WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas pipes final

  1. Oil in the FFTF secondary loop cover gas piping. Final unusual occurrence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechle, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The final unusual occurrence report describes the discovery of oil in the FFTF secondary sodium system cover gas piping. A thorough evaluation has been performed and corrective actions have been implemented to prevent a recurrence of this event

  2. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  3. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  4. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  5. 46 CFR 154.910 - Inert gas piping: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inert gas piping: Location. 154.910 Section 154.910 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.910 Inert gas piping: Location. Inert gas piping must...

  6. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  7. CFD model of a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Slides on: Spinning Pipe Gas Lens; Focal Length; Refractive Index; Gas Dynamics; Guess at the gas dynamics; Density Profile; Flow Profile; Rosby Waves; Rayleigh–Taylor Instabilities...

  8. International piping integrity research group (IPIRG) program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olsen, R.; Marschall, C.; Vieth, P.; Paul, D.

    1992-04-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Programme. The IPIRG Programme was an international group programme managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United states. The objective of the programme was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping that contains circumferential defects. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behaviour of circumferentially flawed piping and piping systems to high-rate loading typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a unique pipe loop test facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system was an expansion loop with over 30 m of 406-mm diameter pipe and five long radius elbows. Five experiments on flawed piping were conducted to failure in this facility with dynamic excitation. The report: provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures in piping; summarizes the technical results of the programme; gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the various pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses; and, summarizes the advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG Program

  9. Optical aberrations in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If a heated pipe is rotated about its axis, a density gradient is formed which results in the pipe acting as a graded index lens. In this study the authors revisit the concept of a spinning pipe gas lens and for the first time analyse both the wave...

  10. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program

  11. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipe research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.B.; Perry, M.P.

    1973-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical applications to electrohydrodynamic heat pipe (EHDHP) research are presented. Two problems in the research which are discussed are the prediction of the effective thermal conductance of an EHDHP with threaded grooves for fluid distribution to the evaporator of an EHDHP. Hydrodynamic equations are included along with a discussion of boundary conditions and burn-out conditions. A discussion of the theoretical and experimental results is presented. (U.S.)

  13. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ; and (II) the aberrations introduced to the laser are a function of the distance from the edge of the pipe, as well as the speed of the pipe spin- ning. This is because of the turbulence near the pipe wall. The speed of the pipe will be used...- merically. This work forms the basis for an extended study of the dynamics of beam propa- gation through turbulent systems, and in particular, the following aspects will be explored in future work: (I) Using the recent advances in lasers beam propagation...

  14. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized

  15. Crack propagation and arrest simulation of X90 gas pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fengping; Huo, Chunyong; Luo, Jinheng; Li, He; Li, Yang

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether X90 steel pipe has enough crack arrest toughness or not, a damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion with material parameters of plastic uniform percentage elongation and damage strain energy per volume. Fracture characteristic length which characterizes fracture zone size was suggested to be the largest mesh size on expected cracking path. Plastic uniform percentage elongation, damage strain energy per volume and fracture characteristic length of X90 were obtained by five kinds of tensile tests. Based on this criterion, a length of 24 m, Φ1219 × 16.3 mm pipe segment model with 12 MPa internal gas pressure was built and computed with fluid-structure coupling method in ABAQUS. Ideal gas state equation was used to describe lean gas behavior. Euler grid was used to mesh gas zone inside the pipe while Lagrangian shell element was used to mesh pipe. Crack propagation speed and gas decompression speed were got after computation. The result shows that, when plastic uniform percentage elongation is equal to 0.054 and damage strain energy per volume is equal to 0.64 J/mm"3, crack propagation speed is less than gas decompression speed, which means the simulated X90 gas pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself. - Highlights: • A damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion. • Plastic uniform elongation and damage strain energy density are material parameters. • Fracture characteristic length is suggested to be largest mesh size in cracking path. • Crack propagating simulation with coupling of pipe and gas was realized in ABAQUS. • A Chinese X90 steel pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself.

  16. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  17. Startup analysis for a high temperature gas loaded heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the rapid startup of a high-temperature gas-loaded heat pipe is presented. A two-dimensional diffusion analysis is used to determine the rate of energy transport by the vapor between the hot and cold zones of the pipe. The vapor transport rate is then incorporated in a simple thermal model of the startup of a radiation-cooled heat pipe. Numerical results for an argon-lithium system show that radial diffusion to the cold wall can produce large vapor flow rates during a rapid startup. The results also show that startup is not initiated until the vapor pressure p sub v in the hot zone reaches a precise value proportional to the initial gas pressure p sub i. Through proper choice of p sub i, startup can be delayed until p sub v is large enough to support a heat-transfer rate sufficient to overcome a thermal load on the heat pipe.

  18. Suitability of pipeline material for buried gas and water piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, R

    1976-01-01

    Following a brief review of the development of the individual pipe materials and their use in the field of gas and water supply, the various stressing possibilities are dealt with. The corrosion influences from inside and outside, the material specifically for internal and external insulation, as well as the stressing due to sediments, are particularly brought out in this connection. A few remarks on the pressure pipes made of ductile cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, asbestos cement and plastics are followed by comparisons with representations on material parameters to be proved, safety factors, tensile and pressure resistance, breaking tension and stress-strain diagram, wall thicknesses, friction losses, reactions depending on the E. modulus and distribution of the single pipe materials in the gas and water supply.

  19. EasyPipes - Final/annual report; EasyPipes - Rapport final/annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinelli, P.; Thomann, P.; Weber, W. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Hollmuller, P. [University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This report describes follow-up activities in the field of design of buried air-to-ground heat exchangers for ventilated low-energy buildings. Such heat exchangers preheat the inlet air in winter and cool it in summer, contributing to significantly reduce the energy consumption and improve indoor thermal comfort. They have been extensively studied at the University of Geneva, Switzerland by P. Hollmuller, B. Lachal et al. since 2001. The corresponding reports can be found in the ETDE data base. The present and latest report of the series deals with implemented improvements of the computer simulation program for the dimensioning of such heat exchangers. A previous, experimentally and analytically validated version, based on TRNSYS formalism, was not enough user-friendly for architects and engineers in the practice. A new interface called EasyPipes, based on the windows input and output formalism and including graphical features, has been developed. Details are reported on.

  20. Wave aberrations in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by a gas inside a heated pipe when it is rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. However, recent research has shown that the medium generated has a deleterious effect...

  1. Residual lifetime assessment of uPVC gas pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch gas distribution network consists of about 20% (22,500 km) of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes, most of which have been installed from the mid-sixties up to the mid-seventies of the previous century and have been in service ever since. In the next decade the specified

  2. Environmental performances of gas pipe materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nifterik, G.

    1996-01-01

    In constructing new gas pipelines energy distribution companies are increasingly dealing with the question of which material has the lowest environmental impact. Gastec (Dutch gas research institute) and the 'Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden' (Centre for Environmental Studies of the University of Leiden) studied and compared the environmental aspects of such materials. The study concerns the entire life cycle from raw materials production through digging and welding or fusion joining to the moment the materials are discarded as waste. 2 figs

  3. Static Behaviour of Natural Gas and its Flow in Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ohirhian, Peter

    2010-01-01

    1. 2. A general differential equation that governs static behavior of any fluid and its flow in horizontal, uphill and downhill pipes has been developed. classical fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method is programmed in Fortran 77, to test the equation and results are accurate. The program shows that a length ncrement as large as 10,000 ft can be used in the Runge-Kutta method of solution to differential equation during uphill gas flow and up to 5700ft for downhill gas flow The Runge-Kutta...

  4. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikov Leonid; Nevolin Alexandr; Nikolaev Dmitrij

    2017-01-01

    The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of com...

  5. Fluid flow analysis of E-glass fiber reinforced pipe joints in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Sujith; Leman, Z.; Zainuddin, E. S.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Glass Fiber reinforced composites have become increasingly important over the past few years and now they are the first choice materials for fabricating pipes with low weight in combination with high strength and stiffness. In Oil And Gas Industry, The Pipelines transporting heavy crude oil are subjected to variable pressure waves causing fluctuating stress levels in the pipes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using solid works flow stimulation software to study the effects of these pressure waves on some specified joints in the pipes. Depending on the type of heavy crude oil being used, the flow behavior indicated a considerable degree of stress levels in certain connecting joints, causing the joints to become weak over a prolonged period of use. This research proposes a new perspective that is still required to be developed regarding the change of the pipe material, fiber winding angle in those specified joints and finally implementing cad wind technology to check the output result of the stress levels so that the life of the pipes can be optimized.

  6. A study of stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, George W.

    2005-07-01

    This work includes both theoretical modelling and experimental observations which are relevant to the design of gas condensate transport lines. Multicomponent hydrocarbon gas mixtures are transported in pipes over long distances and at various inclinations. Under certain circumstances, the heavier hydrocarbon components and/or water vapour condense to form one or more liquid phases. Near the desired capacity, the liquid condensate and water is efficiently transported in the form of a stratified flow with a droplet field. During operating conditions however, the flow rate may be reduced allowing liquid accumulation which can create serious operational problems due to large amounts of excess liquid being expelled into the receiving facilities during production ramp-up or even in steady production in severe cases. In particular, liquid tends to accumulate in upward inclined sections due to insufficient drag on the liquid from the gas. To optimize the transport of gas condensates, a pipe diameters should be carefully chosen to account for varying flow rates and pressure levels which are determined through the knowledge of the multiphase flow present. It is desirable to have a reliable numerical simulation tool to predict liquid accumulation for various flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure levels which is not presently accounted for by industrial flow codes. A critical feature of the simulation code would include the ability to predict the transition from small liquid accumulation at high flow rates to large liquid accumulation at low flow rates. A semi-intermittent flow regime of roll waves alternating with a partly backward flowing liquid film has been observed experimentally to occur for a range of gas flow rates. Most of the liquid is transported in the roll waves. The roll wave regime is not well understood and requires fundamental modelling and experimental research. The lack of reliable models for this regime leads to inaccurate prediction of the onset of

  7. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  8. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  9. Numerical simulation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipe networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Kuang Bo; Zhou Guoliang; Xu Jijun

    1998-01-01

    The complex pipe network characters can not directly presented in single phase flow, gas-liquid two phase flow pressure drop and void rate change model. Apply fluid network theory and computer numerical simulation technology to phase flow pipe networks carried out simulate and compute. Simulate result shows that flow resistance distribution is non-linear in two phase pipe network

  10. Evaluation of flawed-pipe experiments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluations of experimental data that have become available from the NRC Degraded Pipe Program, Phase II (DPII) and other NRC and EPRI sponsored programs. These evaluations were used to assess flaw evaluation procedures for austenitic and ferritic steel piping. The results also have application to leak before break fracture mechanics analysis. An improved relationship was developed for computing the J-Integral for pipes containing throughwall flaws and loaded in pure bending. The results from several DPII experiments were compared to predictions based on new J estimation scheme solutions for circumferential, finite length part-throughwall flaws in pipes with bending loading. Comparisons of experimental maximum loads with those predicted using procedures in Paragraph IWB-3640, Section XI of the ASME Code indicate that the Code flaw evaluation procedures and allowables for austenitic steel pipe are appropriate and conservative. However, the comparisons also indicate that the base metal Code allowable loads may be about 15 to 20% high for small diameter piping (less than 8-inch diameter) at allowable a/t larger than about 0.5. The work further indicates that there is justification for reducing the conservatism in IWB-3640 allowable flaw sizes and loads for austenitic steel pipe with submerged or shielded metal arc welds.

  11. ASME code and ratcheting in piping components. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.; Matzen, V.C.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop an analysis program which can accurately simulate ratcheting in piping components subjected to seismic or other cyclic loads. Ratcheting is defined as the accumulation of deformation in structures and materials with cycles. This phenomenon has been demonstrated to cause failure to piping components (known as ratcheting-fatigue failure) and is yet to be understood clearly. The design and analysis methods in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for ratcheting of piping components are not well accepted by the practicing engineering community. This research project attempts to understand the ratcheting-fatigue failure mechanisms and improve analysis methods for ratcheting predictions. In the first step a state-of-the-art testing facility is developed for quasi-static cyclic and seismic testing of straight and elbow piping components. A systematic testing program to study ratcheting is developed. Some tests have already been performed and the rest will be completed by summer'99. Significant progress has been made in the area of constitutive modeling. A number of sophisticated constitutive models have been evaluated in terms of their simulations for a broad class of ratcheting responses. From the knowledge gained from this evaluation study two improved models are developed. These models are demonstrated to have promise in simulating ratcheting responses in piping components. Hence, implementation of these improved models in widely used finite element programs, ANSYS and/or ABAQUS, is in progress. Upon achieving improved finite element programs for simulation of ratcheting, the ASME Code provisions for ratcheting of piping components will be reviewed and more rational methods will be suggested. Also, simplified analysis methods will be developed for operability studies of piping components and systems. Some of the future works will be performed under the auspices of the Center for Nuclear Power Plant Structures

  12. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

  13. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE's need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer trademark system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer trademark development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer trademark system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer trademark and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer trademark system in Section 6

  14. Gage for gas flow measurement especially in gas-suction pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, K.; Stegmanns, W.

    1978-01-01

    The gage utilizes the differential pressure given by a differential pressure producer to generate, in a bypass, a partial gas flow measured by means of a direct-reading anemometer of windmill type. The partial gas flow is generated between pressure pick-up openings in the gas-suction pipe in front of a venturi insert and pressure pick-up openings at the bottleneck of the venturi insert. The reading of the anemometer is proportional to the main gas flow and independent of the variables of state and the properties of the gases to be measured. (RW) [de

  15. Film behaviour of vertical gas-liquid flow in a large diameter pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Zangana, Mohammed Haseeb Sedeeq

    2011-01-01

    Gas-liquid flow commonly occurs in oil and gas production and processing system. Large diameter vertical pipes can reduce pressure drops and so minimize operating costs. However, there is a need for research on two-phase flow in large diameter pipes to provide confidence to designers of equipments such as deep water risers. In this study a number of experimental campaigns were carried out to measure pressure drop, liquid film thickness and wall shear in 127mm vertical pipe. Total pressur...

  16. 75 FR 34974 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-966] Drill Pipe From the People's... duty investigation of drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final determination....S. Department of Commerce, Room 4014, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230...

  17. Characterisation of a spinning pipe gas lens using a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A heated horizontal spinning pipe causes gases inside it to assume dynamics resulting in a graded index lens – a spinning pipe gas lens (SPGL). A CFD model is presented which shows that gas exchanges of the SPGL with the surroundings resulting in a...

  18. Optical turbulence in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available in the Spinning Pipe Gas Lens by optical means • Axial Propagation • Boundary Layer Phase Structure Function and Slope Correlation • Slope Correlation ( ) ( ) ( )[ ]2rrxrD φφφ −+= ( ) ( ) ( )rsrxsrCs += Inner Scale Outer Scale • Phase Structure Function... -----------------------Mean 4 3 2 1 DΦ(r2) or SC(r2) DΦ(r1) or SC(r1) Phase Structure Function ( ) oon Lrl,LC.logrlogrDlog ≤≤⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛+= 2 22912 3 5 λ π φ Homogeneity Isotropy Boundary LayerAxisPropagation Path 1. Axial propagation fulfils...

