Possible geological applications of natural gamma-ray spectral logs have been investigated through the study of large sample suites and in specific field applications. The extensive use of digital recording of logging data and well-site analysis by minicomputer are expected to have a significant influence on future logging programmes and logging sonde designs. The present status of stable isotope geochemistry and radioactive tracer surveys is reviewed. (author)

  2. Improving the gas productivity of the alkaline electrolyzer through the circulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitipong Tangphant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study and improve the efficiency of a KOH electrolyzer through the gas productivity of the electrolyzer with different the circulation technique. In this work, the conceptual design of an electrolyzer falls into 2 categories; without pumping and with pumping. Direct current electricity at 5 different levels of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 A are charged into the system and the gas flow rate generated from the electrolyzer is subsequently monitored. The results show that at 30 A the gas generated from the circulation with pumping and the circulation without pumping are 2.31 litre/min and 1.76 litre/min, respectively. It is also found that the energy consumed by both techniques is the same; however, the circulation with pumping design shows the better gas productivity than that of the circulation without pumping design.

  3. Comparison of protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid determined with the gas production technique and the nylon bag technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Blok, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a modified version of the gas production technique was used to determine protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid of 19 feedstuffs. Performing the incubations in a N-free environment, and with an excess of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates, made N the limiting factor to

  4. Ruminal degradation kinetics of protein foods by in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of carbohydrates and nitrogen fractions, as well as, determination their carbohydrates digestion rates in soyben meal (SM, crambe meal (CM, radish meal (RM, wet brewery residue (WBR and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis (SCD were accomplished. The kinetics parameters of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and B2 fraction were estimated using cumulative gas production technique. Among the foods studied there was considerable variation in chemical composition. The crambe meal was the only food that did not present synchronism between carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions. In this food there was predominance of A+B1 carbohydrates fractions and B1+B2 nitrogen compounds fraction, and for the other predominated B2 carbohydrate fraction and B1+ B2 nitrogen compounds fraction. There were differences among the digestive kinetic parameters for all foods. The greater participation in gas production due to non-fibrous carbohydrates was found in the crambe meal and oilseed radish meal. The fermentation of fibrous carbohydrates provided higher gas volume in the wet brewery residue and in the soybean meal, however, the soybean meal was food with higher total gas volume. Non fibrous carbohydrates degradation rates of wet brewery residue and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis were far below the limits of degradation of this fraction. Due to the parameters obtained by the cumulative gas production, the soybean meal was the best food, however, all others have potential for use in animal nutrition. The cumulative gas production technique allows the estimative of degradation rates and provides further information about the ruminal fermentation kinetics of foods.

  5. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  6. Determining of Degradation and Digestion Coefficients of Canola meal Using of In situ and Gas production Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Tahmazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to the determination of nutritive value of canola meal using naylon bag and cumulative gas production techniques in Gizel sheep. Tow fistulated Gizel sheep with average BW 45±2 kg used in a complete randomized design. The cumulative gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and ruminal DM and CP disappearance were measured up to 96 h. Coefficients of soluble CP degradation of canola meal (A, canola meal treated with 0.5% urea (B and canola meal treated with micro wave (C were 4.74, 15.81 and 15%, and for fermentable portion were 31.05, 39.62 and 65.55%, respectively. The cumulative gas production of soluble and insoluble portions (a+b were 252.13, 213.57 and 240.88 ml/g DM. Metabolizable protein of treatments A, B and C were 283.11, 329.33 and 284.39 g/kg DM, that were not significantly different. The relationship between dry matter and cumulative gas production values for treatments obtained about 0.958, 0.976 and 0.932 and this parameter for crude protein and cumulative gas production achieved 0.987, 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. High correlation between in situ and cumulative gas production techniques indicated that digestibility values can be predicted from cumulative gas production data.

  7. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahmadzadeh; R. Salamatdoustnobar; N. Maheri-Sis; M. Taher-Maddah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas pro...

  8. Estimating rumen degradability of forages from semi-natural grasslands, using nylon bag and gas production techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Gelder, van A.H.; Gonzalez Perez, P.; Hindle, V.A.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the ruminal digestion of forages from extensively managed semi-natural grasslands, degradation characteristics and kinetics of silages of three different forages in the rumen of lactating dairy cows were estimated in vitro using the gas production technique (GPT), and in situ using the

  9. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... severe consequences to the production processes because of the slugging flow. This paper reviews some observed latest status and key challenges about slug detection, dynamical modeling and elimination of slugging flows. Mathematical modeling of slug has been used to investigate the slug mechanism...... decades, the cost-effective and optimal slug modeling and control are still open topics with many related challenges....

  10. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher-Maddah, M; Maheri-Sis, N; Salamatdoustnobar, R; Ahmadzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds.

  11. Assessing the nutritional value of agroindustrial co-products and feed through chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins Olivo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial co-products are a viable alternative for use in animal nutrition. Tests were conducted using eight different types of co-products and feed to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and gas production by them. The co-products tested were: coffee hulls; pelleted citrus pulp; grape residue; soybean hulls; cottonseed; cassava foliage; and foods usually supplied to ruminants: corn silage and ground corn concentrate. Data of in vitro digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were tested by analysis of variance using the least square method; the results of gas production were interpreted by a non-linear regression by the Gauss-Newton method; and the effects of treatments were evaluated by the Tukey’s test. The coefficients of in vitro digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of co-products were different. Gas production was also different between co-products and feeds evaluated for the volume of gas produced from the fast and slow degradation fractions, degradation rate, bacterial colonization time, and the total volume of gas produced. The evaluated co-products exhibited greater in vitro dry matter digestibility compared to corn silage, except for cottonseed, grape residue, and cassava foliage. Co-products showed higher values of in vitro crude protein digestibility compared to corn silage, and a reduced in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, except for pelleted citrus pulp and soybean hulls. Corn silage produced larger volume of gas from the fast degradation fraction compared to the co-products and corn concentrate. Co-products analyzed had appropriate nutritional characteristics according to the techniques applied and can be included in ruminant diets.

  12. Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads

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    Clay Samuel Bell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a campaign that estimated methane emissions at 268 gas production facilities in the Fayetteville shale gas play using onsite measurements (261 facilities and two downwind methods – the dual tracer flux ratio method (Tracer Facility Estimate – TFE, 17 facilities and the EPA Other Test Method 33a (OTM33A Facility Estimate – OFE, 50 facilities. A study onsite estimate (SOE for each facility was developed by combining direct measurements and simulation of unmeasured emission sources, using operator activity data and emission data from literature. The SOE spans 0–403 kg/h and simulated methane emissions from liquid unloadings account for 88% of total emissions estimated by the SOE, with 76% (95% CI [51%–92%] contributed by liquid unloading at two facilities. TFE and SOE show overlapping 95% CI between individual estimates at 15 of 16 (94% facilities where the measurements were paired, while OFE and SOE show overlapping 95% CI between individual estimates at 28 of 43 (65% facilities. However, variance-weighted least-squares (VWLS regressions performed on sets of paired estimates indicate statistically significant differences between methods. The SOE represents a lower bound of emissions at facilities where onsite direct measurements of continuously emitting sources are the primary contributor to the SOE, a sub-selection of facilities which minimizes expected inter-method differences for intermittent pneumatic controllers and the impact of episodically-emitting unloadings. At 9 such facilities, VWLS indicates that TFE estimates systematically higher emissions than SOE (TFE-to-SOE ratio = 1.6, 95% CI [1.2 to 2.1]. At 20 such facilities, VWLS indicates that OFE estimates systematically lower emissions than SOE (OFE-to-SOE ratio of 0.41 [0.26 to 0.90]. Given that SOE at these facilities is a lower limit on emissions, these results indicate that OFE is likely a less accurate method than SOE or TFE for this type

  13. Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP using in vitro gas production technique. Materials and Methods: MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of inc ubation. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD, metabolizable energy (ME, truly digestible organic matter (TDOM, partitioning factor (PF, and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation. Results: In vitro gas production (ml at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01 in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01 higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.

  14. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  15. Comparison of organic matter degradation in several feedstuffs in the rumen as determined with the nylon bag and gas production techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, John W.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Bachmann, Herwig; Hindle, Vincent A.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) degradation of 21 feedstuffs was investigated with rumen fluid using a rumen in situ technique and a gas production technique. Fitting the nylon bag data to an exponential model showed that there was a high variation in the rate of OM degradation ranging from 1.7% h-1 for

  16. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  17. Fluid Mechanical Aspects of the Gas-Lift Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guet, S.; Ooms, G.

    2006-01-01

    The gas-lift technique comprises the injection of gas bubbles in vertical oil wells to increase production. It is based on a reduction of the tubing gravitational pressure gradient. Several fluid-flow phenomena influencing such vertical gas-liquid flows are discussed. These effects include the radial distribution of void fraction and of gas and liquid velocity, flow regime changes, and system stability problems. Associated consequences for gas-lift performance and related optimization approaches are also discussed.

  18. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  19. Effects of some organic acids and salts on microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets estimated using an in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used to screen different organic acids (formic, propionic, lactic, citric, and fumaric acid, organic salts (calcium formate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate, and inorganic phosphoric acid for their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. For the incubation, 40 ml of culture medium (53% buffer, 45% frozen ileal digesta, and 2% fresh faeces was dispensed in vessels containing 5 ml of buffer, 0.5 g of feed, and 20 ìl of liquid or 20 mg of solid acidifiers. Gas production was measured every 15 min during the 24 h incubation at 39°C, and a Gompertz bacterial growth model was applied to the gas production data. Formic acid was the only acid that reduced the maximum rate of gas production (ìm compared to that in the control treatment (P 0.05. When investigating formic-acid-based mixtures that contained 1–5% of potassium sorbate and/or sodium benzoate, the estimated parameters for the Gompertz growth model did not differ from those for treatments with plain formic acid (P > 0.05. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were reduced by all the mixtures (P 0.05. In conclusion, organic acids and salts were found to differ in their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. Mixing formic acid with potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate changed fermentation patterns, and the possibility to use them to enhance the antimicrobial effect of formic acid should be investigated further in vivo.;

  20. Bubble Size Effect on the Gas-lift Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guet, S.C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The gas-lift technique uses gas injection in vertical oil wells to decrease the gravitational pressure drop. The decreased pressure in the production pipe results in an increase of the pressure drop from the reservoir to the oil well and enhances the oil production. In this thesis we investigated

  1. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  2. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  3. Geothermal gas sampling techniques in hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neneng Laksminingpuri

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal gas sampling has been done in the hot springs using a stainless steel funnel which has been modified by Giggenbach method. Modified funnel performed in order to conduct sampling at the site of hot springs that has a wide diameter, so that the gas bubbles coming out of the spring base can be accumulated in the sample bottle. Furthermore, the gas was analyzed by using two methods, for soluble gas (condensable gases) such as CO 2 and H 2 S were analyzed by titration methods, while the insoluble gas (non-condensable gases) such as He, H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , Ar and CH 4 were analyzed by gas chromatography methods. The results show that the sampling technique using a stainless steel funnel produces gas that can be measured well. (author)

  4. Techniques in Gas Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn; Carlsen, Lars

    1982-01-01

    Basic principles, capabilities and limitations of collision activation mass spectrometry are reported, with special reference to real-time analysis of flash vacuum thermolytically generated products. The analytical utility is demonstrated in terms of structure elucidation and isomerization studie...

  5. Gas separation techniques in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Hideaki; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ohno, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The literatures concerning the gas separation techniques which are applied to the waste gases generated from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment and the instrumentation of nuclear facilities are reviewed. The gas permeability and gas separation performance of membranes are discussed in terms of rare gas separation. The investigation into the change of the gas permeability and mechanical properties of membranes with exposure to radiation is reported. The theoretical investigation of the separating cells used for the separation of rare gas and the development of various separating cells are described, and the theoretical and experimental investigations concerning rare gas separation using cascades are described. The application of membrane method to nuclear facilities is explained showing the examples of uranium enrichment, the treatment of waste gases from nuclear reactor buildings and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, the monitoring of low level β-emitters in stacks, the detection of failed fuels and the detection of water leak in fast breeder reactors. (Yoshitake, I.)

  6. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  7. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  8. Nutritional evaluation of leaves of some salt-tolerant tree species by assessing, in vitro, the ruminal microbial nitrogen and fermentation characteristics utilizing 15N tracer and gas production techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    2014-04-01

    Leaves of some salt-tolerant tree species (Tamarix articulata Vahl., Tamarix aphylla (L) Karst, Acacia ampliceps Maslin, Casuarina equisetifolia L, Parkinsonia aculeate L, Eucaliptus camaldulensis Dahnhard) were evaluated in terms of microbial nitrogen (MN) and biomass (MBM) production after incubation with rumen fluid and 15N-tracer for 96 h in the absence or presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000). The characteristics of fermentation (initial gas produced from soluble fraction; a, gas production during incubation which produced from insoluble but fermentable fraction; b, potential gas production; a + b, fractional rate of gas production per hour; c) were assessed using an in vitro incubation technique with rumen fluid. Effective degradability (ED), short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and predicted daily intake (Y) were also estimated in leaves of the experimental tree species.The a + b values (mL/g DM) were highest (P<0.05) in A. ampliceps (191), lowest in T. articulate and C. equisetifolia (119), and intermediate in T. aphylla, E. camaldulensis and P. aculeate (158). E. camaldulensis, A. ampliceps and P. aculeate had higher (P<0.05) fractional rate of gas production (0.080/h) than other species (0.061/h). There was a positive correlation between SCFA concentrations and c and a + b values. The ratios of MN and MBM to effective degraded substrate and the values of MN and MBM were significantly higher (P<0.05) in P. aculeate and A. ampliceps compared with other species. Microbial nitrogen and MBM production were positively correlated with a + b, ED and SCFA.The addition of PEG to the plant samples incubated with rumen fluid at a ratio of 2:1 PEG: substrate increased the values of gas production, characteristics of fermentation, MN, MBM, SCFA, ED and Y. The response of leaves of the experimental tree species to PEG treatment in terms of increased gas production varied between species and tended to decline as incubation progressed, with the highest increase during the

  9. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  10. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.P. [Western Radiation Services, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it`s decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs.

  11. Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unmet conventional energy demand is encouraging a number of deep energy importing nations closer to production of their potentially very large Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) resources. As methane and other natural gases are potent greenhouse gases, concerns exist about the possible environmental risks associated NGH development. Accidental of natural gas would have environmental consequences. However, the special characteristics of NGH and production models indicate a very low environmental risk from the reservoir to the deepwater wellhead that is much lower than for conventional deepwater gas. NGH is naturally stable in its solid form in the reservoir and shutting in the gas can be achieved by stopping NGH conversion and gas production in the reservoir. Rapid shut down results in re-crystallization of gas and stabilization of the reservoir through NGH reformation. In addition, new options for innovative technologies have the potential to allow safe development of NGH at a fraction of the current estimated cost. Gas produced from NGH is about the same as processed conventional gas, although almost certainly more pure. Leakage of gas during transport is not a production issue. Gas transport leakage is a matter for best practices regulation that is rigorously enforced.

  12. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2017-12-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  14. Novel gas-based detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der

    2009-01-01

    This year we celebrate the 100th birthday of gaseous detectors: Hans Geiger operated the first gas-filled counter in Manchester in 1908. The thin wires, essential for obtaining gas amplification, have been replaced by Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs): Micromegas (1995) and GEM (1996). In the GridPix detector, each of the grid holes of a MPGD is equipped with its own electronic readout channel in the form of an active pixel in suitable pixel CMOS chips. By means of MEMS technology, the grid has been integrated with the chip, forming a monolithic readout device for gas volumes. By applying a protection layer made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, the chips can be made spark proof. New protection layers have been made of silicon nitride. The use of gas as detection material for trackers is compared to Si, and the issue of chamber aging is addressed. New developments are set out: the development of Micro Channel Plates, integrated on pixel chips, the development of electron emission foil, and the realization of TimePix-2: a general-purpose pixel chip with time and amplitude measurement, per pixel, of charge signals.

  15. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Farrell, Helen [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Howard, James [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Raterman, Kevin [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Silpngarmlert, Suntichai [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Martin, Kenneth [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Bruce [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Perry [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  16. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  17. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  18. In vitro degradability and gas production parameters of Sericea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) regrowth was harvested at early (ELP) or late (LLP) flowering stages, mixed with varying types and levels of roughage and fermented for 72 h in vitro, using the gas production (GP) technique. The roughage : lespedeza ratios were 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100.

  19. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF MEDICAL GAS OXYGEN PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Подгорный, И. П.

    2014-01-01

    Medical gas oxygen is one of the most popular medicines. Its production is the major branch of the pharmaceutical industry. Provision of its high quality in the process of obtaining is an actual problem for companies of cryogenic oxygen production. For this purpose a concrete enterprise necessary to implement a quality assurance system in the production of medicinal products (QAS). The main component of the QAS is good manufacturing practice (Good Manufacturing Practice, GMP). It is shown how...

  20. Application of safeguards techniques to the Eurodif gas diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.; Goens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristic features of gas diffusion plants are such that safeguards procedures specifically suited for this technique can be proposed. The first of these features is the fact that appreciably altering the enrichment level of the plant product is not possible without making easily detectable changes either in the plant structure itself or in the movement of incoming and outgoing materials. Furthermore, because of the size of gas diffusion plants large stocks of uranium are present in them. Although inventory differences may be small in relative terms, they are large in abosolute terms and exceed the quantities of low-enriched uranium considered significant from the standpoint of safeguards. Lastly, the impossibility for economic reasons for taking a physical inventory of the plant after it has been emptied prevents a comparison of the physical inventory with the book inventory. It would therefore seem that the safeguarding of a gas diffusion plant should be focused on the movement of nuclear material between the plant and the outside world. The verification of inputs and outputs can be considered satisfactory from the safeguards standpoint as long as it is possible to make sure of the containment of the plant and of the surveillance for the purpose of preventing clandestine alterations of structure. The description of the Eurodif plant and the movement of materials planned there at present indicate that the application of such a safeguards technique to the plant should be acceptable to the competent authorities. For this purpose a monitoring area has been set aside in which the inspectors will be able to keep track of all movements between the outside world and the enrichment plant

  1. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... price (including transfers) per unit of oil, gas and other products produced; and (2) The average... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be disclosed separately from all other products. Instruction 4 to Item 1204: The transfer price of oil and gas...

  2. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  3. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  4. Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: Technique and implications for stray gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2018-05-01

    The study of gas-water mass transfer in porous media is important in many applications, including unconventional resource extraction, carbon storage, deep geological waste storage, and remediation of contaminated groundwater, all of which rely on an understanding of the fate and transport of free and dissolved gas. The novel visual technique developed in this study provided both quantitative and qualitative observations of gas-water mass transfer. Findings included interaction between free gas architecture and dissolved plume migration, plume geometry and longevity. The technique was applied to the injection of CO2 in source patterns expected for stray gas originating from oil and gas operations to measure dissolved phase concentrations of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data set is the first of its kind to provide high resolution quantification of gas-water dissolution, and will facilitate an improved understanding of the fundamental processes of gas movement and fate in these complex systems.

  5. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of the charcoal adsorption technique for determination of radon content in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paewpanchon, P.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. (authors)

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO 2eq /10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  9. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  10. Les techniques de séparation de gaz par membranes Gas Separation Techniques by Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrillon R.

    2006-11-01

    , great flexibility of implementation because of the modular nature and the possibility of the great automation of permeators, and the moderate size and weight of the installation. Limitations are linked to the difficulty in obtaining both good purity and high yield for a product with a membrane surface area that is economically acceptable. Likewise, the pressure drop undergone by the permeate may be a disadvantage. Gas permeation can be associated with other separation techniques such as pressure swing adsorption, freeze drying or absorption. The principal applications of gas permeation at present are as follows: (a Hydrogen recovery from drain effluents from ammonia synthesis units in which hydrogen has to be separated from nitrogen, methane and argon. (b Hydrogen recovery from refinery gas in which the hydrogen is mixed with hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. (c Adjustment of the hydrogen/carbon-monoxide ratio of alcohol synthesis gas. (d Air fractionating from the production of blanketing nitrogen. (e Natural-gas dehydration and sweetening with a view to its transportation by pipeline, especially in offshore production. Table 5 lists the leading membrane suppliers and their fields of activity.

  11. Method of production of ammonia synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-09-10

    In the catalytic synthesis of complicated hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at normal or slightly increased pressures by the Fischer--Tropsch process, or carried out at higher pressures in some other proposals, the synthesis gas was incompletely transformed. After the conclusion of the synthesis, the residual gas, upon the separation of the liquid constituents, contained, in addition to the unreacted carbon moxoxide and hydrogen, also considerable amounts of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen from the original synthesis gas. This residual gas had been used as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as a raw material for the production of synthesis gas by decomposing the methane present in it with steam according to the equation CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O = CO + 3H/sub 2/. This conversion was to be brought about either by a return to the producers or else in special splitting units. Also, it had been found that the residual gas, possibly even in the presence of oxygen compounds, could be conveniently used for the synthesis of ammonia. Several examples of ammonia synthesis were discussed.

  12. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of some co-products generated in the biodiesel production chain by gas production techniqueCinética de fermentação ruminal in vitro de alguns co-produtos gerados na cadeia produtiva do biodiesel pela técnica de produção de gás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Rebouças Dórea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation kinetics rates of co-products generated in the supply chain of biodiesel were evaluated by in vitro gas production technique. Crambe meal, cottonseed meal, crambe cake, soybean cake and sunflower cake were evaluated. The soybean cake had higher rates of degradation of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, compared to other foods, resulting in higher volume of gas. Cottonseed meal and crambe meal had degradation rates of NFC and gas production similar. Although the crambe cake did not differ from crambe meal on gas production in the degradation of NFC, there were differences in the rate of degradation, being the highest value found for the cake. The biggest lag time was required for soybean cake and the lowest for the sunflower cake. The highest rates of degradation of fibrous carbohydrates (FC were observed in soybean cake and crambe cake, and lowest in sunflower cake. The highest gas production coming from the degradation of FC was obtained for the crambe meal. The soybean cake and crambe cake were the co-products with a better profile on rumen fermentation kinetics in relation to the degradation of non-fiber carbohydrates and fibrous carbohydrates.Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal de diferentes co-produtos gerados na cadeia produtiva do biodiesel, mediante o uso da técnica de semi-automática de produção de gases in vitro, usando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram: farelo de crambe; farelo de algodão; torta de crambe; torta de soja e torta de girassol. A torta de soja apresentou maior taxa de degradação de carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, quando comparada aos demais alimentos, resultando em maior volume final de gases. O farelo de algodão e o farelo de crambe apresentaram taxa de degradação de CNF e produção de gases similares. Apesar da torta de crambe não diferir do farelo de crambe quanto a

  13. Techniques for the identification of corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.

    1988-12-01

    This paper presents the different techniques that can be used to identify corrosion/oxidation products through determination of either their composition or their structure, chemical analysis and spectrochemical analysis are commonly used to determine the composition of gross corrosion products. Surface anaLysis techniques such as electron microprobe, AES, ESCA, SIMS, ISS, neutron activation analysis, etc., can be used not only to detect the concentration of the various elements present, but also to obtain the concentration profiles of these elements through the corrosion products. The structure of corrosion products is normally determined with the aid of either X-ray or electron diffraction techniques. This paper describes the basic principles, typical characteristics, limitations and the types of information that can be obtained from each of the techniques along with some typical examples. (author) [pt

  14. Computational Intelligence Techniques for New Product Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kit Yan; Dillon, Tharam S

    2012-01-01

    Applying computational intelligence for product design is a fast-growing and promising research area in computer sciences and industrial engineering. However, there is currently a lack of books, which discuss this research area. This book discusses a wide range of computational intelligence techniques for implementation on product design. It covers common issues on product design from identification of customer requirements in product design, determination of importance of customer requirements, determination of optimal design attributes, relating design attributes and customer satisfaction, integration of marketing aspects into product design, affective product design, to quality control of new products. Approaches for refinement of computational intelligence are discussed, in order to address different issues on product design. Cases studies of product design in terms of development of real-world new products are included, in order to illustrate the design procedures, as well as the effectiveness of the com...

  15. Photographic post-production special techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Červinka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Goal of this thesis is to present evolution of photography post-production from the very beginning and demonstrate special techniques which are used during complex photo-montage creation. Theoretical part is dedicated to history, from early examples of analogue photography manipulation and it's techniques to present day application. The second, practical part, showcases special techniques which are used in digital domain. Each method explanation includes cases of its usage and reasons for it....

  16. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  17. Practical Techniques for Modeling Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The cost and risk associated with the design and operation of gas turbine engine systems has led to an increasing dependence on mathematical models. In this paper, the fundamentals of engine simulation will be reviewed, an example performance analysis will be performed, and relationships useful for engine control system development will be highlighted. The focus will be on thermodynamic modeling utilizing techniques common in industry, such as: the Brayton cycle, component performance maps, map scaling, and design point criteria generation. In general, these topics will be viewed from the standpoint of an example turbojet engine model; however, demonstrated concepts may be adapted to other gas turbine systems, such as gas generators, marine engines, or high bypass aircraft engines. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of gas turbine model generation and system performance analysis for educational uses, such as curriculum creation or student reference.

  18. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with different types and levels of fats for total gas production, Metabolizable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) contents. Approximately 200 mg of sample was weighed and inserted in glass syringes, then ...

  19. Mixed Gas Transport Study Through Polymeric Membranes: a Novel Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Sukhtej Singh

    1997-01-01

    The gas transport and separation properties of polymers have been successfully exploited in commercial ventures. Industrial applications employing membrane processes range from production of pure gases to barrier coatings for protection against environmental elements. Membrane separations are simple, energy efficient processes, which can be economically competitive with traditional separation technologies. Membrane separation and permeation characteristics for a...

  20. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  1. Improving animal productivity by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA and FAO have run a joint programme for 30 years to assist national agricultural research systems in member states to develop, test and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving the productivity of livestock. Applications of nuclear technologies for improving livestock productivity include: use of radioimmunoassay in animal nutrition researches, animal production, and evaluating feeding and management systems through reproductive performance in a field. Geographic coverage and the type of livestock studies are: grazing animals (cattle, goats and sheep) in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as buffalo production in Asia. 6 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Advancement and application of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques for atmospheric trace gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Brian M.

    2011-12-01

    The use of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) for compound specific stable isotope analysis is an underutilized technique because of the complexity of the instrumentation and high analytical costs. However stable isotopic data, when coupled with concentration measurements, can provide additional information on a compounds production, transformation, loss, and cycling within the biosphere and atmosphere. A GC-IRMS system was developed to accurately and precisely measure delta13C values for numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds having natural and anthropogenic sources. The OVOCs include methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, 2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone. Guided by the requirements for analysis of trace components in air, the GC-IRMS system was developed with the goals of increasing sensitivity, reducing dead-volume and peak band broadening, optimizing combustion and water removal, and decreasing the split ratio to the IRMS. The technique relied on a two-stage preconcentration system, a low-volume capillary reactor and water trap, and a balanced reference gas delivery system. Measurements were performed on samples collected from two distinct sources (i.e. biogenic and vehicle emissions) and ambient air collected from downtown Miami and Everglades National Park. However, the instrumentation and the method have the capability to analyze a variety of source and ambient samples. The measured isotopic signatures that were obtained from source and ambient samples provide a new isotopic constraint for atmospheric chemists and can serve as a new way to evaluate their models and budgets for many OVOCs. In almost all cases, OVOCs emitted from fuel combustion were enriched in 13C when compared to the natural emissions of plants. This was particularly true for ethanol gas emitted in vehicle exhaust, which was observed to have a uniquely enriched isotopic signature that was attributed to ethanol's corn origin and use as an alternative

  3. The use of radon gas techniques for earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.

    1993-01-01

    This scientific article explains the applications of radon gas measurements in water and soil for monitoring fault activities and earthquake prediction. It also emphasizes, through some worldwide examples presented from Tashkent Basin in U.S.S.R. and from San Andreas fault in U.S.A, that the use of radon gas technique in fault originated water as well as in soil gases can be considered as an important geological-tool, within the general framework of earthquake prediction because of the coherent and time anomalous relationship between the density of alpha particles due to radon decay and between the tectonic activity level along fault zones. The article also indicates, and through the practical experience of the author, to the possibility of applying such techniques in certain parts of Syria. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs

  4. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  5. In vitro degradation and total gas production of byproducts generated in the biodiesel production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Kiara oliveira de Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro degradation and total gas production of different oil seed press cakes from a biodiesel production chain gas through the use of a semi-automatic technique of gas production in vitro. The treatments consisted of substituting elephant grass in increasing levels, 0%, 30, 50 and 70%, with the byproducts of Gossyypium hirsutum, Ricinus communis, Moringa oleifeira, Jatropha curcas and Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira had the highest rate of in vitro degradation of dry matter compared with other foods but did not result in a higher final volume of gases production. Gossyypium hirsutum, Pinhão manso curcas and Ricinus communis showed a higher in vitro degradability of similar dry matter. The highest total gas production was obtained by the oil seed press cakes of Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira can replace elephant grass up to 70% and therefore reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and energy loss for the animal.

  6. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  7. Tools and techniques for product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, Diederick; Houten, Fred J.A.M.; Bernard, Alain; Mermoz, Emmanuel; Schutte, Corné S.L.