  19. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline

  20. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  1. Long liquid slugs in stratified gas/liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadri, U.

    2009-01-01

    Long liquid slugs reaching several hundreds pipe diameter may appear when transporting gas and liquid in horizontal and near horizontal pipes. The long slugs cause system vibration and separation difficulties that may lead to operational failures. Identifying and predicting the time and length

  2. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall be...

  3. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...] Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey, pursuant to section 751(c..., Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from...

  4. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively

  6. One-Way Flow of a Rarefied Gas Induced in a Circular Pipe with a Periodic Temperature Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aoki, K

    2000-01-01

    The steady behavior of a rarefied gas in a circular pipe with a saw-like temperature distribution increasing and decreasing periodically in the direction of the pipe axis is investigated numerically...

  7. Estimation of gas wall shear stress in horizontal stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.H.; Behnia, M.

    1996-01-01

    Two-phase pipe flows occur in many industrial applications, such as condensers and evaporators, chemical processing equipment, nuclear reactors, and oil pipelines. A variety of basic mechanistic flow models for predicting the pressure gradient and liquid loading characteristics of these types of flows to assist in design calculations has emerged over the past two decades, especially for the stratified and slug flow regimes. These models generally rely on a number of basic assumptions and empirical closure equations. Possibly the most notable of these relates to the evaluation of interfacial shear stresses. However, one of the most important yet least discussed assumptions used in most of these models is that the phase wall shear stresses can be accurately estimated from correlations developed for single-phase pipe flows. The object of this article is to present measurements of gas wall shear up to locations in close proximity to the gas-liquid interface for a variety of interface conditions in developed flow, and to determine the effects of the interface on average gas wall friction factors. In this context the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy

  8. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L. Jr.; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  9. Lead plant application of leak-before-break to high energy piping. Final report, January 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the experience gained during a successful application of a leak-before-break program by Duquesne Light Company. This program was directed at the high energy nuclear piping at Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2. This experience can be applied to other nuclear plant leak-before-break efforts in order to minimize the number of pipe whip restraints, jet impingement shields, snubbers, and to discount the consideration of remaining pipe rupture dynamic effects. The chronology of events leading to Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval of the Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2 lead plant effort is described. The final report and pertinent sections of the final Safety Evaluation Report are also included. (author)

  10. Cryogenic and Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Russell A.

    2002-01-01

    This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note

  11. D-day for gas pipes to Grenland; D-dag for gassroer til Grenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, Camilla; Sprenger, Mona; Hovland, Ketil Malkens

    2009-07-01

    Many years of fight in order to get natural gas to Grenland might be over at 1. May 2009. Yara and Statoil have to get an agreement, if the gas pipe 'Skanled' shall come to Norway. (AG) map., ills

  12. Severe slugging in gas-liquid two-phase pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.

    2012-01-01

    transportation facilities. In an offshore oil and gas production facility, pipeline-riser systems are required to transport two-phase hydrocarbons from subsurface oil and gas wells to a central production platform. Severe slugs reaching several thousands pipe diameters may occur when transporting

  13. Development, manufacturing and testing of a gas-loaded variable conductance methanol heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbuggenum, R. I. J.; Daniels, D. H. W.

    1987-02-01

    The experimental technology required to measure the performance of moderate temperature heat pipes is presented. The heat pipe manufacturing process is described. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the porous structure inside the heat pipe envelope were examined using a specially developed test rig, based upon a steady-state evaporation test. A fully automated test facility was developed and validated by testing constant conductance and variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP). Theoretical performance predictions are illustrated in terms of pressure, depicted in 3D-plots, and compared with the test results of the heat pipe performance tests. The design of the VCHP was directed towards the verification of the VCHP mathematical model. The VCHP design is validated and ready for the final testing and model verification.

  14. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... upstream of the connection. (3) The connection(s) may be made by a listed quick disconnect device which... separated. (4) The flexible connector, direct plumbing pipe, or “quick disconnect” device shall be provided... disconnect device is installed, a 3 inch by 13/4 inch minimum size tag made of etched, metal-stamped or...

  15. Market study of pipe gas for the Bahia State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The energy market that will be conquered by the natural gas in Bahia State is identified, allowing measure the potentiality of gas industry and the gas supply, that the State will plead to the Federal Government. (C.G.C.)

  16. Investigation of Freeze and Thaw Cycles of a Gas-Charged Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The traditional constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) currently used on most spacecraft run the risk of bursting the pipe when the working fluid is frozen and later thawed. One method to avoid pipe bursting is to use a gas-charged heat pipe (GCHP) that can sustain repeated freeze/thaw cycles. The construction of the GCHP is similar to that of the traditional CCHP except that a small amount of non-condensable gas (NCG) is introduced and a small length is added to the CCHP condenser to serve as the NCG reservoir. During the normal operation, the NCG is mostly confined to the reservoir, and the GCHP functions as a passive variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). When the liquid begins to freeze in the condenser section, the NCG will expand to fill the central core of the heat pipe, and ice will be formed only in the grooves located on the inner surface of the heat pipe in a controlled fashion. The ice will not bridge the diameter of the heat pipe, thus avoiding the risk of pipe bursting during freeze/thaw cycles. A GCHP using ammonia as the working fluid was fabricated and then tested inside a thermal vacuum chamber. The GCHP demonstrated a heat transport capability of more than 200W at 298K as designed. Twenty-seven freeze/thaw cycles were conducted under various conditions where the evaporator temperature ranged from 163K to 253K and the condenser/reservoir temperatures ranged from 123K to 173K. In all tests, the GCHP restarted without any problem with heat loads between 10W and 100W. No performance degradation was noticed after 27 freeze/thaw cycles. The ability of the GCHP to sustain repeated freeze/thaw cycles was thus successfully demonstrated.

  17. A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz

    2005-03-30

    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  18. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Leonid; Nevolin, Alexandr; Nikolaev, Dmitrij

    2017-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle) in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.

  19. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.

  20. Development and design of a UF{sub 6} gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF{sub 6}-gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.).

  1. Development and design of a UF6 gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF 6 -gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.)

  2. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results of the... Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines'' from... Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt...

  3. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer/exporter of the subject merchandise to the... Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... WSSP from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

  4. Formation of Sclerotic Hydrate Deposits in a Pipe for Extraction of a Gas from a Dome Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazov, R. R.; Chiglinstev, I. A.; Nasyrov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The theory of formation of hydrate deposits on the walls of a pipe for extraction of a gas from a dome separator designed for the accident-related collection of hydrocarbons on the ocean floor is considered. A mathematical model has been constructed for definition of a steady movement of a gas in such a pipe with gas-hydrate deposition under the conditions of changes in the velocity, temperature, pressure, and moisture content of the gas flow.

  5. Corrective actions to gas accumulation in safety injection system pipings of PWRs and gas void detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    In the US, gas accumulation events of safety injection systems of PWRs during plant operation are continuously reported. As the events may result in loss of safety function, the USNRC is alerting licensees by Information Notices. The cause of the events is coolant leakage to interfacing systems with lower pressure, or gas dissolution of primary coolant by partial pressure drop. In this study, it was clarified by the evaluation of the cause of the events of US plants, gas accumulation in piping between an accumulator and Residual Heat Removal System should be quantitatively investigated regarding Japanese plants. Also, effectiveness of ultrasonic testing which is used for monthly gas accumulation surveillance in US plants was demonstrated using a model loop. In addition, the method was confirmed applicable by an experiment carried out at INSS to detect cavitation voids in piping systems. (author)

  6. Droplets in annular-dispersed gas-liquid pipe-flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Westende, J.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Annular-dispersed gas-liquid pipe-flows are commonly encountered in many industrial applications, and have already been studied for many decades. However, due to the great complexity of this type of flow, there are still many phenomena that are poorly understood. The aim of this thesis is to shed

  7. 78 FR 33403 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF13-5-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leidy Southeast Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federal...

  8. 77 FR 59391 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-497-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assesment for the Proposed Brandywine Creek Replacement Project; Request for Comments on Environmental Issues; and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal...

  9. 76 FR 40717 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF11-4-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Northeast Supply Link Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federal Energy...

  10. 75 FR 42738 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF10-16-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Mid-Atlantic Connector Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting July 15, 2010. The...

  11. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  12. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  13. Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birvalski, M.

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and

  14. Suggestions to leak prevention in Fortaleza's natural gas piping system; Sugestoes para a prevencao de vazamentos de gas natural canalizado na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara (ARCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Leaks are the bigger problem in health, safety and environmental when the subject is gas distribution piping systems. Specially in high density human regions, like in the majority districts of Fortaleza, safety have to be the higher priority to the gas company responsible for the gas distribution piping systems. Leaks are able to cause accidents or incidents, depending on the circumstances which they happen. In order to be control the situation and overcome the luck factor, leaks must be previously avoided by the application of some security requirements. This paper present some suggestions to natural gas leak prevention in the Fortaleza's metropolitan region pipeline systems. First, the piping systems are analysed, observing the risk regions. Then, safety actions and basic requirements to avoid pipe corrosion are presented in order to improve safety in the gas distribution piping systems of Fortaleza's metropolitan region. (author)

  15. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... description outlined above are included in the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular... Analysts, through Robert James, Program Manager, entitled ``Final Results in the 2010/2011 Administrative...

  16. Heat-affected-zone toughness in heavy wall pipe: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, K.; Glover, A.G.; Varo, D.B.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of this program has been to determine the significance of low toughness regions on the service performance of heat-affected zones in heavy wall pipe materials. The low temperature HAZ toughness of welds in microalloyed and quenched and tempered materials at two heat inputs was established, a test technique to produce fatigue cracks in the HAZ was developed, and four full scale fracture tests were completed at /minus/49/degree/F. Publication available from the American Gas Association Order Processing Department, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22209-2470 (703/841-8558). 17 refs. (JL)

  17. PVC pipes in gas distribution: still going strong!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, Rene; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, Jeroen; Visser, Roy; Davidovski, Z.; Belloir, P.; Fumire, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands (impact-modified) PVC is the preferred material for low-pressure (30 and 100 mbar) gas distribution systems. More than 50% of the total length (about 122,000 km) of this system is rigid PVC or impact-modified PVC. The installation of rigid PVC (uPVC) pipelines started about 50

  18. Calculating the Optimum Angle of Filament-Wound Pipes in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines Using Approximation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Khoshravan Azar, Mohammad; Emami Satellou, Ali Akbar; Shishesaz, Mohammad; Salavati, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Given the increasing use of composite materials in various industries, oil and gas industry also requires that more attention should be paid to these materials. Furthermore, due to variation in choice of materials, the materials needed for the mechanical strength, resistance in critical situations such as fire, costs and other priorities of the analysis carried out on them and the most optimal for achieving certain goals, are introduced. In this study, we will try to introduce appropriate choice for use in the natural gas transmission composite pipelines. Following a 4-layered filament-wound (FW) composite pipe will consider an offer our analyses under internal pressure. The analyses' results will be calculated for different combinations of angles 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, 55 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, and 80 deg. Finally, we will compare the calculated values and the optimal angle will be gained by using the Approximation methods. It is explained that this layering is as the symmetrical.

  19. Experiments on vertical gas-liquid pipe flows using ultrafast X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banowski, M.; Beyer, M.; Lucas, D.; Hoppe, D.; Barthel, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    2016-12-15

    For the qualification and validation of two-phase CFD-models for medium and large-scale industrial applications dedicated experiments providing data with high temporal and spatial resolution are required. Fluid dynamic parameter like gas volume fraction, bubble size distribution, velocity or turbulent kinetic energy should be measured locally. Considering the fact, that the used measurement techniques should not affect the flow characteristics, radiation based tomographic methods are the favourite candidate for such measurements. Here the recently developed ultrafast X-ray tomography, is applied to measure the local and temporal gas volume fraction distribution in a vertical pipe. To obtain the required frame rate a rotating X-ray source by a massless electron beam and a static detector ring are used. Experiments on a vertical pipe are well suited for development and validation of closure models for two-phase flows. While vertical pipe flows are axially symmetrically, the boundary conditions are well defined. The evolution of the flow along the pipe can be investigated as well. This report documents the experiments done for co-current upwards and downwards air-water and steam-water flows as well as for counter-current air-water flows. The details of the setup, measuring technique and data evaluation are given. The report also includes a discussion on selected results obtained and on uncertainties.

  20. Transition of Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow in Oil Transport Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lakehal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-Scale Simulation results of the transition of a gas-liquid stratified flow to slug flow regime in circular 3D oil transport pipes under turbulent flow conditions expressed. Free surface flow in the pipe is treated using the Level Set method. Turbulence is approached via the LES and VLES methodologies extended to interfacial two-phase flows. It is shown that only with the Level Set method the flow transition can be accurately predicted, better than with the two-fluid phase-average model. The transition from stratified to slug flow is found to be subsequent to the merging of the secondary wave modes created by the action of gas shear (short waves with the first wave mode (high amplitude long wave. The model is capable of predicting global flow features like the onset of slugging and slug speed. In the second test case, the model predicts different kinds of slugs, the so-called operating slugs formed upstream that fill entirely the pipe with water slugs of length scales of the order of 2-4 D, and lower size (1-1.5 D disturbance slugs, featuring lower hold-up (0.8-0.9. The model predicts well the frequency of slugs. The simulations revealed important parameter effects on the results, such as two-dimensionality, pipe length, and water holdup.

  1. Influence of Gas-Liquid Interface on Temperature Wave of Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the interface on the amplitude and phase of the temperature wave and the relationship between the attenuation of the temperature wave and the gas-liquid two-phase physical parameters are studied during the operation of the pulsating heat pipe. The numerical simulation shows that the existence of the phase interface changes the direction of the temperature gradient during the propagation of the temperature wave, which increases the additional “thermal resistance.” The relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase thermal conductivity affects the propagation direction of heat flow at phase interface directly. The blockage of the gas plug causes hysteresis in the phase of the temperature wave, the relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase temperature coefficient will gradually increase the phase of the temperature wave, and the time when the heat flow reaches the peak value is also advanced. The attenuation of the temperature wave is almost irrelevant to the absolute value of the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases is related. When the temperature of the heat pipe was changed, the difference of heat storage ability between gas and liquid will lead to the phenomenon of heat reflux and becomes more pronounced with the increases of the temperature wave.