    2014-01-01

    For product designers, tools and techniques are essential in driving the design cycle. Nevertheless, their employment usually is implicit, while passing over e.g. the design and project environments empowering their adequate use. This publication presents an overview of approaches in structuring and

  8. Classification of assembly techniques for micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2005-01-01

    Industrial production of micro products to be introduced in the market has to be reliable, fast, carried out at a reasonable price and in an acceptable quantity. One of the crucial steps in the process chain related to micro product manufacture is the assembly phase. Here components are handled...... of components and level of integration are made. This paper describes a systematic characterization of micro assembly methods. This methodology offers the opportunity of a cross comparison among different techniques to gain a choosing principle of the favourable micro assembly technology in a specific case...

  9. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  10. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, F.G. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Technology; Tawfik, A.S. [Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided.

  11. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, F.G.

    1994-01-01

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  12. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  13. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  14. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  15. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.G.; Lagus, P.L.; Fleming, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  17. Technique De Production Des Semences De Champignons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afin de développer d'autres techniques de production des semences de certains champignons comestibles, il a été testé l'effet de différents substrats dont celui du sorgho, du sorgho ajouté à 10 % et 20 % de sciure de neem sur la culture de champignon Marasmiellus inoderma (M. inoderma) consommée au Bénin.

  18. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  19. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir.

  20. Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakinaz A. El Sherbiny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures because of its environmentally beneficial attributes and its renewable nature. Non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha oil, produced by seed-bearing shrubs, can provide an alternative and do not have competing food uses. However, these oils are characterized by their high free fatty acid contents. Using the conventional transesterification technique for the production of biodiesel is well established. In this study an alternative energy stimulant, “microwave irradiation”, was used for the production of the alternative energy source, biodiesel. The optimum parametric conditions obtained from the conventional technique were applied using microwave irradiation in order to compare the systems. The study showed that the application of radio frequency microwave energy offers a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with the advantages of enhancing the reaction rate (2 min instead of 150 min and of improving the separation process. The methodology allows for the use of high free fatty acid content feedstock, including Jatropha oil. However, this emerging technology needs to be further investigated for possible scale-up for industrial application.

  1. Gas analysis within remote porous targets using LIDAR multi-scatter techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Z. G.; Lewander, M.; Grönlund, R.; Lundberg, H.; Svanberg, S.

    2008-11-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) experiments are normally pursued for range resolved atmospheric gas measurements or for analysis of solid target surfaces using fluorescence of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. In contrast, we now demonstrate the monitoring of free gas enclosed in pores of materials, subject to impinging laser radiation, employing the photons emerging back to the surface laterally of the injection point after penetrating the medium in heavy multiple scattering processes. The directly reflected light is blocked by a beam stop. The technique presented is a remote version of the newly introduced gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) technique, which so far was pursued with the injection optics and the detector in close contact with the sample. Feasibility measurements of LIDAR-GASMAS on oxygen in polystyrene foam were performed at a distance of 6 m. Multiple-scattering induced delays of the order of 50 ns, which corresponds to 15 m optical path length, were observed. First extensions to a range of 60 m are discussed. Remote observation of gas composition anomalies in snow using differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) may find application in avalanche victim localization or for leak detection in snow-covered natural gas pipelines. Further, the techniques may be even more useful for short-range, non-intrusive GASMAS measurements, e.g., on packed food products.

  2. IMPACT OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION ON LNG SUPPLY AND DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of unconventional gas plays a double role in the case of liquefied natural gas (LNG industry. Technological development of gas production from unconventional resources could result in significant decrease of LNG import demand but at the same time unconventional resources also represent a potential for new sources of LNG supply. In past few years unconventional gas production in North America has increased constantly what has contributed to natural gas prices decrease and LNG imports reduction. The rise of unconventional gas production along with global recession significantly influenced LNG demand decrease in the USA. Concerning unconventional gas production rapid development, potential decrease of LNG demand in rest of the world is expected (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Techniques of power production from biogas and syngas. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve a state of the art on the techniques of electricity production (mainly engines and turbines) from biomass gases (biogas and syngas). After a brief description of the various routes to produce gas from biomass, i.e. anaerobic digestion and gasification, the study shows the composition of these gases, their constituents, the factors characterizing combustion, to finish on air emissions. Then, there is a description of the general principles and parameters of operation and adjustment of the main electricity production techniques: and their various possible associations. This chapter is concluded by a comparative synthesis on the scopes and maturity of each technique. The second chapter is a review of different processes to remove contaminants of biogas and syngas. It gives operating principle, feedback, costs and development. The third chapter is an economical, energy and environmental analysis of the techniques of electricity production. The fourth chapter is a technical guide, with some practical details to operate a plant about treatment, functioning of machines. This is also a synthesis of difficulties. An economic and environmental analysis of biogas plants permits to compare different choices. This guide gives information to actors in this field to make decisions. The study is finished by a synthesis with key points and research fields, followed by a conclusion. The last chapter lists resource materials: bibliography and patents of the last 10 years. Provided in appendix, there is a directory about actors like equipment manufacturers or operating contractors. (author)

  4. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    -water separation can begin within the seafloor, and specialized production techniques. NGH is the only oceanic hydrocarbon deposit in which pressure can be controlled within the reservoir by balancing conversion and extraction. Oceanic NGH has a very low environmental risk, which also serves to distinguish it from other deepwater hydrocarbon deposits.

  5. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  7. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  8. Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

  9. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  10. A Reduced Order Model for Fast Production Prediction from an Oil Reservoir with a Gas Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering Economic evaluations are essential inputs for oil and gas field development decisions. These evaluations are critically dependent on the unbiased assessment of uncertainty in the future oil and gas production from wells. However, many production prediction techniques come at significant computational costs as they often require a very large number of highly detailed grid based reservoir simulations. In this study, we present an alter...

  11. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  12. Radiolytic gas production from tritiated waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Orebaugh, E.G.

    1977-07-01

    Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of tritiated waste was estimated from gamma and alpha radiolysis tests to determine the extent of pressurization in sealed containers. Two forms of simulated wastes were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays or 244 Cm alpha particles: concrete for solidification of tritiated water and vermiculite for solidification of tritiated octane or vacuum pump oil. For concrete, the gamma and alpha radiolysis results predicted that H 2 will be formed by tritium beta particles with an initial rate of 0.1 to 0.3 molecule for every 100 eV of energy absorbed. Also, as the H 2 pressure increases, this 100-eV yield decreases because of a reaction removing H 2 . Eventually, a steady state pressure that depends on the radiation intensity will be attained. For intensities less than 10 5 rads/h, the steady state pressure will be less than 20 psi. O 2 in the air sealed with the concrete will be almost completely depleted, and N 2 will be unaffected. For the organic materials sorbed onto vermiculite, the gamma and alpha radiolysis results predicted that H 2 and traces of CH 4 and CO 2 will be produced. For tritium beta particles, the 100-eV yields for H 2 based on energy sorbed by the organic materials are 4.4 for octane and 2.2 for vacuum pump oil. In the containers, steady state H 2 pressure will not be attained at pressures up to at least 200 psi. As with the concrete, O 2 will be nearly completely depleted and N 2 will be unaffected. The 100-eV yield for H 2 production was used to calculate pressure increases in conceptual tritiated waste packages. 13 figures

  13. Gas chromatographic isolation technique for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Shibata, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Morita, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We present here a gas chromatographic isolation technique for the compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of biomarkers from the marine sediments. The biomarkers of fatty acids, hydrocarbon and sterols were isolated with enough amount for radiocarbon analysis using a preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC) system. The PCGC systems used here is composed of an HP 6890 GC with FID, a cooled injection system (CIS, Gerstel, Germany), a zero-dead-volume effluent splitter, and a cryogenic preparative collection device (PFC, Gerstel). For AMS analysis, we need to separate and recover sufficient quantity of target individual compounds (>50 μgC). Yields of target compounds from C 14 n-alkanes to C 40 to C 30 n-alkanes and approximately that of 80% for higher molecular weights compounds more than C 30 n-alkanes. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis of organic compounds, as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis, provide valuable information on the origins and carbon cycling in marine system. Above PCGC conditions, we applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to the marine sediments from western north Pacific, which showed the possibility of a useful chronology tool for estimating the age of sediment using organic matter in paleoceanographic study, in the area where enough amounts of planktonic foraminifera for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are difficult to obtain due to dissolution of calcium carbonate. (author)

  14. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  15. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c) of..., storage, or packaging of beverage products and other food, except fresh meats. (d) To assure safe use of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173.350...

  16. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  17. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  18. Identifying Patients with Colon Neoplasias with Gas Discharge Visualization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, Ekaterina G; Buntseva, Olga A; Belonosov, Sergei S; Fedorov, Eugenii D; Korotkov, Konstantin; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-11-01

    To perform an initial assessment of the potential of using the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique to identify patients with colon neoplasias. The GDV camera (also known as the electrophotonic imaging camera) was used to assess the participants. Colonoscopy was performed on all 78 participants, followed by a GDV scan. The control group consisted of 22 people. An endoscopic examination identified colon tumors in the remaining 56 participants. Participant ages ranged from 45 to 86 years (mean, 64.6 ± 1.2 years). The study analyzed GDV images of each patient's fingers, presenting a whole-body view, as well as separate sectors corresponding to the organs in question. There was a significant number of differences between the control group and the patients with colon tumors. The dynamic of the parameters was examined as the level of tumor dysplasia (neoplasia) varied. The values of the following parameters decreased in the control group as compared to the patients with cancerous polyps: normalized luminescence area, internal noise, contour radius, and average luminescence intensity. The values of the following parameters increased in the control group: radius of the inscribed circle, contour line length, area of luminescence, contour line fractality, contour line entropy, and form coefficients. This pilot study demonstrated a statistical difference between the GDV parameters of patients with colon tumors and the control group. These findings warrant a more in-depth study of the potential for GDV technique in screening programs.

  19. Production-test planning for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Hancock, S.H.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The development of the gas hydrate production-test experiments for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 well was reviewed. The research well was drilled to confirm the feasibility of natural gas production from gas hydrate deposits by depressurization and thermal stimulation, and to collect enough data to determine relevant gas hydrate formation properties. The production of the free-gas interval at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone was examined along with other tests for gas hydrate accumulation at the Mallik well. This perforated the hydrate interval to allow for both small and large-scale pressure drawdown tests directly in a gas hydrate zone. Other gas hydrate accumulation tests included inhibitor stimulations; horizontal wells; complex multiple-well experiments; and thermal stimulations. Modern pressure transient analysis techniques were also used to analyze the bottomhole data.

  20. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  1. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  2. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  3. Acid gas removal in synfuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickmeyer, A.G.; Gangriwala, H.A.

    1981-12-01

    The CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and COS contents of gas streams of some synfuel processes and the costs for removal of these gases are tabulated. Four different types of acid gas removal processes discussed are chemisorption, physical adsorption, hybrid or combination of the first two, and sulfur conversion processes. Results of an economic study of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ removal at pressures of 1379, 2758, and 4137 kPa for 13.8 million normal m/sup 3//day of gas containing 1% H/sub 2/S and 22% CO/sub 2/. The processes considered were selective removal of H/sub 2/S with a solvent process (CATASOL 3) followed by removal of CO/sub 2/ by either the CATASOL 4A physical solvent or the CATACARB process (catalyzed hot potassium). The main feature influencing the selection of acid gas removal process are the gas composition and pressure and availability of low-level waste heat. Capital investment, utilities, and chemical costs were considered for various processes. Since the cost of commercial size synfuel process plants runs into billions of dollars, the added cost of acid gas removal must be carefully considered. (BLM)

  4. 78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-53-2013] Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas submitted a notification of proposed production activity to...

  5. Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smout, G.

    1998-01-01

    Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil's productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow

  6. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  7. Environmental policy and regulatory constraints to natural gas production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    2004-12-17

    For the foreseeable future, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States will be met with domestic resources. Impediments, or constraints, to developing, producing, and delivering these resources can lead to price increases or supply disruptions. Previous analyses have identified lack of access to natural gas resources on federal lands as such an impediment. However, various other environmental constraints, including laws, regulations, and implementation procedures, can limit natural gas development and production on both federal and private lands. This report identifies and describes more than 30 environmental policy and regulatory impediments to domestic natural gas production. For each constraint, the source and type of impact are presented, and when the data exist, the amount of gas affected is also presented. This information can help decision makers develop and support policies that eliminate or reduce the impacts of such constraints, help set priorities for regulatory reviews, and target research and development efforts to help the nation meet its natural gas demands.

  8. A calibration technique for gas-flow ionization chambers with short half-lived rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Oishi, T.; Honda, T.; Torii, T.

    1996-01-01

    A calibration technique for gas-flow ionization chambers was studied for implementation of reliable radioactive gas monitoring. Three radioactive gases with short half-lives of 133 Xe, 135 Xe and 41 Ar were prepared by activating stable isotopes and used for the calibration. On the basis of activity determination by the DLPC method, a gas-flow ionization chamber used as a secondary standard was precisely calibrated in terms of ionization efficiency for each radionuclide. The influence of impurities in the 133 Xe gas on calibration of gas monitoring instruments is also discussed. This technique is considered to make the easy and reliable calibration of gas monitoring instruments possible. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    Global climate change is recognised as one of the major current challenges to humanity. At the same time, climate change is human induced and we hold the opportunity to react accordingly. While global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise, emissions from agriculture and land-use change...

  11. Technique for production of graphite-carbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.N.; Bentsianovskaya, I.A.; Filatova, V.A.; Nabokov, V.S.; Nestor, V.P.; Zil' bergleyt, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technique for producing carbon-graphite products that includes filtration under a pressure of 0.1-015 MPa (through graphite stock) of an aqueous carbon material with the addition of surfactant, drying, and subsequent thermal treatment, is simplified and made less lengthy. Oxidized graphite is utilized with a prior addition of 1-10% water-soluble organic substance into the suspension -molasses, hemicellulose, sugar or polyacrylamide. A 0.03-1.5% suspension of oxidized graphite is utilized, with a particle size of 0.02-0.1 mkm. Thermal processing is done in a carbon fill, at a rate of 10-20 degrees/hour to 700-800/sup 0/, maintained 2-3 hours.

  12. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  13. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  14. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  15. Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrateaccumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

    2007-05-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. Vast amounts ofCH4 are trapped in gas hydrates, and a significant effort has recentlybegun to evaluate hydrate deposits as a potential energy source. Class 3hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer(HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids.The base of the HBL in Class 3 deposits may occur within or at the edgeof the zone of thermodynamic hydrate stability.In this numerical study oflong-term gas production from typical representatives of unfracturedClass 3 deposits, we determine that simple thermal stimulation appears tobe a slow and inefficient production method. Electrical heating and warmwater injection result in very low production rates (4 and 12 MSCFD,respectively) that are orders of magnitude lower than generallyacceptable standards of commercial viability of gas production fromoceanic reservoirs. However, production from depressurization-baseddissociation based on a constant well pressure appears to be a promisingapproach even in deposits characterized by high hydrate saturations. Thisapproach allows the production of very large volumes ofhydrate-originating gas at high rates (>15 MMSCFD, with a long-termaverage of about 8.1 MMSCFD for the reference case) for long times usingconventional technology. Gas production from hydrates is accompanied by asignificant production of water. However, unlike conventional gasreservoirs, the water production rate declines with time. The lowsalinity of the produced water may require care in its disposal. Becauseof the overwhelming advantage of depressurization-based methods, thesensitivity analysis was not extendedto thermal stimulation methods. Thesimulation results indicate that depressurization-induced gas productionfrom oceanic Class 3 deposits increases (and the corresponding waterto-gas ratio decreases) with increasing hydrate temperature

  16. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  17. Green Gas. An overview od innovative techniques and suppliers; Groen Gas. Een overzicht van innovatieve technieken en leveranciers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorp, R.

    2013-04-15

    An overview is given of all (innovative) techniques in the whole biogas chain, from biomass to the use of biogas or green gas. Each technique is supplemented with a list of suppliers and links to websites [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van alle (innovatieve) technieken over de gehele biogasketen, van biomassa tot toepassing van biogas of groen gas. Elke techniek is aangevuld met een lijst van leveranciers en links naar websites.

  18. Gas Production in the MEGAPIE Spallation Target

    OpenAIRE

    Thiollière , Nicolas; Zanini , Luca; David , Jean-Christophe; Eikenberg , Jost; Guertin , Arnaud; Konobeyev , Alexander Yu.; Lemaire , Sébastien; Panebianco , Stefano

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build, and operate a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The target was irradiated for 4 months in 2006 at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. Gas samples wereextracted in various phases of operation and analyzed by g spectroscopy, leading to the determination of the main radioactive isotopes released from the LBE. Comparison with ...

  19. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M

    1999-01-01

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  20. Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Mohr, Steve; Feng, Lianyong; Liu, Huihui; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China’s total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China’s lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed. - Highlights: • A comprehensive investigation on China’s unconventional gas resources is presented. • China’s unconventional gas production is forecast under different scenarios. • Unconventional gas production will increase rapidly in high scenario. • Achieving the projected production in high scenario faces many challenges. • The increase of China’s unconventional gas production cannot solve its gas shortage.

  1. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  2. Gas production in the bromate-pyrocatechol oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Mohammad; Green, James R; Cooper, Benjamin F T; Wang, Jichang

    2009-06-18

    A significant amount of gas production has been observed in the bromate-pyrocatechol oscillator under high concentrations of bromate and pyrocatechol. The observation is in contrast to the general perception that aromatic compounds can form bromate-based oscillators that are free of gas bubbles, which is a desired property in investigating pattern formation. Analysis with (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography illustrate the production of 5-(dibromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone from pyrocatechol, where the loss of one carbon atom from the aromatic ring causes the formation of gas bubbles. Possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  3. Techniques Choice, Misallocation and Total Factor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.; Wang, P.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a generalized production framework with endogenous “production techniques” that serve to organize raw factor inputs in an efficient manner. We establish a positive relationship between production flexibility and cost efficiency. By allowing firms to differ in technology scales,capital

  4. Techniques Choice, Misallocation and Total Factor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.; Wang, P.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a generalized production framework with endogenous “production techniques” that serve to organize raw factor inputs in an efficient manner. We establish a positive relationship between production ‡exibility and cost efficiency. By allowing …firms to differ in technology scales, capital

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  6. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  7. Financing of gas production expansion at Taipo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, R.T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Financing strategies applied to Phase I and Phase II were quite different. In Phase I, the project was more sophisticated and involved investments in different types of assets: Site acquisition; site formation and foundations; gas-making plants and associated equipment; naptha tanks; naptha pipeline; twin submarine gas pipeline connected to the existing distribution network; and workshop and offices. For Phase II, the tenderers demanded payment in foreign currencies because of their international procurement and their concern over Hong Kong currency at the time of submitting the tender. The Phase II financing package consists of: (1) ECGD facilities with a fixed interest rate at 9.15% p.a.--8 years with repayment in 10 semiannual installments over the last 5 years. (2) Fixed rate bank borrowings at 9% p.a. with repayment at the end of 5 years (use of swaps to obtain long-term money at lower interest rate). (3) Foreign currency deposits to cover exposure in two other currencies. (4) Forward contract to cover repayment installments in Sterling in the last 5 years at much lower rates of exchange. In a nutshell, by using a combination of different financing instruments, HKCG was able to eliminate foreign exchange and interest rate risks and reduce the overall capital cost of the plant

  8. Fundamental study on repairing technique for cracked or damaged parts of structures by cold gas dynamic spray technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Yuji; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative technique for repairing of cracked or damaged parts of structures, such as nuclear or thermal power plants, by means of cold gas dynamic spray (CS) technique. In the case of generation of cracks etc. in the structure, the cracks can be repaired by welding. However, the welding spends considerable time on repair, and also needs special skills. The CS technique is known as a new technique not only for coatings but also for thick depositions. It has many advantages, i.e. dense deposition, high deposition rate and low oxidation. Therefore, it has a possibility to apply the CS technique instead of welding to repair the cracks etc. In this study, the cold gas dynamic spray technique as a new repairing technique for some structures is introduced. (author)

  9. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  10. Essays on the industrial composition of Texas oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Genevieve Lynn

    This dissertation examines the changes in Texas oil and gas production from 1970--1996. Chapter II applies the survivor technique to the 300 largest oil producing firms in Texas for the years 1970--1996. The survivor technique is a powerful method to determine the efficient scale of production in a competitive industry. While previous applications of the survivor technique did not yield conclusive findings, Texas oil production is a competitive industry for which the technique provides clear results. Specifically, the technique shows that firms producing more than 100,000 barrels of oil per day in Texas have higher opportunity costs of production. Chapter III describes the size distribution of firms in Texas oil production. The Pareto distribution is found to correctly describe the size distribution of the 300 largest firms producing oil in Texas from 1970--1996, while the lognormal distribution is conclusively rejected. The k-firm concentration ratio reveals that Texas oil production became relatively less concentrated over this period. A simple relationship between the concentration ratio and the parameters of the Pareto distribution is defined and estimates of the Pareto distribution parameters are used to show that the size distribution of firms did not change significantly over the period 1970--1996. The fourth chapter analyses the impact of the changes in the regulatory environment of the Texas natural gas industry. In 1970, natural gas producers faced a quagmire of regulations governing the sale and price of their gas. Today, natural gas is a commodity traded freely in spot and futures markets. This chapter examines the pattern of production that resulted from this changing regulatory environment by examining the behavior of nine natural gas producing firms in Texas over the period 1970--1996. Each of these firms appeared on the list of the Texas top four natural gas producers at least once over this period. The analysis reveals that the majors have

  11. Managing landfill gas. Techniques and recommendations. To know in order to act - Guides and Technical Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Christian; Meiffren, Isabelle; Dumas, Bruno; Galtier, Laurent; Prud'homme, Eric; Hebe, Isabelle; Riquier, Laurent; Miralves, James; Riviere, Georges; Herault, Irene

    2001-12-01

    This guide first recalls some basic notions about landfill gas: presence of three gases in varying proportions (biogas, air, and volatile compounds), biogas composition, toxicity and explosiveness of the various landfill gas components, production mechanism and evolution in time of landfill gas composition. The next part proposes a large and discussed overview of the different objectives of landfill gas management: reduction of environmental impacts, safety and security of people and assets, compliance with regulatory requirements, to provide better conditions for biogas valorisation, long term performance of gas management. Different types of tools and methods are discussed for the study of landfill biogas management and production: calculations, measurements, controls and audits. The design and implementation of gas management systems is then addressed: equipment securing, general procedures, gas capturing, gas collection, gas processing and conditioning, analysis, measurement and control. The next part addresses issues related to exploitation: safety, maintenance organisation, control and command

  12. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  13. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  14. Gas and particulate phase products from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Healy, Robert M.; Tomaz, Sophie; Flaud, Pierre-Marie; Perraudin, Emilie; Wenger, John C.; Villenave, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in the urban atmosphere. In this work, the gas-phase ozonolysis of acenaphthylene was investigated in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and an aerosol time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for on-line characterization of the oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, respectively. SOA samples were also collected on filters and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). The major gas-phase products included a range of oxygenated naphthalene derivatives such as 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, naphthalene 1,8-dicarbaldehyde and naphthaldehyde, as well as a secondary ozonide. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed for the formation of these products and favoured pathways have been suggested. Many of these products were also found in the particle phase along with a range of oligomeric compounds. The same range of gas and particle phase products was observed in the presence and absence of excess cyclohexane, an OH scavenger, indicating that OH radical production from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene is negligible. SOA yields in the range 23-37% were determined and indicate that acenaphthylene ozonolysis may contribute to part of the SOA observed in urban areas.

  15. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  16. Investigation of Productivity of Brown’s (HHO Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Brazdžiūnas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were made tests of productivity of Brown’s gas generator using different potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration changing voltage and amperage. It is described experimental stand that is used to do researches and methodology of experiments performance. Brown’s gas production in electrolyser (electrolyser – the device that is going electrolysis to use stainless steel (AISI 316 electrodes. It was determined after researches that increasing the potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration in the solution and using the same amperage and voltage of the all concentration results are similar. The highest productivity 1.429 l/min was obtained by using a 120 A amperage and 15 V voltage.

  17. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Patricia; Groen, Evelyne A.; Berg, Werner; Prochnow, Annette; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food products, such as dairy, require many input parameters that are affected by variability and uncertainty. Moreover, correlations may be present between input parameters, e.g. between feed intake and milk yield. The purpose of this study was to

  18. Acquainting Future Office Employees with Productivity-Improvement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quible, Zane K.

    1982-01-01

    Examines factors affecting productivity (government regulations, energy costs, decline in the work ethic, capital investment, number of service workers, work force characteristics, management practices, and unions), and techniques to improve productivity (employee involvement, job structure, communication, flexitime, employee upgrading, incentive…

  19. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  20. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  1. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Currently CO2 from fossil fuel combustion accounts for 57% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the strong greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) contribute with 8% and 14%, respectively (IPCC, 2007). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is mainly...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  2. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. TBP degradation products. Separation and gas-chromatographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Alem, C.M.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A de.

    1991-11-01

    A separation method for di butylphosphate, mono butylphosphate and phosphoric acid as degradation products in organic and aqueous streams of the process containing variable amounts of actinides and fission products is described. The products were separated by extraction and after methylation the final determination was carried out by gas chromatography. TPP was used as internal standard and 5 to 500 mg/L concentration range was determined with 1 to 10% deviation depending on the concentration of organo phosphates. (author)

  4. Development of Gating Foils To Inhibit Ion Feedback Using FPC Production Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, D.; Ikematsu, K.; Sugiyama, A.; Iwamura, M.; Koto, A.; Katsuki, K.; Fujii, K.; Matsuda, T.

    2018-02-01

    Positive ion feedback from a gas amplification device to the drift region of the Time Projection Chamber for the ILC can deteriorate the position resolution. In order to inhibit the feedback ions, MPGD-based gating foils having good electron transmission have been developed to be used instead of the conventional wire gate. The gating foil needs to control the electric field locally in opening or closing the gate. The gating foil with a GEM (gas electron multiplier)-like structure has larger holes and smaller thickness than standard GEMs for gas amplification. It is known that the foil transmits over 80 % of electrons and blocks ions almost completely. We have developed the gating foils using flexible printed circuit (FPC) production techniques including an improved single-mask process. In this paper, we report on the production technique of 335 μm pitch, 12.5 μm thick gating foil with 80 % transmittance of electrons in ILC conditions.

  5. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  6. Oil and Gas Production Wastewater: Soil Contamination and Pollution Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pichtel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During oil and natural gas production, so-called “produced water” comprises the largest byproduct stream. In addition, many oil and gas operations are augmented via injection of hydraulic fracturing (HF fluids into the formation. Both produced water and HF fluids may contain hundreds of individual chemicals, some known to be detrimental to public health and the environment. Oil and gas production wastewater may serve a range of beneficial purposes, particularly in arid regions, if managed correctly. Numerous treatment technologies have been developed that allow for injection, discharge to the land surface, or beneficial reuse. Although many papers have addressed the effects of oil and gas production wastewater (OGPW on groundwater and surface water quality, significantly less information is available on the effects of these fluids on the soil resource. This review paper compiles fundamental information on numerous chemicals used and produced during oil and gas development and their effects on the soil environment. Additionally, pollution prevention technologies relating to OGPW are presented. An understanding of the effects of OGPW on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties can provide a foundation for effective remediation of OGPW-affected soils; additionally, sustainable reuse of oil and gas water for irrigation and industrial purposes may be enhanced.

  7. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  8. Predição da degradação da matéria seca pelo volume de gases utilizando a técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases Prediction of dry matter degradation from volume of gas production using the in vitro semi-automatic gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ú.T. Nogueira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a degradação da matéria seca (DMS via produção de gases (PG por meio de equações. Foram agrupados dados de volume de gases e DMS de oito forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Cynodon spp, silagem de milho, silagem de milheto, sorgo de corte, capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar e de milho em grão. Os dados de DMS obtidos em laboratório foram comparados à DMS obtida pelas equações de regressão. Apesar dos altos coeficientes de determinação, os resultados demonstraram a impossibilidade de estimar a DMS via PG pelas equações geral, de dois e de três pontos.The dry matter degration (DMD was estimated through volume of gas produced (GP during the in vitro fermentation. The DMD from eight forages (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, cynodon hay, maize silage, Pennisetum glaucon, sorghum, elephant grass and sugarcane and corn grain were obtained and were compared with the DMD estimated using regression equations. The results showed the GP can not predict the DMD due to inocula effects, chemical composition of substrate or losses of particles of soluble material during filtration process.

  9. Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management

  10. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  11. Nanowire and microwire fabrication technique and product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Zach, Michael; Marten, Alan David

    2018-02-27

    A continuous or semi-continuous process for fabricating nanowires or microwires makes use of the substantially planar template that may be moved through electrochemical solution to grow nanowires or microwires on exposed conductive edges on the surface of that template. The planar template allows fabrication of the template using standard equipment and techniques. Adhesive transfer may be used to remove the wires from the template and in one embodiment to draw a continuous wire from the template to be wound around the drum.