  2. Effectiveness of the Vertical Gas Ventilation Pipes for Promoting Waste Stabilization in Post-Closure Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumasa Tojo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To make inside of the municipal solid waste (MSW landfill aerobic as much as possible is thought to be preferable for promoting waste stabilization, reducing pollutant's load in leachate, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and shortening post-closure-care period. In Japan, installation of semi-aerobic landfill structure has widely spread in order to promote waste stabilization in MSW landfill from 1980s. In semi-aerobic landfill structure, outlet of main leachate collection pipe is opened to atmosphere. Heat generated by aerobic degradation of waste causes natural convection and natural aeration arises from the outlet of leachate collection pipe to the gas vents. It is so-called stack effect. This air flow is thought to be effective for purifying leachate flowing through drainage layer and leachate collection pipes. And it is also thought to be contributing to expanding aerobic region in waste layer in landfill. Recently, measures attempting the promotion of waste stabilization are taken at several landfills at where stabilization of waste delays, in which many vertical gas vents are newly installed and close structure to semi-aerobic landfill is created. However, in many cases, these gas vents are not connected to leachate collection pipes. Many vertical gas vents are just installed without scientific proof regarding whether they can contribute for waste stabilization. In this study, how such installation of gas vents is effective for waste stabilization and aerobization of waste layer was discussed by numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, heat transfer, gas movement by pressure, gas diffusion, biological degradation of organic matter, and heat generation by biodegradation were taken into account. Simulations were carried out by using the general purpose simulator of finite element method. Three types of landfill structure were assumed. As the results, the following information were obtained. In dig-down type landfill, installation of gas

  3. Forming of film surface of very viscous liquid flowing with gas in pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernek Krystian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of the values, which are specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas liquid flow in vertical pipes, where a very-high-viscosity liquid forms a falling film in a pipe. The experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values, which characterize the two-phase flow. Attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of flow parameters and properties of the liquid on the gas-liquid interface value, which is decisive for the conditions of heat exchange and mass transfer in falling film equipment. The nature and form of created waves at various velocities were also described.

  4. Review of the use of rigid and high-impact PVC pipes in natural gas distribution systems in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutter, F; Benjamin, P

    1974-08-01

    Because of a number of instances of stress corrosion cracking or crazing occurring in PVC pipes used in Dutch gas distribution systems, VEG-GASINSTITUUT began an intensive investigation of rigid PVC pipes and high-impact pipes in distribution use under various conditions and with varying service lives. The work led to an investigation of laboratory testing techniques in which the stress-cracking phenomenon found in practice could be duplicated under controllable conditions. Pipes of various materials were examined for their resistance to stress cracking, then this resistance was compared with other long- and short-term physical properties of the material.

  5. A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.

    1979-08-01

    A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)

  6. Project Scheduling Based on Risk of Gas Transmission Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Nurbaity, A.; Mulyadi, Y.; Suntoyo; Chamelia, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    The planning of a project has a time limit on which must be completed before or right at a predetermined time. Thus, in a project planning, it is necessary to have scheduling management that is useful for completing a project to achieve maximum results by considering the constraints that will exists. Scheduling management is undertaken to deal with uncertainties and negative impacts of time and cost in project completion. This paper explains about scheduling management in gas transmission pipeline project Gresik-Semarang to find out which scheduling plan is most effectively used in accordance with its risk value. Scheduling management in this paper is assissted by Microsoft Project software to find the critical path of existing project scheduling planning data. Critical path is the longest scheduling path with the fastest completion time. The result is found a critical path on project scheduling with completion time is 152 days. Furthermore, the calculation of risk is done by using House of Risk (HOR) method and it is found that the critical path has a share of 40.98 percent of all causes of the occurence of risk events that will be experienced.

  7. Applied multiphase flow in pipes and flow assurance oil and gas production

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Safran, Eissa M

    2017-01-01

    Applied Multiphase Flow in Pipes and Flow Assurance - Oil and Gas Production delivers the most recent advancements in multiphase flow technology while remaining easy to read and appropriate for undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering students. Responding to the need for a more up-to-the-minute resource, this highly anticipated new book represents applications on the fundamentals with new material on heat transfer in production systems, flow assurance, transient multiphase flow in pipes and the TUFFP unified model. The complex computation procedure of mechanistic models is simplified through solution flowcharts and several example problems. Containing over 50 solved example problems and 140 homework problems, this new book will equip engineers with the skills necessary to use the latest steady-state simulators available.

  8. Kaunas gas, Lithuania. Operation and maintenance report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of this project was to transfer knowledge accumulated in Denmark about modern techniques of natural gas distribution to employees of the Lithuanian gas sector by informing them about modern measuring equipment and evaluating the results. The main objectives were: To improve the efficiency of maintenance and repair works of the distribution network in Kaunas; To decrease the number of leakages and to improve the operation of the cathodic protection system; To ensure protection of the pipelines and to avoid damages on other constructions and installations. The project consisted of four components which will all exert an influence on the future rehabilitation of steel pipe networks in the gas sector of Lithuania. The components were the following: Preparation of Operation and Maintenance Manual for Kaunas Gas Company; Cathodic measuring and pilot investigation; Analysis and improvement of the organisation of the Kaunas Gas Company; Training material for cathodic protection in Lithaunia. (au)

  9. Useful effectiveness of plastic pipes for gas pipelines operating at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayutsev, K I

    1976-06-01

    Because a significant portion of the feeder lines in the Soviet union operate at relatively low pressures up to 75 to 150 psi, it is economically feasible to replace the conventional pipeline material (steel) with plastic. Cost savings result from lower material costs and ease of laying plastic pipe. Because of stiffness and corrosion requirements, the steel pipe used for these low-pressure pipelines is much thicker than needed to withstand the pressure used. Data are tabulated on the comparative costs and manpower requirements for the construction of 1 km of steel, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene gas pipelines ranging in diameter from 3 to 14 in. Generally, the plastic pipelines required 15 to 30% less man-days and were 20 to 35% lower in cost to build. The plastic pipelines can operate at 150 to 175 psi pressure and at temperatures up to 100 to 140/sup 0/F. In research conducted at VNIIST (All-Union Research Institute for the Construction of Trunk Pipelines) on plastic pipelines, a 2.5-mile test section has been operating successfully for 2 years, and new techniques and equipment for joining plastic pipe up to 25-in. diameter are being developed.

  10. Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boots, M.G.; De Joode, J.; Lise, W.

    2005-11-01

    Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses [nl

  11. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... covered in this review, but was covered in a previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV... investigation. See Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non- Alloy Steel Pipe... for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in the construction...

  12. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY... Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Sultanate of Oman (``GSO'') on April 5, April 20, and May 10, 2012. We received the GSO's responses...

  13. CFD modelling of axial mixing in the intermediate and final rinses of cleaning-in-place procedures of straight pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jifeng; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Nordkvist, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    The intermediate and final rinses of straight pipes, in which water replaces a cleaning agent of similar density and viscosity, are modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods. It is anticipated that the displacement process is achieved by convective and diffusive transport. The simu...

  14. Application of ultrasonic testing technique to detect gas accumulation in important pipings for pressurized water reactors safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushimi, Yasuyuki [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Since 1988, the USNRC has pointed out that gas-binding events might occur at high head safety injection (HHSI) pumps of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In Japanese PWR plants, corrective actions were taken in response to gas-binding events that occurred on HHSI pumps in the USA, so no gas accumulation event has been reported so far. However, when venting frequency is prolonged with operating cycle extension, the probability of gas accumulation in pipings may increase as in the USA. The purpose of this study was to establish a technique to identify gas accumulation and to measure the gas volume accurately. Taking dominant causes of the gas-binding events in the USA into consideration, we pointed out the following sections in the Japanese PWRs where gas srtipping and/or gas accumulation might occur: residual heat removal system pipings and charging/safety injection pump minimum flow line. Then an ultrasonic testing technique, adopted to identify gas accumulation in the USA, was applied to those sections of the typical Japanese PWR. Consequently, no gas accumulation was found in those pipings. (author)

  15. Final report on unconventional gas in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The main purpose of the study on the title subject is to analyse how the relevant applicable European legal framework, including environmental law, is applied to the licensing/authorisation and operational permitting for prospection, exploration and production/exploitation of shale gas based on a sample of four Member States, i.e. Poland, France, Germany and Sweden. It is, however, not purpose of the study to assess whether Member State legislation based on EU legislation has been properly transposed. This study focuses on shale gas exploration, because shale gas is the type of unconventional gas most discussed and contentious currently. Also, compared to tight gas and coal bed methane, relatively less experience exists in Europe for shale formations as new source of natural gas. The focus on exploration is due to the stage of projects in Europe. No commercial scale shale gas exploitation has taken place yet and it is only expected in a few years time. Nevertheless, this study also takes into account a possible future production phase and especially analyses legal issues especially related to the transfer from exploration to production stage. As regards areas of law to be studied, the focus is the 'core' licensing and permitting process. Given the importance of environmental law in the area of shale gas exploration and production, it is included as an integral part of the study. However, within the scope of this study it is not possible to perform a thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the EU environmental legislation. Nevertheless, the present report describes and analyses EU environmental legislation which was assumed to be of most relevance for shale gas projects, especially as regards its interface with the 'core' licensing and permitting processes. Thereby it contributes to further efforts to assess the appropriateness of the EU legal framework especially with a view to a future production phase and the challenge to ensure a high

  16. Development of acoustic flow instruments for solid/gas pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1986-05-01

    Two nonintrusive acoustic flow sensing techniques are reported. One technique, passive in nature, simply measures the bandpassed acoustic noise level produced by particle/particle and particle/wall collisions. The noise levels, given in true RMS voltages or in autocorrelations, show a linear relationship to particle velocity but increase with solid concentration. Therefore, the passive technique requires calibration and a separate measure of solid concentration before it can be used to monitor the particle velocity. The second technique is based on the active cross-correlation principle. It measures particle velocity directly by correlating flow-related signatures at two sensing stations. The velocity data obtained by this technique are compared with measurements by a radioactive-particle time-of-flight (TOF) method. A multiplier of 1.53 is required to bring the acoustic data into agreement with the radioactive TOF result. The difference may originate from the difference in flow fields where particles are detected. The radioactive method senses particles mainly in the turbulent region and essentially measures average particle velocity across the pipe, while the acoustic technique detects particles near the pipe wall, and so measures the particle velocity in the viscous sublayer. Both techniques were tested in flows of limestone and air and 1-mm glass beads and air at the Argonne National Laboratory Solid/Gas Test Facility (SGFTF). The test matrix covered solid velocities of 20 to 30 m/s in a 2-in. pipe and solid-to-gas loading ratios of 6 to 22. 37 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  17. A fatigue initiation parameter for gas pipe steel submitted to hydrogen absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, J; Gilgert, J; Pluvinage, G [LaBPS - Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz et Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fatigue initiation resistance has been determined on API 5L X52 gas pipe steel. Tests have been performed on Roman Tile (RT) specimen and fatigue initiation was detected by acoustic emission. A comparison between specimens electrolytically charged with hydrogen and specimens without hydrogen absorption were made and it has been noted that fatigue initiation time is reduced of about 3 times when hydrogen embrittlement occurs. It has been proposed to use the concept of Notch Stress Intensity Factor as parameter to describe the fatigue initiation process. Due to the fact that hydrogen is localised in area with high hydrostatic pressure, definitions of local effective stress and distance have been modified when hydrogen is absorbed. This modification can be explained by existence of a ductile-brittle transition with hydrogen concentration. The fatigue initiation resistance curve allows that to determine a threshold for large number of cycles of fatigue non initiation. This parameter introduced in a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) provides supplementary information about defect nocivity in gas pipes: a non-critical defect can be detected as dormant or not dormant defect i.e., as non propagating defect. (author)

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)

  19. Technical study gas storage. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowka, J.; Moeller, A.; Zander, W.; Koischwitz, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study will answer the following questions: (a) For what uses was the storage facility designed and for what use is it currently applied? Provide an overview of the technical data per gas storage facility: for instance, what is its capacity, volume, start-up time, etc.; (b) How often has this facility been used during the past 10 years? With what purpose was the facility brought into operation at the time? How much gas was supplied at the time from the storage facility?; (c) Given the characteristics and the use of the storage facility during the past 10 years and projected gas consumption in the future, how will the storage facility be used in the future?; (d) Are there other uses for which the gas storage facility can be deployed, or can a single facility be deployed for numerous uses? What are the technical possibilities in such cases? Questions (a) and (b) are answered separately for every storage facility. Questions (c) and (d) in a single chapter each (Chapter 2 and 3). An overview of the relevant storage data relating to current use, use in the last 10 years and use in future is given in the Annex

  20. Study on air ingress during an early stage of a primary-pipe rupture accident of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, M.; Takeda, T.

    1991-01-01

    A primary-pipe rupture accident is one of the design-based accidents of the HTTR. As the first step of our final goal of predicting the multicomponent gas flow in a reactor during the early stages of the accident, the present paper aims at studying experimentally and analytically, the basic features of air ingress and gas transportation by transient molecular diffusion and the transient natural convection of a two-component gas mixture. The present paper comprises two main parts. The first part deals with analytical and experimental studies on N 2 ingress (corresponding to air ingress) and gas transportation by molecular diffusion and the one-dimensional natural convection of an He-N 2 two-component gas mixture in a reverse-U-shaped tube. Analytical and experimental results are discussed on the N 2 mole fraction change with time after the simulated pipe rupture and on the initation time of the natural circulation of pure N 2 . The second part deals with a preliminary simulation test of air ingress during the early stages of the accident. The test is performed with a very simple model of the reactor. The experimental results are discussed on the change in mole fraction of air with time and on the initiation time of the natural circulation of pure air. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J., E-mail: nana.adoo@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wang, D.F. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  2. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Wang, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  3. Heat pipe air preheater for gas-/oil-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, D.P.

    1993-02-01

    With the rising costs of fuel, utilities are constantly looking for ways to improve the net plant heat rate of new and existing units. Significant heat rate improvements can be obtained by reducing the exit stack flue gas temperature. This project evaluated two technologies to reduce flue gas temperatures: heat pipes and liquid-coupled heat exchangers. The specific unit chosen for evaluating these systems was Pacific Gas ampersand Electric's 750 MW Moss Landing Power Plant, Unit 7. Both natural gas and low sulfur (0.5%) fuel oil are fired at this plant. Accordingly, the heat exchangers were required to operate on both fuels. This study investigated the heat recovery installation through the preliminary engineering level of detail. At the conclusion of this effort, the results indicated that neither concept was economically attractive for the retrofit situation involved. In addition, several major technical questions remained unresolved concerning the design of a single heat-exchange device capable of operating on gas (sulfur-free) and oil (sulfur-containing) environments over the full normal operating load range. While the technologies this study reviewed have been installed in actual power plant applications, the site-specific aspects of Moss Landing Unit 7 significantly influenced the estimated costs and performance of each alternative. Using more cost-effective and corrosion-resistant materials may help reduce costs. The following conditions would further enhance the viability of lowering exit gas temperatures: Higher capacity factors; rising fuel costs; greater use of sulfur-free fuels, such as natural gas; lower manufacturing costs for heat exchanger technologies; or new unit application

  4. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  5. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib-Ramezani, H.; Jeong, J.; Pluvinage, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated

  6. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib-Ramezani, H. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: hradib_2000@yahoo.com; Jeong, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Pluvinage, G. [Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM), Universite de Metz-ENIM, 57045 Metz (France)

    2006-06-15

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated.

  7. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK

  8. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK.

  9. Development of Innovating Materials for Distributing Mixtures of Hydrogen and Natural Gas. Study of the Barrier Properties and Durability of Polymer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopffer Marie-Hélène

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the growing place taken by hydrogen, a question still remains about its delivery and transport from the production site to the end user by employing the existing extensive natural gas pipelines. Indeed, the key challenge is the significant H2 permeation through polymer infrastructures (PolyEthylene (PE pipes, components such as connecting parts. This high flow rate of H2 through PE has to be taken into account for safety and economic requirements. A 3-year project was launched, the aim of which was to develop and assess material solutions to cope with present problems for hydrogen gas distribution and to sustain higher pressure compared to classical high density polyethylene pipe. This project investigated pure hydrogen gas and mixtures with natural gas (20% of CH4 and 80% of H2 in pipelines with the aim to select engineering polymers which are more innovative than polyethylene and show outstanding properties, in terms of permeation, basic mechanical tests but also more specific characterizations such as long term ageing and behaviour. The adequate benches, equipments and scientific approach for materials testing had been developed and validated. In this context, the paper will focus on the evaluation of the barrier properties of 3 polymers (PE, PA11 and PAHM. Experiments were performed for pure H2 and CH4 and also in the presence of mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas in order to study the possible mixing effects of gases. It will report some round-robin tests that have been carried out. Secondly, by comparing data obtained on film, polymer membrane and on pipe section, the influence of the polymer processing will be studied. Innovative multilayers systems will be proposed and compared on the basis of the results obtained on monolayer systems. Finally, the evolution of the transport properties of the studied polymers with an ageing under representative service conditions will be discussed.

  10. Comparison of Two Potassium-Filled Gas-Controlled Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiglia, F.; Iacomini, L.; Moro, F.; Merlone, A.

    2015-12-01

    Calibration by comparison of platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples requires transfer media capable of providing very good short-term temperature uniformity and temperature stability over a wide temperature range. This paper describes and compares the performance of two potassium-filled gas-controlled heat pipes (GCHP) for operation over the range from 420° C to 900° C. One of the heat pipes has been in operation for more than 10 years having been operated at temperature for thousands of hours, while the other was commissioned in 2010 following recently developed improvements to both the design, assembly, and filling processes. It was found that the two devices, despite differences in age, structure, number of wells, and filling processes, realized the same temperatures within the measurement uncertainty. The results show that the potassium-filled GCHP provides a durable and high-quality transfer medium for performing thermometer calibrations with very low uncertainties, over the difficult high-temperature range from 420° C to 900° C.

  11. Theoretical Study on the Dynamic Behavior of Pipes Conveying Gas-Liquid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortiz-Vidal L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of clamped-clamped straight pipes conveying gas-liquid two-phase flow is theoretically investigated, specifically the effect of the flow parameters on the frequency of the system. First, the equation of motion is derived based on the classic Païdoussis formulation. Assuming Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, small-deflection approximation and no-slip homogeneous model, a coupled fluid-structure fourth-order partial differential equation (PDE is obtained. Then, the equation of motion is rendered dimensionless and discretized through Galerkin’s method. That method transforms the PDE into a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. The system frequency is obtained by solving the system of ODEs by allowing the determinant to be equal to zero. System frequencies for different geometries, structural properties and flow conditions have been calculated. The results show that the system frequency decreases with increasing two-phase flow velocity. By contrast, the former increases with increasing homogeneous void fraction. These theoretical results are in agreement with experimental findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, even for typical two phase flow conditions, the system can become unstable for inadequate chooses of geometry or material of the pipe.

  12. Stability of cracked pipe under inertial stresses. Subtask 1.1 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Wilson, M.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of the pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within Subtask 1.1 of the IPIRG Program. The objective of Subtask 1.1 was to experimentally verify the analysis methodologies for circumferentially cracked pipe subjected primarily to inertial stresses. Eight cracked-pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch nominal diameter TP304 and A106B pipe. The experimental procedure was developed using nonlinear time-history finite element analyses which included the nonlinear behavior due to the crack. The model did an excellent job of predicting the displacements, forces, and times to maximum moment. The comparison of the experimental loads to the predicted loads by the Net-Section-Collapse (NSC), Dimensionless Plastic-Zone Parameter, J-estimation schemes, R6, and ASME Section XI in-service flaw assessment criteria tended to underpredict the measured bending moments except for the NSC analysis of the A106B pipe. The effects of flaw geometry and loading history on toughness were evaluated by calculating the toughness from the pipe tests and comparing these results to C(l) values. These effects were found to be variable. The surface-crack geometry tended to increase the toughness (relative to CM results), whereas a negative load-ratio significantly decreased the TP304 stainless steel surface-cracked pipe apparent toughness. The inertial experiments tended to achieve complete failure within a few cycles after reaching maximum load in these relatively small diameter pipe experiments. Hence, a load-controlled fracture mechanics analysis may be more appropriate than a displacement-controlled analysis for these tests

  13. The Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. Final report, October 1991--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, A.; Wilowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olson, R.

    1997-03-01

    The IPIRG-2 program was an international group program managed by the US NRC and funded by organizations from 15 nations. The emphasis of the IPIRG-2 program was the development of data to verify fracture analyses for cracked pipes and fittings subjected to dynamic/cyclic load histories typical of seismic events. The scope included: (1) the study of more complex dynamic/cyclic load histories, i.e., multi-frequency, variable amplitude, simulated seismic excitations, than those considered in the IPIRG-1 program, (2) crack sizes more typical of those considered in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) and in-service flaw evaluations, (3) through-wall-cracked pipe experiments which can be used to validate LBB-type fracture analyses, (4) cracks in and around pipe fittings, such as elbows, and (5) laboratory specimen and separate effect pipe experiments to provide better insight into the effects of dynamic and cyclic load histories. Also undertaken were an uncertainty analysis to identify the issues most important for LBB or in-service flaw evaluations, updating computer codes and databases, the development and conduct of a series of round-robin analyses, and analyst's group meetings to provide a forum for nuclear piping experts from around the world to exchange information on the subject of pipe fracture technology. 17 refs., 104 figs., 41 tabs

  14. 77 FR 32626 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF09-8-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Rockaway Delivery Lateral Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federa...

  15. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  16. The Numerical Simulation of the Shock Wave of Coal Gas Explosions in Gas Pipe*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenxing; Hou, Kepeng; Chen, Longwei

    2018-03-01

    For the problem of large deformation and vortex, the method of Euler and Lagrange has both advantage and disadvantage. In this paper we adopt special fuzzy interface method(volume of fluid). Gas satisfies the conditions of conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. Based on explosion and three-dimension fluid dynamics theory, using unsteady, compressible, inviscid hydrodynamic equations and state equations, this paper considers pressure gradient’s effects to velocity, mass and energy in Lagrange steps by the finite difference method. To minimize transport errors of material, energy and volume in Finite Difference mesh, it also considers material transport in Euler steps. Programmed with Fortran PowerStation 4.0 and visualized with the software designed independently, we design the numerical simulation of gas explosion with specific pipeline structure, check the key points of the pressure change in the flow field, reproduce the gas explosion in pipeline of shock wave propagation, from the initial development, flame and accelerate the process of shock wave. This offers beneficial reference and experience to coal gas explosion accidents or safety precautions.

  17. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF 6 gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF 6 -handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D ampersand D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D ampersand D, as will the other UF 6 -handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF 6 . These reagents include ClF 3 , F 2 , and other compounds. The scope of D ampersand D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs

  18. An investigation of particle behavior in gas-solid horizontal pipe flow by an extended LDA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong Lu; Donald H. Glass; William J. Easson [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Institute for Materials and Processes

    2009-12-15

    An extended Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique has been developed to measure the distributions of particle velocities and particle number rates over a whole pipe cross-section in a dilute pneumatic conveying system. The first extension concentrates on the transform matrix for predicting the laser beams' cross point in a pipe according to the shift coordinate of the 3D computer-controlled traverse system on which the probes of the LDA system were mounted. The second focuses on the proper LDA sample rate for the measurement of gas-solid pipe flow with polydisperse particles. A suitable LDA sample rate should ensure that enough data is recorded in the measurement interval to precisely calculate the particle mean velocity or other statistical values at every sample point. The present study explores the methodology as well as the fundamentals of measurements, using a laser facility, of the cross-sectional distributions of solid phase. In the horizontal gas-solid pipe flow (glass beads less than 110 {mu}m), the experimental data show that the cross-sectional flow patterns of the solid phase can be classified by annulus-like flow describing the axial particle velocity contours and stratified flow characterising particle number rate distribution over a cross-section. Thus, the cross-sectional flow pattern of the solid phase in a horizontal pipe may be annular or stratified dependent on whether the axial particle velocity or particle number rate is the phenomenon studied. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Unknown plant de-construction hazard -- Toxic COS and CS2 gas from torch cutting of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Nutt, A.W.; Myers, B.L.; Hightower, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    An employee exhibited signs of illness after apparently inhaling fumes generated from a pipe that had been cut with a cutting torch. Identification and quantification of the hazardous air emission for reduction of risk via the Department of Energy Class B Investigation are described in this case study. The old hydrogen sulfide gas flare pipe in the heavy water plant of the Savannah River Site has been abandoned with one end open to atmosphere for almost twenty years. The pipe was being removed and cut into sections for disposal during an asbestos abatement project. It contained ash like corrosion deposits that smolder after torch cutting. Investigation revealed that burning of carbon and sulfur in the oxygen deficient atmosphere in the ash generated carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) gas, which vented when the pipe was moved by the injured construction rigger. This is believed to be the first well documented exposure and response of a human to high concentration COS gas. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas is also generated during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the many years of US and Canadian heavy water plant de-construction experience. Immediate water quench of the smoldering ash after each cut has eliminated the hazard of residual COS and CS 2 gas. This previously unrecognized industrial hazard may be encountered by other chemical and petroleum industries during torch cutting of pipes that contain similar deposits of iron oxide, iron sulfate, sulfur and carbon

  20. The natural gas guideline... Finally a good agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrame-Devoti, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    After 18 months of intense negotiations, the European Energy Council came on December 8, 1997 to an agreement about the internal gas market. The essential point of this guideline is the possibility for some customers to deal with the supplier of their choice. This opening of national gas markets will lead to the disappearance of gas importation monopolies. This paper summarizes the final option retained for the opening of the European gas market, its schedule, the protection of take or pay contracts, and the future perspectives for industrialists (new operators for the storage, transport, terminals management, distribution and trade, diversification of services, competition..). (J.S.)

  1. Experiments about the integrity of BWR relief pipes in postulated radiolysis gas combustion. Scenario No.2. Minor steam leakages without any lowering of the water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Grune, J.; Sempert, K.; Stern, G.; Kuznetsov, M.; Redlinger, R.; Breitung, W.; Franke, T.

    2008-01-01

    The experiments described in this article were performed to study this comprehensive radiolysis gas scenario: - The relief pipe is filled completely with radiolysis gas (2H 2 +O 2 ). - After opening of the S and R valve, the radiolysis gas is compressed adiabatically by the incoming steam without mixing. - Roughly at the point of peak pressure in the relief pipe (20 bar) the radiolysis gas ignites. This dynamic scenario was studied in steady-state model experiments with a test pipe which corresponds to the relief pipes installed in KKP-1 in terms of materials, dimensions, and manufacturing control. The initial conditions and boundary conditions of the experiments were conservative. In the course of the tests, the maximum dynamic strain and the residual plastic deformation of the test pipe were measured via the transient detonation load. The maximum dynamic strain measured was 0.75%, the maximum residual plastic strain reached 0.15%. The pipe suffered no other deformation above and beyond this slight plastic strain. The radiolysis gas detonation was simulated very well numerically. Using the calculated pressure loads in a structural dynamics model also showed good agreement with the measured maximum dynamic pipe strains. In this way, the experimental findings were confirmed theoretically. The experiments and the calculations showed that postulated radiolysis gas reactions during pressure relief cannot jeopardize the integrity of the relief pipe. (orig.)

  2. New gas in old pipes: opening the UK residential gas market to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddams Price, C.; Bennett, M.

    1999-01-01

    The United Kingdom is introducing competition to its residential gas and electricity markets, the first such experiment on a national level. This paper analyses the behaviour of suppliers and consumers in the first market to be opened, based on suppliers' posted prices, two questionnaires to consumers and information from the incumbent. The results confirm predictions about the unwinding of cross-subsidies; a surprisingly small proportion of consumers are switching to other suppliers, and they are not evenly distributed across consumer groups, raising important policy questions about the future of regulation in such markets

  3. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  4. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  5. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ..., Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai), and Pacific Pipe Company Limited (Pacific Pipe... Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd 0.00 Pacific Pipe Company Limited * * No shipments or sales subject to this... parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. Saha Thai, Wheatland Tube Company, and United States Steel...

  6. Weld Bead Geometry of Ni-Based Alloy Deposited by PTA Process for Pipe Conduction of Shale Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria-Figueroa, C.; García-Vázquez, F.; Ruiz-Mondragón, J.; Hernández-García, H. M.; González-González, D.; Vargas, A.

    The transportation of shale gas has the problem that the piping used for the extraction does not resist the erosion generated by the amount of solids causing cracks over the surface and it is necessary to extend the life of the pipelines. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) welded coatings are used to improve the surface properties of mechanical parts. Therefore, in this paper is studied the use of Ni-based filler metal as weld bead deposits on A36 steel substrates by PTA. In order to determine the suitable conditions to ensure coating quality on the substrate a design of experiments (DOE) was determined. Welding current, feed rate, and travel speed were used as input parameters and the dilution percentage as the response variable. The composition and properties of hardfacing or overlay deposited are strongly influenced by the dilution obtained. Control of dilution is important, where typically low dilution is desirable. When the dilution is low, the final deposit composition will be closer to that of the filler metal, and the wear and corrosion resistance of the hardfacing will also be maintained. To evaluate the features on the weld beads/substrate interface a microstructural characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and to evaluate the mechanical properties was carried out hardness test.