  12. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  13. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  14. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    production rate would be able to support a research environment where a single patient per day would be addressed, it is unlikely that this method would produce enough material to support a large hospital. The production of 147Pm from europium oxide targets showed that due to the large spin state differences between 151Eu and 147Pm, a negligible amount of 147Pm can be created using the (gamma,alpha) process. The minimum detectable limit for these experiments, given this specific isotope, was 10 nCi. The (gamma, gamma') reaction was studied on 99mTc to determine the production rates and cross sections for this reaction. It was found that the average production rate between 12 and 25 MeV was approximately 3 uCi/(kg*kW). Given that a single patient dose of 99mTc is approximately 20 mCi, we find that we need many kilograms of technetium metal. This would produce toxic levels of technetium in the patient; therefore this method is not likely viable. It was also found, however, that the (n,n') reaction may play a significant role in the activation from ground state technetium to the metastable state. Finally, the (gamma, alpha) reaction that will produce 99m Tc from rhodium oxide targets was quantified from energies of 12 to 25 MeV. The production rate was found to be 64 and 113 mCi/(kg*kW*day) for 19 and 25 MeV, respectively. Given a 2 kW beam and a 2 kg target, we find this technique to be a feasible method to create 99mTc in a local setting using a LINAC. By using a fast separations technique, such as selective volatilization, a process in which technetium oxide is volatilized off of rhodium oxide in a carrier gas could provide a turn-key solution for entities looking to create this radioisotope on site. A cost-benefit analysis was performed and it was found that a system such as this could produce over $1M in revenue per year given a standard hospital usage of 40 patient doses per day.

  15. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  16. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  17. Hyperpolarised 3He gas production for magnetic resonance imaging of the human air ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichele, Stanislao

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental techniques, and methods employed in hyperpolarised 3 He gas production and magnetic resonance imaging of the human air-ways, using spin-echo sequences and MR tagging techniques. An in-house polariser utilising the metastability optical pumping technique was constructed. The main results of this work are concerned with engineering difficulties involved in compressing HP 3 He and a large proportion of this PhD thesis details the design, construction, and performance of an in-house built peristaltic compressor. In preliminary imaging experiments using RARE, high signal to noise projection images of the lungs were acquired using less than 0.5 cm 3 (STP) of purely polarised HP gas. Later, increased HP gas quantities (typically 10 cm 3 ) were obtained by employing the peristaltic compressor. Consequently we could acquire 10 mm thick slices spanning the entire lung following a single 3 He gas bolus administration. Finally, the first results using MR tagging techniques in conjunction with 3 He imaging to track gas flow during an inspiratory and expiratory manoeuvre are presented. (author)

  18. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system.

  19. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  20. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1988-01-01

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  1. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  2. Study on iodine-125 production technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu; Han Dongqiao; Lu Changlong; Sun Wenhao; Bao Jianying; Wang Aimin

    1999-11-01

    125 I is produced with natural xenon as target material. The target preparation process is presented. Required xenon is frozen in 100 ml aluminum container by liquid nitrogen and sealed by cold-welding for irradiation in reactor. I - can be adsorbed on Platinum Coated Copper (PCC) in the media of dilute sulfuric acid, pH 3 PCC. In the range of its adsorption capacity, the adsorption efficiency of iodine-125 on PCC is greater than 99.9%. All the radioiodine can be adsorbed on PCC quantifiably and the impurities pass through the column. The elution efficiency of 125 I from PCC column greatly depends on the concentration of eluant NaOH, the amount of adsorbed 125 I - and flow rate as well. The aluminum dissolved from Al container has no apparent effects on both adsorption and elution efficiency. The contents of adsorbent material Cu and Pt is extremely low ( 125 I produced by using PCC chromatographic technique can meet the requirement of RIA kits labelling and other uses

  3. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  4. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  5. Gas-phase thermal dissociation of uranium hexafluoride: Investigation by the technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1987-04-01

    In the gas-phase, uranium hexafluoride decomposes thermally in a quasi-unimolecular reaction to yield uranium pentafluoride and atomic fluorine. We have investigated this reaction using the relatively new technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis, in which a megawatt infrared laser is used to generate short pulses of high gas temperatures under strictly homogeneous conditions. In our investigation, SiF 4 is used as the sensitizer to absorb energy from a pulsed CO 2 laser and to transfer this energy by collisions with the reactant gas. Ethyl chloride is used as an external standard ''thermometer'' gas to permit estimation of the unimolecular reaction rate constants by a relative rate approach. When UF 6 is the reactant, CF 3 Cl is used as reagent to trap atomic fluorine reaction product, forming CF 4 as a stable indicator which is easily detected by infrared spectroscopy. Using these techniques, we estimate the UF 6 unimolecular reaction rate constant near the high-pressure limit. In the Appendix, we describe a computer program, written for the IBM PC, which predicts unimolecular rate constants based on the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory. Parameterization of the theoretical model is discussed, and recommendations are made for ''appropriate'' input parameters for use in predicting the gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate for UF 6 as a function of temperature and gas composition and total pressure. 85 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

    1977-01-14

    A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

  7. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product

  8. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  9. Gas-target method for the production of iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.; Stuart, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this invention is to provide a means of producing iodine-123 in high yield and purity via a small accelerator. The process uses protons of about 30 MeV incident upon a target of isotopically-enriched xenon-124 gas. The product obtained has a useful life after preparation of at least 85 hours

  10. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterobacter aerogenes ADH-43 is a hydrogen gas (H2) producing mutant bacterium and a facultative anaerobic microbe. This double mutant was obtained by classical mutagenetically treated in order to enhance H2 production. In addition, this mutant has ability to degrade molasses from sugar factory as well as other ...

  11. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  12. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potential health and livelihood impacts of the oil production in the area. It was also found that oil and gas companies have not created enough awareness of the impact of their operation in the communities. The study concludes that the rights of the communities to good health, clean environment, sustainable livelihood and ...

  13. Influence of inoculum source on gas production profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, John W.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Bachmann, Herwig

    2002-01-01

    Gas production equipment is used in many locations to study rate and extent of fermentation of feeds in the rumen. Since data obtained with rumen fluid from sheep are often used for dairy cattle, rates and extents of fermentation were compared from cow and sheep rumen fluid. However, since it is

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  15. Modelling the association between in vitro gas production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro gas production of four different browse plants (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Vernonia amygdalina) was investigated under different extractions. The relationship between the forage composition parameters (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral ...

  16. Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the

  17. ACCENT-BIAFLUX workshop 2005, trace gas and aerosol flux measurement and techniques. Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Soerensen, L.L. (eds.)

    2005-04-01

    The woorkshop trace gas and aerosol flux measurement techniques in the second meeting within the Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange of Pollutions (BIAFLUX) group in the EU-network project Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). The goal of the workshop is to obtain an overview of techniques for measurements of gas and aerosol fluxes and to gather the knowledge of uncertainties in flux measurements and calculations. The workshop is funded by ACCENT. The abstract book presents abstracts of 21 oral presentations and 26 poster presentations. (LN)

  18. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-01-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report

  19. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  20. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid

  1. The production of carbon dioxide from flue gas by membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The use of membrane gas absorption for carbon dioxide production from flue gases is discussed with special reference to the combined supply of heat and carbon dioxide to greenhouses. Novel absorption liquids are introduced which show an improved performance in terms of system stability and mass

  2. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  3. Halogens in oil and gas production-associated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.; Warner, N. R.; Dwyer, G. S.; Mitch, W.; Vengosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated chloride and bromide in oil and gas wastewaters that are released to the environment are one of the major environmental risks in areas impacted by shale gas development [Olmstead et al.,2013]. In addition to direct contamination of streams, the potential for formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in utilities located downstream from disposal sites poses a serious risk to human health. Here we report on the occurrence of iodide in oil and gas wastewater. We conducted systematic measurements of chloride, bromide, and iodide in (1) produced waters from conventional oil and gas wells from the Appalachian Basin; (2) hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids from unconventional Marcellus and Fayetteville shale gas, (3) effluents from a shale gas spill site in West Virginia; (4) effluents of oil and gas wastewater disposed to surface water from three brine treatment facilities in western Pennsylvania; and (5) surface waters downstream from the brine treatment facilities. Iodide concentration was measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which allowed for a more accurate measurement of iodide in a salt-rich matrix. Iodide in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas produced and flowback waters varied from 1 mg/L to 55 mg/L, with no systematic enrichment in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The similarity in iodide content between the unconventional Marcellus flowback waters and the conventional Appalachian produced waters clearly indicate that the hydraulic fracturing process does not induce additional iodide and the iodide content is related to natural variations in the host formations. Our data show that effluents from the brine treatment facilities have elevated iodide (mean = 20.9±1 mg/L) compared to local surface waters (0.03± 0.1 mg/L). These results indicate that iodide, in addition to chloride and bromide in wastewater from oil and gas production, poses an additional risk to downstream

  4. Increasing injectivity and productivity indexes of a gas well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, W.B.

    1972-05-09

    The injectivity and productivity indexes of a well in fluid commuication with a subterranean hydrocarbon reservoir used for the storage of hydrocarbon is enhanced by injecting 1 to 500 gal of a micellar dispersion per vertical foot of reservoir and then displacing the micellar dispersion out ito the reservoir. Preferably 0.1 to 50 volumes of water per volume of micellar dispersion is injected after the micellar dispersion and preferably gas is injected behind the water to displace substantially all of the water out into the reservoir and to re-establish a gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the well bore. (16 claims)

  5. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  6. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  7. Analysis Technique for Exhaust Gas Including PFCs from Microelectronics Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nobuyasu; Isaki, Ryuichiro

    In the manufacturing processes of Semiconductor and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Perfluorocompounds (PFCs), Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) and Nitrogenfluoride (NF3), which have high Green house effect,are used in large quantities. As emission reduction of these gases, the following countermeasures are taken. 1. Opimization of PFCs usage 2. Utilization of alternative gas 3. Instllation of Scrubber for exhaust gas treatment To inspect the effect of countermeasure that are introduced for these PFCs emission reduction, it is necessary to analyze PFCs in exhaust gas. In this report, we will discribe about analysis technique for exhaust gas including PFCs from microelectornics manufacturing processes.

  8. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. K.; Griffith, D.; Harvey, M.; Naylor, T.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere affects the atmospheric concentrations of gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide and others. The quantification of the exchange between a biogenic system and the atmosphere is necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these interactions. This is of special interest for agricultural systems which can be sources or sinks of trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO2, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing measurement techniques. This limitation precludes studies of fluxes which run for longer periods, for example over full seasonal or growing cycles for both animal- and crop-based agriculture. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques such as Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG) with the high precision multi-species detection capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms (months, seasonal cycles, years). The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign in NSW, Australia on a flat, homogeneous circular grass paddock with grazing cattle. The flux of the atmospheric trace gas CO2 was measured with three different micrometeorological techniques: Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  9. Projected Alaskan royalty gas production and its relationship to projected natural gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobey, P.L.; O' Connor, K.M.; Gilbreth, O.K.; Miller, J.C.; Hamilton, H.H.

    1976-04-01

    Using conservative parameters for the natural gas surplus analysis, a Prudhoe Bay field royalty surplus above residential-commercial needs was found for all pipeline capacities. When the more probable pipeline throughputs are considered (2.0 and 2.5 billion cubic feet per day), surpluses of over 70 percent of the pipeline royalty capacities are present until 1990. The probable effect of future estimated energy production and proven additional gas reserves will insure a surplus above 90 percent of royalty gas for the entire twenty-year period in the 2.0 Bcf per day and 2.5 Bcf per day cases. The assumption that royalty gas will be needed to supply future power demands in the greater Anchorage area must be weighted against the high probability that additional coal-fired generators and hydroelectric power development will be available. After the present commitments of working gas are exhausted, the probable addition of a new alternate energy source added to the likelihood of additional commitments of working gas being acquired by suppliers would insure a solid royalty surplus after 1990.

  10. Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel characterization with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati SONAWANE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes was found in fresh water Godawari reservoir, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra State, India. Microalgae are modern biomass for the production of liquid biofuel due to its high solar cultivation efficiency. The collection, harvesting and drying processes were play vital role in converting algal biomass into energy liquid fuel. The oil extraction was the important step for the biodiesel synthesis. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME synthesis was carried through base catalyzed transesterification method. The product was analyzed by using the hyphened techniques like Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. FT-IR Spectroscopy was results the ester as functional group of obtained product while the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy was results the six type of fatty acid methyl ester with different concentration. Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel consist of 46.5% saturated and 49.14% unsaturated FAME.

  11. Development of a technique for mercury speciation and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.; Barshick, C.M.; Britt, P.F.; Vance, M.A.; Duckworth, D.C.

    1997-07-01

    One element of concern to DOE is mercury. Mercury was used extensively at the DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee from 1950 to 1963 in the process of making lithium deuteride, a component of nuclear weapons. Although both the inorganic and organometallic forms of mercury are toxic to humans, the organic compounds are often more toxic. Since the toxicity of mercury is a function of its chemical form, an understanding of the interactions between commercially discharged mercury, naturally occurring mercury, and the environment in which they are present is vital. In this report, the authors have been investigating gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the analysis of both the organometallic and inorganic forms of mercury in the same environmental sample (e.g., solutions, soils, and sludges). Although gas chromatography is the classical technique for analyzing organic molecules, (e.g., organometallic compounds) little has been done on the analysis of inorganic compounds. In a previous publication, the authors described how a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber could be used to sample organomercurials from aqueous samples. An alkylation reaction was then carried out to transform chemically mercury nitrate into dimethylmercury; subsequent GC/MS analysis of this compound permitted quantification of the inorganic constituent. Subsequently, several different alkylation reagents have been synthesized that methylate any inorganic mercury compound to methylmercury iodide. Here, the authors report results on alkylation reaction time and the effect of pH on the population of the product.

  12. Profitability of Minituber Seed Yam Production Technique in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Umudike to evaluate the profitability of minituber production technique using selected improved white yam varieties developed in 2003 as a back up to the minisett technique. The three white yam varieties selected were TDr89/02677, TDr89/02665 and TDr89/02565 known for their high ...

  13. Indian gas field development plan aims for quick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, N.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new oil or gas field involves construction of various downstream facilities such as field flow lines, trunk lines, oil and gas collecting and processing stations, and transportation to refineries and consuming centers. This paper reports that it is essential that these facilities be built on a schedule that allows the products to be transported and processed as early as possible. Unless such an approach is initiated, the wells producing crude oil or natural gas will need to be shut-in in the absence of the other relative facilities. For quick returns on the investments, a realistic program and careful evaluation of the schedule is needed to ensure that early commissioning of the fields is possible

  14. Estimativa da degradabilidade ruminal de alimentos utilizando a técnica de produção de gás em bovinos, ovinos e caprinos Estimate of the ruminal degradability of some feeds using gas production technique in cattle, sheep, and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Aparecida dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de validar a técnica de produção de gás na avaliação de alimentos concentrados e volumosos e as possíveis diferenças entre bovinos, ovinos e caprinos quanto à degradação desses alimentos. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Pesquisa Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFLA. O líquido ruminal (inóculo foi originado de três vacas Holandesas, três ovelhas e três cabras sem raça definida, fistuladas no rúmen. Foram avaliadas as frações solúvel em detergente neutro (SDN e fibra em detergente neutro(FDN de fubá de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão, caroço de algodão, farelo de trigo, polpa cítrica, feno de alfafa, feno de coast cross, silagem de milho e silagem de capim. As leituras do volume cumulativo de gás foram feitas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas após a incubação. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre as espécies, para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. A fração SDN apresentou maior produção de gás e taxa de degradação em relação a FDN. A técnica de produção de gás permitiu estimar as taxas de digestão das frações insolúveis e, principalmente, das frações solúveis dos carboidratos totais.The objective of this work was to validate the technique of gas production in the evaluation of concentrated feeds and roughages, and the possible differences between cattle, sheep, and goats, regarding the degradation of these feeds. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Animal Research at the Animal Science Department - Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. The ruminal liquor came from three Holstein cows, three sheep, and three goats, without defined race. All were fistulated in the rumen. The neutral detergent soluble fraction (NDS and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, of ground corn, soybean meal, cotton meal, cotton seed, wheat meal, citrus pulp, alfalfa hay, coast cross hay, corn silage and grass silage were

  15. Validity of using backward Lagrangian Stochastic technique in measuring trace gas emission from treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the accuracy of measuring trace gas emission from treatment lagoons using backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) technique. The bLs technique was originally developed for relatively homogeneous terrains without any obstacles causing significant windflow disturbance. The errors ass...

  16. Hydrogen rich gas production by thermocatalytic decomposition of kenaf biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmak, Sibel; Oeztuerk, ilker [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Adana 01330 (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a well known energy crop and an annual herbaceous plant grows very fast with low lodging susceptibility was used as representative lignocellulosic biomass in the present work. Thermocatalytic conversions were performed by aqueous phase reforming (APR) of kenaf hydrolysates and direct gasification of solid biomass of kenaf using 5% Pt on activated carbon as catalyst. Hydrolysates used in APR experiments were prepared by solubilization of kenaf biomass in subcritical water under CO{sub 2} gas pressure. APR of kenaf hydrolysate with low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of the reforming catalyst produced more gas compared to the hydrolysate that had high molecular weight polysaccharides. APR experiments of kenaf biomass hydrolysates and glucose, which was used as a simplest biomass model compound, in the presence of catalyst produced various amounts of gas mixtures that consisted of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The ratios of H{sub 2} to other gases produced were 0.98, 1.50 and 1.35 for 150 C and 250 C subcritical water-treated kenaf hydrolysates and glucose, respectively. These ratios indicated that more the degraded organic content of kenaf hydrolysate the better selectivity for hydrogen production. Although APR of 250 C-kenaf hydrolysate resulted in similar gas content and composition as glucose, the gas volume produced was three times higher in glucose feed. The use of solid kenaf biomass as starting feedstock in APR experiments resulted in less gas production since the activity of catalyst was lowered by solid biomass particles. (author)

  17. Well-Production Data and Gas-Reservoir Heterogeneity -- Reserve Growth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Schmoker, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas well production parameters, including peakmonthly production (PMP), peak-consecutive-twelve month production (PYP), and cumulative production (CP), are tested as tools to quantify and understand the heterogeneity of reservoirs in fields where current monthly production is 10 percent or less of PMP. Variation coefficients, defined as VC= (F5-F95)/F50, where F5, F95, and F50 are the 5th, 95th, and 50th (median) fractiles of a probability distribution, are calculated for peak and cumulative production and examined with respect to internal consistency, type of production parameter, conventional versus unconventional accumulations, and reservoir depth. Well-production data for this study were compiled for 69 oil and gas fields in the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Of these, 47 fields represent production from marine clastic facies. The Morrow data were supplemented by data from the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, Middle Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation, and Silurian and Lower Devonian Hunton Group of the Anadarko Basin, one large gas field in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of north-central Montana (Bowdoin field), and three areas of the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation continuous-type (unconventional) oil accumulation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Production parameters (PMP, PYP, and CP) measure the net result of complex geologic, engineering, and economic processes. Our fundamental hypothesis is that well-production data provide information about subsurface heterogeneity in older fields that would be impossible to obtain using geologic techniques with smaller measurement scales such as petrographic, core, and well-log analysis. Results such as these indicate that quantitative measures of production rates and production volumes of wells, expressed as dimensionless variation coefficients, are potentially valuable tools for

  18. Analytical methods for quantifying greenhouse gas flux in animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2016-08-01

    Given increased interest by all stakeholders to better understand the contribution of animal agriculture to climate change, it is important that appropriate methodologies be used when measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal agriculture. Similarly, a fundamental understanding of the differences between methods is necessary to appropriately compare data collected using different approaches and design meaningful experiments. Sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in animal production systems includes the animals, feed storage areas, manure deposition and storage areas, and feed and forage production fields. These 3 gases make up the primary GHG emissions from animal feeding operations. Each of the different GHG may be more or less prominent from each emitting source. Similarly, the species dictates the importance of methane emissions from the animals themselves. Measures of GHG flux from animals are often made using respiration chambers, head boxes, tracer gas techniques, or in vitro gas production techniques. In some cases, a combination of techniques are used (i.e., head boxes in combination with tracer gas). The prominent methods for measuring GHG emissions from housing include the use of tracer gas techniques or direct or indirect ventilation measures coupled with concentration measures of gases of interest. Methods for collecting and measuring GHG emissions from manure storage and/or production lots include the use of downwind measures, often using photoacoustic or open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, combined with modeling techniques or the use of static chambers or flux hood methods. Similar methods can be deployed for determining GHG emissions from fields. Each method identified has its own benefits and challenges to use for the stated application. Considerations for use include intended goal, equipment investment and maintenance, frequency and duration of sampling needed to achieve desired representativeness

  19. Unconventional gas experience at El Paso Production Company : tapping into deep, tight gas and coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The current conditions in the natural gas industry were reviewed, from the excellent current and projected energy prices to low activity and rig count. Various graphs were presented, depicting total proved dry gas reserves and annual production over time for the Gulf of Mexico, including its continental shelf, the Texas coastal plains, and the United States lower 48. Offshore growth of unconventional gas was also displayed. The key elements of the strategy were also discussed. These included: (1) earnings driven, (2) superior science, (3) innovative application of technology, (4) ability to act quickly and decisively, (5) leadership, management, and professional development, and (6) achieve learning curve economics. The core competencies were outlined along with recent discoveries in South Texas and the Upper Gulf Coast. figs

  20. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Andries, J.; Luo, Z.; Spliethoff, H.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m 3

  1. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  2. Calculated apparent yields of rare gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The apparent fission yield of the rare gas fission products from four mass chains is calculated as a function of separation time for six different fissioning systems. A plot of the calculated fission yield along with a one standard deviation error band is given for each rare gas fission product and for each fissioning system. Those parameters in the calculation that were major contributors to the calculated standard deviation at each separation time were identified and the results presented on a separate plot. To extend the usefulness of these calculations as new and better values for the input parameters become available, a third plot was generated for each system which shows how sensitive the derived fission yield is to a change in any given parameter used in the calculation. (U.S.)

  3. Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  4. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of C02, CO, CH4, and H20 were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  5. Oil and gas production equals jobs and revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimes, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oil and gas production on jobs and revenue are discussed. Some suggestions are presented that should provide the climate to increase jobs, add revenue and increase efficiency in state agencies within the producing states. Some of the ideas and suggestions are summarized. Some of these ideas include: how to extend the economic limits of marginal properties; how the states can encourage additional drilling without incurring loss of revenue; and the use of investment tax credits

  6. Multiple inert gas elimination technique by micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry--a comparison with reference gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Moritz; Schilling, Thomas; Vogt, Andreas; Rothen, Hans Ulrich; Borges, João Batista; Hachenberg, Thomas; Larsson, Anders; Baumgardner, James E; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2013-10-15

    The mismatching of alveolar ventilation and perfusion (VA/Q) is the major determinant of impaired gas exchange. The gold standard for measuring VA/Q distributions is based on measurements of the elimination and retention of infused inert gases. Conventional multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) uses gas chromatography (GC) to measure the inert gas partial pressures, which requires tonometry of blood samples with a gas that can then be injected into the chromatograph. The method is laborious and requires meticulous care. A new technique based on micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS) facilitates the handling of blood and gas samples and provides nearly real-time analysis. In this study we compared MIGET by GC and MMIMS in 10 piglets: 1) 3 with healthy lungs; 2) 4 with oleic acid injury; and 3) 3 with isolated left lower lobe ventilation. The different protocols ensured a large range of normal and abnormal VA/Q distributions. Eight inert gases (SF6, krypton, ethane, cyclopropane, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone) were infused; six of these gases were measured with MMIMS, and six were measured with GC. We found close agreement of retention and excretion of the gases and the constructed VA/Q distributions between GC and MMIMS, and predicted PaO2 from both methods compared well with measured PaO2. VA/Q by GC produced more widely dispersed modes than MMIMS, explained in part by differences in the algorithms used to calculate VA/Q distributions. In conclusion, MMIMS enables faster measurement of VA/Q, is less demanding than GC, and produces comparable results.

  7. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  8. Experience of molecular monitoring techniques in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Anthony F.; Anfindsen, Hilde; Liengen, Turid; Molid, Solfrid [Statoil ASA (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    For a numbers of years, molecular monitoring tools have been used in upstream oil and gas operations but the results have given only limited added value. This paper discusses the various techniques available for upstream molecular monitoring which provides scope for identification of microbial influenced problems. The methodology, which consists of analyzing solid samples using traditional as well as molecular techniques, is detailed. Two cases were studied with the objective of determining if microbial contamination was contributing to the problem. The first case was a study of amorphous deposits in production wells and mainly iron sulphide was found. The second study was of amorphous deposits in water injection wells and the analysis showed typical components of drilling and completion fluids with some organic material. Two more cases, corrosion of tubing in a water injection well and flow line corrosion, are discussed and the results are given. From the study, it can be concluded that failure can be due to several factors, chemical and biological.

  9. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  10. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  11. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  12. The gas cushion technique as a handling means for the remote removal of tokamak segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removille, J.; Stephano, R.

    1983-01-01

    The gas cushion technique has been studied as offering a compact, flexible and safe way of handling massive objects. The evolution of the gas-cushion handling philosophy is discussed and examples presented related to the displacements of different loads in the torus and in the reactor hall. A short technical comparison with the C-frame handling concept is made in the conclusion. (author)

  13. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  14. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  15. Production of biofuels from synthesis gas using microbial catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Acevedo, Oscar; Chinn, Mari S; Grunden, Amy M

    2010-01-01

    World energy consumption is expected to increase 44% in the next 20 years. Today, the main sources of energy are oil, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. These fuels are unsustainable and contribute to environmental pollution. Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Feedstocks for biofuels used today such as grain starch are expensive and compete with food markets. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and readily available from a variety of sources, for example, energy crops and agricultural/industrial waste. Conversion of these materials to biofuels by microorganisms through direct hydrolysis and fermentation can be challenging. Alternatively, biomass can be converted to synthesis gas through gasification and transformed to fuels using chemical catalysts. Chemical conversion of synthesis gas components can be expensive and highly susceptible to catalyst poisoning, limiting biofuel yields. However, there are microorganisms that can convert the CO, H(2), and CO(2) in synthesis gas to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen. Biomass gasification-biosynthesis processing systems have shown promise as some companies have already been exploiting capable organisms for commercial purposes. The discovery of novel organisms capable of higher product yield, as well as metabolic engineering of existing microbial catalysts, makes this technology a viable option for reducing our dependency on fossil fuels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  17. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  18. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  19. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  20. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  1. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  2. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  3. Application of Arma Technique For Operation Stability of RSG-Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djudjuratisbela, Udju

    2000-01-01

    Application Of Arma Technique For Operation Stability Of RSG-Gas. Application of Fast Fourier Transport (FFT) method in the noise experiments data had been conducted to reactor kinetic parameter determination of RSG-Gas. Reactor stability that has closed relation to operation safety has not been measured yet. Noise analysis method and ARMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average) technique that has capability to identify mathematical model of the noise experimental data can be used for determination of kinetic/dynamic characteristic equation and its roots. From the roots of reactor characteristic equation, magnitude of natural frequency (fn), damping ratio (xi), damping frequency (fd), decay ratio (delta) and then reactor stability can be calculated

  4. [A Detection Technique for Gas Concentration Based on the Spectral Line Shape Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Yang, Bing-chu; Tao, Shao-hua

    2015-04-01

    The methods that can rapidly and precisely measure concentrations of various gases have extensive applications in the fields such as air quality analysis, environmental pollution detection, and so on. The gas detection method based on the tunable laser absorption spectroscopy is considered a promising technique. For the infrared spectrum detection techniques, the line shape function of an absorption spectrum of a gas is an important parameter in qualitative and quantitative analysis of a gas. Specifically, how to obtain the line shape function of an absorption spectrum of a gas quickly and accurately is a key problem in the gas detection fields. In this paper we analyzed several existing line shape functions and proposed a method to calculate precisely the line shape function of a gas, and investigated the relation between the gas concentration and the peak value of a line shape function. Then we experimentally measured the absorption spectra of an acetylene gas in the wavelength range of 1,515-1,545 nm with a tunable laser source and a built-in spectrometer. With Lambert-Beer law we calculated the peak values of the line shape function of the gas at the given frequencies, and obtained a fitting curve for the line shape function in the whole waveband by using a computer program. Comparing the measured results with the calculated results of the Voigt function, we found that there was a deviation-between the experimental results and the calculated results. And we found that the measured concentration of the acetylene gas by using the fitting curve of the line shape function was more accurate and compatible with the actual situation. Hence, the empirical formula for the line shape function obtained from the experimental results would be more suitable for the concentration measurement of a gas. As the fitting curve for the line shape function of the acetylene gas has been deduced from the experiment, the corresponding peak values of the spectral lines can be

  5. A laboratory comparison of chemical volcanic gas sampling techniques using an artificial fumarole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, L.; Kress, V.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic gases play a critical role in nearly all volcanic processes. A number of chemical and spectroscopic techniques have been developed in recent decades to measure volcanic gas output. Giggenbach bottles, alkaline traps, filter packs, and venturi samplers are examples of chemical gas sampling techniques involving the reaction of acidic gas with an alkaline solution or a solid hydroxide salt on a filter. Aside from Giggenbach bottles all of these methods are disequilibrium techniques relying on the assumption that the kinetics of gas reaction are identical for all species. Given that equilibrium species solubilities differ, there is reason to suspect this assumption. While these chemical sampling methods have been used extensively in the field, we are aware of no direct calibration in a lab setting. To address this problem we have built an artificial fumarole in the laboratory for quantitative comparison and evaluation of gas sampling techniques. The fumarole consists of a metered mixture of H2 CO2 SO2, CO gas combined in a high-temperature mixing chamber with an aqueous solution of HCl and HF. The resulting equilibrium high-temperature gas is sampled at the furnace exit. Several gas mixtures were considered representing a range of compositions encountered at natural fumaroles. Results of analysis are compared with equilibrium gas concentrations calculated from the input gas composition and furnace temperature. We compared Giggenbach bottles, a variety of filter-pack chemistries, and passive alkaline trap samplers. In addition, we tested a venturi sampler of our own design; optimized for ruggedness, ease of field use, reliability and sampling efficiency. Each sample was analyzed by ion chromatography both before and after oxidation with H2O2 for fluoride, chloride, and several sulfur species. While reduced sulfur is not easily analyzed by IC, it can be determined from the difference in concentrations between total S in the oxidized samples and the other sulfur

  6. Selection of productivity improvement techniques via mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahassan M. Khater

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mathematical model to select an optimal combination of productivity improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper considers four-stage cycle productivity and the productivity is assumed to be a linear function of fifty four improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of manufacturing plant. The resulted problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming which can be solved for optimality using traditional methods. The preliminary results of the implementation of the proposed model of this paper indicate that the productivity can be improved through a change on equipments and it can be easily applied for both manufacturing and service industries.