  7. Rate of Isotope Exchange Reaction Between Tritiated Water in a Gas Phase and Water on the Surface of Piping Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Junya; Kobayashi, Ryusuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    2001-01-01

    The system effect of tritium arises from the interaction of tritium in the gas phase with water on the surface of piping materials. It has been reported that the system effect can be quantified by applying the serial reactor model to the piping system and that adsorption and isotope exchange reactions play the main roles in the trapping of tritium. The isotope exchange reaction that occurs when the chemical form of tritium in the gas phase is in the molecular form, i.e., HT or T 2 , has been named isotope exchange reaction 1, and that which occurs when tritium in the gas phase is in water form, i.e., HTO or T 2 O, has been named isotope exchange reaction 2.The rate of isotope exchange reaction 2 is experimentally quantified, and the rate is observed to be about one-third of the rate of adsorption. The trapping and release behavior of tritium from the piping surface due to isotope exchange reaction 2 is also discussed. It is certified that swamping of water vapor to process gas is effective to release tritium from the surface contaminated with tritium

  8. Realtime estimation of city gas pipe network damage by lateral flow of liquefied ground behind quay walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, E.; Isoyama, R. [Japan Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Public Management Research Center; Koganemaru, K.; Shimuzu, Y. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Center for Disaster Management and Supply Control; Morimoto, I. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, S. [Tokyo Denki Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Estimating the degree of damage to city gas pipe networks is difficult because of the lack of damage case data. This paper proposes a method for calculating the amount of earthquake-induced ground displacement at pipe node locations by constructing ground models. Data for the models was obtained from boreholes and by using a simple ground flow formula. The analysis method will make it possible to calculate the allowable limits of damage-causing factors such as ground motion and flow for different pipe network elements. The analysis procedure was conducted using a 2-dimensional liquefaction-induced flow analysis program finite element method. A real time damage estimation system for low pressure gas pipes uses ground motions having a design seismic coefficient of 0.4 in preparing strong earthquake liquefied layer thickness distribution data. Flow calculations were presented as well as a ground revetment database to replace node location data. It was concluded that achieving consistency was desirable. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Early response of pressurized hot water in a pipe to a sudden break. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Kan, C.Y.; Lienhard, J.H.

    1981-06-01

    Experimental and analytic studies that explain the details of early pressure variations during rapid depressurization in water-cooled reactors are presented as a means of assessing sudden break consequences in a coolant pipe. The report includes (1) a description of the experiment, (2) an analysis of the new bubble growth law for thermally controlled growth of vapor bubbles in an exponentially-varying pressure field, and (3) a review of previous studies and additional observations of blowdown behavior

  10. Capabilities of a New Pressure Controller for Gas-Controlled Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, S.; Merlone, A.; Marenco, S.; Marcarino, P.; Tiziani, A.

    2008-10-01

    Pressure control is used in many metrological applications and for the control of thermodynamic quantities. At the Italian National Research Institute of Metrology (INRiM), a new pressure controller has been designed and assembled, operating in the pressure range between 4 kPa and 400 kPa. This innovative instrument uses a commercial pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 10-4 and several electro-valves interposed among calibrated volumes of different dimensions in order to realize known ratios for very fine pressure changes. The device is provided with several circuits to drive the electro-valve actions, for signal processing and transmission, and for both manual and automatic control. Input/output peripherals, such as a 4 × 20 dot matrix display and a 4 × 4 keyboard, allow setting of the parameters and data visualization, while a remote control port allows interfacing with a computer. The operating principle of this pressure controller has been recently applied, with excellent results, to control the pressure in gas-controlled heat pipes by using a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a temperature/pressure sensor, achieving in this case a relative sensitivity better than 10-6 in pressure. Several tests were also made to control the pressure by means of a commercial sensor. The device, its main components, and its capabilities are here reported, together with application tests and results.

  11. Spinning pipe gas lens aberrations along the axis and in the boundary layer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When the walls of an open-ended horizontal steel pipe are heated before the pipe is rotated along its axis, the exchange of the expelled heated air with the incoming cooler air, sucked in along the axis, results in a medium capable of focusing a...

  12. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in micro-pipes by a capacitance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Haifeng; Li, Huajun; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing

    2014-11-26

    A capacitance measurement system is developed for the measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in glass micro-pipes with inner diameters of 3.96, 2.65 and 1.56 mm, respectively. As a typical flow regime in a micro-pipe two-phase flow system, slug flow is chosen for this investigation. A capacitance sensor is designed and a high-resolution and high-speed capacitance measurement circuit is used to measure the small capacitance signals based on the differential sampling method. The performance and feasibility of the capacitance method are investigated and discussed. The capacitance signal is analyzed, which can reflect the voidage variation of two-phase flow. The gas slug velocity is determined through a cross-correlation technique using two identical capacitance sensors. The simulation and experimental results show that the presented capacitance measurement system is successful. Research work also verifies that the capacitance sensor is an effective method for the measurement of gas liquid two-phase flow parameters in micro-pipes.

  13. Gas propagation following a sudden loss of vacuum in a pipe cooled by He I and He II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, N.; Guo, W.; Dodamead, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many cryogenic systems around the world are concerned with the sudden catastrophic loss of vacuum for cost, preventative damage, safety or other reasons. The experiments in this paper were designed to simulate the sudden vacuum break in the beam-line pipe of a liquid helium cooled superconducting particle accelerator. This paper expands previous research conducted at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and evaluates the differences between normal helium (He I) and superfluid helium (He II). For the experiments, a straight pipe and was evacuated and immersed in liquid helium at 4.2 K and below 2.17 K. Vacuum loss was simulated by opening a solenoid valve on a buffer tank filled nitrogen gas. Gas front arrival was observed by a temperature rise of the tube. Preliminary results suggested that the speed of the gas front through the experiment decreased exponentially along the tube for both normal liquid helium and super-fluid helium. The system was modified to a helical pipe system to increase propagation length. Testing and analysis on these two systems revealed there was minor difference between He I and He II despite the difference between the two distinct helium phases heat transfer mechanisms: convection vs thermal counterflow. Furthermore, the results indicated that the temperature of the tube wall above the LHe bath also plays a significant role in the initial front propagation. More systematic measurements are planned in with the helical tube system to further verify the results.

  14. Gas-liquid flow around an obstacle in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Beyer, Matthias; Frank, Thomas; Al Issa, Suleiman; Carl, Helmar; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to study the two-phase flow field around an asymmetric obstruction in a vertical pipe with a nominal diameter of DN200. Main feature of the experiments is the shifting of a half-moon shaped diaphragm causing the obstruction along the axis of the pipe. In this way, the 3D void field is scanned with a stationary wire-mesh sensor that supplies data with a spatial resolution of 3 mm over the cross-section and a measuring frequency of 2.5 kHz. Besides the measurement of time-averaged void fraction fields and bubble-size distributions, novel data evaluation methods were developed to extract estimated liquid velocity profiles as well as lateral components of bubble velocities from the wire-mesh sensor data. The combination of void fraction fields and velocity profiles offer the opportunity to analyse a two-phase flow in a geometry that owns a series of features characteristic for complex components of power and chemical plant equipment. Such characteristics are sharp edges with flow separation, recirculation areas, jet formation, stagnation points and curved stream-lines. The tests were performed with an air-water flow at nearly ambient conditions and with a saturated steam-water mixture at 6.5 MPa. The superficial velocities of liquid and gas or, respectively, vapour were varied in a wide range. The flow structure upstream and downstream of the obstacle is characterized in detail. Bubble size dependent effects of bubble accumulation and migration are discussed on basis of void-fraction profiles decomposed into bubble-size classes. A pronounced influence of the fluid parameters was found in the behaviour of bubbles at the boundary of the jet coming from the non-obstructed part of the cross-section. In case of an air-water flow, bubbles are restrained from entering the jet, a phenomenon which was not observed in high-pressure steam-water flow. A detailed uncertainty analyse of the velocity assessments finishes the presented paper. A

  15. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Scope of the Orders Japan The products covered by this order include certain... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless...

  16. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Compliance Analyst, Office 6, Verification of the Sales Response of Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited in... Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated August 24, 2009 (Bona Fides Preliminary Memorandum). The Department... Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated...

  17. Pressure drop in the flow of gas/steam liquid mixtures in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, L.

    1978-01-01

    Pressure drop in two phase flow is considered to be made up of terms for geodetical elevation or depression, acceleration, and friction. The geodetical and momentum pressure drop are discussed and reasonable correlations are presented, along with their limitations and range of application. Various relationships are available for calculating the technically important friction component. If purely empirical correlations are neclected, all the remaining predictive schemes can be related to three basic physical models. These models as well as the commonly accepted and most reliable relationships are discussed and classified according to type. Furthermore, their scope is defined and the accuracy of prediction systematicaπly compared with the aid of a newly set-up data bank. The extensive literature data consulted refer to single component two phase flow of water and various refrigerants and several two-component systems in horizontal and vertical unheated straight pipes under industrially relevant flow conditions. Finally, the accuracy of the prediction of some generally accepted void correlations is dealt with: here too, numerous published void fraction data have been gathered and checked. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Method of treating final products from flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloss, W.; Mohn, U.

    1984-01-01

    A method of treating final products from a flue gas desulfurization. The flue gas desulfurization is carried out by the absorption of sulfur oxide in a spray dryer with a suspension which contains lime, or in a reactor with a dry, fine-grained, absorbent which contains lime. Prior to desulfurization, the fly ash carried along by the flue gas which is to be desulfurized is separated entirely, partially, or not at all from the flue gas, and the final products from the flue gas desulfurization, prior to any further treatment thereof, amount to 1-99% by weight, preferably 1-70% by weight, of fly ash, and 1-99% by weight, preferably 30-99% by weight, of the sum of the desulfurization products, preferably calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfite, and/or calcium sulfate dyhydrate, and/or calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfate, as well as residue of the absorbent. The reduction of the amount of calcium sulfite is implemented by a dry oxidation with air

  19. Design and testing of a heat pipe gas combustion system for the STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, K.; Godett, T. M.; Meijer, R. J.; Verhey, R. P.

    Evaporators of a novel geometry, designed to have a more compact size yet the same output as larger, conventional heat pipes, have been fabricated and tested. A technique was developed to calculate capillary pressure required inside the heat pipe. Several quarter- and full-scale evaporators were designed and successfully tested. The burner, film-cooled combustion chamber, and preheater were designed and tested separately. A complete heat pipe gas combustion system (HPGC) was tested, showing an efficiency of 89 percent was measured at 20 kWth. A film-cooled combustion chamber was tested with flame temperatures of 2200 C and wall temperatures below 1000 C using preheated air for film cooling. Also, a full-scale HPGC was tested at an excess of 95 kWth, showing efficiency in the range of 85 to 90 percent under steady-state conditions. Results of transient and startup tests, carried out to evaluate the performance of the heat pipe, all also reported.

  20. Numerical modelling of isothermal gas-liquid two-phase bubbly flow in vertical pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoah, S.

    2014-07-01

    lubrication and turbulent dispersion force models. Overall, the comparison has shown that the MUSIG model yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The transition from wall peak to core peak gas volume fraction profiles has been successfully captured and encouraging results clearly exemplified the capability of the model in capturing the dynamical changes of bubble size due to coalescence and breakup processes. The observed agreement with the gas volume fraction profiles indicates a level of confidence in the interfacial force models (especially the lift coefficient model) used, while on the other hand, the agreement seen on the interfacial area concentration indicates that the birth and death processes modelled are reasonably adequate to describe the bubble dynamics. Nevertheless, noticeable discrepancies in simulating bimodal bubble size distributions were found revealing the plausible imperfection of existing coalescence and breakup kernels. Thirdly, the performance of the interfacial area transport equation has been assessed by implementing some typical constitutive models for bubble coalescence and breakup taken from literature. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the constitutive model formulations from Hibiki and Ishii (2000a), Wu et al. (1998) with coefficients from Ishii and Kim (2001) and Wang (2010) have been implemented and validated. The combined effects of lift and wall lubrication force have been investigated. Both models of the lATE source and sink terms were able to reasonably capture the experimental data especially the gas volume fraction profiles. More experimental and theoretical work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius. (au)

  1. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D. [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

  2. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program

  3. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO 2 F 2 deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO 2 F 2 deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO 2 F 2 source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO 2 F 2 deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined

  4. The evaluation of stress and piping support loads on RSG-GAS secondary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustandyo, W.; Sitandung, Y. B.; Sujalmo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of stress and piping support loads was evaluated on piping segment of secondary cooling water piping. In this paper, the analysis methods are presented with the use of computer code PS + CAEPIPE Version 3. 4. 05. W. From the selected pipe segment, the data of pipe characteristic, material properties, operation and design condition, equipment and support were used as inputs. The result of analysis show that stress and support loads if using location, kind and number of support equal with the system that have been installed for sustain load 3638 psi (node 160), thermal 13517 psi (node 90) and combination of sustain and thermal (node 90) 16747 psi. Meanwhile,if the optimization support, stress and support load for sustain load are respectively 4238 psi (node 10), thermal 13517 psi (node 90) and combination of sustain + thermal (node 90) 17350 psi. The limit values of permitted support based on Code PS+CAEPIPE of sustain load are 15000 psi, thermal 22500 psi and combination of sustain + thermal 37500 psi. The conclusion of evaluation result, that stress support load of pipe secondary cooling system are sufficiently low and using support show excessive and not economic

  5. Review and assessment of research relevant to design aspects of nuclear power plant piping systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Maxey, W.A.; Eiber, R.J.

    1977-06-01

    Significant research on piping systems is evaluated, and the correlation of that research with design practices is presented. The objective is to quantify the research/design practices in terms of the reliability of piping used in nuclear power plants

  6. Experimental determination of the thickness of aluminum cascade pipes in the presence of UF{sub 6} gas during enrichment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, M.L., E-mail: lombardi@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Favalli, A.; Goda, J.M.; Ianakiev, K.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Moss, C.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-04-21

    We present a method of determining the wall thickness of a pipe in a Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) when an empty pipe measurement is not feasible. Our method uses an X-ray tube for transmission measurements and a lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}) scintillation detector on the opposite side of the pipe. Two filters, molybdenum (K-edge 20.0 keV) and palladium (K-edge 24.35 keV) are used to transform the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the X-ray tube into more useful, sharply peaked, spectra. The maximum energies of the peaks are determined by the K-edges of the filters. The attenuation properties of the uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas allow us to determine wall thickness by looking at the ratio of selected regions of interest (ROIs) of the Mo and Pd transmitted spectra. While the attenuation factor at these two transmission energies in the UF{sub 6} gas is nearly equal, attenuation in the aluminum pipe wall at these two energies differs by a factor of about 60. This difference allows measurement of attenuation in the pipe independent of attenuation in the UF{sub 6} gas. Feasibility studies were performed using analytical calculations, and filter thicknesses were optimized. In order to experimentally validate our attenuation measurement method, a UF{sub 6} source with variable enrichment and pipe thickness was built. We describe the experimental procedure used to verify our previous calculations and present recent results.

  7. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y.

    1995-01-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed

  8. Frictional pressure drop of gas liquid two-phase flow in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannak, Benbella A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments of air water two-phase flow frictional pressure drop of vertical and horizontal smooth and relatively rough pipes were conducted, respectively. The result demonstrated that the frictional pressure drop increases with increasing relative roughness of the pipe. However, the influence of the relative roughness becomes more evident at higher vapour quality and higher mass flux. A new prediction model for frictional pressure drop of two-phase flow in pipes is proposed. The model includes a new definition of the Reynolds number and the friction factor of two-phase flow. The proposed model fits the presented experimental data very well, for vertical, horizontal, smooth and rough pipes. Therefore, the reproductive accuracy of the model is tested on the experimental data existing in the open literature and compared with the most common models. The statistical comparison, based on the Friedel's Data-Bank containing of about 16,000 measured data, demonstrated that the proposed model is the best overall agreement with the data. The model was tested for a wide range of flow types, fluid systems, physical properties and geometrical parameters, typically encountered in industrial piping systems. Hence, calculating based on the new approach is sufficiently accurate for engineering purposes

  9. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y. [Kobe Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed.

  10. Feasibility study of pipe welding using a homopolar generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.E.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1979-12-01

    The technical feasibility was studied of making girth welds of the upset butt resistance type in type 304 stainless steel boiling water reactor pipe using a homopolar generator as the power supply and a preliminary study of the process economics as compared with the present arc welding practice was made. The design and construction of a welding fixture and its use in conjunction with a 5 megajoule homopolar generator to accomplish successful welds having a nominal 28.4 cm 2 (4.4 in. 2 ) area in less than 1 second are discussed. The nature of the homopolar pulse resistance welding (HPRW) process is such that the time to accomplish the weld is independent of the size of the weld. Welds were produced having 100 percent joint efficiency as measured by the tensile test. It proved possible to obtain smooth inner diameter weld contours, but the joint design that resulted in the best contour also resulted in harmless oxide particles in the weld interface. A slight modification to the joint design was shown to eliminate the oxide particles, but resulted in a somewhat less desirable inner contour. Because of the relatively short heating cycle of HPR welding, the heat-affected zone of the weld is in the 400 to 800 C sensitization region for a substantially shorter time than in multipass arc welding. ASTM A262 Procedure A tests did not show any sensitization in HPR welds. HPR welding promises substantial savings in variable costs (labor, overhead, and materials) compared to arc welding

  11. Monitoring the mass of UF6 gas and uranium deposits in aluminium pipes using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray transmission gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Smith, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to determine the enrichment of UF 6 gas in centrifuge plant pipework it is necessary to measure the mass of the gas (pressure) and the mass per unit area of any uranium deposited on the pipe. This paper shows that it is possible to determine the pressure of the UF 6 gas in pipes 120 mm in diameter using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results are also given of transmission measurements made using a low power X-ray generator operated at two different applied voltages. A method of using the two measurements to determine the mass per unit area of deposited uranium is described. (author)

  12. Hydrogen permeation resistant heat pipe for bi-modal reactors. Final report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, M.T.; Anderson, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principal objective of this program was to demonstrate technology that will make a sodium heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation for a bimodal space reactor application. Special focus was placed on techniques which enhance the permeation of hydrogen out of the heat pipe. Specific objectives include: define the detailed requirements for the bimodal reactor application; design and fabricate a prototype heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation; and test the prototype heat pipe and demonstrate that hydrogen which permeates into the heat pipe is removed or reduced to acceptable levels. The results of the program were fully successful. Analyses were performed on two different heat pipe designs and an experimental heat pipe was fabricated and tested. A model of the experimental heat pipe was developed to predict the enhancement in the hydrogen permeation rate out of the heat pipe. A significant improvement in the rate at which hydrogen permeates out of a heat pipe was predicted for the use of the special condenser geometry developed here. Agreement between the model and the experimental results was qualitatively good. Inclusion of the additional effects of fluid flow in the heat pipe are recommended for future work

  13. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... 31, 2011. Case History The following events have occurred since the publication of the preliminary... Flat Products From Argentina, 66 FR 37007, 37008 (July 16, 2001); see also Final Affirmative...

  14. 78 FR 35244 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... provided for convenience and customs purposes, the written product description, available in Amended Final... Analysis Comment 2: Date of Sale for Nacobre's ``Fixed Price'' Sales Comment 3: Nacobre's Indirect Selling...

  15. Evolution of the structure of a gas-liquid two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst-Michael Prasser; Matthias Beyer; Helmar Carl; Sabine Gregor; Dirk Lucas; Peter Schuetz; Frank-Peter Weiss

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experimental results on the evolution of the radial gas fraction profiles, gas velocity profiles and bubble size distributions in a gas-liquid two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe of 194 mm inner diameter are presented. The tests were performed at the TOPFLOW facility in Rossendorf, where two wire-mesh sensors were used to measure sequences of two-dimensional distributions of local instantaneous gas fraction within the complete pipe cross-section with a lateral resolution of 3 mm and a sampling frequency of 2500 Hz. This data is the basis for a fast flow visualization and for the calculation of the mentioned profiles. The gas fraction profiles were obtained by averaging the sequences over time, velocities were measured by cross-correlation of the signals of the two sensors, which were located on a short (63 mm) distance behind each other. The high resolution of the mesh sensors allows to identify regions of connected measuring points in the data array, which are filled with the gas phase. This method was used to obtain the bubble size distributions. In the experiments, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.04 to 8 m/s for the gas phase and from 0.04 to 1.6 m/s for the liquid. In this way, the experiments cover the range from bubbly to churn turbulent flow regimes. The evolution of the flow structure was studied by varying the distance between the gas injection and the sensor position. This distance was changed by the help of a so-called variable gas injection set-up. It consists of 6 gas injection units, each of them equipped with three rings of orifices in the pipe wall for the gas injection. These rings are fed with the gas phase from ring chambers, which can be individually controlled by valves. The middle ring has orifices of 4 mm diameter, while the upper and the lower rings have nozzles of 1 mm diameter. In this way, 18 different inlet lengths and two different gas injection geometries can be chosen. The latter

  16. High temperature gas cleaning for pressurized gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, H.; Hagstroem, P.; Hallgren, A.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the project was to build an apparatus to study pressurized, high temperature gas cleaning of raw gasification gas generated from biomass. A flexible and easy to operate pressurized apparatus was designed and installed for the investigations in high temperature gas cleaning by means of thermal, catalytic or chemical procedures. A semi continuos fuel feeding concept, at a maximum rate of 700 g/h, allowed a very constant formation of a gas product at 700 deg C. The gas product was subsequently introduced into a fixed bed secondary reactor where the actual gas cleanup or reformation was fulfilled. The installation work was divided into four work periods and apart from a few delays the work was carried out according to the time plan. During the first work period (January - June 1994) the technical design, drawings etc. of the reactor and additional parts were completed. All material for the construction was ordered and the installation work was started. The second work period (July - December 1994) was dedicated to the construction and the installation of the different components. Initial tests with the electrical heating elements, control system and gas supply were assigned to the third work period (January - June 1995). After the commissioning and the resulting modifications, initial pyrolysis and tar decomposition experiments were performed. During the fourth and final work period, (June - December 1995) encouraging results from first tests allowed the experimental part of the project work to commence, however in a slightly reduced program. The experimental part of the project work comparatively studied tar decomposition as a function of the process conditions as well as of the choice of catalyst. Two different catalysts, dolomite and a commercial Ni-based catalyst, were evaluated in the unit. Their tar cracking ability in the pressure interval 1 - 20 bar and at cracker bed temperatures between 800 - 900 deg C was compared. Long term tests to study

  17. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting...''), entitled ``Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance.'' 74 FR 52117, Oct. 8... emissions associated with agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and...

  18. Characterization of linear interfacial waves in a turbulent gas-liquid pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayati, A. A.; Farias, P. S. C.; Azevedo, L. F. A.; de Paula, I. B.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of interfacial waves on a stratified flow was investigated experimentally for air-water flow in a horizontal pipe. Waves were introduced in the liquid level of stratified flow near the pipe entrance using an oscillating plate. The mean height of liquid layer and the fluctuations superimposed on this mean level were captured using high speed cameras. Digital image processing techniques were used to detect instantaneous interfaces along the pipe. The driving signal of the oscillating plate was controlled by a D/A board that was synchronized with acquisitions. This enabled to perform phase-locked acquisitions and to use ensemble average procedures. Thereby, it was possible to measure the temporal and spatial evolution of the disturbances introduced in the flow. In addition, phase-locked measurements of the velocity field in the liquid layer were performed using standard planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The velocity fields were extracted at a fixed streamwise location, whereas the measurements of the liquid level were performed at several locations along the pipe. The assessment of the setup was important for validation of the methodology proposed in this work, since it aimed at providing results for further comparisons with theoretical models and numerical simulations. Therefore, the work focuses on validation and characterization of interfacial waves within the linear regime. Results show that under controlled conditions, the wave development can be well captured and reproduced. In addition, linear waves were observed for liquid level oscillations lower than about 1.5% of the pipe diameter. It was not possible to accurately define an amplitude threshold for the appearance of nonlinear effects because it strongly depended on the wave frequency. According to the experimental findings, longer waves display characteristics similar to linear waves, while short ones exhibit a more complex evolution, even for low amplitudes.

  19. Characteristics of DC electrical braking method of the gas circulator to limit the temperature rise at the heat transfer pipes in the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Saito, K.; Iyoku, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), it must be confirmed that the core has no chance to be damaged and the barrier against the FP release is designed properly not to be affecting the influence of radiation around the reactor site. Especially the maximum temperature of the reactor pressure boundary such as the heat transfer pipes of pressurized water cooler (PWC) must not exceed the permissible values under an anticipated accident such as pipe of rupture in PWC. A requirement for the gas circulator which circulates helium gas in the primary cooling line and the secondary cooling line, is to be braked within 10 seconds by an electrical braking method after the HTTR reactor has scrammed under the accident in PWC. The reason is that the temperature rise of the heat transfer pipe at PWC has to be suppressed when the gas circulator has stopped, the revolution of the gas circulator decreases like the free coast down so that it takes about 90 seconds to be zero and the temperature rise of the pipe in the PWC exceeds the permissible value. By braking within 10 secs., the temperature of the pipe in the PWC reaches about 368 deg. C, less than the permissible value. Using a simplified equivalent circuit of an induction motor, braking time analysis was performed with obtained electrical resistance and inductance. The obtained braking time is about 10 secs., showing close agreement with analysis values. (author)

  20. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of methods for evaluating characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chokoatsu tennen gas pipeline yo kokyodo daikei kokan no tokusei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The pipelines for safely transmitting superhigh-pressure natural gas should have excellent characteristics. The steel pipe is required to have a sufficient toughness, more concretely Charpy impact-absorbing energy, to prevent propagating shear fracture characteristic of natural gas pipelines. Recently, the natural gas pipeline is increasingly required to have higher design pressures (15 Mpa or higher) and grade (X80 or higher). In order to develop the techniques for simulating crack propagation in the propagating shear fracture of natural gas pipe lines as part of the programs to cope with these trends, the 1998 efforts were directed to reviewing the research results obtained so far and analysis of the problems to be solved and tasks to be taken, based on which the analytical procedure for gas releasing phenomena during the fracture process was basically developed, the material characteristic data were collected by the laboratory scale toughness tests, and the preliminary tests with rupture disks were conducted to verify the above analytical procedure. These efforts have established the bases for evaluating the characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes in the light of safety against fracture, and greatly advanced the program towards the final target of developing the international specification drafts for toughness. (NEDO)

  1. Prediction of crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas transmission pipelines with a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). Part 2: Large scale pipe models with gas depressurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomidis, F.; Shterenlikht, A.; Truman, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper described a specimen for the measurement of high strain rate flow and fracture properties of pipe material and for tuning a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). In part 2 the tuned SRDD model is used for the simulation of axial crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas pipelines. Linear pressure drop model was adopted behind the crack tip, and an exponential gas depressurisation model was used ahead of the crack tip. The model correctly predicted the crack initiation (burst) pressure, the crack speed and the crack arrest length. Strain rates between 1000 s −1 and 3000 s −1 immediately ahead of the crack tip are predicted, giving a strong indication that a strain rate material model is required for the structural integrity assessment of the natural gas pipelines. The models predict the stress triaxiality of about 0.65 for at least 1 m ahead of the crack tip, gradually dropping to 0.5 at distances of about 5–7 m ahead of the crack tip. Finally, the models predicted a linear drop in crack tip opening angle (CTOA) from about 11−12° at the onset of crack propagation down to 7−8° at crack arrest. Only the lower of these values agree with those reported in the literature for quasi-static measurements. This discrepancy might indicate substantial strain rate dependence in CTOA. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations of 3 burst tests of X100 pipes are detailed. • Strain rate dependent damage model, tuned on small scale X100 samples, was used. • The models correctly predict burst pressure, crack speed and crack arrest length. • The model predicts a crack length dependent critical CTOA. • The strain rate dependent damage model is verified as mesh independent

  2. Influence of the pipe diameter on the structure of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical two-phase pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H. M.; Beyer, M.; Boettger, A.; Carl, H.; Lucas, D.; Schaffrath, A.; Schutz, P.; Weiss, F. P.; Zschau, J.

    2003-01-01

    Two-phase flow tests in a 194.1 mm diameter vertical pipe (DN200) with an air-water mixture are reported. Close to the upper end of a 9 m tall test section a wire-mesh sensor is installed that delivers instantaneous void fraction distributions over the entire cross section with time resolution of 2500 frames per second. The sensor disposes of 64 x 64 measuring points, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 mm. Beside an fast flow visualisations, void-fraction profiles and bubble size distributions were obtained. Earlier, similar experiments were carried out in a pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter (DN50). A comparison of the data from the two different facilities allows to study the scaling effects on void fraction profiles, bubbles size distributions and the flow patterns. In the small pipe, the increase of the air flow rate leads to a transition from bubbly via slug to churn turbulent flow. The transition to slug flow is accompanied by the appearance of a second peak in the bubble size distribution that corresponds to the class of large Taylor bubbles. A similar qualitative behaviour was found in the large pipe, though the large bubble fraction has a significantly bigger mean diameter at identical superficial velocities, the peak is less tall but wider. Bubbles move more freely than in the small pipe, since the confining action of the pipe walls to the flow is less pronounced, while the large Taylor bubbles occupy almost the entire cross section in case of the small pipe. Furthermore, the bubbles show much more deformations in the large pipe. Shapes of such large bubbles were characterised in three dimensions for the first time. They can rather be complicated and far from the shape of ideal Taylor bubbles. Also the small bubble fraction tends to bigger sizes in the large pipe

  3. 76 FR 77770 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV) investigation, the cash deposit rate will... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953... structural pipe tubing used for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in...

  4. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan... duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan pursuant to section...