  7. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  8. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  9. A critical review of wetland greenhouse gas measurement techniques and scaling considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. T.; Krauss, K. W.; Stagg, C. L.; Neubauer, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The role of wetlands in terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes is disproportionately large compared to the relatively small terrestrial area they encompass. There is an established and growing interest in accurately measuring these fluxes, and extrapolating inferences to larger spatial scales. However, a lack of uniformity in measurement approaches impedes progress because it is a challenge to synthesize data, parameterize models, and develop generalizable concepts from disparate data. Furthermore, pairing different methods can result in double-accounting and other aggregation errors. Our objective is to review gas flux measurement techniques and synthesize concepts, factors, and constraints associated with measuring and scaling greenhouse gas fluxes. This work will contribute to a conceptual framework designed to aid in the collection and use of gas flux data obtained by different methods. This review focuses specifically on wetlands which have both distinct transport processes and a unique biogeochemical environment, causing gas fluxes that are not prominent in other terrestrial or aquatic systems. We review techniques and implications of measuring at different steps along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum; an emphasis of this work is identifying pathways and transit times for different fluxes in different wetland hydrogeomorphic settings. Measurement location along the path from source to atmosphere connotes the spatial and temporal scales at which a technique is applied, the spatiotemporal representation, and the factors that constrain extrapolation.

  10. Technical note: In vitro total gas and methane production measurements from closed or vented rumen batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, M; Tagliapietra, F; Maccarana, L; Hansen, H H; Bailoni, L; Schiavon, S

    2014-03-01

    This study compared measured gas production (GP) and computed CH4 production values provided by closed or vented bottles connected to gas collection bags. Two forages and 3 concentrates were incubated. Two incubations were conducted, where the 5 feeds were tested in 3 replicates in closed or vented bottles, plus 4 blanks, for a total of 64 bottles. Half of the bottles were not vented, and the others were vented at a fixed pressure (6.8 kPa) and gas was collected into one gas collection bag connected to each bottle. Each bottle (317 mL) was filled with 0.4000 ± 0.0010 g of feed sample and 60 mL of buffered rumen fluid (headspace volume = 257 mL) and incubated at 39.0°C for 24 h. At 24 h, gas samples were collected from the headspace of closed bottles or from headspace and bags of vented bottles and analyzed for CH4 concentration. Volumes of GP at 24 h were corrected for the gas dissolved in the fermentation fluid, according to Henry's law of gas solubility. Methane concentration (mL/100mL of GP) was measured and CH4 production (mL/g of incubated DM) was computed using corrected or uncorrected GP values. Data were analyzed for the effect of venting technique (T), feed (F), interaction between venting technique and feed (T × F), and incubation run as a random factor. Closed bottles provided lower uncorrected GP (-18%) compared with vented bottles, especially for concentrates. Correction for dissolved gas reduced but did not remove differences between techniques, and closed bottles (+25 mL of gas/g of incubated DM) had a greater magnitude of variation than did vented bottles (+1 mL of gas/g of incubated DM). Feeds differed in uncorrected and corrected GP, but the ranking was the same for the 2 techniques. The T × F interaction influenced uncorrected GP values, but this effect disappeared after correction. Closed bottles provided uncorrected CH4 concentrations 23% greater than that of vented bottles. Correction reduced but did not remove this difference. Methane

  11. Instructional Television: Visual Production Techniques and Learning Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergleid, Michael Ian

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing levels of complexity in visual production techniques would increase the viewer's learning comprehension and the degree of likeness expressed for a college level instructional television program. A total of 119 mass communications students at the University of Alabama participated in the…

  12. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize. Production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Bisrat Getnet1, Laike Kebede1 and Hae Koo Kim2. 1 Department of Agricultural Mechanization Research, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkassa. Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 436, Adama, ...

  13. Challenges to and countermeasures for the production stabilization of tight sandstone gas reservoirs of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the grade of hydrocarbon resources becoming poorer, tight sandstone gas reservoirs may serve as the key to the enhancement of both reserves and productivity. Accordingly, high efficient and sustainable development of the large and over-large tight sandstone reservoirs is very important. However, currently, there is no effective method available for macro-analysis. Based on the latest research findings from the Sulige Gasfield, the largest onshore tight sandstone gas reservoir in China, studies were conducted in five aspects, i.e. reserve scale, development scale, dynamic reserve evaluation, rules in production declines of gasfields and undeveloped resource evaluation, to identify challenges to the production stabilization of gas reservoirs. In addition, key evidences and constraints for the solutions to the difficulties in production stabilization were proposed to provide necessary technical supports for high-efficient development in later stages. Research results show that the major challenges to production stabilization include seven aspects, such as low development induced by improper allocation of well patterns, uneven declines in productivity induced by specific features of reservoir formations and fluids, difficulties in the development of some reserves due to complex gas/water correlation, and differences in production performances by using different production techniques. Finally, guided by the development principles of “promoting productivity by using innovative technologies in different spaces and time”, 13 key technologies, such as comprehensive optimization of development well patterns, multi-dimensional matrix for gas well management and “positive” water discharging and gas production technologies, were proposed to further prolong peak production time and enhance the recovery rates of tight gas reservoirs.

  14. Investigations of astrophysically interesting nuclear reactions by the use of gas target techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik, Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review of the common properties of windowless and recirculating gas targets is presented. As example the Stuttgart gas target facility Rhinoceros in the extended and in the supersonic jet mode with its properties and techniques is explained, also with respect to gas purification techniques. Furthermore several typical experiments from the field of nuclear astrophysics with characteristic results are described (D({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li, {sup 15}N({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}F, {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F, {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne({alpha},{gamma}){sup 24}Mg, {sup 21}Ne({alpha},n){sup 24}Mg, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne, {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne). In several cases the experimental sensitivity could be raised by up to a factor of 10{sup 6}. (orig.)

  15. Digital prototyping technique applied for redesigning plastic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Andrei, A.

    2015-11-01

    After products are on the market for some time, they often need to be redesigned to meet new market requirements. New products are generally derived from similar but outdated products. Redesigning a product is an important part of the production and development process. The purpose of this paper is to show that using modern technology, like Digital Prototyping in industry is an effective way to produce new products. This paper tries to demonstrate and highlight the effectiveness of the concept of Digital Prototyping, both to reduce the design time of a new product, but also the costs required for implementing this step. The results of this paper show that using Digital Prototyping techniques in designing a new product from an existing one available on the market mould offers a significantly manufacturing time and cost reduction. The ability to simulate and test a new product with modern CAD-CAM programs in all aspects of production (designing of the 3D model, simulation of the structural resistance, analysis of the injection process and beautification) offers a helpful tool for engineers. The whole process can be realised by one skilled engineer very fast and effective.

  16. Avaliação das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com nabo forrageiro, pinhão manso e tremoço, pela técnica de produção de gases Evaluation of elephant grass silages with forage radish, jatropha and lupine cakes as additives by the gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Prata Neiva Júnior

    2010-08-01

    production technique. The experiment was developed in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (Center Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura of São Paulo University (LANA/CENA/USP. As donors of rumen liquid, two sheep of the Santa Ines breed, males, adults and fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used. The donating animals' feeding consisted of cultivated grass forage and a supplementation ate the end of day with Tifton hay, commercial concentrate and mineral salt at will. The substrates were dried at 60ºC, ground in Willey type mill fitted with a sieve with perforations of 2 mm. The gases produced during the different fermentation periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h were measured with a transducer - pressure measurer. The experiment was set up according to a randomized block design in which the treatments were arranged in a split plot in time. The greatest values of gas production were found for the treatments where lupine cake was added when compared with the other cakes. That originated from the fact that lupine cake presented lower fiber content, enabling increased rumen fermentation and, hence, higher gas production in relation to other feeds with a greater ratio of structural carbohydrates (cell wall. The degradation rate of the soluble fraction of dry matter was lower for 8% TNF and 11% TPM in relation to the other silages studied. Significant differences were found for the TNF, TPM and TT at the different levels relative to the amount of gas in 96 h of incubation (P<0.05. In all the treatments, except in those TT was added, there was decrease (P<0.05 in the average degradability values of dry matter at 96 hours as the level of inclusion of the cakes was increased. The elephant grass silages added with forage radish and lupine cakes at the different levels presented higher rates of degradation and higher gas production than those added with Jatropha.

  17. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  18. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included

  19. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

    2006-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  20. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  1. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  2. Estimative of the nutritional value of agroindustrial byproducts by using in vitro gas production techniqueEstimativa do valor nutricional de subprodutos agroindustriais pelo uso da técnica de produção de gás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the total carbohydrates fractions and to estimate the digestion rate of non-fibrous carbohydrates of agroindustrial byproducts by using the gas production technique. The agroindustrial byproducts evaluated were the following: cashew, passion fruit, pineapple, barbados cherry, annatto and melon, and each sample was incubated in quadruplicate. After mixing all contents thoroughly, the bottles were placed in an incubator at 39ºC, and connecting the lid of each bottle to a pressure sensitive switch, a solenoid valve and a vent stem connector. Gas pressure measurements were made at 0, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 40, 48, 60, 72, 96 e 120 hours post-inoculation. Blanks and an internal standard were included to enable adjustments in variation among readings. There was a high variation in nutritional composition of agroindustry byproducts, that cashew and annato presented the highest protein contents (159.3 and 135.3 g/kg of dry matter, respectively. Mellon and cashew presented the lowest values of total gas production (9.60 and 12.85 mL, respectively; and annato, pineapple and passion fruit presented highest gas volume (32.80; 28.16 and 22.54 mL, respectively, being the greatest percentages of phases from B2 fraction (64.27; 81.25 and 67.49%, respectively. Among the byproducts, pineapple and annatto stand out for the highest contribution of fibrous carbohydrate for total gas production, being B2 the main energy source for microbial growth, which is degraded at a slower rate than non-fibrous carbohydrate.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar as frações de carboidratos totais e estimar a taxa de digestão dos carboidratos não-fibrosos de subprodutos agroindustriais, utilizando a técnica de produção de gás. Os subprodutos agroindustriais avaliados foram: caju, maracujá, abacaxi, acerola, urucum e melão, sendo cada amostra incubada em quadriplicata. Após mistura minuciosa de todos os conte

  3. Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Tamaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir.

  4. Magnetic trapping and thermal isolation of nitrogen hydride molecules using the buffer gas techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikata, Edem

    Thermal isolation of trapped NH molecules is accomplished. We cool NH molecules to 500 mK using helium vapor buffer gas and magnetically trap them in the 4 Tesla field of an anti-Helmholtz superconducting magnet. The helium is introduced using a fast-acting cryogenic valve, allowing us to abruptly switch off the flow. The buffer gas rapidly exits the trapping region through a large diameter orifice. We trap 105 molecules with lifetimes exceeding 20 s. The prospect of extending the loading and trapping techniques to observe atom-molecule collisions is investigated.

  5. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, R; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Posada, L G C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2007-01-01

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5≤α≲80) and densities (1.5×108≤n≲7×109 cm−3) within a short duration (25 s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  6. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  7. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  8. Reconciling longwall gob gas reservoirs and venthole production performances using multiple rate drawdown well test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacan, C. Oezgen [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh 15236, PA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Longwall mining is an underground mining method during which a mechanical shearer progressively mines a large block of coal, called a panel, in an extensive area. During this operation the roof of the coal seam is supported only temporarily with hydraulic supports that protect the workers and the equipment on the coal face. As the coal is extracted, the supports automatically advance and the roof strata cave behind the supports. Caving results in fracturing and relaxation of the overlying strata, which is called ''gob.'' Due its highly fractured nature, gob contains many flow paths for gas migration. Thus, if the overlying strata contain gassy sandstones or sandstone channels, gas shales or thinner coal seams which are not suitable for mining, then the mining-induced changes can cause unexpected or uncontrolled gas migration into the underground workplace. Vertical gob gas ventholes (GGV) are drilled into each longwall panel to capture the methane within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. Thus, it is important, first to understand the properties of the gas reservoir created by mining disturbances and, second, to optimize the well parameters and placement accordingly. In this paper, the production rate-pressure behaviors of six GGVs drilled over three adjacent panels were analyzed by using conventional multi-rate drawdown analysis techniques. The analyses were performed for infinite acting and pseudo-steady state flow models, which may be applicable during panel mining (DM) and after mining (AM) production periods of GGVs. These phases were analyzed separately since the reservoir properties, due to dynamic subsidence, boundary conditions and gas capacity of the gob reservoir may change between these two stages. The results suggest that conventional well test analysis techniques can be applicable to highly complex gob reservoirs and GGVs to determine parameters such as skin, permeability, radius of investigation

  9. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  10. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Junginger, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  11. Petroleum and natural gas: exploration and production in France during the last ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combaz, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents petroleum and natural gas exploration in France, during the last ten years. Statistical data on production, petroleum and natural gas deposits and forecasting are also given. 4 refs., 11 figs

  12. Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy Scott

    2014-01-01

    Gas hydrates in both arctic permafrost regions and deep marine settings can occur at high concentrations in sand-dominated reservoirs, which have been the focus of gas hydrate exploration and production studies in

  13. Gas sector expansion: production monopoly versus free prices; Expansao do setor de gas: monopolio na producao versus precos livres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria Paula de Souza [Agencia de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado do Espirito Santo (ASPE), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the necessary conditions to develop Brazil's natural gas sector with production, reserves, main uses, sources, inputs, main players, laws, regulatory aspects, prices, supply, demand, market, monopoly and free competition. (author)

  14. Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Hurst, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope technology has been used for almost half a century by the oil and gas industry to solve problems and to help optimize process operations. The use of radioactive isotopes to investigate the effectiveness of well stimulation procedures and to measure the sweep-out patterns of oil and gas in secondary recovery process is well known. The applications of radioisotopes to study features of plant and process operation has been less widely reported though the economic benefits deriving from such applications are very great. Nevertheless, there has been continuous development in the range of application and in the design of equipment to facilitate the use of the technology at remote environments such as an oil or gas platform. Some indication of the current usage of radioisotope techniques may be obtained from examination of Table I, which lists projects carried out in the UK's North Sea fields by ICI Tracerco, which is the world's largest radioisotope applications service group

  15. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  17. Headspace-gas chromatography: an ideal technique for sampling volatiles present in non-volatile matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettre, L S

    2001-01-01

    After a brief overview of the techniques of static and dynamic headspace sampling and examples are given for the dynamic method ("purge and trap"). With respect to static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) the theoretical background of the technique and the principles of the existing instruments are outlined. Five questions related to static HS-GC are discussed in more detail: trace analysis; ultratrace analysis with cryogenic enhancement of the analytes and elimination of the possible effect of excess water vapor in the sample; sample modification by carrying out reactions in the sample vial; non-equilibrium static HS-GC; and pattern analysis by HS-GC.

  18. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: Production techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J.; Nesbit, M.; Saberi, S.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Materials and methods Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. Results The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for

  19. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: production techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J; Nesbit, M; Saberi, S; Petridis, H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for large laboratories. This study

  20. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  1. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  2. Ruminal Methane Production on Simple Phenolic Acids Addition in in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from ruminants contributes to total global methane production, which is an important contributor to global warming. In this experiment, six sources of simple phenolic acids (benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at two different levels (2 and 5 mM added to hay diet were evaluated for their potential to reduce enteric methane production using in vitro Hohenheim gas production method. The measured variables were gas production, methane, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA. The results showed that addition of cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at 5 mM significantly (P p-coumaric > ferulic > cinnamic. The addition of simple phenols did not significantly decrease OMD. Addition of simple phenols tends to decrease total SCFA production. It was concluded that methane decrease by addition of phenolic acids was relatively small, and the effect of phenolic acids on methane decrease depended on the source and concentration applied.

  3. A Novel Neural Network-Based Technique for Smart Gas Sensors Operating in a Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohir Dibi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…. We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these problems. The idea is to create intelligent models; the first one, called corrector, can automatically linearize a sensor’s response characteristics and eliminate its dependency on the environmental parameters. The corrector’s responses are processed with the second intelligent model which has the role of discriminating exactly the detected gas (nature and concentration. The gas sensors used are industrial resistive kind (TGS8xx, by Figaro Engineering. The MATLAB environment is used during the design phase and optimization. The sensor models, the corrector, and the selective model were implemented and tested in the PSPICE simulator. The sensor model accurately expresses the nonlinear character of the response and the dependence on temperature and relative humidity in addition to their gas nature dependency. The corrector linearizes and compensates the sensor’s responses. The method discriminates qualitatively and quantitatively between seven gases. The advantage of the method is that it uses a small representative database so we can easily implement the model in an electrical simulator. This method can be extended to other sensors.

  4. Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

    2008-07-01

    A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

  5. Trapping truffle production in holes: a promising technique for improving production and unravelling truffle life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Murat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Périgord black truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vittad., is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms edible hypogeous ascomata. It is now harvested in plantations and is recognized as an agricultural product by European policy. Empirical techniques without scientific demonstration of their efficiency are often used to improve the production of truffles in plantations. One of these techniques is “truffle trapping” which consists in practicing holes inside the potential productive area and to fill them with a substrate containing ascospores. We report an experiment in a truffle orchard where 784 holes were set under 196 trees. Two years after the installation of the holes, 95% of the truffles were found inside the holes corresponding to only 5% of the productive area. This study confirms the efficiency of this empirical technique and demonstrates new ways for in situ studies of the truffle life cycle.

  6. Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

    2013-02-01

    Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration.

  7. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  8. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  9. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  10. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  11. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  12. Experimental study of xenon isotopes production by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingsheng; Liang Xiongwen; Zhang Yonggang; Dong Jinping

    2006-01-01

    The gas centrifuge technology is studied for the separation of Xe isotopes. The nature Xe is chosen as processing gas. A four-state cascade is designed to separate 124 Xe to a concentration of being greater than 65% in three separation runs. 124 Xe can be enriched to a concentration 99% in more separation runs using a cascade of more gas centrifuges. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, resource base of natural gas in Ukraine and also dynamics of established resources of natural gas in Ukraine and dynamics of natural gas production. It analyses base rates of growth of natural gas resources and production in Ukraine. It considers dynamics of import of natural gas into Ukraine and its import prices and also the structure of natural gas import. It identifies the balance of the natural gas market in Ukraine. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article proves that Ukraine is a gas-deficit country of the world, which depends on natural gas import supplies.

  14. [A review of mixed gas detection system based on infrared spectroscopic technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jing-Min; Fu, Li; Yan, Zi-Hui; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Chang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yi-Din

    2014-10-01

    In order to provide the experiences and references to the researchers who are working on infrared (IR) mixed gas detection field. The proposed manuscript reviews two sections of the aforementioned field, including optical multiplexing structure and detection method. At present, the coherent light sources whose representative are quantum cascade laser (QCL) and inter-band cascade laser(ICL) become the mainstream light source in IR mixed gas detection, which replace the traditional non-coherent light source, such as IR radiation source and IR light emitting diode. In addition, the photon detector which has a super high detectivity and very short response time is gradually beyond thermal infrared detector, dominant in the field of infrared detector. The optical multiplexing structure is the key factor of IR mixed gas detection system, which consists of single light source multi-plexing detection structure and multi light source multiplexing detection structure. Particularly, single light source multiplexing detection structure is advantages of small volume and high integration, which make it a plausible candidate for the portable mixed gas detection system; Meanwhile, multi light source multiplexing detection structure is embodiment of time division multiplex, frequency division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing, and become the leading structure of the mixed gas detection system because of its wider spectral range, higher spectral resolution, etc. The detection method applied to IR mixed gas detection includes non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, wavelength and frequency-modulation spectroscopy, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, etc. The IR mixed gas detection system designed by researchers after recognizing the whole sections of the proposed system, which play a significant role in industrial and agricultural production, environmental monitoring, and life science, etc.

  15. Production of bio-gas from maize cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leke, Luter [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ogbanje, Anne Ada [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Department of Renewable Energy, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Garki-Abuja (Nigeria); Terfa, Dekaa Henry [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ikyaagba, Tyoalumun [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crop residues and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation as vehicle fuel. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as Cow rumen liquor (CL), Poultry droppings (PD), and Goat Faeces (GF) with Maize cobs (M) were studied. 20 g of each inoculum was mixed with 100g of degraded maize cobs in the first three digesters while the fourth contained CL 10g, PD 10 g, and M 100 g. 100 g of M alone in the fifth digester served as the control. The blends were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 10 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Physiochemical properties of the blends such as moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, and pH were also determined. Results of the daily performances of each system showed that maize cobs (M) alone had cumulative biogas yield of 1.50 cm3 while those of the blends (MCL, MPD, MGF and MCLPD) were 6.11 cm3, 3.05 cm3, 2.50 cm3, and 63.00 cm3 respectively, pH and C/N ratio affected the biogas yield of the systems significantly. These results indicate that the low biogas production from maize cobs can be enhanced significantly by blending with cow rumen liquor and poultry droppings.

  16. APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR DISTILLATION TECHNIQUE IN FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ketenoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several separation techniques -including conventional distillation- for extracting heat sensitive compounds from food products. However, some compounds may have high boiling points at which other compounds might be adversely affected. Vacuum application is also needed for such kinds of foods. Molecular distillation is an advanced vacuum distillation method performed by short-path evaporators. Distance between evaporator and condenser is extremely reduced which results in minimized pressure drop. Heat sensitive material meets heat for a shorttime under high vacuum, thus low or no decomposition occurs. This review aims to discuss the basics and uses of molecular distillation in foods.

  17. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  18. [Carbon monoxide gas detection system based on mid-infrared spectral absorption technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Lin; Dong, Ming; Song, Nan; Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-10-01

    Based on infrared spectral absorption technique, a carbon monoxide (CO) detection system was developed using the fundamental absorption band at the wavelength of 4.6 μm of CO molecule and adopting pulse-modulated wideband incandescence and dual-channel detector. The detection system consists of pulse-modulated wideband incandescence, open ellipsoid light-collec- tor gas-cell, dual-channel detector, main-control and signal-processing module. By optimizing open ellipsoid light-collector gas- cell, the optical path of the gas absorption reaches 40 cm, and the amplitude of the electrical signal from the detector is 2 to 3 times larger than the original signal. Therefore, by using the ellipsoidal condenser, the signal-to-noise ratio of the system will be to some extent increased to improve performance of the system. With the prepared standard CO gas sample, sensing characteris- tics on CO gas were investigated. Experimental results reveal that, the limit of detection (LOD) is about 10 ppm; the relative er- ror at the LOD point is less than 14%, and that is less than 7. 8% within the low concentration range of 20~180 ppm; the maxi- mum absolute error of 50 min long-term measurement concentration on the 0 ppm gas sample is about 3 ppm, and the standard deviation is as small as 0. 18 ppm. Compared with the CO detection systems utilizing quantum cascaded lasers (QCLs) and dis- tributed feedback lasers (DFBLs), the proposed sensor shows potential applications in CO detection under the circumstances of coal-mine and environmental protection, by virtue of high performance-cost ratio, simple optical-path structure, etc.

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of impact of inlet air cooling techniques on gas turbine and combined cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Alok Ku; Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (T i , C ), turbine inlet temperature (T i , T ), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum T i , T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K

  20. Development of a Non-Intrusive Diagnosis Technique for Gas Lifted Oil Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, Tawfik; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Harbaoui, Mohamed; Ellejmi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    In the present study a numerical model, representative of a real gas-lifted oil well, is used to perform flow simulations under different states of the oil reservoir. The simulations results helped to establish correlations between the well state and the measurable parameters at the well head. The uniqueness of these correlations, allows the reliable diagnosis of the state of the well by inferring the anomalies affecting it based on easily measurable parameters with no need to stop the oil production

  1. A review on optimization production and upgrading biogas through CO2 removal using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Dian; Wresta, Arini; Atmaja, Tinton Dwi; Saepudin, Aep

    2014-02-01

    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic materials is a renewable energy resource that consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. Trace components that are often present in biogas are water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, siloxanes, hydrocarbons, ammonia, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Considering the biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that could well substitute the conventional source of energy (fossil fuels), the optimization of this type of energy becomes substantial. Various optimization techniques in biogas production process had been developed, including pretreatment, biotechnological approaches, co-digestion as well as the use of serial digester. For some application, the certain purity degree of biogas is needed. The presence of CO2 and other trace components in biogas could affect engine performance adversely. Reducing CO2 content will significantly upgrade the quality of biogas and enhancing the calorific value. Upgrading is generally performed in order to meet the standards for use as vehicle fuel or for injection in the natural gas grid. Different methods for biogas upgrading are used. They differ in functioning, the necessary quality conditions of the incoming gas, and the efficiency. Biogas can be purified from CO2 using pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, physical or chemical CO2 absorption. This paper reviews the various techniques, which could be used to optimize the biogas production as well as to upgrade the biogas quality.

  2. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and... the production safety systems proposed rule, which was published in the Federal Register on August 22...: Written comments must be received by the extended due date of December 5, 2013. The BSEE may not fully...

  3. Uncertainties in the development of unconventional gas production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eker, S.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional gas has raised debates all over the world following its considerable contribution to the natural gas production of some countries such as the US. The Netherlands, which is a prominent gas producer in the Western Europe, also considers unconventional resources as an alternative to

  4. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  5. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  6. Application of a support vector machine algorithm to the safety precaution technique of medium-low pressure gas regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuejun; An, Xaioran; Wu, Bo; He, Shaoping

    2018-02-01

    In the gas pipeline system, safe operation of a gas regulator determines the stability of the fuel gas supply, and the medium-low pressure gas regulator of the safety precaution system is not perfect at the present stage in the Beijing Gas Group; therefore, safety precaution technique optimization has important social and economic significance. In this paper, according to the running status of the medium-low pressure gas regulator in the SCADA system, a new method for gas regulator safety precaution based on the support vector machine (SVM) is presented. This method takes the gas regulator outlet pressure data as input variables of the SVM model, the fault categories and degree as output variables, which will effectively enhance the precaution accuracy as well as save significant manpower and material resources.

  7. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  8. Hydrogen production by absorption enhanced water gas shift (AEWGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Bretado, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Ave. Veterinaria s/n, Circuito Universitario, Durango 34120 (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico); Delgado Vigil, Manuel D.; Gutierrez, Jesus Salinas; Lopez Ortiz, Alejandro; Collins-Martinez, Virginia [Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    AEWGS is a reaction that combines the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent to produce high purity H{sub 2} from synthesis gas in one single step at 600-800 C. This reactor system, if homogeneous, would not require a catalyst. However, previous research on this concept was not conclusive, since a steel reactor was used and reactor walls were suspected to act as catalyst. Therefore, there is a need to address this issue and to select and evaluate suitable CO{sub 2} absorbents for this concept. AEWGS was studied using a quartz-made fixed-bed reactor at; SV = 3000 h{sup -1}, feed; 5% CO, 15% H{sub 2}O, balance He-N{sub 2} at 600 C, 1 atm. CO{sub 2} absorbents tested were CaO*MgO, and Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Empty quartz-reactor tests leaded to conclude that a catalyst is needed for the WGS at temperatures of interest. A 97% H{sub 2} product was obtained with calcined dolomite suggesting this last to act as a WGS catalyst. (author)

  9. Gas exchange at the air-sea interface: a technique for radon measurements in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirazza, G.; Roveri, M.

    1991-01-01

    The rate of exchange of various gas species, such as O 2 , CO 2 etc. across the air-water interface can be evaluated from the 222 Rn vertical profiles in the water column. Radon profiles were measured in 4 stations in the NW Adriatic Sea, in September 1990, using solvent extraction and liquid scintillation counting techniques, directly on board the ship. The radiochemical procedure is described in detail. The lower limit of detection is approximately 0.4 mBq 1 -1 . The radon deficiency in the profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the air-sea interface ranging from 0.9 to 7.0 m d -1 . The suitability of the radon deficiency method in shallow water, enclosed seas is briefly discussed. (Author)

  10. New metrology techniques improve the production of silicon diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cynthia B.; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Grigas, Michelle; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Silicon immersion gratings and grisms offer significant advantages in compactness and performance over frontsurface gratings and over grisms made from lower-index materials. At the same time, the high refractive index of Si (3.4) leads to very stringent constraints on the allowable groove position errors, typically rms silicon using photolithography, plasma etching, and wet etching. To date, producers have used contact photolithography to pattern UV sensitive photoresist as the initial processing step, then transferred this pattern to a layer of silicon nitride that, in turn, serves as a hard mask during the wet etching of grooves into silicon. For each step of the groove production, we have used new and sensitive techniques to determine the contribution of that step to the phase non-uniformity. Armed with an understanding of the errors and their origins, we could then implement process controls for each step. The plasma uniformity was improved for the silicon nitride mask etch process and the phase contribution of the plasma etch step was measured. We then used grayscale lithography, a technique in which the photoresist is deliberately underexposed, to measure large-scale nonuniformities in the UV exposure system to an accuracy of 3-5%, allowing us to make corrections to the optical alignment. Additionally, we used a new multiple-exposure technique combined with laser interferometry to measure the relationship between UV exposure dose and line edge shift. From these data we predict the contribution of the etching and photolithographic steps to phase error of the grating surface. These measurements indicate that the errors introduced during the exposure step dominate the contributions of all the other processing steps. This paper presents the techniques used to quantify individual process contributions to phase errors and steps that were taken to improve overall phase uniformity.