  5. Short- and long-term monitoring of radon, thoron and carbon dioxide in soil-gas at Altos de pipe, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon and thoron activities in soil-gases have been measured since July 9, 1997 Cariaco earthquake (Mw=6.9) until the end of 2000. Carbon dioxide concentrations were also monitored between 1998-2000. The soil-gas was collected between 50-55 cm depths at two sampling points at Altos de pipe (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas-IVIC) near Caracas, Venezuela. The radon and thoron measurements were performed daily employing radiation monitors with scintillation cells and the carbon dioxide was monitored with portable gas analyzers. Average weekly and monthly values were calculated and plotted for this three-four year period. In general, both the radon and carbon dioxide values showed sinusoidal trends due to seasonal changes. During the dry season the radon and carbon dioxide values decreased, while the radon activity was relative constant (flat) during the rainy season at one of the sampling points. Only two monthly radon values were seen to be anomalous in the graphs in respect to seven anomalous periods for the average weekly values. No anomalous periods were clearly seen for carbon dioxide. Finally, it was difficult to try to relate these radon anomalous periods with specific earthquakes due to the large number of minor earthquakes during these years, but it seem that the minor earthquake (Mb=5.9) of October 4, 2000 could be associated with the radon anomalous period in September, when there were no other minor earthquakes (Mb≥4.0). (author)

  6. Efficient simulation of gas-liquid pipe flows using a generalized population balance equation coupled with the algebraic slip model

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Ronco, Gianni; Marchisio, Daniele Luca; Labois, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    The inhomogeneous generalized population balance equation, which is discretized with the direct quadrature method of moment (DQMOM), is solved to predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) in a vertical pipe flow. The proposed model is compared with a more classical approach where bubbles are characterized with a constant mean size. The turbulent two-phase flow field, which is modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach, is assumed to be in local equilibrium, thus the relative gas and liquid (slip) velocities can be calculated with the algebraic slip model, thereby accounting for the drag, lift, and lubrication forces. The complex relationship between the bubble size distribution and the resulting forces is described accurately by the DQMOM. Each quadrature node and weight represents a class of bubbles with characteristic size and number density, which change dynamically in time and space to preserve the first moments of the BSD. The predictions obtained are validated against previously published experimental data, thereby demonstrating the advantages of this approach for large-scale systems as well as suggesting future extensions to long piping systems and more complex geometries. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Efficient simulation of gas-liquid pipe flows using a generalized population balance equation coupled with the algebraic slip model

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The inhomogeneous generalized population balance equation, which is discretized with the direct quadrature method of moment (DQMOM), is solved to predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) in a vertical pipe flow. The proposed model is compared with a more classical approach where bubbles are characterized with a constant mean size. The turbulent two-phase flow field, which is modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach, is assumed to be in local equilibrium, thus the relative gas and liquid (slip) velocities can be calculated with the algebraic slip model, thereby accounting for the drag, lift, and lubrication forces. The complex relationship between the bubble size distribution and the resulting forces is described accurately by the DQMOM. Each quadrature node and weight represents a class of bubbles with characteristic size and number density, which change dynamically in time and space to preserve the first moments of the BSD. The predictions obtained are validated against previously published experimental data, thereby demonstrating the advantages of this approach for large-scale systems as well as suggesting future extensions to long piping systems and more complex geometries. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting

  9. 78 FR 68161 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...-HQ-OAR-2011-0028; FRL-9845-6] RIN 2060-AR61 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and... monitoring methodologies for electronics manufacturers covered by the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. These...

  10. The Slug and Churn Turbulence Characteristics of Oil-Gas-Water Flows in a Vertical Small Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Han, Yunfeng; Wang, Dayang; Zhao, An; Jin, Ningde

    2017-08-01

    The intention of the present study was to investigate the slug and churn turbulence characteristics of a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow. We firstly carried out a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow experiment in a 20-mm inner diameter (ID) pipe to measure the fluctuating signals of a rotating electric field conductance sensor under different flow patterns. Afterwards, typical flow patterns were identified with the aid of the texture structures in a cross recurrence plot. Recurrence quantitative analysis and multi-scale cross entropy (MSCE) algorithms were applied to investigate the turbulence characteristics of slug and churn flows with the varying flow parameters. The results suggest that with cross nonlinear analysis, the underlying dynamic characteristics in the evolution from slug to churn flow can be well understood. The present study provides a novel perspective for the analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution instability and complexity in oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  11. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27 C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully ''gettered'' by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  12. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  13. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold-drawn or... order (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the disposition of proprietary information disclosed...

  14. Extensive optimisation analyses of the piping of two large underground gas storage ariel compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Korst, H.J.C.; Ploumen, G.; Heyer, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 compressors of each 7.5 Mw, are used for the underground gas storage (UGS) plant of Essent in Epe, Germany. The compressors can be operated at a wide range of operating conditions, e.g. variable suction and discharge pressures, 2-stage mode during gas

  15. Thermodynamic modeling and evaluation of high efficiency heat pipe integrated biomass Gasifier–Solid Oxide Fuel Cells–Gas Turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, S.; Schilt, C.; Turker, B.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of biomass Gasifier–SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)–GT (Gas Turbine) systems on a small scale (100 kW_e). Evaluation of an existing biomass Gasifier–SOFC–GT system shows highest exergy losses in the gasifier, gas turbine and as waste heat. In order to reduce the exergy losses and increase the system's efficiency, improvements are suggested and the effects are analyzed. Changing the gasifying agent for air to anode gas gave the largest increase in the electrical efficiency. However, heat is required for an allothermal gasification to take place. A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration is proposed, with heat pipes placed in between stacks in series, rather than the widely considered approach of integrating the heat pipes within the SOFC stacks. The developed system based on a Gasifier–SOFC–GT combination improved with heat pipes and anode gas recirculation, increases the electrical efficiency from approximately 55%–72%, mainly due to reduced exergy losses in the gasifier. Analysis of the improved system shows that operating the system at possibly higher operating pressures, yield higher efficiencies within the range of the operating pressures studied. Further the system was scaled up with an additional bottoming cycle achieved electrical efficiency of 73.61%. - Highlights: • A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration between SOFC and Gasifier is proposed. • Anode exhaust gas is used as a gasifying agent. • The new proposed Gasifier–SOFC–GT system achieves electrical efficiency of 72%. • Addition of steam rankine bottoming cycle to proposed system increases electrical efficiency to 73.61%.

  16. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  17. Leakage analysis of fuel gas pipe in large LNG carrier engine room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEN Zhuolun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] The electric propulsion dual-fuel engine is becoming dominant in newly built Liquefied Natural Gas(LNGcarriers. To avoid the potential risks that accompany the use of flammable and explosive boil-off gas,the performance of precise safety and reliability assessments is indispensable. [Methods] This research concerns the engine rooms of large LNG carriers which are propelled electrically by a dual-fuel engine. Possible fuel gas(natural gasleak cases in different areas of the engine room are simulated and analyzed. Five representative leak cases defined by leak form,leak location and leak rate are entered into a Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFDsimulation,in which the Reynolds stress model of Fluent software is adopted as the turbulence model. The results of the leaked gas distribution and ventilation velocity field are analyzed in combination to obtain the diffusion tendency and concentration distribution of leaked gas in different areas.[Results] Based on an analysis of the results,an optimized arrangement of flammable gas detectors is provided for the engine room, and the adoption of an explosion-proof exhaust fan is proven to be unnecessary.[Conclusions] These analysis methods can provide a reference for similar gas leakage scenarios occurring in confined ventilated spaces. In addition, the simulation results can be used to quantitatively assess potential fire or explosion damage in order to guide the design of structural reinforcements.

  18. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  19. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  20. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 3: nonseismic stress analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.L.; Curtis, D.J.; Rybicki, E.F.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    This volume describes the analyses used to evaluate stresses due to loads other than seismic excitations in the primary coolant loop piping of a selected four-loop pressurized water reactor nuclear power station. The results of the analyses are used as input to a simulation procedure for predicting the probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant system. Sources of stresses considered in the analyses are pressure, dead weight, thermal expansion, thermal gradients through the pipe wall, residual welding, and mechanical vibrations. Pressure and thermal transients arising from plant operations are best estimates and are based on actual plant operation records supplemented by specified plant design conditions. Stresses due to dead weight and thermal expansion are computed from a three-dimensional finite element model that uses a combination of pipe, truss, and beam elements to represent the reactor coolant loop piping, reactor pressure vessel, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and the pressurizer. Stresses due to pressure and thermal gradients are obtained by closed-form solutions. Calculations of residual stresses account for the actual heat impact, welding speed, weld preparation geometry, and pre- and post-heat treatments. Vibrational stresses due to pump operation are estimated by a dynamic analysis using existing measurements of pump vibrations

  1. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  2. Monitoring and localization of buried plastic natural gas pipes using passive RF tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Saikat; Kumar, Deepak; Ghazali, Mohd. Ifwat; Chahal, Prem; Udpa, Lalita; Deng, Yiming

    2018-04-01

    A passive harmonic radio frequency (RF) tag on the pipe with added sensing capabilities is proposed in this paper. Radio frequency identification (RFID) based tagging has already emerged as a potential solution for chemical sensing, location detection, animal tagging, etc. Harmonic transponders are already quite popular compared to conventional RFIDs due to their improved signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, the operating frequency, transmitted power and tag efficiency become critical issues for underground RFIDs. In this paper, a comprehensive on-tag sensing, power budget and frequency analyses is performed for buried harmonic tag design. Accurate tracking of infrastructure burial depth is proposed to reduce the probability of failure of underground pipelines. Burial depth is estimated using phase information of received signals at different frequencies calculated using genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization for post processing. Suitable frequency range is determined for a variety of soil with different moisture content for small tag-antenna size. Different types of harmonic tags such as 1) Schottky diode, 2) Non-linear Transmission Line (NLTL) were compared for underground applications. In this study, the power, frequency and tag design have been optimized to achieve small antenna size, minimum signal loss and simple reader circuit for underground detection at up to 5 feet depth in different soil medium and moisture contents.

  3. The velocity of missiles generated by the disintegration of gas-pressurized vessels and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to describe the velocity of fragments generated when a gas-pressurized vessel disintegrates. The predictions are compared with new and existing experimental data for spherical and cylindrical vessels and are shown to be an improvement over the widely used empirical correlation developed by Moore. It is also shown that, by an appropriate definition of the energy available for doing work on the fragments, the velocity of the fragments from the disintegration of a section of gas pipeline may be predicted by the same model

  4. The velocity of missiles generated by the disintegration of gas-pressurised vessels and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1983-03-01

    A theoretical model is developed to describe the velocity of fragments generated when a gas-pressurised vessel disintegrates. The predictions are compared with new and existing experimental data for spherical and cylindrical vessels and are shown to be an improvement over the widely used empirical correlation developed by Moore. It is also shown that, by an appropriate definition of the energy available for doing work on the fragments, the velocity of the fragments from the disintegration of a section of gas pipeline may be predicted by the same model. (author)

  5. Gas Gun Model and Comparison to Experimental Performance of Pipe Guns Operating with Light Propellant Gases and Large Cryogenic Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Carmichael, J. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL); Gebhart, T. E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A. [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Injection of multiple large (~10 to 30 mm diameter) shattered pellets into ITER plasmas is presently part of the scheme planned to mitigate the deleterious effects of disruptions on the vessel components. To help in the design and optimize performance of the pellet injectors for this application, a model referred to as “the gas gun simulator” has been developed and benchmarked against experimental data. The computer code simulator is a Java program that models the gas-dynamics characteristics of a single-stage gas gun. Following a stepwise approach, the code utilizes a variety of input parameters to incrementally simulate and analyze the dynamics of the gun as the projectile is launched down the barrel. Using input data, the model can calculate gun performance based on physical characteristics, such as propellant-gas and fast-valve properties, barrel geometry, and pellet mass. Although the model is fundamentally generic, the present version is configured to accommodate cryogenic pellets composed of H2, D2, Ne, Ar, and mixtures of them and light propellant gases (H2, D2, and He). The pellets are solidified in situ in pipe guns that consist of stainless steel tubes and fast-acting valves that provide the propellant gas for pellet acceleration (to speeds ~200 to 700 m/s). The pellet speed is the key parameter in determining the response time of a shattered pellet system to a plasma disruption event. The calculated speeds from the code simulations of experiments were typically in excellent agreement with the measured values. With the gas gun simulator validated for many test shots and over a wide range of physical and operating parameters, it is a valuable tool for optimization of the injector design, including the fast valve design (orifice size and volume) for any operating pressure (~40 bar expected for the ITER application) and barrel length for any pellet size (mass, diameter, and length). Key design parameters and proposed values for the pellet injectors for

  6. Technical report on material selection and processing guidelines for BWR [boiling water reactor] coolant pressure boundary piping: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.S.; Koo, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    This report provides the technical bases for the NRC staff's revised recommended methods to control the intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of BWR piping. For piping that does not fully comply with the material selection, testing, and processing guideline combinations of this document, varying degrees of augmented inservice inspection are recommended. This revision also includes guidance and NRC staff recommendations (not requirements) regarding crack evaluation and weld overlay repair methods for long-term operation or for continuing interim operation of plants until a more permanent solution is implemented

  7. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  8. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  9. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  10. Configuration analysis of pipe support for primary cooling using Ps + Caepipe code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y. B.; Pustandyo, W.; Sujalmo, S.

    1998-01-01

    Pipe stress evaluation and support loads has been analyzed on piping segment of RSG-GAS primary cooling system. This paper describes an analysis method of piping system with the use of computer Code PS + CAEPIPE Version 3.4.05.W. From the selected pipe segment, the data of pipe characteristic, material properties, operation condition, equipment and supports were used input. The final evaluation result of primary cooling pipe segment show that actual stress dead weight and seismic load are less than allowable limits (stress ratio 0.101 for deadweight 0.35 for seismic load). From the above ratio, it can be concluded that ratio of pipe support configuration to stress distribution is acceptable, and based on analysis result, the Code used by INTERATOM was sufficiently accurate

  11. Ecoulements intermittents de gaz et de liquide en conduite verticale Intermittent Gas and Liquid Flows in a Vertical Pipe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle présenté ici permet la pré-détermination du gradient de pression, du taux global de gaz, et de grandeurs caractéristiques de l'intermittence, dans un écoulement à poches et bouchons en conduite verticale. L'écriture des lois de conservation en moyenne phasique conditionnelle conduit à la définition d'une cellule moyenne équivalente. La fermeture du modèle est assurée par des lois de contrainte de cisaillement film-paroi, film-poche, bouchon-paroi, par une loi d'arrachage du gaz au culot de la poche, une loi de glissement du gaz dans les bouchons et par une loi de la vitesse moyenne de propagation des fronts de poches. Le calibrage et la qualification du modèle s'appuient sur deux banques de données, dont l'une a été obtenue avec des fluides pétroliers dans des conditions proches des situations industrielles (boucle diphasique de Boussens. The model described here can be used to predetermine the pressure gradient, the overall gas rate and the characteristic intermittence magnitudes in pocket and slug flow in a vertical pipe. The way governing equations in the conditional phase average are written defines an equivalent average cell. The model is closed by film/wall, film/pocket and slug/wall shear-stress laws, by a pulloff law for the gas at the bottom of the pocket, a slippage law for the gas in the slugs, and a mean propagation velocity law for the pocket fronts. The calibration and qualification of the model are based on two data banks, one of which contains data on petroleum fluids under conditions close to industrial situations (two-phase loop at Boussens.