  11. Optimal Pretreatment System of Flowback Water from Shale Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Onishi, Viviani C.; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Fraga, Eric S.; Caballero, José A.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas has emerged as a potential resource to transform the global energy market. Nevertheless, gas extraction from tight shale formations is only possible after horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, which generally demand large amounts of water. Part of the ejected fracturing fluid returns to the surface as flowback water, containing a variety of pollutants. For this reason, water reuse and water recycling technologies have received further interest for enhancing overall shale gas...

  12. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  13. Examination Of Defect In Gas Pipeline By Gamma Transmission Scanning And Computed Tomography Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Nguyen The Duy; Bui Trong Duy; Nguyen Huu Quang; Dang Nguyen Tuan; Pham Van Dao

    2011-01-01

    The transmission gamma scanning and computed tomography (CT) are advanced non-destructive testing techniques which can provide visual information to end-user. In recent years, industrial gamma scanning and CT equipment have been continuously improved in physical configuration and image reconstruction software have been supplemented with advanced algorithms, that can satisfy end-users with high quality computed tomography images. The first generation CT system with configuration of one source - one detector which is designed and fabricated by the Centre for Applications of Nuclear Technique in Industry (CANTI) is a dedicated equipment for examination of corrosion, erosion or blockage in petroleum pipeline. The equipment have two options of measurement: gamma transmission scanning and computed tomography scanning. The associated image reconstruction software have three image reconstruction algorithms: analytical (FBP), algebraic (ART) and statistical (EM) along with some advanced image processing techniques. CANTI had utilized the equipment to examine some fraction of gas transportation pipeline of PetroVietnam Gas Company, detected and evaluated the extent of defects, quickly providing useful information for the inspection and maintenance tasks of the client. (author)

  14. Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Different Gas Turbine Cooling Techniques on Engine Performance =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Selcuk Can

    In this research, MATLAB SimulinkRTM was used to develop a cooled engine model for industrial gas turbines and aero-engines. The model consists of uncooled on-design, mean-line turbomachinery design and a cooled off-design analysis in order to evaluate the engine performance parameters by using operating conditions, polytropic efficiencies, material information and cooling system details. The cooling analysis algorithm involves a 2nd law analysis to calculate losses from the cooling technique applied. The model is used in a sensitivity analysis that evaluates the impacts of variations in metal Biot number, thermal barrier coating Biot number, film cooling effectiveness, internal cooling effectiveness and maximum allowable blade temperature on main engine performance parameters of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. The model is subsequently used to analyze the relative performance impact of employing Anti-Vortex Film Cooling holes (AVH) by means of data obtained for these holes by Detached Eddy Simulation-CFD Techniques that are valid for engine-like turbulence intensity conditions. Cooled blade configurations with AVH and other different external cooling techniques were used in a performance comparison study. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Evaluation of gas production potential from gas hydrate deposits in National Petroleum Reserve Alaska using numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandanwar, Manish S.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ajayi, Taiwo; Collett, Timothy S.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the gas production potential of Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation in the eastern portion of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) of Alaska North Slope (ANS) is conducted using numerical simulations, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gas hydrate Life Cycle Assessment program. A field scale reservoir model for Sunlight Peak is developed using Advanced Processes & Thermal Reservoir Simulator (STARS) that approximates the production design and response of this gas hydrate field. The reservoir characterization is based on available structural maps and the seismic-derived hydrate saturation map of the study region. A 3D reservoir model, with heterogeneous distribution of the reservoir properties (such as porosity, permeability and vertical hydrate saturation), is developed by correlating the data from the Mount Elbert well logs. Production simulations showed that the Sunlight Peak prospect has the potential of producing 1.53 × 109 ST m3 of gas in 30 years by depressurization with a peak production rate of around 19.4 × 104 ST m3/day through a single horizontal well. To determine the effect of uncertainty in reservoir properties on the gas production, an uncertainty analysis is carried out. It is observed that for the range of data considered, the overall cumulative production from the Sunlight Peak will always be within the range of ±4.6% error from the overall mean value of 1.43 × 109 ST m3. A sensitivity analysis study showed that the proximity of the reservoir from the base of permafrost and the base of hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) has significant effect on gas production rates. The gas production rates decrease with the increase in the depth of the permafrost and the depth of BHSZ. From the overall analysis of the results it is concluded that Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation behaves differently than other Class III reservoirs (Class III reservoirs are composed of a single layer of hydrate with no

  16. Study of gas pipelines cracks using transmission and scattering measures with nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marcela F.; Salgado, César M.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the natural gas production is transported through pipelines that require periodic inspections to evaluate the structural integrity of the pipelines due to possible defects caused by degradation that can rupture causing leakage of the fluid causing major disasters. Based on this, the project presents a methodology for predicting cracks in pipe used in gas pipelines. The approximation is based on the principles of gamma densitometry to calculate the density of the pipe wall in order to investigate possible cracks. The natural gas fluid is found in such systems and interferes in the density calculations and therefore will be considered in the simulations. The detection system uses a narrow beam geometry appropriately, comprising gamma ray source ( 137 Cs) and NaI(Tl) 3 ″ x 3 ″ detectors for calculating transmitted and scattered photons. Different positioning angles of the detector are investigated. In this study, the MCNP-X code is used to perform the simulations, in order to develop a counting geometry. Simulations of different thicknesses of the crack were also used to determine the minimum thickness detected by the two NaI(Tl) detectors. Having equipment that can estimate cracks present in pipes used in gas pipelines, in addition to predicting their location can reduce costs and make a major contribution to this sector. (author)

  17. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-02-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified.

  18. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  19. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  20. Measurement of gas hold-up in three-phase systems by ultrasonic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maezawa, Akinori (Graduate School of Electronic Science and Technology, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan)); Muramatsu, Shingo (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan)); Uchida, Shigeo (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan)); Okamura, Seichi (Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    It was established by using double impulse method that the transmission time of an ultrasonic wave, which passes near a bubble, is either shorter or longer than that in the liquid system. This is attributed to the fluid vortex originated by the bubble rising ahead of the wave. The longitudinal distribution of gas hold-up in a three-phase system, measured by analyzing wave shape and reduction of transmission time is in good agreement with that obtained by using the static pressure method. This indicates the possibility of application of ultrasonic techniques to the simultaneous measurement of phase hold-ups in the three-phase system. (orig.)

  1. Improving Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Palladium-Coated Using a Low Cost Technique

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barzegar; M. B. Rahmani; H. Haratizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of SnO2 nanowires were successfully prepared by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process on quartz substrates. Afterwards, a thin  layer of palladium (Pd) as a catalyst was coated on top of nanowires. For the deposition of Pd, a simple and low cost technique of spray pyrolysis was employed, which caused an intensive enhancement on the sensing response of fabricated sensors. Prepared sensor devices were exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and vapor of ethanol (C2H5OH)...

  2. Wire-mesh and ultrasound techniques applied for the characterization of gas-liquid slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofuchi, Cesar Y.; Sieczkowski, Wytila Chagas; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Amaral, Carlos E.F.; Silva, Marco J. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: ofuchi@utfpr.edu.br, wytila@utfpr.edu.br, neves@utfpr.edu.br, lvrarruda@utfpr.edu.br, rmorales@utfpr.edu.br, camaral@utfpr.edu.br, mdasilva@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are found in a broad range of industrial applications, such as chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries and quite often determine the efficiency and safety of process and plants. Several experimental techniques have been proposed and applied to measure and quantify two-phase flows so far. In this experimental study the wire-mesh sensor and an ultrasound technique are used and comparatively evaluated to study two-phase slug flows in horizontal pipes. The wire-mesh is an imaging technique and thus appropriated for scientific studies while ultrasound-based technique is robust and non-intrusive and hence well suited for industrial applications. Based on the measured raw data it is possible to extract some specific slug flow parameters of interest such as mean void fraction and characteristic frequency. The experiments were performed in the Thermal Sciences Laboratory (LACIT) at UTFPR, Brazil, in which an experimental two-phase flow loop is available. The experimental flow loop comprises a horizontal acrylic pipe of 26 mm diameter and 9 m length. Water and air were used to produce the two phase flow under controlled conditions. The results show good agreement between the techniques. (author)

  3. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  4. Exploring the production of natural gas through the lenses of the ACEGES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudouris, Vlasios; Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Sedgwick, John; Rigby, Robert; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Jefferson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing importance of natural gas for modern economic activity, and gas's non-renewable nature, it is extremely important to try to estimate possible trajectories of future natural gas production while considering uncertainties in resource estimates, demand growth, production growth and other factors that might limit production. In this study, we develop future scenarios for natural gas supply using the ACEGES computational laboratory. Conditionally on the currently estimated ultimate recoverable resources, the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios suggest that the supply of natural gas is likely to meet the increasing demand for natural gas until at least 2035. The ‘Golden Age’ Scenario suggests significant ‘jumps’ of natural gas production – important for testing the resilience of long-term strategies. - Highlights: • We present the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios for natural gas production. • We do not observe any significant supply demand pressure of natural gas until 2035. • We do observe ‘jumps’ in natural gas supply until 2035. • The ACEGES-based scenarios can assess the resilience of longterm strategies

  5. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used in...

  6. Multi-layered satisficing decision making in oil and gas production platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Demazeau, Yves; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we show how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used to implem...

  7. Relationship between in situ degradation kinetics and in vitro gas production fermentation using different mathematical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Cone, J.W.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Blok, M.C.; Guedes, C.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro and in situ studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of different mathematical models, used to fit gas production profiles of 15 feedstuffs, on estimates of nylon bag organic matter (OM) degradation kinetics. The gas production data were fitted to Exponential, Logistic, Gompertz and

  8. In vitro gas production of wheat grain flour coated with different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas production (GP) is a rapid method for feedstuffs assessment. A study was done to investigate wheat grain coated with hydrogenated tallow (HT) and hydrogenated palm oil (HP) of different fatty acids types and levels to study total gas production. Approximately, 200 mg (DM basis) of sample was weighed and inserted in ...

  9. Investigation of gas composition on production performance of J-shaped gas-lift well

    OpenAIRE

    Putranto, Endiandika

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The J-shaped gas-lift well showed complex dynamic phenomena. The downward inclination of the J-shaped well introduces periodic waves over time as a result of mixing gas and liquid. This behavior introduces periodic fluctuations of the superficial gas and liquid velocities along tubing. The velocity fluctuation is due to the accumulation of liquid in the heel of the inclined section of J-shaped well and the development of reservoir gas pressure to o...

  10. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas fermenta......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...... to highest VFA concentration was pure CO (100%) regardless of microbial composition of the inoculum and media composition. The addition of acetate had a negative impact on the VFA formation which was depending on the initial gas composition in head space....

  11. How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, Faik; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Sualp, M. Nedim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the impacts of shale gas revolution on industrial production in the US. To this end, this paper, first, throughout literature review, exposes the features of shale gas revolution in the US in terms of energy technology and energy markets. However, the potential influences of shale gas extraction on the US economy are not explicit in the existing literature. Thus, considering mainly the output of shale gas revolution on the US economy in this research, later, the paper conducts econometric models to reveal if there exists significant effect(s) of shale gas revolution on the US economy. Therefore, the paper employs unit root tests and cointegration tests by following relevant US monthly data from January 2008 to December 2013. Then, this paper observes long run impact of shale gas production on industrial production in the US through dynamic ordinary least squares estimation with dummy structural breaks and conducts Granger causality test based on vector error correction model. The dynamic ordinary least squares estimator explores that shale gas production has a positive effect on industrial production. Besides, the Granger causality test presents that shale gas production Granger causes industrial production in the long run. Based on the findings of the long run estimations, the paper yields that industrial production is positively related to shale gas production. Eventually, upon its findings, this paper asserts that (i) the shale gas revolution in the US has considerable positive effects on the US economy within the scope of the validity of the growth hypothesis, (ii) new technologies might be developed to mitigate the possible negative environmental effects of shale gas production, (iii) the countries having shale gas reserves, as in US, may follow energy policies to utilize their shale reserves more in the future to meet their energy demand and to increase their economic welfare. - Highlights: • Explores the US shale gas revolution

  12. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  13. Frequency Modulated Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy: A General Technique for Trace Gas and Isotope Measurements with Unprecedented Sensitivity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new technique is proposed for improved trace gas detection and measurement that combines the high absorption depths afforded by mid-infrared Integrated Cavity...

  14. A Robust and Low-Complexity Gas Recognition Technique for On-Chip Tin-Oxide Gas Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Flitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas recognition is a new emerging research area with many civil, military, and industrial applications. The success of any gas recognition system depends on its computational complexity and its robustness. In this work, we propose a new low-complexity recognition method which is tested and successfully validated for tin-oxide gas sensor array chip. The recognition system is based on a vector angle similarity measure between the query gas and the representatives of the different gas classes. The latter are obtained using a clustering algorithm based on the same measure within the training data set. Experimented results on our in-house gas sensors array show more than 98% of correct recognition. The robustness of the proposed method is tested by recognizing gas measurements with simulated drift. Less than 1% of performance degradation is noted at the worst case scenario which represents a significant improvement when compared to the current state-of-the-art.

  15. Infrared gas analysis technique for the study of the regulation of photosynthetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Alex; Ruzvidzo, Oziniel; Kleinert, Aleysia; Kang, Yun; Bennedito, Vagner

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic maintenance of physiological and biochemical processes is a key requirement for survival and adaptive responses of multicellular organisms such as plants. These important processes are in part mediated by various plant enzymes and hormones, many of which are in part, controlled by cyclic nucleotides and/or other signalling molecules. Infrared gas analysis (IRGA) technique is one of the modern methods which allows for rapid and accurate measurements of cyclic nucleotide mediated photosynthetic responses to plant hormones, and thus makes it a powerful and useful tool to study aspects of downstream cell signalling events in plants. In this chapter the basic protocols enabling the use of the IRGA technique to study signalling molecules, such as cyclic nucleotides on photosynthetic responses, are outlined.

  16. High efficient ethanol and VFA production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas fermenta......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fermentation. Therefore, the effect of different gases (pure CO, H2, and a synthetic syngas mixture), media (acetate medium and acetate-free medium), and biocatalyst (pure and mixed culture) were studied. Acetate was the most dominant product independent on inoculum type. The maximum concentration of volatile...

  17. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  18. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  19. Exchange bias and magnetic behaviour of iron nanoclusters prepared by the gas aggregation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marcos, J., E-mail: sanchej@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laguna-Marco, M.A.; Martinez-Morillas, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Villacorta, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); SpLine Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, ESRF-BP 220-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cespedes, E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Menendez, N. [Dep. Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gas aggregation phase technique allows obtaining {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have reported exchange bias up to 3250 Oe at 2 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange bias may be tuned by different stoichiometry of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron nanoclusters have been deposited by the gas-phase aggregation technique to form multilayered structures with outstanding exchange-bias (H{sub E}) values up to H{sub E} = 3300 Oe at low temperatures. In order to explain the observed magnetic properties, composition and crystallographic phase have been determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A metal-oxide core-shell arrangement has to be discarded to explain the large obtained values of H{sub E} since structural results show nanoclusters formed by the antiferromagnetic {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide. Moreover, nanoparticles of few nanometers formed by substoichiometric {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} explain the observed weak ferromagnetism and let to understand the origin of large exchange bias by the interaction between different spin sublattice configurations provided by the low iron coordination at surface.

  20. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H 2 O 2 , and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H 2 O 2 injection as an oxygenation technique

  1. Field comparison of disjunct and conventional eddy covariance techniques for trace gas flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, J.; Douffet, T.; Prigent, Y.; Durand, P.

    2008-01-01

    A field intercomparison experiment of the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) and the conventional eddy covariance (EC) techniques was conducted over a grass field. The half-hourly water vapor fluxes measured by the DEC were within the estimated uncertainty from the fluxes measured by the EC. On the average there was a slight overestimation (<10%) of the fluxes measured by the DEC during the day and underestimation during the night as compared to the fluxes measured by the EC. As this bias does not appear in the simulated DEC measurements it is likely to be due to instrumental problems. The insensitivity of the quality of the fluxes measured by the DEC method to the deficiencies in the gas analysis shows the robustness of this new approach for measuring the surface-atmosphere exchange of trace gases. - Results from the first field intercomparison between a new state-of-the-art trace gas flux measurement technique and the direct eddy covariance measurements are reported in this paper

  2. Prediction of gas production using well logs, Cretaceous of north-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous gas sands underlie much of east-central Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, and parts of South Dakota and Wyoming. Estimates of recoverable biogenic methane from these rocks in the United States are as high as 91 TCF. In northern Montana, current production is localized around a few major structural features, while vast areas in between these structures are not being exploited. Although the potential for production exists, the lack of commercial development is due to three major factors: 1) the lack of pipeline infrastructure; 2) the lack of predictable and reliable rates of production; and 3) the difficulty in recognizing and selecting potentially productive gas-charged intervals. Unconventional (tight), continuous-type reservoirs, such as those in the Cretaceous of the northern Great Plains, are not well suited for conventional methods of formation evaluation. Pay zones frequently consist only of thinly laminated intervals of sandstone, silt, shale stringers, and disseminated clay. Potential producing intervals are commonly unrecognizable on well logs, and thus are overlooked. To aid in the identification and selection of potential producing intervals, a calibration system is developed here that empirically links the 'gas effect' to gas production. The calibration system combines the effects of porosity, water saturation, and clay content into a single 'gas-production index' (GPI) that relates the in-situ rock with production potential. The fundamental method for isolating the gas effect for calibration is a crossplot of neutron porosity minus density porosity vs gamma-ray intensity. Well-log and gas-production data used for this study consist of 242 perforated intervals from 53 gas-producing wells. Interval depths range from about 250 to 2400 ft. Gas volumes in the peak calendar year of production range from about 4 to 136 MMCF. Nine producing formations are represented. Producing-interval data show that porosity

  3. Development of gas-phase sample-introduction techniques for analytical atomic spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2005-05-01

    For the last 30 years, several types of gas-phase sample-introduction methods in analytical atomic spectrometry, i.e., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), have been investigated and developed in the author's laboratory. Their fundamental results are summarized in this review article. The gas-phase sample-introduction techniques developed in the author's laboratory can be roughly divided into four groups: i) hydride generation, ii) cold-vapor generation of mercury, iii) analyte volatilization reactions and iv) miscellaneous. The analytical figures of merit of the gas-phase sample-introduction methods have been described in detail. Hydride generation has been coupled with the AAS of As, Bi, Ge, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te, with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) AES of As, Bi, Sn, Se and Sb, with the high-power nitrogen microwave-induced plasma (N2-MIP) AES of As, Bi, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te by their single- and multi-element determinations, with the AFS of As, Bi, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te, and with the ICP mass spectrometry (MS) of As and Se. The cold-vapor generation method for Hg has been combined with atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma (He- or Ar-MIP)-AES and AFS. Furthermore, analyte volatilization reactions have been employed in the ICP-AES of iodine, in the He-MIP-AES of iodine bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon, and in the ICP-MS of sulfur. As a result, when compared with conventional solution nebulization, a great improvement in the sensitivity has been attained in each instance. In addition, the developed techniques coupled with analytical atomic spectrometry have been successfully applied to the determination of trace elements in a variety of practical samples.

  4. Melt-drop technique for the production of high-purity metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, F.; Linck, E.; Claussen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The production of high-purity powders of metals and alloys such as beryllium, titanium alloys, or superalloys is a problem. Oxidation of these materials cannot be avoided. Oxidation occurs in inert gases and even in reducing atmospheres when any gas impurities are present. Therefore, the powder production of these materials has to be performed either in high vacuum or at least in a static atmosphere of inert gas purified immediately before coming into contact with the disintegrating material. These requirements are very well met by the melt-drop technique presented in this paper, especially for coarse powders which must not necessarily be cold-workable. This is true, for example, for superalloys where high-temperature applications require large grain sizes; or in titanium alloys because the final microstructure will be achieved by a thermomechanical treatment. In the case of beryllium and beryllium alloys, where grain sizes <5 μm are desired, further milling is necessary. But the melt-drop technique offers a simple and clean method directly from the purifying process of vacuum melting. In melt-drop processes a liquid metal flows through a nozzle at the bottom of a crucible or the melt is just poured through a sieve. The theory of disintegration of a liquid jet into droplets, dates back to the 19th century. More recent investigations attempted to produce uniformly sized droplets by applying a capillary wave of given wave length to the jet. But this has been done only with non-metallic materials. Evidence is presented to prove the theory and show that this concept is applicable to the production of metal powders with controlled particle size

  5. Large-scale production of alternative synthetic fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybkjaer, I.; Hansen, J.B. [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Production of alternative liquid fuel from natural gas is an important option for the exploitation of remote gas fields. The products can be fuel methanol, synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel, and substitute fuels such as Dimethyl Ether (DME) which has been demonstrated to have attractive properties as a substitute diesel fuel. In each case the synthesis of the product requires preparation of synthesis gas with specified properties, and in all cases is the synthesis gas section the most important part of the plant both in terms of initial investments and in operating costs. Furthermore, proper integration of the synthesis gas section with other sections of the plant including the steam and power system is very important for the optimization of the overall process concept. The paper describes the various reforming technologies available for synthesis gas production - adiabatic pre-reforming, fired tubular reforming, secondary (oxygen-fired) reforming, and autothermal reforming - and the possibilities for manufacturing synthesis gas with different properties by these technologies alone or in combination. Large-scale manufacture of DME - the new alternative diesel fuel - from natural gas is described in some detail. The description covers the synthesis gas preparation, the product synthesis and purification, and the overall process economics. The properties of DME as a diesel fuel are briefly discussed. 22 refs.

  6. The environmental impact in the production of petroleum and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, N. . E mail: norma@info.isctn.edu.cu.

    2004-01-01

    This work describe the situation of oil and gas wells as generators of environment impact. Describe the most important characteristics of the effluents (liquids), solids residuals and emissions. Give some advises to mitigate the impact

  7. Pharmaceutical production of nano particles using supercritical or dense gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regtop, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The primary aim of our proposed research is to develop pharmaceutical formulations with enhanced pharmacokinetics and increased bioavailability. The particular drug delivery systems of interest are, oral, aerosols, injectable and topical with well-recognised and distinct problems of bioavailability. More than 40% of all drugs in the USP or BP are insoluble or have some problem with solubility. It is estimated in 2000, the total combined sales of drugs that are insoluble or poorly soluble was US$37 billion. Precise and predictable drug delivery is made more possible by producing uniform micron size particles or powders, which can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of therapeutical formulations. Hence the purpose of micronisation is to increase bioavailability and also to allow other modes of administration, eg insulin is a protein, which is an injectable for the treatment of diabetes, but recently particles of 1-4 microns of insulin are in phase 3 clinical trials to deliver the drug to diabetics as an inhalant. In addition aerosolised drugs such as mucolytics, antibiotics, antiinflammatory drugs and hormones have recently been trailed. Finely powdered pharmaceuticals are however difficult to process by current techniques. In spray drying the operating temperatures are often too high for heat sensitive drugs. Thermal degradation of compounds can also be experienced in milling due to high rates of shear and requires high energy inputs and do not produce particles within a narrow range distribution. A relatively new technique which has been used and developed by Eiffel Technologies to produce uniform micron and sub micron size particles is a dense gas process in which the gas is used as an antisolvent to precipitate compounds from solution. Pharmaceutical processing with dense gas is relatively new and is an efficient process for producing high purity micronised particles with defined morphological structures and with a narrow size distribution rate

  8. Effect of Superficial Gas Velocity on the Solid Temperature Distribution in Gas Fluidized Beds with Heat Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei, Mohammad; Jegers, Jeroen; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Kuipers, Johannes A M; Deen, Niels G

    2017-08-02

    The hydrodynamics and heat transfer of cylindrical gas-solid fluidized beds for polyolefin production was investigated with the two-fluid model (TFM) based on the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF). It was found that the fluidized bed becomes more isothermal with increasing superficial gas velocity. This is mainly due to the increase of solids circulation and improvement in gas solid contact. It was also found that the average Nusselt number weakly depends on the gas velocity. The TFM results were qualitatively compared with simulation results of computational fluid dynamics combined with the discrete element model (CFD-DEM). The TFM results were in very good agreement with the CFD-DEM outcomes, so the TFM can be a reliable source for further investigations of fluidized beds especially large lab-scale reactors.

  9. A new technique in constructing closed-form solutions for nonlinear PDEs appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotounakos D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.

  10. Monitoring fugitive methane and natural gas emissions, validation of measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rod; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Gardiner, Tom; Helmore, Jon; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy

    2017-04-01

    The detection and quantification of fugitive and diffuse methane emissions has become an increasing priority in recent years. As the requirements for routine measurement to support industry initiatives increase there is a growing requirement to assess and validate the performance of fugitive emission measurement technologies. For reported emissions traceability and comparability of measurements is important. This talk will present recent work addressing these needs. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a laser based remote sensing technology, able to map the concentration of gases in the atmosphere and determine emission fluxes for fugitive emissions. A description of the technique and its application for determining fugitive emissions of methane from oil and gas operations and waste management sites will be given. As DIAL has gained acceptance as a powerful tool for the measurement and quantification of fugitive emissions, and given the rich data it produces, it is being increasingly used to assess and validate other measurement approaches. In addition, to support the validation of technologies, we have developed a portable controlled release facility able to simulate the emissions from area sources. This has been used to assess and validate techniques which are used to monitor emissions. The development and capabilities of the controlled release facility will be described. This talk will report on recent studies using DIAL and the controlled release facility to validate fugitive emission measurement techniques. This includes side by side comparisons of two DIAL systems, the application of both the DIAL technique and the controlled release facility in a major study carried out in 2015 by South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in which a number of optical techniques were assessed and the development of a prototype method validation approach for techniques used to measure methane emissions from shale gas sites. In conclusion the talk will provide an

  11. The big fat LARS - a LArge Reservoir Simulator for hydrate formation and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow-Strauch, Bettina; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Priegnitz, Mike; Klump, Jens; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Simulating natural scenarios on lab scale is a common technique to gain insight into geological processes with moderate effort and expenses. Due to the remote occurrence of gas hydrates, their behavior in sedimentary deposits is largely investigated on experimental set ups in the laboratory. In the framework of the submarine gas hydrate research project (SUGAR) a large reservoir simulator (LARS) with an internal volume of 425 liter has been designed, built and tested. To our knowledge this is presently a word-wide unique set up. Because of its large volume it is suitable for pilot plant scale tests on hydrate behavior in sediments. That includes not only the option of systematic tests on gas hydrate formation in various sedimentary settings but also the possibility to mimic scenarios for the hydrate decomposition and subsequent natural gas extraction. Based on these experimental results various numerical simulations can be realized. Here, we present the design and the experimental set up of LARS. The prerequisites for the simulation of a natural gas hydrate reservoir are porous sediments, methane, water, low temperature and high pressure. The reservoir is supplied by methane-saturated and pre-cooled water. For its preparation an external gas-water mixing stage is available. The methane-loaded water is continuously flushed into LARS as finely dispersed fluid via bottom-and-top-located sparger. The LARS is equipped with a mantle cooling system and can be kept at a chosen set temperature. The temperature distribution is monitored at 14 reasonable locations throughout the reservoir by Pt100 sensors. Pressure needs are realized using syringe pump stands. A tomographic system, consisting of a 375-electrode-configuration is attached to the mantle for the monitoring of hydrate distribution throughout the entire reservoir volume. Two sets of tubular polydimethylsiloxan-membranes are applied to determine gas-water ratio within the reservoir using the effect of permeability

  12. A ring test of a wireless in vitro gas production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Hindrichsen, Ida Katarina Auf der M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro gas production (GP) technique has been widely used for feed evaluation. However, variability in results limits useful comparisons. Results from a ring test undertaken in four laboratories (Italy - IT, Spain - SP, Wales - WA and Denmark - DK) using the same wireless equipment (ANKOM......) or sheep (SP). Curves, corrected for blanks, were fitted using an exponential regression model with a lag time. The following variables were considered: (i) GP24 and GP48: raw values at 24 and 48 h (mL/g DM), corrected for blanks; (ii) A: asymptotic GP (mL/g DM); (iii) T1/2: time when half A is produced (h......); (iv) GPMR: maximum predicted GP rate (mL/h); (v) L: lag time (h). A mixed model including laboratories as random effect was used. A significant interaction between substrate and laboratories was found for all variables except A. The most repeatable and reproducible results were observed for A and GP48...

  13. Quantification soil production and erosion using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosseto, Anthony; Suresh, P. O.

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a critical resource, especially in the context of a rapidly growing world's population. Thus, it is crucial to be able to quantify how soil resources evolve with time and how fast they become depleted. Over the past few years, the application of cosmogenic isotopes has permitted to constrain rates of soil denudation. By assuming constant soil thickness, it is also possible to use these denudation rates to infer soil production rates (Heimsath et al. 1997). However, in this case, it is not possible to discuss any imbalance between erosion and production, which is the core question when interested in soil resource sustainability. Recently, the measurement of uranium-series isotopes in soils has been used to quantify the residence time of soil material in the weathering profile and to infer soil production rates (Dequincey et al. 2002; Dosseto et al. 2008). Thus, the combination of U-series and cosmogenic isotopes can be used to discuss how soil resources evolve with time, whether they are depleting, increasing or in steady-state. Recent work has been undertaken in temperate southeastern Australia where a several meters thick saprolite is developed over a graniodioritc bedrock and underlains a meter or less of soil (Dosseto et al., 2008) and in tropical Puerto Rico, also in a granitic catchment. Results show that in an environment where human activity is minimal, soil and saprolite are renewed as fast as they are destroyed through denudation. Further work is investigating these processes at other sites in southeastern Australia (Frogs Hollow; Heimsath et al. 2001) and Puerto Rico (Rio Mameyes catchment; andesitic bedrock). Results will be presented and a review of the quantification of the rates of soil evolution using isotopic techniques will be given. Dequincey, O., F. Chabaux, et al. (2002). Chemical mobilizations in laterites: Evidence from trace elements and 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66(7): 1197-1210. Dosseto, A., S. P

  14. Techno-economic assessment of membrane gas absorption for the production of carbon dioxide from flue gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane gas absorption for carbon dioxide production from flue gases is discussed with special reference to the economics of the supply of carbon dioxide to greenhouses in the Netherlands. Novel absorption liquids have been introduced which show as excellent performance in terms of system stability

  15. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  16. Production and use of thyroxine antisera in radioimmunoassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Sumaia Hussein

    2000-06-01

    This study describes the production of antisera from sheep and its use in the determination of thyroxine hormone (T 4 ) level in serum using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. In this study two local sheep (Ovis aris) were subjected to immunization against human T 4 immunogen, sera obtained from both sheep after each injection were subjected to evaluation through titration in a purified and non purified form. The produced antibodies were used to assemble a kit for the determination of total human serum thyroxine. Different separation techniques were tried, (second antibody polyethylene glycol (PEG) assisted precipitation, polystyrene beads and magnetisable particles solid phases). For the PEG assisted precipitation, local antiserum and that produced by the North East Thamus Region Immunoassay (NETRIA donkey anti-sheep serum (DASS) as second antibodies) were tried. The final dilutions of the anti-T 4 antibody used were 1/4000 in a liquid phase using second antibody PEG assisted separation, 1/3000 using magnetizable particles and a dilution of 1/10,000 using polystyrene beads solid phase for separation. Optimization of T 4 assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were done. Tests for T 4 assay validation (linearity, recovery and responsibility) were carried out. For linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficient ranges were found to be from (0.8 to 0.9) and (0.88 to 0.98) respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. The locally developed assay was found to be comparable with NETRIA assay as a reference method with a correlation coefficient of 0.88, 0.93 and 0.87 for PEG assisted separation, magnetizable particles and polystyrene beads techniques respectively. The clinical validation tests showed a reliable sensitivity, specificity and efficiency with values of 97%, 94% and 96% respectively. When the T 4 concentrations measured using the

  17. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  18. Overview of pressure-drawdown production-test results for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.H.; Carle, D.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dallimore, S.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, BC (Canada); Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Schlumberger's Modular Dynamic Tester (MDT) cased hole wireline tool was used during a pressure drawdown production test at the Mallik 5L-38 well to successfully test separate hydrate intervals as well as free gas and water zones. This paper provided an overview of the pressure-drawdown testing operations and results. Preliminary analysis of the gas hydrate porous-media response was also presented. Two important phenomena were observed during the hydrate tests: (1) free gas was produced on a steady state basis following the initial clean-up flow of water, and (2) the pressure response upon shut-in displayed porous media effects and indicated both flow contribution and pressure effects beyond the surface area of the hydrate open to the wellbore. Since analytical pressure transient analysis software cannot incorporate dynamic reservoir parameters, conventional analytical techniques were used to evaluate the test data.

  19. Nuclear techniques in flower production. Soil and irrigation fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Bad soil management; the nutrients and water used in ornamental cultivation are the cause for considerable reductions in productivity here in Ecuador. It's essential to take measures to reduce the accumulation of salts and the degeneration of soils to minimum, and to put back those nutrients that have been exported by the harvesting of ornamental crops. In this way we can maintain an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable flower industry. Nuclear techniques such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes are used to track the final destination of the fertilizers that have been applied to the soil and to determine the availability of these for plants. The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission (CEEA) in collaboration with the Central University of Ecuador have carried out studies using the isotopic tracers Nitrogen 15 (N-15), Phosforus 32 (P-32), Rubide-85 (Rb-85) as tracers for Potassium (K). These studies have shown that only a part of the nigrogenized fertilizer applied to the soil is useful in the growing of roses, and a large part of the nitrogen escapes in the the environment thereby contaminating the water table in the form of nitrites, depending on he way and the time of year that the fertilizer has been applied. The best form of fertilizer in rose growing for example is with the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients in fractioned from always using fertilized irrigation with a dose of 1300 kg of N, 200 Kg of P, 1600 kg of K per hectare/year. This differs form norm in plantations where a weekly-fertilized irrigation is used whilst on other days only watering is used. A 30% increase in production was achieved with a 50% increase in the absorption of nitrogen and a 40% increase in potassium. These studies have shown the tremendous cost saving in terms of the importing of fertilizers, as well as the decrease in the use of contaminating fertilizers. (The author)

  20. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970's the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980's, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system's performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply

  1. Hydrogen Gas Production in a Stand-Alone Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naziry Kordkandy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyzing the operation of a stand-alone wind farm with variable speed turbines, permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG and a system for converting wind energy during wind speed variations. On this paper, the design and modeling of a wind system which uses PMSG’s to provide the required power of a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system, is discussed. This wind farm consists of three wind turbines, boost DC-DC converters, diode full bridge rectifiers, permanent magnet synchronous generators, MPPT control and a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system. The MPPT controller based on fuzzy logic is designed to adjust the duty ratio of the boost DC-DC converters to absorb maximum power. The proposed fuzzy logic controller assimilates, with (PSF MPPT algorithm which generally used to absorb maximum power from paralleled wind turbines and stores it in form of hydrogen gas. The system is modeled and its behavior is studied using the MATLAB software.

  2. Development of annular pellet production techniques for PFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayajulu, P.S.; Nehete, Y.G.; Shelke, B.K.; Kumar, Arun; Kamath, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF) at Tarapur is an industrial scale plant for the fabrication of plutonium based ceramic nuclear fuels. Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for TAPS is being regularly manufactured in this facility. Efforts are now on to fabricate MOX fuel for the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactors (PFBR). Experimental studies were carried out using natural UO 2 for the fabrication of PFBR fuel pellets. These trials were carried out in glove box condition of the existing fuel pelletisation line, The PFBR fuel pellets are of annular cylindrical shape of around 5.5 mm diameter having internal hole diameter of around 1.7 mm. Apart from meeting physical integrity criteria, the linear mass should be between 2.25 -2.41 gm/cm. Fabrication of annular pellet meeting these specifications require special techniques to be developed. Further, equipment used in the process especially final compaction press should be capable of giving high rate of production. This paper discusses the preliminary work done to fabricate the annular pellets using the existing facilities and the results obtained. (author)

  3. Climate change adaptation: Boosting quinoa production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    In the battle to help developing countries overcome threats from declining food production caused by climate change, one species of edible grain-like crop has caught international attention because of its unique nutritional value. New and improved varieties of quinoa, historically grown in the highlands of South America, will be made available to farmers in mutations adapted to challenging environments in Bolivia and Peru. Increased genetic diversity is the result of the use of nuclear techniques in collaboration with the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), said L. Gomez-Pando, Principal Professor and Head of the Cereals and Native Grains Research programme at the National Agrarian University of La Molina in Peru. “There are 64 mutant lines of quinoa selected by yield potential and quality for the market,” he said. “These mutant lines will be further evaluated and the best lines will be released as new varieties in 2015–2016.”

  4. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  5. Optimization of the Production of Inactivated Clostridium novyi Type B Vaccine Using Computational Intelligence Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, P L M; Fonseca, F S; Mozzer, O D; Giordano, R C; Sousa, R

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium novyi causes necrotic hepatitis in sheep and cattle, as well as gas gangrene. The microorganism is strictly anaerobic, fastidious, and difficult to cultivate in industrial scale. C. novyi type B produces alpha and beta toxins, with the alpha toxin being linked to the presence of specific bacteriophages. The main strategy to combat diseases caused by C. novyi is vaccination, employing vaccines produced with toxoids or with toxoids and bacterins. In order to identify culture medium components and concentrations that maximized cell density and alpha toxin production, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm was applied to predict the yields of the fermentation process for production of C. novyi type B, within a global search procedure using the simulated annealing technique. Maximizing cell density and toxin production is a multi-objective optimization problem and could be treated by a Pareto approach. Nevertheless, the approach chosen here was a step-by-step one. The optimum values obtained with this approach were validated in laboratory scale, and the results were used to reload the data matrix for re-parameterization of the neuro-fuzzy model, which was implemented for a final optimization step with regards to the alpha toxin productivity. With this methodology, a threefold increase of alpha toxin could be achieved.

  6. Production Decline Analysis for Two-Phase Flow in Multifractured Horizontal Well in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, and orthogonal transformation. According to the model’s solution, the bilogarithmic type curves of the two-phase model are illustrated, and the production decline performance under the effects of hydraulic fractures and shale gas reservoir properties are discussed. The result obtained in this paper has important significance to understand pressure response characteristics and production decline law of two-phase flow in shale gas reservoirs. Moreover, it provides the theoretical basis for exploiting this reservoir efficiently.

  7. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral...... energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  8. Study of radiolysis products of natural organic materials by means of gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogocki, D.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical methods based on gas chromatography for identification determination of products arising during food irradiation have been presented. Behind the classics version of the methods one has shown also combined methods being the on-line connection of gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy as well as gas chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The applicability as well as weakness and advantages of each version have been discussed on the context of food irradiation. 11 refs, 7 figs

  9. Ammonia Sensing by PANI-DBSA Based Gas Sensor Exploiting Kelvin Probe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA doped polyaniline (PANI-DBSA has been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of DBSA. The UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of PANI and its doping by DBSA. SEM images show the formation of submicron size rod shaped PANI particles. A vibrating capacitor based ammonia gas sensor was prepared by spin coating PANI-DBSA film over copper (Cu substrate. The sensor exploited Kelvin probe technique to monitor contact potential difference between PANI and Cu as a function of time and ammonia concentration. Upon exposure to 30 ppm ammonia, the sensor displays response time of 329 s, recovery time of 3600 s, and sensitivity value of 1.54 along with good repeatability.

  10. Use of adsorption and gas chromatographic techniques in estimating biodegradation of indigenous crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokub, D.; Allahi, A.; Shafeeq, M.; Khalid, Z.M.; Malik, K.A.; Hussain, A.

    1993-01-01

    Indigenous crude oils could be degraded and emulsified upto varying degree by locally isolated bacteria. Degradation and emulsification was found to be dependent upon the chemical composition of the crude oils. Tando Alum and Khashkheli crude oils were emulsified in 27 and 33 days of incubation respectively. While Joyamair crude oil and not emulsify even mainly due to high viscosity of this oil. Using adsorption chromatographic technique, oil from control (uninoculated) and bio degraded flasks was fractioned into the deasphaltened oil containing saturate, aromatic, NSO (nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen) containing hydrocarbons) and soluble asphaltenes. Saturate fractions from control and degraded oil were further analysed by gas liquid chromatography. From these analyses, it was observed that saturate fraction was preferentially utilized and the crude oils having greater contents of saturate fraction were better emulsified than those low in this fraction. Utilization of various fractions of crude oils was in the order saturate> aromatic> NSO. (author)

  11. Potential of Ruminant Feed with Appearance of In Vitro Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsoni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many kinds of feedstuff with different qualities that can be used as ruminants feed. One way to evaluate it is analyzing the performance of the feed gas production value in vitro. Feed ingredients tested in this study were the flour of coffee hull, peanut hull, field grass, turn leaves, rice straw and fermented rice straw. Samples weighed 200 ± 5 mg, put into a 100 ml syringe glass, added 30 ml buffalo rumen liquor with bicarbonate buffer medium, then incubated in the water bath at 39 ° C for 48 hours. Neway software and random block design with 4 blocks are used to calculate the value of fitted gas and to analyze the variance. The variables measured were gas production 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, organic material degradable, gas production potential (a+b, gas production rate (k. The highest gas production 24, 48 and 72 hours from the field grass treatment (C was 36.33, 51.12 and 56.29 ml/200 mg DM but 96 hours of rice straw ie 59.60 ml/200 mg DM, while the lowest (24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of coffee skin (6.08, 7.77, 7.61, and 7.68 ml/200 mg DM respectively. The highest gas production potential of rice straw is 69.13 ml/200 mg DM and the lowest of coffee skin is 7.72 ml/200 mg BK. The highest percentage of gas production after 24 hours was obtained Turi leaves (D: 91.46% and the lowest rice straw (E: 41.22%. Rice straw can be suggested to be field grass substitution by processed again to reduce its crude fiber content, while the coffee and peanut hulls need further study, due to low gas production potential of 7.72 and 11.45 ml / 200 mg DM.

  12. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  13. Improving Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Palladium-Coated Using a Low Cost Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzegar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of SnO2 nanowires were successfully prepared by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD process on quartz substrates. Afterwards, a thin  layer of palladium (Pd as a catalyst was coated on top of nanowires. For the deposition of Pd, a simple and low cost technique of spray pyrolysis was employed, which caused an intensive enhancement on the sensing response of fabricated sensors. Prepared sensor devices were exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG and vapor of ethanol (C2H5OH. Results indicate that SnO2 nanowires sensors coated with Pd as a catalyst show decreasing in response time (~40s to 1000ppm of LPG at a relatively low operating temperature (200o C. SnO2 /Pd nanowire devices show gas sensing response time and recovery time as short as 50s and 10s respectively with a high sensitivity value of ~120 for C2H5OH, that is remarkable in comparison with other reports.

  14. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a

  15. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying communities and civic associations. The article contains rich information on vast variety of interests of actors in the domestic discussion. Taking into account the importance of civil society for political decisions, the author rests upon public relations of big companies, their methodic and results. The article summarizes data on reserve estimation and current geological projects, as well all the officially published reports concerning environmental threats cased by fracking technology. On the base of the above analyze, the author predicts possible evolution of the federal government policy.

  16. Microbiology of synthesis gas fermentation for biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, A.M.; Sipma, J.; Rinzema, A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of biomass sources like straw and wood is poorly degradable and cannot be converted to biofuels by microorganisms. The gasification of this waste material to produce synthesis gas (or syngas) could offer a solution to this problem, as microorganisms that convert CO and H2 (the

  17. High efficient ethanol and VFA production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    fermentation. Therefore, the effect of different gases (pure CO, H2, and a synthetic syngas mixture), media (acetate medium and acetate-free medium), and biocatalyst (pure and mixed culture) were studied. Acetate was the most dominant product independent on inoculum type. The maximum concentration of volatile......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...

  18. Feasibility of underground storage/disposal of noble gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winar, R.M.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-08-01

    The quantities of 85 Kr that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the 85 Kr released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of 85 Kr by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of 85 Kr as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of 85 Kr injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces. 9 figures, 5 tables

  19. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-02

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered.

  20. Ação do extrato de própolis sobre a fermentação in vitro de diferentes alimentos pela técnica de produção de gases Effect of the propolis on the in vitro fermentation of different feedstuffs by the technique of gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolindo Stradiotti Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados procurando-se avaliar in vitro a eficiência do extrato de própolis em inibir a produção de gases oriundos da fermentação ruminal de diferentes alimentos. No primeiro experimento, incubaram-se 100 mg de matéria seca de feno de brachiária moído, em ausência (0,2 mL de solução alcoólica a 70% em água ou presença de 0,2 mL de extrato de própolis (extração de 3 g de própolis em pedra triturada para cada 10 mL de álcool a 70%, durante dez dias, posteriormente diluída para 50% da mesma. O extrato de própolis, quando comparado ao tratamento controle, reduziu a produção final total e a produção final de gases para carboidratos fibrosos. A taxa de digestão específica para carboidratos fibrosos e carboidratos não-fibrosos foi superior, quando se utilizou o extrato de própolis. A redução da produção total de gases pode ser atribuída ao efeito da própolis em aumentar a concentração molar de propionato, com conseqüente diminuição da relação acetato:propionato. No experimento 2, procurou-se avaliar diferentes diluições de extrato de própolis (0; 13,7; 33,3; e 66,7%, em analogia à monensina sódica, adicionada para atingir 5,0 µM como concentração final nos tubos de incubação. Observou-se efeito significativo de tratamento, alimento e interação alimento:tratamento sobre o volume de gás proveniente dos carboidratos fibrosos e não-fibrosos. Não houve efeito do menor nível de própolis (13,7% sobre nenhuma das dietas avaliadas, tanto para volume final de gases oriundos dos carboidratos fibrosos quanto não-fibrosos. Entretanto, o maior nível (66,7% mostrou-se eficiente em todas as dietas, para ambos os carboidratos, inclusive suplantando a monensina, na maioria das vezes, quanto à menor produção final de gases.Two experiments were accomplished with the objective to evaluate the in vitro efficiency of the propolis extract to inhibit the gas production from ruminal

  1. Eco-efficient environmental policy in oil and gas production in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppes, G.; Davidson, M.D.; Kuyper, J.; van Oers, L.; Udo de Haes, H.A.; Warringa, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the quantitative eco-efficiency method developed for prioritising environmental investments in NOGEPA, The Netherlands Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Association involving all major oil and gas producers in The Netherlands. They are committed to a high level of

  2. Effect of CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation after gas field production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.J.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field production and CO2 injection in a theoretical reservoir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during and

  3. Real-Time Optimization of a maturing North Sea gas asset with production constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, R.J.P. van der; Busking, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    As gas and oil fields mature their operation becomes increasingly more complex, due to complex process dynamics, like slugging, gas coning, water breakthrough, salt or hydrate deposition. Moreover these phenomena also lead to production constraints in the upstream facilities. This complexity asks

  4. Applications of the automatic meter reading techniques at the Brazilian gas domestic market; Application des techniques de releve automatique des compteurs sur le marche domestique Bresilien du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, J.; Monteiro, F. [Comgas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); D' Oliveira, R.D. [ORBIS, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in Sao Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialization model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market. (authors)

  5. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    technique for applications that demand extremely high purity grades, i.e. = 99.999 % H{sub 2}(g), such as for example the electronic industry and the metallurgic industry. For the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry, for which the purity grade demand is somewhat lower (i.e. = 99.5 % H{sub 2}(g)), PSA may also be a choice of consideration. According to the results obtained in this work, S, CO, halogens, ammonia and oxygenated hydrocarbons seems to be the impurities of concern in the case of PEMFC applications. To remove at least S, CO and oxygenated hydrocarbons, Catator's regenerative adsorbents, installed upstream a PROX reactor, seems to be an efficient, compact and non-expensive way for gas-clean-up. For also eliminating components such as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, a PSA or a Pd-alloy membrane have to be used. In the latter cases, the PROX reactor can be eliminated. A disadvantage of using PSA or Pd-alloy membrane units is however that the reformation needs to be carried out at an elevated pressure which in turn results in that the weight of the fuel processor significantly increases. In the case of PSA, a compact so called Fast Cycle PSA is recommended, since conventional PSA systems are today way to large and heavy for being of interest for small-scale hydrogen production. However, Fast Cycle PSA systems for reformate purification are still not commercially available and therefore, still expensive. Furthermore, in order to further examine the suitability of using a Pd-alloy membrane for reformate purification, a relatively non-expensive Pd-Cu membrane has been ordered from the company ATI Wah Change. The membrane will be evaluated in combination with Catator's reformer technology in the beginning of 2005. Coke and S are the critical impurities in the case of SOFC applications.. The coke formation can be suppressed by the use of pre-reforming (internal reforming is assumed). The system can also become more coke-tolerant by exchanging the anode

  6. Optimization techniques for the secondary development of old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshuang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 60 years of development, many old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin have come to middle–late development stages with low pressure and low yield, and some are even on the verge of abandonment, but there are plenty remaining gas resources still undeveloped. Analysis shows that gas fields which have the conditions for the secondary development are faced with many difficulties. For example, it is difficult to produce low permeable reserves and to unset the hydraulic seal which is formed by active formation water. In this paper, therefore, the technical route and selection conditions of old gas fields for the secondary development were comprehensively elaborated with its definition as the beginning. Firstly, geological model forward modeling and production performance inversion characteristic curve diagnosis are performed by using the pressure normalization curve and the identification and quantitative description method for multiple sets of storage–seepage body of complex karst fracture–cavity systems is put forward, after the multiple storage–seepage body mode of fracture–cavity systems is established. Combined with the new occurrence mode of gas and water in U-shape pipes, a new calculation technology for natural gas reserves of multiple fracture–cavity systems with strong water invasion is developed. Secondly, a numerical model of pore–cavity–fracture triple media is built, and simulation and result evaluation technology for the production pattern of “drainage by horizontal wells + gas production by vertical wells” in bottom-water fracture and cavity gas reservoirs with strong water invasion is developed. Thirdly, the geological model of gas reservoirs is reconstructed with the support of the integration technologies which are formed based on fine gas reservoir description. Low permeable reserves of gas reservoirs are evaluated based on each classification. The effective producing ratio is increased further by

  7. HD gas purification for polarized HDice targets production at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, Charles; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Colaneri, Luca; Devilbiss, J; Kageya, Tsuneo; Loving, D A; Lowry, Michael; Rizzo, Alessandro; Sandorfi, Andrew; Schaerf, Carlo; Storey, J D; Wallace, C M; Wei, Xiangdong; Zonta, Irene

    2014-06-01

    Solid, frozen-spin targets of molecular HD were rst developed for nuclear physics by a collaboration between Syracuse University and Brookhaven National Lab. They have been successfully used in measurements with photon beams, rst at the Laser-Electron-Gamma-Source [1] and most recently at Je erson Lab during the running of the E06-101 (g14) experiment [2]. Preparations are underway to utilize the targets in future electron experiments after the completion of the 12 GeV JLab upgrade [3]. HD is an attractive target since all of the material is polarizable, of low Z, and requires only modest holding elds. At the same time, the small contributions from the target cell can be subtracted from direct measurements. Reaching the frozen-spin state with both high polarization and a signi cant spin relaxation time requires careful control of H2 and D2 impurities. Commercially available HD contains 0.5 - 2% concentrations of H2 and D2. Low-temperature distillation is required to reduce these concentrations to the 104 level to enable useful target production. This distillation is done using a column lled with heli-pack C [4] to give good separation e ciency. Approximately 12 moles of commercial HD is condensed into the mechanically refrigerated system at the base temperature of 11K. The system is then isolated and the temperature stabilized at 18K producing liquid HD, which is boiled by a resistive heater. The circulation established by the boil-o condensing throughout the column then ltering back down produces a steady-state isotopic separation permitting the extraction of HD gas with very low H2 and D2 content. A residual gas analyzer initially monitors distillation. Once the H2 concentration falls below its useful operating range, samples are periodically collected for analysis using gas chromatography [5] and Raman scattering. Where the measurement techniques overlap, good agreement is obtained. The operation of the distillery and results of gas analysis will be discussed

  8. Predicting Gas Production from future gas discoveries in the Netherlands: Quantity, location, timing, quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgert, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Breunese, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy and market developments have raised the question not only as to how much gas remains to be discovered in the Netherlands but also where and when it will be produced and of what quality. These questions are addressed by compiling a 'firm futures' database, estimating the 'potential

  9. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. County-level Oil and Gas Production in the U.S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — County-level data from oil and/or natural gas producing States—for onshore production in the lower 48 States only—are compiled on a State-by-State basis. Most States...

  11. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  12. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Wrigglesworth, D.J.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end-product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich substrates (in vitro run 2). Feces were collected from 3 adult Retriever-type dogs

  13. A non-syn-gas catalytic route to methanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Tar; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Liao, Fenglin; Young, Neil; Nellist, Peter; Dent, Andrew; Kroner, Anna; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is an important platform molecule for chemical synthesis and its high energy density also renders it a good candidate as a cleaner transportation fuel. At present, methanol is manufactured from natural gas via the indirect syn-gas route. Here we show that ethylene glycol, a versatile chemical derived from biomass or fossil fuels, can be directly converted to methanol in hydrogen with high selectivity over a Pd/Fe(2)O(3) co-precipitated catalyst. This opens up a possibility for diversification in natural resources for energy-starved countries. The working catalyst contains extremely small 'PdFe' clusters and metal adatoms on defective iron oxide to give the required metal-support interaction for the novel synthesis.

  14. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  15. Specialists' meeting on fission product release and transport in gas-cooled reactors. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Meeting on Fission Product Release and Transport in Gas-Cooled Reactors was to compare and discuss experimental and theoretical results of fission product behaviour in gas-cooled reactors under normal and accidental conditions and to give direction for future development. The technical part of the meeting covered operational experience and laboratory research, activity release, and behaviour of released activity

  16. Preliminary Investigation into Pyrotechnic Chemical Products via Mass Spectrometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    chemometrics ” Goodacre et al., Analyst 134 (2009), 557-563. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Pyrolysis (Py...of bacteria using pyrolysis-gas chromotography-differential mobility spectrometry (Py-GC-DMS) and chemometrics ” Goodacre et al., Analyst 134 (2009

  17. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...

  18. Product identification techniques used as training aids for analytical chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J. P.

    1968-01-01

    Laboratory staff assistants are trained to use data and observations of routine product analyses performed by experienced analytical chemists when analyzing compounds for potential toxic hazards. Commercial products are used as examples in teaching the analytical approach to unknowns.

  19. An assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards for oil and gas production area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbatov, F.Y.; Mustafayev, I.I.

    2017-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are always present in the earth's crust, whereas a large number of radionuclides are produced technologically during processes like oil and gas production. Mainly Uranium and thorium are present in the oil and gas source rocks. The water associated with the rock formation often contains radium along with chemically similar elements, such as strontium, barium and calcium due to their greater solubility than uranium and thorium under saline conditions. Radium isotopes, 226 Ra and 228 Ra are co-precipitated with barium and strontium salts from the formation water during the extraction and separation of the oil and gas. Every year a large amount of produced waters discharged from platforms to oil-gas production area. This process results in enhanced radium concentrations in both sludges and scales in pipes and other production equipment. The oil stream is further treated to remove the geological formation water that is extracted with the oil and gas. After separation from the oil, the formation water, also termed production water at this stage, is usually treated and discharged to the Caspian Sea or stored in oil and gas production area and forms produced water lake. Sand and oily sludge from the reservoir are also removed during this treatment. Solids deposit on the internal surfaces of the oil field extraction and production equipment, such as tubulars, other pipes, heat exchangers and pumps.

  20. Effect of Light Intensities and Atmospheric Gas Conditions on Biohydrogen Production of Microalgae Isolated from Fisheries Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujalin Pholchan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the fishery farming industry has been developed rapidly due to increasing demand and consumption as well as the depletion of wild fish resources. Production processes in the industry usually generate large amounts of wastewater containing high nutrients, posing a threat to downstream water. However, phytoplankton removal techniques commonly used to counteract the threat, though appearing to have low efficiency, are timeconsuming and less sustainable. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that convert solar energy into hydrogen. Using the isolated algae from fish farms as a source of renewable energy production could be a promising choice for handling fisheries wastewater in a more efficient manner. However, hydrogen production processes from algae still need more studies as their efficiencies vary between algae species and growth factors. In this work, the efficiency of hydrogen production from Scenedesmus accuminatus and Arthrospira platensis harvested from fish farms under three different light intensity conditions and three atmospheric gas conditions was determined. The results showed that the best conditions for hydrogen production from both species included 24 h darkness and carbon dioxide addition. Under the atmospheric gas combination of 99% argon and 1% carbon dioxide, S. accuminatus could produce hydrogen gas as high as 0.572 mol H2/mgCh h within 12 h, while the highest hydrogen production (0.348 mol H2/mgCh h obtained from A. platensis was found under the atmospheric gas mixture of 98% argon and 2% carbon dioxide. Interestingly, S. accuminatus appeared to produce more hydrogen than A. platensis under the same conditions.

  1. Effect of Permeability Anisotropy on the Production of Multi-Scale Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shales or mudstones are fine grained and layered reservoirs, which leads to strong shale permeability anisotropy. Shale has a wide pore-size distribution, and pores with different diameters contribute differently to the apparent permeability of shales. Therefore, understanding the anisotropy of multiscale shale gas reservoirs is an important aspect to model and evaluate gas production from shales. In this paper, a novel model of permeability anisotropy for shale gas reservoirs is presented to calculate the permeability in an arbitrary direction in three dimensional space. A numerical model which is valid for the entire Knudsen’s range (continuum flow, slip flow, transition flow and free molecular flow in shale gas reservoirs was developed, and the effect of gas-water flow and the simulation of hydraulic fracturing cracks were taken into consideration as well. The simulation result of the developed model was validated with field data. Effects of critical factors such as permeability anisotropy, relative permeability curves with different nanopore radii and initial water saturation in formation on the gas production rate of multi-stage fractured horizontal well were discussed. Besides, flow regimes of gas flow in shales were classified by Knudsen number, and the effect of various flow regimes on both apparent permeability of shales and then the gas production has been analyzed thoroughly.

  2. Synergistic Separation Behavior of Boron in Metallurgical Grade Silicon Using a Combined Slagging and Gas Blowing Refining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jijun; Zhou, Yeqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Xu, Min; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    A combined slagging and gas blowing refining technique for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon using the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag and the mixed Ar-O2-H2O gas is investigated. The oxygen gas blowing in combination with water vapor shows a wonderful removal efficiency of boron compared with the single oxygen or the single water vapor blowing. It is analyzed from the thermodynamics that a synergistic separation behavior of boron is resulted from CaCl2 and O2. Boron is removed and reduced from 22 to 0.75 ppmw with a removal efficiency of 96.6 pct.

  3. On-site methanol production plant from natural gas with modular HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Eiji; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Hayakawa, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    The consumption of natural gas has been increasing year by year due to its relatively low level of CO 2 emissions and low cost. All of the natural gas consumed in Japan is imported from foreign countries in the form of liquid natural gas (LNG). Therefore, liquefaction, transportation and storage equipment costs are large. On the other hand, handling methanol is as easy as handling oil. If a plant for producing methanol from natural gas is sited near a natural gas field, transportation and storage costs are expected to be significantly lower than such costs for LNG production. From the above viewpoint, the concept of an on-site methanol production plant with a modular HTR (High Temperature Reactor) was studied. (author)

  4. Fission product range effects on HEU fissile gas monitoring for UF6 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.; Valentine, T.E.; Perez, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of 235 U in UF 6 flowing in a pipe can be monitored by counting gamma rays emitted from fission fragments carried along by the flowing gas. Neutron sources are mounted in an annular sleeve that is filled with moderator material and surrounds the pipe. This provides a source of thermal neutrons to produce the fission fragments. Those fragments that remain in the gas stream following fission are carried past a gamma detector. A typical fragment will be quite unstable, giving up energy as it decays to a more stable isotope with a significant amount of this energy being emitted in the form of gamma rays. A given fragment can emit several gamma rays over its lifetime. The gamma ray emission activity level of a distribution of fission fragments decreases with time. The monitoring system software uses models of these processes to interpret the gamma radiation counting data measured by the gamma detectors

  5. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrated approach for gas dispersion, gas explosion and structural impact analysis for an offshore production platform on the Dutch continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korndörffer, W.; Schaap, D.; Heijden, A.M.A. van der; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    The design of an offshore gas production platform has been subjected to an extensive quantitative risk analysis in particular with regard to its resistance to gas explosions loads. It was demonstrated that integration of the physical and structural effects of a gas explosion in an early stage of the

  7. Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component of the energy mix in the United States, producing greater energy yield per unit weight and less pollution compared to coal and oil. Most of the world’s natural gas resource is thermogenic, produced in the geologic environment over time by high temperature and pressure within deposits of oil, coal, and shale. About 20 percent of the natural gas resource, however, is produced by microorganisms (microbes). Microbes potentially could be used to generate economic quantities of natural gas from otherwise unexploitable coal and shale deposits, from coal and shale from which natural gas has already been recovered, and from waste material such as coal slurry. Little is known, however, about the microbial production of natural gas from coal and shale.

  8. Production and release of the fission gas in (Th U)O2 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio S.

    1982-06-01

    The volume, composition and release of the fission gas products were caculated for (Th, U)O 2 fuel rods. The theorectical calculations were compared with experimental results available on the literature. In ThO 2 + 5% UO 2 fuel rods it will be produced approximated 5% more fission gas as compared to UO 2 fuel rods. The fission gas composition or Xe to Kr ratio has showed a decreasing fuel brunup dependence, in opposition to that of UO 2 . Under the same fuel rod operational conditions, the (Th, U)O 2 fission gas release will be smaller as compared to UO 2 . This behaviour of (Th, U)O 2 fuel comes from smallest gas atom difusivity and higher activation energies of the processes that increase the fission gas release. (Author) [pt

  9. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  10. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  11. Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18

  12. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  13. Ionizing radiation effects in Acai oil analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, Felipe; Fernandes, Carlos Eduardo; Moura, Sergio; Machado, Ana Carolina; Furasawa, Helio Akira; Pires, Maria Aparecida Faustino; Bustillos, Oscar Vega

    2007-01-01

    The Acai fruit is a well know Brazilian seed plant used in large scale as a source of feed stock, specially in the Brazilian North-east region. The Acai oil is use in many purposes from fuel sources to medicine. The scope of this paper is to analyzed the chemical structures modification of the acai oil after the ionizing radiation. The radiation were set in the range of 10 to 25 kGy in the extracted Acai oil. The analyses were made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry techniques. A GC/MS Shimatzu QP-5000 equipped with 30 meters DB-5 capillary column with internal diameter of 0.25 mm and 0.25 μm film thickness was used. Helium was used as carried gas and gave a column head pressure of 12 p.s.i. (1 p.s.i. = 6894.76 Pa) and an average flux of 1 ml/min. The temperature program for the GC column consisted of a 4-minutes hold at 75 deg C, a 15 deg C /min ramp to 200 deg C, 8 minutes isothermal. 20 deg C/min ramp to 250 deg C, 2 minutes isothermal. The extraction of the fatty acids was based on liquid-liquid method using chloroform as solvent. The chromatograms resulted shows the presences of the oleic acid and others fatty acids identify by the mass spectra library (NIST-92). The ionization radiation deplete the fatty acids presents in the Acai oil. Details on the chemical qualitative analytical is present as well in this work. (author)

  14. Renewable natural gas. Gasification of biofuels for production of methane or hydrogen; Foernybar Naturgas. Foergasning av biobraenslen foer framstaellning av metan eller vaetgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Staffan; Malm, David [Halmstad Univ. (Sweden). School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The natural gas grid in Sweden will get extended to give the possibility to replace oil and coal within the industry, build effective combined power heat plants and offer the transportation sector an eco-friendly alternative to diesel and petrol. Through extension of the Swedish gas grid there will also be an infrastructure for distribution of other gases than natural gas. Natural gas is a fossil fuel and in this report the possibility of gasifying biomass to produce a synthetic natural gas (SNG) that could be distributed on the existing natural gas grid. Also a combined production of SNG and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels has been investigated. In this report the raw material potential in the south of Sweden has been investigated, gasifying technologies have been investigated, demands for distribution on the natural gas grid, proposals of suitable localization alternatives and the total gas/FT-fuels potential has been estimated. The biggest potential of raw material is within the forestry in the form of fell remains and stem wood from thinning. In the future there will also be a great potential in waste because of the law about prohibiting deposits on landfills. The future potential of biomass is estimated to 34 TWh. There are several techniques for gasification of biomass to produce SNG and FT -fuels. When producing SNG separate the indirect gasifier using steam and subsequent methanation is the best alternative due to the highest efficiency. When using combined production of SNG and FT-fuels the integrated co-production is a good choice. To be allowed to distribute SNG on the Swedish gas grid some demands has to be fulfilled. Heating value and wobbeindex must correspond to the natural gas, a similar composition of the gas has to be reached, for example a similar methane content. Another alternative are distribution in separate grids. A good location to build a gasifying plant is nearby the gas grid, with good access to raw material and somewhere to use the waste

  15. Techniques in Gas-Phase Thermolyses. Part 6. Pulse Pyrolysis: Gas Kinetic Studies in an Inductively Heated Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Bo, P.; Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    A prototype of an inductively heated flow reactor for gas kinetic studies is presented. The applicability of the system, which is based on a direct coupling between the reactor and the ion source of a mass spectrometer, is illustrated by investigations of a series of simple bond fission reactions...

  16. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the gas production potential of disperse, low-saturation (S H H hydrate-bearing sediments subject to depressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period. We investigate the sensitivity of items (a)-(c) to the following hydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters: intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydrate saturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept. The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in the aforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of such deposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousand cubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such low production volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly accepted standards of economic viability, and are further burdened with very unfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from this study is that disperse, low-S H hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments are not promising targets for gas production by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrate exploitation should be focused elsewhere

  17. The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

  18. Genealogy of gas cells for low-energy RI-beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Michiharu, E-mail: mw@riken.jp

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • In order to overcome serious limitations in the universality of the traditional isotope separator on-line technique, various endeavors have been made on gas catcher cells for converting relativistic RI-beams from in-flight separators to low-energy RI-beams. • The origin of the gas catcher is found in the IGISOL (Ion guide isotope separator on-line) technique. • Many developments have been made over the years to overcome the various difficulties and drawbacks found in the IGISOL technique. -- Abstract: In order to overcome serious limitations in the universality of the traditional isotope separator on-line technique, various endeavors have been made on gas catcher cells for converting relativistic RI-beams from in-flight separators to low-energy RI-beams. The origin of the gas catcher is found in the IGISOL (Ion guide isotope separator on-line) technique. Many developments have been made over the years to overcome the various difficulties and drawbacks found in the IGISOL technique.

  19. Beam-foil-gas spectroscopy - A technique for studying steady-state non-equilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, W. S.; Veje, E.; Carriveau, G.; Anderson, N.

    1971-01-01

    When a thin foil is inserted in the beam of a beam-gas experiment, the beam particle state populations are driven far from their beam-gas equilibrium values. Downstream from the foil, the 'new beam' and gas species interact to produce a new equilibrium, usually different from the beam-gas equilibrium. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate this effect and to show how relative cross-section measurements can be used to study the beam-foil interaction.

  20. MODELLING OF THE GAS DIFFUSION IN FLEXIBLE PIPELINES FOR OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation describes a model used to study gas diffusion through layers of flexible pipes by time. The temperature gradient pipe is considered as temperature dependent permeability rates. This model is coupled with a calculation that indicate changes in pressure and volume of vapors resulting in the annular space. Associated mathematical models and methods for solving the results obtained are presented in Math Soft with a user-friendly interface that helps in data entry and processing results. In this presentation will show the possibilities of this software.

  1. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  2. Transgenesis techniques and its application in poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenesis is applied in production of therapeutic proteins, improvement of economic traits such as meat quality, disease resistance, feed conversion efficiency; as well as protection of humans from zoonotic diseases. Thus, transgenic technologies may revolutionalize the production of poultry birds with improved meat ...

  3. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-03

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed.

  4. The role of reserves and production in the market capitalization of oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the role proved reserves and production play in the market capitalization of publicly traded oil and gas companies engaged in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The paper provides two important contributions to the literature. First, we extend the existing research by utilizing the method of Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model that controls for firm type. Second, we document the impacts that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. This is a key finding in the context of discounted net cash flow models and the findings suggest there is an optimal tradeoff between current and future production, given current volumes of reserves, the latter of which is valued positively by the market. Moreover, this optimal tradeoff or the optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of capital structure in the heavily capital intensive oil and gas industry. The results from this research should benefit both oil and gas companies and investors. Specifically, the results provide new and robust information as to the empirical relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations. - Highlights: • We utilized Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model. • There is a differential impact that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. • The optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. • Results provide new information as to the relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations.

  5. Development of improved leaching techniques for vitrified radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaswani, G.A.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Rastogi, R.C.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    A critical review of the current techniques for evaluating the leach resistance of vitrified radioactive wastes has been made. Inadequacy of the available leaching techniques, with respect to their adoption as standard technique on an international scale, has been brought out for the three broad catagories of aqueous attack viz., (i) simple contact with leachant at a particular temperature, (ii) once-through or recirculatory flow of leachant at variable temperatures and flow rates, and (iii) contact with freshly distilled hot water in soxhelet type of extractor. In an effort to evolve a standard leaching technique in the latter two categories of aqueous attack, development of two leaching units viz., 'Dynamic Leaching Unit' and 'Modified Soxhlet Unit' is described. Both these units offer good control and wide flexibility on the important parameters affecting leaching such as leachant temperature, flow rate of residence time of leachant and ratio of leachant volume to sample surface area. The dynamic leaching units also offers a good control and flexibility on the two additional parameters viz., the composition and pH of the leachant. In the modified soxhlet unit the composition and pH of the leachant remains near to that of distilled water. The leach rate results have been found to be reproducible. A need for framing the set of standard conditions for adoption of these units in evolution of standard leaching techniques has been indicated. (auth.)

  6. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures

  7. Rock removal under gas pipeline with expanded cement technique and repair with composite sleeve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matsuo, Fabio Massatoshi Ferreira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Amid the great challenges of transporting natural gas to the major cities in Brazil, TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil), which owns and operates the largest pipeline in Latin America, with a length of approximately 2,600 km of pipelines (from 32 inches o 16 inches), built between 1998 and 2000 and started commercial operation in July 1999. During its maintenance inspection, using geometric pigs and pigs MFL / Inertial, located a dent in the pipe with approximately 4.7% of deformation with dimensions of 670 mm x 600 mm, caused by accommodation of the pipeline on a rock about 5 m of width. With the pipeline in operation and and 10% lowering the historic pressure, as the internal procedure of the TBG, the rock was removed using the technique of expansive cement, which is to perforate several roles on the rock and then apply the expansive cement which after 24 hours cause cracks, splitting the rock into slabs. The visual, ultrasonic and liquid penetrant inspections were made and repair with sleeve of composite material was achieved. This paper describes the whole methodology and experience of execution, including the results of inspection with pig, removal of the rock with the expansive cement, execution of repair and report photography. (author)

  8. Developments in ultrasonic recording and display techniques for Magnox gas duct inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, R.W.; Hall, G.D.; Johnson, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques extensively throughout its generating plant. The results of these NDT inspections are used to demonstrate the quality of new plant and the continuing integrity of existing plant. In order to improve the quality and reduce manpower requirement of these ultrasonic inspections, the CEGB has developed a range of ultrasonic recording and display instruments for site inspections. These instruments have been designed to aid medium scale ultrasonic inspections where, in the past, a considerable effort has been required in manual scanning and manual data interpretation. They relieve the operator of the need to assess the signals while scanning by providing real time displays of the ultrasonic data. They also provide a method of recording the ultrasonic data for detailed analysis at a later date. The incentive for these developments was provided by the requirement to inspect the bellows units in the gas ducts of Magnox power stations, although the instrumentation has subsequently found more widespread use. The following section highlights the problems faced by the manual operator in inspecting Magnox duct welds. Subsequent sections describe the instrumentation developed to assist these inspections, illustrated with examples. (author)

  9. Comparison of velocimetry techniques for turbulent structures in gas-puff imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierchio, J M; Cziegler, I; Terry, J L; White, A E; Zweben, S J

    2016-02-01

    Recent analysis of Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) data from Alcator C-Mod found blob velocities with a modified tracking time delay estimation (TDE). These results disagree with velocity analysis performed using direct Fourier methods. In this paper, the two analysis methods are compared. The implementations of these methods are explained, and direct comparisons using the same GPI data sets are presented to highlight the discrepancies in measured velocities. In order to understand the discrepancies, we present a code that generates synthetic sequences of images that mimic features of the experimental GPI images, with user-specified input values for structure (blob) size and velocity. This allows quantitative comparison of the TDE and Fourier analysis methods, which reveals their strengths and weaknesses. We found that the methods agree for structures of any size as long as all structures move at the same velocity and disagree when there is significant nonlinear dispersion or when structures appear to move in opposite directions. Direct Fourier methods used to extract poloidal velocities give incorrect results when there is a significant radial velocity component and are subject to the barber pole effect. Tracking TDE techniques give incorrect velocity measurements when there are features moving at significantly different speeds or in different directions within the same field of view. Finally, we discuss the limitations and appropriate use of each of methods and applications to the relationship between blob size and velocity.

  10. Nanodetection of the disinfection by-products on GC-MS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; Haydee, Melinda; Ristoiu, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Exposures to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in residential drinking water occur through multiple routes and vary across the population because of differences in the amount and ways people use water. Municipal water in the Romania is disinfected, with chlorine being the most common disinfectant agent. Disinfection of water, in additional to having the benefit of destroying microbes that can transmit diseases, has the drawback of producing a series of compounds known as disinfection by-products (DBPs). Chlorination produces many compounds containing chlorine and/or bromine, some of which have been shown to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and/or teratogenic in animal studies. The most abundant class of DBPs that result from chlorination of drinking water are trihalomethanes (THMs) - chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3). The most predominant THM species was CHCl3 and it highest concentration was 85•106 ng/m3. The others THMs compounds concentration were lower, between 65•104 ng/m3 and 12•106 ng/m3. THMs compounds were analyzed on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS) and head space technique (HS) was used for all analysis.

  11. Gas Strategy of China: Developing competition between national production and imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    The Chinese gas market is facing four key challenges and the government is elaborating responses which will have implications for the Chinese and world energy markets: - Enabling the development of gas demand in order to fight against the issue of air pollution which is particularly strong in the big coast cities of the East and South-East of the country. This means replacing coal and oil by cleaner energy sources, including natural gas for which demand is booming. In such a young market, everything needs to be put in place: from the construction of LNG terminals to the sale and installation of gas stoves. The price of gas needs to be competitive for the market to develop. - Securing supplies: As national production is struggling to follow the rise in demand and as shale gas - of which China owns the second largest reserves in the world - is still a distant dream, this country is more and more reliant on imports. For evident energy security reasons, China diversifies its supplies at the maximum level and develops new energy partnerships. Four importing routes are favoured: LNG transported by ships, the West axis with Central Asia, the South axis with Burma and the new North-East axis with Russia. These imports, which amounted to 53 bcm in 2013, may triple by 2020. Even though China managed to negotiate a favourable price with Russia and its LNG importing price is lower than the one of Japan - thanks to its first LNG importing contracts signed in the early 2000 - imports are expensive, in particular for a country used to producing or importing coal at a very low cost. Up to now, the price at which gas is sold could not cover the import price and this system is not sustainable. - Developing national production: Despite important gas reserves - in particular for unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, CBM) - production in China is still not much developed in comparison with its potential and the growth opportunities are significant. Making the best of this potential

  12. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  13. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

  14. Effects of types and doses of yeast on gas production and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-12

    Nov 12, 2016 ... Effects of types and doses of yeast on gas production and in vitro digestibility of diets containing ... Several studies have been conducted to evaluate neutral detergent fibre (NDF) levels with yeast (Plata ... to evaluate the effects of two commercial yeast products on in vitro fermentation kinetic parameters, as ...

  15. A synthesis of research on wood products and greenhouse gas impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, R.; O'Connor, J.

    2008-11-01

    Existing scientific literature on the wood products industry was reviewed in an effort to summarize consensus findings, or range of findings, addressing the net life cycle greenhouse gas footprint of wood construction products. The report sought to clarify whether actively managing forests for wood production was better, worse or neutral for climate change than leaving the forest in its natural state. In addition, it sought to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions avoided per unit of wood substituted for non-wood materials. Forty-eight international studies were examined in terms of fossil energy used in wood manufacturing and compared alternatives, such as the avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions as with cement manufacturing; the storage of carbon in forests and forest products; the use of wood by-products as a biofuel replacement for fossil fuels; and carbon storage and emission due to forest products in landfills. The report presented a list of studies reviewed and individual summaries of study findings. A meta-analysis of displacement factors of wood product use was also presented. It was concluded from all of the studies reviewed, that the production of wood-based materials and products results in less greenhouse gas emission than the production of functionally comparable non-wood materials and products. 48 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Scrubbing theory of a volatile fission product vapor-containing gas jet in a water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    When a mixture of fission product vapor and inert gas enters a scrubbing pool of liquid (water) that is at a temperature well below the dew point of the vapor component, a large fraction of the vapor mass condenses just outside the injector exit in the gas as aerosol (or fog) rather than on the water surfaces presented to the incoming gas stream. The fog particles formed by this vapor phase nucleation event are typically very small, of the order of 0.1- to 1.0μm diam, and are not easily removed from the gas bubbles that form above the injector and rise through the water pool. These gas bubbles, however, usually obscure the presence of a gas jet at the injector. Wassel et al. studied aerosol scrubbing in the gas injection zone of a scrubbing pool. These analyses, however, ignored liquid entrainment into the gaseous stream. In so doing, they have neglected the enormous interfacial area available for particle impaction, shown here to be crucial for high-velocity gas jets. The present investigation considers the potential of such a submerged gas jet as an atomizing condensate aerosol scrubber

  17. The Use of Horizontal Wells in Gas Production from Hydrate Accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Zhang, Keni

    2008-04-15

    The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Earlier studies have demonstrated that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, using conventional technology and vertical wells. The results of this numerical study indicate that the use of horizontal wells does not confer any practical advantages to gas production from Class 1 deposits. This is because of the large disparity in permeabilities between the hydrate layer (HL) and the underlying free gas zone, leading to a hydrate dissociation that proceeds in a horizontally dominant direction and is uniform along the length of the reservoir. When horizontal wells are placed near the base of the HL in Class 2 deposits, the delay in the evolution of a significant gas production rate outweighs their advantages, which include higher rates and the prevention of flow obstruction problems that often hamper the performance of vertical wells. Conversely, placement of a horizontal well near to top of the HL can lead to dramatic increases in gas production from Class 2 and Class 3 deposits over the corresponding production from vertical wells.

  18. Radiation exposure in the production and use of thoriated gas mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, T.; Seitz, G.; Schafer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Even today, thoriated gas mantles are quite often used in Germany, mainly for street lighting, lighting of railway points and nautical lighting. During production, maintenance and repair of these gas illumination devices, thorium can be released in inhalable form as dust, leading to internal contamination. Analyses of workplaces where workers change the gas mantles, clean the lights and do other maintenance work outside show incorporation of radioactivity due to working conditions. During maintenance of street lighting in workshops there is a risk of workplace contamination, not only in the workshop itself but also in the maintenance van. Results of a measurement campaign are shown in the paper. A few months ago, the production of thoriated gas ended in Germany. The radiation exposure during the production process has been investigated very comprehensively and it has been shown that there had been relatively high exposures in the past. The lifetime doses of two workers producing gas mantles may exceed the limit of 400 mSv if the range of errors in estimation is taken into account. The main part of these doses results from incorporation rather than from external exposure, although in some cases external exposure may be fairly high. The paper describes the materials and methods used in assessing the doses and presents the results of workplace related analyses and internal dose assessments for the production, storage and use of thoriated gas mantles. (author)

  19. Product and process effectiveness using performance-based auditing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Focus is the backbone of genius. Focus is the lifeblood of adequate products and effective processes. Focus is the theme of Performance-Based Audits (PBA). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program is using the PBA tool extensively to focus on the evaluation of product adequacy and process effectiveness. The term Performance-Based Audit has been around for several years. however, the approach presented here for the systematic end-product selection, planning, and measurement of adequacy and effectiveness is new and innovative

  20. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m 3 (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million t

  1. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  2. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Johansen, Anders; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect on N2O and CH4 emissions when residues from bio-energy production are recycling as organic fertilizer for a maize energy crop. The study showed that the N2O emission associated with the cultivation of the maize crop offset a considerable faction...

  3. Use of spectral decomposition technique for delineation of channels at Solar gas discovery, offshore West Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A.A. Othman

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, spectral decomposition technique is applied to the imaging and mapping of bed thickness, geologic discontinuities and channel delineation at Solar discovery. From the study, two distinctively different channels (gas bearing “Red channel” and water bearing “Yellow channel” were delineated in the area, and are proven by the drilled well, and some stratigraphic features are identified.

  4. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal...

  5. Studies of some elementary processes involving electrons in the gas phase by pulse-radiolysis microwave-cavity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Takeyoshi; Makita, Takeshi; Musasa, Hirofumi; Tatsumi, Yoshitsugu; Shimamori, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis-microwave cavity technique has been employed for detection of free electrons in the gas phase. Presented are results of the observation of electron disappearance by attachment to molecules, the electron thermalization (energy loss) processes in the presence of an electron-attaching compound, and the formation of electrons by Penning ionization. (author)

  6. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  7. Velocity field measurement in gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with use of PIV and neutron radiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Tobita, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron radiography and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) techniques were applied to measurements of velocity field in gas-liquid metal two-phase flow. Visualization and measurements of two-phase flow were conducted using molten lead bismuth and nitrogen gas as working fluids and particles made of gold-cadmium (AuCd 3 ) inter-metallic alloy were employed as the tracer. Discrimination method between bubble and tracer images in two-phase flow was developed based on the σ-scaling method. Time-averaged liquid velocity fields, gas velocity fields and void profile were calculated from discriminated images, respectively. From these measurements, the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. (author)

  8. Uncovering product development competence by applying the laddering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Harmsen, Hanne

    This paper addresses companies' lack of implementation of success factors in new product development. Drawing on theories in the competence perspective and an exploratory empirical study, the paper points to two major areas that have not been covered by previous studies on new product development...... success factors. The two areas are individual employees' knowledge, skills, and values and norms. It is suggested that increased understanding of these two areas hold potential in making identified success factors more accessible to companies....

  9. Improvement of Production Quality by using Six Sigma Technique:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan Ali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of lack of conformity of the outer diameter of the filling piston of plastic syringe to the specifications set out in the design map and the increased demand for its  products from the Medical syringes factory – Babylon. The research conducts the necessary investigations and  analysis of the production process as most of the units rejected by fact that the outer diameter of the filling piston is smaller than the minimum specification and units returned to work  due to the fact that  the outer diameter larger than the upper limit of the specification.13The research aims firstly to examine the outer diameter of the filling piston through the use of the control chart of the variables represented by the average , and its impact on the production process capability because the increase in diameter specification leads to an increase in the pressure imposed on the lining of the cylinder, causing difficulty in piston movement and a decrease in diameter specification which leads to loose the process capability to prevent leakage of fluid, causing air to enter as well as to speed the movement of the piston, which negatively affects human life in both cases. Secondly, study the possibility of improving the production process capability by using advanced levels of the sigma.The results showed that the production process in the case of a disciplined and follows a normal distribution, the pointer of  the production process capability is equal to (0.55 and the factory works within the level of Sigma equal to (1.65. The proportion of a damaged product is (15.8 % and rework (0.99 %.In order to  reduce the proportion of damaged product, this paper introduces a quality plan depending on ( ±0.025 as tolerance limits instead of ( ±0.05 to increase sigma level by 202%.

  10. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Recovery of regenerants from transformed cells. - Cell culture .... methods. Micropropagation techniques. Micropropagation is a simple concept. The basic pro- tocols were well established by the 1960s and a whole research field and ... the environment are naturally contaminated on their sur- faces (and ...

  11. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation tillage as an approach to reduce surface runoff and soil degradation and reduced tillage systems may offer a compromise solution. The objective of the study is to test different conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on conserving water, labor requirement for pre and post ...

  12. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Barkley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem, and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are

  13. Effects of Formation Damage on Productivity of Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of formation damage on the productivity of gas storage reservoirs was performed with depleted oil reservoir (OB-02, located onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Information on the reservoir and the fluids from OB-02 were collected and used to evaluate the deliverabilities of the gas storage reservoir over a 10-year period of operation. The results obtained were used to plot graphs of deliverability against permeability and skin respectively. The graphs revealed that as the permeability decreased, the skin increased, and hence a decrease in deliverability of gas from the reservoir during gas withdrawal. Over the ten years of operating the reservoir for gas storage, the deliverability and permeability which were initially 2.7 MMscf/d and 50 mD, with a skin of 0.2, changed to new values of 0.88 MMscf/d and 24 mD with the skin as 4.1 at the tenth year.

  14. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  15. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...

  17. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia

    2017-12-01

    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  18. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraussler, Michael; Schindler, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H 2 and CH 4 , which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H 2 and 19% CH 4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO 2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent. Moreover, the produced gas mixture had a lower heating value of about 15.5MJ·m -3 and a lower Wobbe index of about 43.4MJ·m -3 , which is similar to the typical Wobbe index of natural gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased productivity through waste reduction effort in oil and gas company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, J.; Silviana, NA; Matondang, RA

    2018-02-01

    National companies engaged in oil and gas activities in the upstream sector. In general, the on going operations include drilling, exploration, and production activities with the result being crude oil channelled for shipment. Production activities produce waste gas (flare) of 0.58 MMSCFD derived from 17.05% of natural gas produced. Gas flares are residual gases that have been burning through flare stacks to avoid toxic gases such as H2S and CO that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, appropriate environmental management is needed; one of them is by doing waste reduction business. Through this approach, it is expected that waste reduction efforts can affect the improvement of environmental conditions while increasing the productivity of the company. In this research begins by identifying the existence of problems on the company related to the amount of waste that is excessive and potentially to be reduced. Alternative improvements are then formulated and selected by their feasibility to be implemented through financial analysis, and the estimation of alternative contributions to the level of productivity. The result of this research is an alternative solution to solve the problem of the company by doing technological based engineering by reusing gas flare into fuel for incinerator machine. This alternative contributes to the increased productivity of material use by 23.32%, humans 83.8%, capital 10.13 %, and waste decreased by 0.11%.

  20. The Effect of Tannins and Additional Peg on In Vitro Gas Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro

    2004-01-01

    Agro-wastes such as sugar cane straw are potential sources as feed. Sugar cane straw contains tannins, an anti-nutrient, which could effect feed quality. The effect of tannins by in vitro gas production was compared to maize straw which has low tannins. Tannin concentration was measured by using PEG which is labelled by 14 C. The result showed that the tannins concentration of sugar cane straw is 10.88 % dry matter. The others are digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, VFA, ammonia and pH. The gas production is 48.83 ml/500 mg after 24 h incubation. It is lower than the control i.e. 100.64 ml/500 mg. Additional PEG increase the gas production i.e. 30.5 %, because tannins is bounded by it. The concentration of ammonia, VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility on sugar cane straw with additional PEG is higher than without PEG, i.e 28.29 mg/100 ml, 15.56 nmol/100 ml, 52.18 % and 47.54 %. pH of sugar cane without PEG i.e. 6.62 is higher than additional PEG, i.e. 6.54. It could be concluded, tannins decrease of gas production, ammonia, VFA, dry matter, and organic matter digestibility and additional PEG increase gas production of sugar cane. (author)

  1. Production of ammonia from plasma-catalytic decomposition of urea: Effects of carrier gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Li, Jian; Qiu, Danqi; Zhu, Tianle

    2018-04-01

    Effects of carrier gas composition (N 2 /air) on NH 3 production, energy efficiency regarding NH 3 production and byproducts formation from plasma-catalytic decomposition of urea were systematically investigated using an Al 2 O 3 -packed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at room temperature. Results show that the presence of O 2 in the carrier gas accelerates the conversion of urea but leads to less generation of NH 3 . The final yield of NH 3 in the gas phase decreased from 70.5%, 78.7%, 66.6% and 67.2% to 54.1%, 51.7%, 49.6% and 53.4% for applied voltages of 17, 19, 21 and 23kV, respectively when air was used as the carrier gas instead of N 2 . From the viewpoint of energy savings, however, air carrier gas is better than N 2 due to reduced energy consumption and increased energy efficiency for decomposition of a fixed amount of urea. Carrier gas composition has little influence on the major decomposition pathways of urea under the synergetic effects of plasma and Al 2 O 3 catalyst to give NH 3 and CO 2 as the main products. Compared to a small amount of N 2 O formed with N 2 as the carrier gas, however, more byproducts including N 2 O and NO 2 in the gas phase and NH 4 NO 3 in solid deposits were produced with air as the carrier gas, probably due to the unproductive consumption of NH 3 , the possible intermediate HNCO and even urea by the abundant active oxygen species and nitrogen oxides generated in air-DBD plasma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A detailed analysis of the productivity performance of oil and gas extraction in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, C.; Sharpe, A.

    2009-09-01

    The productivity and performance of oil and gas extraction in Canada has been poor over the last few years. Various input estimates show that labour productivity dropped by 8.23 per cent per year between 2000 and 2007. Hours worked grew 108.0 per cent while real gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 14.1 per cent. Oil and gas extraction accounted for 6.2 per cent of aggregate labour productivity growth in Canada between 1987 and 2006. Relative real oil and gas prices also increased significantly during this period. However, declining capital intensity, higher output prices and lagging innovation and technological progress led to declines in labour, capital, and total factor productivity in the oil and gas extraction sector during this period. Higher prices translated into a falling capital-labour ratio. Productivity growth suffered as a result of greater inefficiencies in operations. It was concluded that the deceleration in labour productivity growth after 2000 indicates a slower rate of increase in living standards despite the fact that higher commodity prices have increased the real income of Canadians. 90 refs., 6 tabs., 20 figs.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation techniques for predicting annual power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.P.; Bulandr, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the owner and operator of a number of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites, STS HydroPower has been faced with the need to accurately predict anticipated hydroelectric revenues over a period of years. The typical approach to this problem has been to look at each site from a mathematical deterministic perspective and evaluate the annual production from historic streamflows. Average annual production is simply taken to be the area under the flow duration curve defined by the operating and design characteristics of the selected turbines. Minimum annual production is taken to be a historic dry year scenario and maximum production is viewed as power generated under the most ideal of conditions. Such an approach creates two problems. First, in viewing the characteristics of a single site, it does not take into account the probability of such an event occurring. Second, in viewing all sites in a single organization's portfolio together, it does not reflect the varying flow conditions at the different sites. This paper attempts to address the first of these two concerns, that being the creation of a simulation model utilizing the Monte Carlo method at a single site. The result of the analysis is a picture of the production at the site that is both a better representation of anticipated conditions and defined probabilistically

  4. Techniques in teaching statistics : linking research production and research use.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I .; Smith, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston)

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of closing the 'research-practice gap,' the authors extend evidence-based principles to statistics instruction in social science graduate education. The authors employ a Delphi method to survey experienced statistics instructors to identify teaching techniques to overcome the challenges inherent in teaching statistics to students enrolled in practitioner-oriented master's degree programs. Among the teaching techniques identi?ed as essential are using real-life examples, requiring data collection exercises, and emphasizing interpretation rather than results. Building on existing research, preliminary interviews, and the ?ndings from the study, the authors develop a model describing antecedents to the strength of the link between research and practice.

  5. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  6. A Green Desulfurization Technique: Utilization of Flue Gas SO2 to Produce H2 via a Photoelectrochemical Process Based on Mo-Doped BiVO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A green photoelectrochemical (PEC process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32− after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  7. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  8. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  9. Novel Techniques using FEM for Material Production and Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shammaa, A I; Shaw, A; Stuart, R A; Wright, C C; Houghton, M

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this European project are to use high frequency microwave technology to develop focussed energy sources for industrial applications. The microwaves, generated in the 10GHz to 20GHz frequency range by using a table top FEM has been used to investigate novel solutions for material processing and material production, including microwave heating of substrates, microwave chemistry for increasing the speed of thermal reactions, microwave plasma chemistry for aiding gaseous reactions in the reduction of combustion pollutants and the production of UV/ozone for germicidal activities. In this paper we report unique results and analysis in using tuneable FEM system compared with the conventional magnetron 2.45 GHz system.

  10. A radiotracer technique for testing a high pressure gas compressor for oil leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Kirti; Jain, S.K.; Gupta, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radiotracer investigations carried out at NOCIL, Bombay, to measure the amount of lubrication oil present in the gas being compressed in a 1000 H.P. centrifugal compressor are described. By injecting a few mCi 131 I labelled glyceryl trioleate tracer and monitoring the radioactivity of the outlet gas for about 20 hours, the extent of the oil present in the gas could be determined. (auth.)

  11. The impact of a grain of sand: increasing production speed in flexible risers generates significant savings in gas production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Blokland, H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea oil and gas production normally involves the use of flexible risers that comprise a metal carcass with a large number of enveloping layers that safeguard the integrity of the pipe system. The flexible risers are hung from a floating platform and may be supported by several floating buoys to

  12. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  13. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  14. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  15. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    a device that enables the fully automated generation of growth curves in mid-sized cultures. In the respective chapter, we elaborate on the role of 3D printing in the construction of novel lab equipment and present the aforementioned solution for automated tracking of bacterial growth. In conclusion...... fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...

  16. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production.

  17. Economics of Mini tuber Seed Yam Production Technique in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcel

    With this, the demand for yam tubers in Nigeria still exceeds its supply (Andreas, 2003). The gap between supply and demand for yam still remains over 50 million metric tons per annum. Among the inputs required in yam production, labour and planting material (seed yams) are the most demanding (Ezeh, 1998). In Nigeria ...

  18. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  19. Application of coincidence techniques to fusion product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    Measurement of two products of a fusion reaction in coincidence is proposed. Possible detector arrays and sample count rates have been evaluated for reactions in the TFR and TEXT tokamaks and in the TFTR neutral beamlines. The count rates indicate that this method is feasible on existing devices

  20. Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the ...

  1. 3D scan to product design : Methods, techniques, and cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Lee, B.; Kim, S.; Jung, H.; Jeon, E.; Choi, T.; You, H.

    2015-01-01

    3D scanning technology has derived great opportunities for ergonomic product designs. This paper is aimed to introduce various research cases and methods based on 3D scanning have conducted by an ergonomics laboratory in South Korea. Sizing systems and representative 3D models developed on

  2. Zero-power autonomous buoyancy system controlled by microbial gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peter K.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Biffinger, Justin C.; Spargo, Barry J.; Houston, Brian H.; Bucaro, Joseph A.; Ringeisen, Bradley R.

    2011-05-01

    A zero-power ballast control system that could be used to float and submerge a device solely using a gas source was built and tested. This system could be used to convey sensors, data loggers, and communication devices necessary for water quality monitoring and other applications by periodically maneuvering up and down a water column. Operational parameters for the system such as duration of the submerged and buoyant states can be varied according to its design. The gas source can be of any origin, e.g., compressed air, underwater gas vent, gas produced by microbes, etc. The zero-power ballast system was initially tested using a gas pump and further tested using gas produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Using microbial gas production as the only source of gas and no electrical power during operation, the system successfully floated and submerged periodically with a period of 30 min for at least 24 h. Together with microbial fuel cells, this system opens up possibilities for underwater monitoring systems that could function indefinitely.

  3. Stable Isotope Systematics of Coalbed Gas during Desorption and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios of coalbed methane (CBM demonstrate diagnostic changes that systematically vary with production and desorption times. These shifts can provide decisive, predictive information on the behaviour and potential performance of CBM operations. Samples from producing CBM wells show a general depletion in 13C-methane with increasing production times and corresponding shifts in δ13C-CH4 up to 35.8‰. Samples from canister desorption experiments show mostly enrichment in 13C for methane with increasing desorption time and isotope shifts of up to 43.4‰. Also, 13C-depletion was observed in some samples with isotope shifts of up to 32.1‰. Overall, the magnitudes of the observed isotope shifts vary considerably between different sample sets, but also within samples from the same source. The δ13C-CH4 values do not have the anticipated signature of methane generated from coal. This indicates that secondary processes, including desorption and diffusion, can influence the values. It is also challenging to deconvolute these various secondary processes because their molecular and isotope effects can have similar directions and/or magnitudes. In some instances, significant alteration of CBM gases has to be considered as a combination of secondary alteration effects.

  4. Conductive Polymer Synthesis with Single-Crystallinity via a Novel Plasma Polymerization Technique for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Sang Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new nanostructured conductive polymer synthesis method that can grow the single-crystalline high-density plasma-polymerized nanoparticle structures by enhancing the sufficient nucleation and fragmentation of the pyrrole monomer using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM results show that the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (pPPy nanoparticles have a fast deposition rate of 0.93 µm·min−1 under a room-temperature process and have single-crystalline characteristics with porous properties. In addition, the single-crystalline high-density pPPy nanoparticle structures were successfully synthesized on the glass, plastic, and interdigitated gas sensor electrode substrates using a novel plasma polymerization technique at room temperature. To check the suitability of the active layer for the fabrication of electrochemical toxic gas sensors, the resistance variations of the pPPy nanoparticles grown on the interdigitated gas sensor electrodes were examined by doping with iodine. As a result, the proposed APPJ device could obtain the high-density and ultra-fast single-crystalline pPPy thin films for various gas sensor applications. This work will contribute to the design of highly sensitive gas sensors adopting the novel plasma-polymerized conductive polymer as new active layer.

  5. Analysis and interpretation of the thermal test of gas hydrate dissociation in the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dallimore, S.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, BC (Canada); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Mroz, T. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab.

    2005-07-01

    Field data acquired during a thermal stimulation test in the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well was analyzed to determine the thermally induced dissociation of gas hydrate. In particular, an understanding of the field behaviour of natural gas hydrate during dissociation under controlled conditions led to the determination and quantification of the corresponding processes and thermodynamic parameters that affect gas production and dissociation from gas hydrate. The field data was used to validate and calibrate a numerical model. Long-term production involving different dissociation methods were predicted along with alternative production-system configurations. Geological and geophysical data was used to determine the primary conditions and properties of the gas hydrate deposit. The boundary conditions were determined through direct measurement. The numerical model was calibrated against the cumulative volumes of produced gas, which increased the credibility of the model. Two possible scenarios of thermal dissociation were proposed to interpret the field-test results. Inverse modelling was used to estimate the parameters of the dominant physical processes. Results were in good agreement with previously published data. Estimates of long-term production were made along with alternative well production-system configurations to significantly improve gas recovery.

  6. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  7. Preliminary Calculation of the EROI for the Production of Gas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nogovitsyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of energy resources. Production of energy resources in Russia is profitable, both economically and in terms of the energy produced (as measured by EROI. At the present time, Russian oil and gas companies have a policy of energy saving, and data on energy consumption is given in annual reports. Based on these data, we can make the EROI calculation. In 2013, the EROI for the production, transportation and processing of gas for Open joint stock company (OJSC “Gazprom” was 79:1; for OJSC “NOVATEK”, 76:1; for OJSC “Yakutsk Fuel and Energy Company (YATEC”, only for production, 116:1. Currently, the situation in the oil and gas industry has come to a point when there is a need for the introduction of an energy audit.

  8. Research on technology of online gas chromatograph for SF6 decomposition products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Fan, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Tang, N.; Zou, Z. L.; Liu, M. Z.; Huang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition products were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by several gas chromatographs in the laboratory. Test conditions and methods were selected and optimized to minimize and eliminate the SF6’ influences on detection of other trace components. The effective separation and detection of selected characteristic gases were achieved. And by comparison among different types of gas chromatograph, it was found that GPTR-S101 can effectively separate and detect SF6 decomposition products and has best the best detection limit and sensitivity. On the basis of GPTR-S101, online gas chromatograph for SF6decomposition products (GPTR-S201) was developed. It lays the foundation for further online monitoring and diagnosis of SF6.

  9. Prospects for the domestic production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanskiy, D. A.; Grin, E. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Berestevich, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Russian experience in the production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines is analyzed for the past decades. It is noted that the production of small- and medium-sized blades and vanes made of Russian alloys using technologies for aviation, marine, and gas-pumping turbines cannot be scaled for industrial gas turbines. It is shown that, in order to provide manufacturability under large-scale casting from domestic nickel alloys, it is necessary to solve complex problems in changing their chemical composition, to develop new casting technologies and to optimize the heat treatment modes. An experience of PAO NPO Saturn in manufacturing the blades and vanes made of ChS88U-VI and IN738-LC foundry nickel alloys for the turbines of the GTE-110 gas turbine unit is considered in detail. Potentialities for achieving adopted target parameters for the mechanical properties of working blades cast from ChS88UM-VI modified alloy are established. For the blades made of IN738-LC alloy manufactured using the existing foundry technology, a complete compliance with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been established. Currently, in Russia, the basis of the fleet of gas turbine plants is composed by foreign turbines, and, for the implementation of the import substitution program, one can use the positive experience of PAO NPO Saturn in casting blades from IN738-LC alloy based on a reverse engineering technique. A preliminary complex of studies of the original manufacturer's blades should be carried out, involving, first of all, the determination of geometric size using modern measurement methods as well as the studies on the chemical compositions of the used materials (base metal and protective coatings). Further, verifying the constructed calculation models based on the obtained data, one could choose available domestic materials that would meet the operating conditions of the blades according to their heat resistance and corrosion

  10. Gas Chromatographic Verification of a Mathematical Model: Product Distribution Following Methanolysis Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated application of binomial statistics to equilibrium distribution of ester systems by employing gas chromatography to verify the mathematical model used. Discusses model development and experimental techniques, indicating the model enables a straightforward extension to symmetrical polyfunctional esters and presents a mathematical basis…

  11. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  12. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Clement, B.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  13. Agglomeration techniques for the production of spheres for packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    One attractive fusion-breeder-blanket design features a lithium bearing ceramic in the form of spheres packed into a random array. The spheres have diameters of 3 mm and 0.3 mm. This report surveys techniques used to produce ceramic spheres on an industrial scale. The methods examined include tumbling and mixing granulation, extrusion, briquetting and pelletizing. It is concluded that the required quantities of 0.3 mm diameter spheres can be produced by the tumbling agglomeration of a feed powder. The 3 mm diameter spheres will be made using a process of extrusion, chopping and rolling

  14. Mixed integer simulation optimization for optimal hydraulic fracturing and production of shale gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, B.; Wang, H. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimal development of shale gas fields involves designing a most productive fracturing network for hydraulic stimulation processes and operating wells appropriately throughout the production time. A hydraulic fracturing network design-determining well placement, number of fracturing stages, and fracture lengths-is defined by specifying a set of integer ordered blocks to drill wells and create fractures in a discrete shale gas reservoir model. The well control variables such as bottom hole pressures or production rates for well operations are real valued. Shale gas development problems, therefore, can be mathematically formulated with mixed-integer optimization models. A shale gas reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the production performance for a hydraulic fracturing and well control plan. To find the optimal fracturing design and well operation is challenging because the problem is a mixed integer optimization problem and entails computationally expensive reservoir simulation. A dynamic simplex interpolation-based alternate subspace (DSIAS) search method is applied for mixed integer optimization problems associated with shale gas development projects. The optimization performance is demonstrated with the example case of the development of the Barnett Shale field. The optimization results of DSIAS are compared with those of a pattern search algorithm.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  16. Production test planning for the Japex/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Moridis, G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Accumulations of natural gas hydrate occur at shallow depths throughout the Mackenzie Delta region of northern Canada. This has been confirmed by the large hydrate concentrations found in Mallik L-38 and Ivik J-26, 2 exploratory wells drilled in 1972 by Imperial Oil Limited. During the exploration program, several cased hole closed chamber drill stem tests were performed in the hydrate and associated free gas intervals. Although some gas was initially produced from the hydrates, production during the extended flow period was too small to measure. Modern pressure transient analysis techniques were recently used to analyze the bottom hole data. Results reveal that gas continued to evolve into the wellbore throughout the shut-in periods, suggesting that hydrate dissociation may have occurred in response to the pressure drawdown created by the closed chamber test. These results contributed to the decision to use modern pressure drawdown tests for the Mallik 5L-38 well, using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamic Tester (MDT) cased hole wireline tool. The MDT strategy involved obtaining pressure transient data and fluid samples from the free gas, free water, and hydrate intervals, including hydrate layers with different lithologies and saturations. The hydrate accumulation in the Mallik 5L-38 well was also tested by producing the free gas interval and perforating the entire hydrate interval for a large scale pressure drawdown test. Other tests involved horizontal wells, complex multiple well experiments and thermal stimulations. The primary scientific goal of the Mallik 5L-38 test program was to determine the in-situ kinetic and thermodynamic properties of naturally occurring hydrates. A combination of MDT tests and a separate thermal stimulation flow test was selected as the best method to achieve this goal. 1 fig.

  17. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  18. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  19. Laboratory Measurements of Gas Phase Pyrolysis Products from Southern Wildland Fuels using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharko, N.; Safdari, S.; Danby, T. O.; Howarth, J.; Beiswenger, T. N.; Weise, D.; Myers, T. L.; Fletcher, T. H.; Johnson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Combustion is an oxidation reaction that occurs when there is less fuel available than oxidizers, while pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs under "fuel rich" conditions where all of the available oxidizers are consumed leaving some fuel(s) either unreacted or partially reacted. Gas-phase combustion products from biomass burning experiments have been studied extensively; less is known, however, about pyrolysis processes and products. Pyrolysis is the initial reaction occurring in the burning process and generates products that are subsequently oxidized during combustion, yielding highly-oxidized chemicals. This laboratory study investigates the pyrolysis processes by using an FTIR spectrometer to detect and quantify the gas-phase products from thermal decomposition of intact understory fuels from forests in the southeastern United States. In particular, a laboratory flat-flame burner operating under fuel rich conditions (no oxygen) was used to heat individual leaves to cause decomposition. The gas-phase products were introduced to an 8 meter gas cell coupled to an infrared spectrometer were used to monitor the products. Trace gas emissions along with emission ratios, which are calculated by dividing the change in the amount of the trace gas by the change in the amount of CO, for the plant species, gallberry (Ilex glabra) and swampbay (Persea palustris) were determined. Preliminary measurements observed species such as CO2, CO, C2H2, C2H4, HCHO, CH3OH, isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol and NH3 being produced as part of the thermal decomposition process. It is important to note that FTIR will not detect H2.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  1. Gas production in the radiolysis of Poly(dimethysiloxanes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVerne, Jay A.; Tratnik, Nicole A. I.; Sasgen, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    A variety of small poly(dimethyl siloxanes) were irradiated with γ-rays followed by the determination of the production of methane and molecular hydrogen and characterization of spectroscopic changes in the medium. The yields of methane was found to be about twice that of molecular hydrogen indicating that breakage of the C-Si bond occurs at a frequency comparable to the breakage of the C-H bond. Both yields slowly decrease with increasing molecular weight of the medium. The presence of oxygen decreases the yield of both gases suggesting radical precursors to methane and molecular hydrogen, presumably the methyl radical and H atom, respectively. Temperature gravimetric analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy both suggest the formation of higher molecular weight compounds with radiolysis, which agrees with bond loss and formation observed in infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Tight rock fracturing due to internal gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobchenko, M.; Dysthe, D. K.; Renard, F.; Galland, O.

    2012-04-01

    Dehydration of sediments in subduction zones, magma emplacements, primary migration of hydrocarbons from organic-rich shales, venting involve the generation and migration of fluids in low permeability rocks. In all these geological systems, the migration of fluid through rock matrix is coupled with deformation. Generated fluid causes pressure build-up and leads to fracturing. Cracks grow, coalesce and form network, providing escaping pathways for outgoing fluids. We use gelatin to study the main characteristics of this process. We model fluid production by mixing gelatin with yeast, which generates CO2. The system exhibit a complex dynamics with clear fracture-fracture interactions. The conduct experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell, allowing us to monitor the formation, growth and intermittent connection of cracks within the gelatin through time. Although the gelatin media does not perfectly reproduce rock properties, it helps understanding basic principles of fracturing of a low permeability elastic medium, induced by in-situ fluid pressure generation.

  3. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  4. Investigation reactor D-2201 polypropylene production unit using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibisono; Sugiharto; Jefri Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    D-2201 reactor is a unit in the polypropylene production process at Pertamina Refinery Unit III Plaju. Reactor with a capacity of 45 kilo liter is not operated in normal operation condition. The validity of liquid level indicator on the unit is doubtful when refers to the production quality. Gamma source of 150 mCi Cobalt-60 and a scintillation detector had been used to scan the outer wall of the reactor to detect the liquid level during operation with a capacity of 40 %. Measurements were made along the reactor walls with 25 mm scan resolution and 5 seconds time sampling. Experiment result shows that the liquid level at the position of 40 % and at normal level position are not observed. Investigation did not find the liquid level above normal. D-2201 is diagnose not normal operating condition diagnosed with liquid abundant passed the recommended limits. Investigation advised to repair or to calibrate the liquid level indicator which is currently installed. (author)

  5. Mutation techniques for sustainable development in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Li Junhui; Gu Jiayu; Wang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1938, induced mutations have played a very significant role in solving world food and nutritional security problems through mutant germplasm enhancement and new mutant variety development. According to incomplete statistics, as of September 2009, induced mutations have made significant contributions in development and release of 3 088 mutant cultivars by more than 60 countries in the world in more than 170 crop species. China is the first country of the world, which have released the largest number of 802 mutant cultivars in 45 crop species, equivalent to more than a quarter of the total number of mutant variety in the FAO/IAEA database. The total maximum annually accumulated planting area of the mutant varieties was 9 million hectares, with the 1.5 billion kilograms additional increase of national output of grain, cotton, oil, converting to more than 2 billion RMB of social and economic benefits. The recent development and application of accelerator ion beam irradiation, the spaceflight environment and the other new mutation means, as well as the effective use of traditional radiation mutagenesis are becoming increasingly active in crop mutation improvement and new gene discovery. The advent of plant genomics and high throughput DNA techniques, such as TILLING have opened a new era in molecular mutation breeding technique that will overcome the limitations of conventional mutation breeding and play a significant role in solving China and world food security. (authors)

  6. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  8. Preparation of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by using spray pyrolysis technique for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.B.; Bari, R.H.; Jain, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    In present work the nano-structured pure ZrO 2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis techniques. The aqueous solution of ZrCl 4 , was used as a precursor with flow rate controlled 5 mI/min. The films were synthesized on glass substrate between temperature 250-400℃ and subjected to different analytical characterization like SEM, XRD, TEM, FTIR, UV, TGA-DTA/DSC. The gas sensing performances of various gases were tested in different operating temperature range. The sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time for H 2 S gas was discussed. Also nano structured grain size discussed. (author)

  9. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  10. Determination of interfering triazine degradation products by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, M L; Speth, T F; Kelty, C A

    2000-01-28

    Deethylatrazine (DEA), an atrazine degradation product, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic analysis, DEA can coelute with deisopropylatrazine (DIA), another degradation product. The present work demonstrates that the coelution of DEA and DIA can induce a significant (up to approximately 50%) positive bias in the DEA determination, when using an ion-trap mass spectrometer as the detector. The DIA determination is unaffected by the coelution within experimental error. This may be explained in terms of gas-phase ion fragment populations. A correction factor to the observed DEA concentration may be developed based on the measured DIA concentration.

  11. Bio-Gas production from municipal sludge waste using anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, S.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) system for the bio-methane gas production was operated for 60 days with municipal sludge wastes as a sole carbon source. The AnMRR system utilized the external cross-flow membrane module and was equipped with on-line data acquisition which enables continuous monitoring of the performance of both bioreactor and membrane through the analyses of pH, temperature, gas production; permeate flow rate, and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Such a configuration also provides an efficient tool to study rapid variations of monitoring membrane pressure (TMP). (Author)

  12. Product analysis of the gas-phase reaction of β-caryophyllene with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogirou, A.; Kotzias, D.; Kettrup, A.

    The semivolatile ketoaldehydes 3,3-dimethyl-y-methylene-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 1 and 3,3-dimethyl-γ-oxo-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 2 and formaldehyde have been identified as the main products of the reaction of ß-caryophyllene with ozone in the gas phase. In minor amounts 9-methylene-,t,12,12-trimethyl-5-oxabicyclo[8.2.0.0.s]dodecane 3 was also formed. Nature and yields of these carbonyl products are discussed in terms of oxidation mechanisms involving the gas-phase reaction with ozone and OH radicals.

  13. Analysis of exploration expenditure for unconventional gas : how investing in exploration would improve reserves and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virine, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a method for analyzing the efficiency of exploration investment, which can improve corporate planning. Exploration expenditure is held to be a main indicator of economic activities in the oil and gas industry because exploration is supposed to lead to booking more reserves and increased production. A model was developed for analyzing the correlation between exploration expenditure and producer's reserves and production for conventional and unconventional gas plays in the United States. The model was used to quantitatively assess the exploration expenditures production and reserves of different producers for various conventional and unconventional gas plays. Producer's booked reserves, production from public sources, and reserves and production forecasts were incorporated into the model, which was used to analyze different types of exploration expenditure (land, drilling, and seismic) incurred at various times prior to reserves and production being booked. There was an overall positive correlation between exploration expenditure and reserves and production, but there was significant variance in the correlation between various producers operating in different plays. Unproved land acquisition was strongly correlated to the booking of proved reserves, but there was no correlation between unproved land acquisition and exploration expenditure ratio, reserves, or production. A number of companies had a high exploration expenditure to overall expenditure ratio, but the resulting payoffs were inconsistent. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  14. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  15. A new method in predicting productivity of multi-stage fractured horizontal well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generally accomplished technique for horizontal wells in tight gas reservoirs is by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, not to mention, the flow characteristics of a horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures are very intricate. Conventional methods, well as an evaluation unit, are difficult to accurately predict production capacity of each fracture and productivity differences between wells with a different number of fractures. Thus, a single fracture sets the minimum evaluation unit, matrix, fractures, and lateral wellbore model that are then combined integrally to approximate horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. This paper presents a new semi-analytical methodology for predicting the production capacity of a horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. Firstly, a mathematical flow model used as a medium, which is disturbed by finite conductivity vertical fractures and rectangular shaped boundaries, is established and explained by the Fourier integral transform. Then the idea of a single stage fracture analysis is incorporated to establish linear flow model within a single fracture with a variable rate. The Fredholm integral numerical solution is applicable for the fracture conductivity function. Finally, the pipe flow model along the lateral wellbore is adapted to couple multi-stages fracture mathematical models, and the equation group of predicting productivity of a multi-stage fractured horizontal well. The whole flow process from the matrix to bottom-hole and production interference between adjacent fractures is also established. Meanwhile, the corresponding iterative algorithm of the equations is given. In this case analysis, the productions of each well and fracture are calculated under the different bottom-hole flowing pressure, and this method also contributes to obtaining the distribution of pressure drop and production for every

  16. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  17. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  18. 30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas production when an index-based method cannot be used? (a) Situations in which an index-based method cannot be used. (1) Gas production must be valued under this section in the following situations... production using the first applicable method of the following three methods: (1) The gross proceeds accruing...

  19. Production of Space-rocket Technique: Psychological Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchuk, S. P.; Sviderskiy, O. A.; Ezhova, O. N.; Rovenskaya, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issues of studying the mental and physical condition of the shop workers who assemble carrier rockets and ways of processing their internal conflicts. It is shown that the complexity of the ongoing labor processes, the intensity of production activities and the responsibility for its end result lead to a high level of neurotic workers. The tendency to a long experience of a stressful situation helps them to increase the level of various forms of aggression and create a negative assessment of their official capabilities and successes. It is established that the duration of experiencing a stressful situation depends on coping strategies in the behavioral and emotional spheres.

  20. Original Paper Evaluation des techniques de production du beurre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    faire l'état des lieux de la filière karité au Togo. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que 31,25% des unités de .... Collecte des échantillons. Les entretiens se sont déroulés sur les lieux de production suivis de la collecte des ..... Département des Forêts, FAO : 303p. Ferris RSB, Collinsom C, Wanda K, Jagwe J,. Wright P. 2001.