  12. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The main objective of this project has been to disseminate the results and experiences achieved during the former projects in Kaunas to other Lithuanian gas companies and the gas sector in general. Also new subjects selected in co-operation with Kaunas Gas Company, the Lithuanian Energy Institute and the Lithuanian Gas Training Centre, where improvements were required, have been implemented. The components of the project were the following: (1) A training course in cathodic protection. One course concerning measuring and registration and one course concerning design and implementation. (2) A pilot project to develop methods for measuring cathodic protection on coherent steel pipe network. (3) Analysis of gas losses related to types of gas meters and calibration of meters. (4) A training course and technology transfer concerning relations between gas companies and consumers. (5) Dissemination of the experience of 1998 from the preparation of an operation and maintenance manual for Kaunas Gas Company. Dissemination of the ideas to other Lithuanian gas companies. (EHS)

  13. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  14. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  15. The tightness of the globe valves in the exploitations practice of the gas pipe-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrak, T.; Rudzki, Z.; Surmacz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological units of the Transit Gas Pipeline (i.e. Compressor Stations, Valve Stations, Stations or National Network Service Installations) have been fitted with Ball Valves as shut-off devices (block valves). Internal tightness of the valves' seat becomes major factor in securing proper service conditions during normal pipeline operation as well as for isolating of pipeline sections in emergency situations (loss of pipeline integrity or uncontrolled gas escape). Internal tightness of the valves is being inspected during scheduled maintenance of the pipeline units. Any leak revealed during inspection is being repaired, following instructions provided in the Manufacturer's Valve Manual. After a time, some cases have been identified, when repair of the revealed leak was found to be difficult, despite close following of the repair manuals. The paper presents analysis of the issue and corrective actions taken accordingly. (authors)

  16. Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model

  17. 77 FR 64483 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-0649, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 1, 2012, the Department published in... Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;'' ``Verification of the Sales Response of Midwest Air... Steel Joint Stock Company.... Sun Steel Joint Stock 4.57 Company. Huu Lien Asia Corporation........ Huu...

  18. 78 FR 35251 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... of the order, the products covered are all seamless circular refined copper pipes and tubes.\\6\\ The..., 2011). The Department announced a refinement to its assessment practice in non-market economy cases.\\12... for the PRC- wide entity. \\12\\ See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...

  19. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of the Government of the UAE's (``GUAE''), Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd., KHK... Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd.; KHK 2.06 Scaffolding and Formwork LLC; Universal Tube and Pipe... Industry Usage Data Comment 4 Countervailability of Alita's Tariff Exemptions B. Subsidies Within the Jebel...

  20. Stability of cracked pipe under seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.2 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Veith, P.; Marschall, C.

    1997-06-01

    Results of displacement-controlled pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within the International Piping Integrity Research Group, IPIRG, Program Subtask 1.2 are discussed. Effects of dynamic versus quasi-static and monotonic versus cyclic loading were evaluated for ductile tearing of two materials, A106 Grade B ferritic steel and TP304 austenitic steel. Twelve through-wall-cracked pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch diameter Schedule 120 pipe at 288 C (550 F). The results indicated dynamic loading at seismic strain rates marginally increased the load-carrying capacity of austenitic steel. The ferritic steel tested was sensitive to dynamic strain-aging, and consequently, its load-carrying capacity decreased at dynamic strain rates. Two parameters were found to affect the apparent ductile crack growth resistance during cyclic loading, load ratio (R) and incremental plastic displacement that occurs in a cycle. Cyclic (R = 0) loading had minimal effect on ductile tearing for both materials. However, fully reversed loading decreased the load-carrying capacity and toughness for both materials. The incremental plastic displacement can be as important as the load ratio; however, it is harder to quantify from design stress reports. Large plastic displacements will minimize the effect of negative load ratios

  1. 78 FR 34342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (reseller policy). This clarification... antidumping duties in accordance with the reseller policy. Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash...

  2. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR 11608 (March 21, 1996), pipe...) (``Assessment Policy Notice''). This clarification will apply to entries of subject merchandise during the... transaction. See Assessment Policy Notice for a full discussion of this clarification. Cash Deposit...

  3. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR 11608 (March 21, 1996), pipe certified to the API 5L line... Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (``Assessment Policy Notice''). This clarification will apply to... there is no rate for the intermediary involved in the transaction. See Assessment Policy Notice for a...

  4. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

  5. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

  6. Heat and momentum transfer in a gas coolant flow through a circular pipe in a high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro

    1989-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) has been researched and developed with a purpose of attaining a coolant temperature of around 1000degC at the reactor outlet. In order to design VHTR, comprehensive knowledge is required on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of laminar-turbulent transition, of coolant flow with large thermal property variation due to temperature difference, and of heat transfer deterioration. In the present investigation, experimental and analytical studies are made on a gas flow in a circular tube to elucidate the thermo-hydraulic characteristics. Friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in transitional flows are obtained. Influence of thermal property variation on the friction factor is qualitatively determined. Heat transfer deterioration in the turbulent flow subjected to intense heating is experimentally found to be caused by flow laminarization. The analysis based on a k-kL two-equation model of turbulence predicts well the experimental results on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in flows with thermal property variation and in laminarizing flows. (author)

  7. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the

  8. MORPHOTECTONIC ANALYSIS AT TANIMBAR TRENCH AS A BASE FOR GAS PIPE LAYING BETWEEN MASELA BLOCK AND SELARU ISLAND, MOLUCCAS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at Masela Block and its surrounding, Moluccas Province. Result of the deep sea measurement and global data conversion provide description of three dimensions around the track lines area. This result is overlay with seismic data, that can give morphotectonic implication between Asian and Australian Plates. Track lines of MGI-2010-MSL-1, 2 and 3 show that the profile of the sea floor, form the high morphology which represents the volcanic islands. It forms west – east direction of fold-thrust belt non-volcanic outer Banda arc. The southern part trench of the Australian Continent reflected the platform system and undulation morphology. The sea floor profile ( VE 1:5 show that the slope profile ranges between 0º and 8º. Furthermore, the morphology of the sea floor can be classified as a relatively flat slope. Due to this condition, this area may be used for gas pipe laying along 146 km distance, between the Well of Abadi 1 at the Masela Block and Selaru Island at south Tanimbar Islands.

  9. Proposed systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in residues produced in Brazilian natural gas pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    2003-11-01

    Since the 80's, the potential radiological hazards due to the handling of solid wastes contaminated with Rn-222 long-lived progeny - Pb-210 in special - produced in gas pipes and removed by pig operations have been subject of growing concern abroad our country. Nevertheless, little or no attention has been paid to this matter in the Brazilian plants up to now, being these hazards frequently underestimated or even ignored. The main purpose of this work was to propose a systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in black powder samples from some Brazilian plants, through the evaluation of direct Pb-210 gamma spectrometry and Bi-210 beta counting technical viabilities. In both cases, one in five samples of black powder analysed showed relevant activity (above 1Bq/kg) of Pb-210, being these results probably related to particular features of each specific plant (production levels, reservoir geochemical profile, etc.), in such a way that a single pattern is not observed. For the proposed methodology, gamma spectrometry proved to be the most reliable technique, showing a 3.5% standard deviation, and, for a 95% confidence level, overall fitness in the range of Pb-210 concentration of activity presented in the standard sample reference sheet, provided by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. In the Brazilian scene, however, the availability of statistically supported evidences is insufficient to allow the potential radiological hazard due to the management of black powder to be discarded. Thus, further research efforts are recommended in order to detect the eventually critical regions or plants where gas exploration, production and processing practices will require a regular program of radiological surveillance, in the near future. (author)

  10. 75 FR 39680 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-44-000; Docket No. PR10-46-000; Docket No. PR10-48- 000; Docket No. PR10-49-000; Docket No. PR10-50-000] Houston Pipe Line Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid Continent Market Center, L.L.C...

  11. Wellhead deliverabilty of natural gas - assembling the evidence. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents information about the wellhead delivery of natural gas--the amount of gas the supply industry can produce and deliver to the pipeline. It is designed to help power industry planners evaluate essential aspects of gas supply as part of their overall assessment and utilization of gas-fired power generation. Low prices caused by excess deliverability have led to minimal exploration for new supplies, with the open-quotes bubbleclose quotes of excess deliverability ending. The report examines the facts pertinent to assessing the outlook for deliverability over the intermediate term. It develops deliverability concepts and relates deliverability to reserves and resources. It assesses the available information for measuring and monitoring availability and suggests improvements in available data. The regional outlook for deliverability growth in the Gulf of Mexico and other leading producing regions is also discussed. The report reviews the historical background of present deliverability trends and discusses the industry dynamics that affect development of future deliverability: lead times for increasing deliverability, the declining base of skilled exploration manpower, advancing gas supply technology, and prices required to encourage exploration and development

  12. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  13. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... investigation is Zenith Birla (India) Limited (previously known as Zenith Steel Pipes and Industries Ltd...

  14. Marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt, R.P.; Delaney, T.D.

    1973-01-01

    This report covers in some detail most of the major areas of consideration involved in the marine carriage of LNG. Some of the fields investigated and reviewed are the world's total energy picture and the particular requirements of natural gas in the United States in the near future. (GRA)

  15. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  16. Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

  17. Insurance issues and natural gas vehicles. Final report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    GRI has been funding research on natural gas vehicle (NGV) technology since 1986. To support the activity, GRI is evaluating a number of NGV issues including fuel storage, tank inspection, system safety, refueling, U.S. auto and truck use characteristics, and the fleet vehicle infrastructure. In addition, insurance and leasing companies will require new regulations and policies to address clean-fueled vehicle fleets' emergence into the marketplace. These policies may influence and partially determine the structure of the alternatively fueled vehicle industry, and the requirements, if any, imposed upon vehicle technologies. The report asseses the insurance and leasing industries' infrastructure/institutional barriers as they relate to the introduction of natural gas fueled vehicle fleets

  18. Studies on the characteristics of the separated type heat pipe system with non-condensible gas for the use of the passive decay heat removal in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masao.

    1995-01-01

    This study is the fundamental research by experiments to aim at the development of the complete passive decay heat removal system on the modular reactor systems by the form of the separated type of heat pipe system utilizing the features of both the big latent heat for vaporization from water to steam and easy transportation characteristics. Special intention in our study on the fundamental experiments is to look for the effects in such a separated type of heat pipe system to introduce non-condensible gas such as nitrogen gas together with the working fluid of water. Many interesting findings have been obtained so far on the experiments for the variable conductance heat pipe characteristics from viewpoint of the actual application on the aim said above. This study has been carried out by the joint study between Tokai University and Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. and this paper is made up from the several papers presented so far at both the national and international symposiums under the name of joint study of the both bodies. (author)

  19. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  20. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  1. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  2. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  3. Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) defect characterization of nuclear reactor piping welds. Phase I. Final report, October 1985-March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.J.; Thome, D.K.

    1986-05-01

    The Phase I workscope was successfully completed. This work was directed at determining the most promising methods for application of EMATs to stainless steel piping examination. It consisted of a literature review, evaluation of shear and longitudinal wave inspection modes, and evaluation of several signal processing techniques to enhance signal/noise ratios. The work involved both hardware and software development. A high degree of success was obtained during the course of the work, indicating that further exploitation of the technique is fully warranted. Defects as small as 0.1 cm deep could be detected in wrought stainless piping, and the ability to detect defects in thick centrifugally cast stainless samples was demonstrated. In addition, the techniques showed promise for sizing the flaws. These results were achieved through a combination of synthetic aperture processing, temporal averaging and low frequency illumination. Additional techniques were evaluated, including frequency analysis, angle beam scanning and multimode inspection, but were shown to be of limited benefit for the samples available in Phase I. However, these techniques may offer potential for discriminating between cracks and geometric reflectors. 56 refs., 21 figs

  4. Final Masses of Giant Planets II: Jupiter Formation in a Gas-Depleted Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, we study the final masses of giant planets growing in protoplanetary disks through capture of disk gas, by employing an empirical formula for the gas capture rate and a shallow disk gap model, which are both based on hydrodynamical simulations. The shallow disk gaps cannot terminate growth of giant planets. For planets less massive than 10 Jupiter masses, their growth rates are mainly controlled by the gas supply through the global disk accretion, rather than their gaps. The insuffic...

  5. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  7. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  8. Integrating a Procurement Management Process into Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM: A Case-Study on Oil and Gas Projects, the Piping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Jo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC of oil and gas megaprojects often experience cost overruns due to substantial schedule delays. One of the greatest causes of these overruns is the mismanagement of the project schedule, with the piping works (prefabrication and installation occupying a majority of that schedule. As such, an effective methodology for scheduling, planning, and controlling of piping activities is essential for project success. To meet this need, this study used the Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM to develop a piping construction delay prevention methodology, incorporating material procurement processes for EPC megaprojects. Recent studies indicate that the traditional scheduling method used on oil and gas mega projects has critical limitations regarding resource scarcity, calculation of activity duration, and dealing with uncertainties. To overcome these limitations, the Theory of Constraints-based CCPM was proposed and implemented to provide schedule buffers management. Nonexistent in literature, and of critical importance, is this paper’s focus on the resource buffer, representing material uncertainty and management. Furthermore, this paper presents a step-by-step process and flow chart for project, construction, and material managers to effectively manage a resource buffer through the CCPM process. This study extends the knowledge of traditional resource buffers in CCPM to improve material and procurement management, thus avoiding the shortage of piping materials and minimizing delays. The resultant process was validated by both deterministic and probabilistic schedule analysis through two case studies of a crude pump unit and propylene compressor installation at a Middle Eastern Refinery Plant Installation. The results show that the CCPM method effectively handles uncertainty, reducing the duration of piping works construction by about a 35% when compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, the

  9. Concentration fluctuations in gas releases by industrial accidents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Chatwin, P.C.; Joergensen, H.E.; Mole, N.; Munro, R.J.; Ott, S.

    2002-05-01

    The COFIN project studied existing remote-sensing Lidar data on concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion from continuous sources at ground level. Fluctuations are described by stochastic models developed by a combination of statistical analyses and surface-layer scaling. The statistical moments and probability density distribution of the fluctuations are most accurately determined in a frame of reference following the instantaneous plume centreline. The spatial distribution of these moments is universal with a gaussian core and exponential tails. The instantaneous plume width is fluctuating with a log-normal distribution. The position of the instantaneous plume centre-line is modelled by a normal distribution and a Langevin equation, by which the meander effect on the time-averaged plume width is predicted. Fixed-frame statistics are modelled by convolution of moving-frame statistics and the probability distribution for the plume centreline. The distance-neighbour function generalized for higher-order statistics has a universal exponential shape. Simulation tools for concentration fluctuations have been developed for either multiple correlated time series or multi-dimensional fields. These tools are based on Karhunen-Loeve expansion and Fourier transformations using iterative or correlation-distortion techniques. The input to the simulation is the probability distribution of the individual processes, assumed stationary, and the cross-correlations of all signal combinations. The use in practical risk assessment is illustrated by implementation of a typical heavy-gas dispersion model, enhanced for prediction and simulation of concentration fluctuations. (au)

  10. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kascak, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    The gas core reactor is a proposed device which features high temperatures. It has applications in high specific impulse space missions, and possibly in low thermal pollution MHD power plants. The nuclear fuel is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons as opposed to gamma rays. This thermal energy is picked up before it reaches the solid cavity liner by an inflowing seeded propellant stream and convected out through a rocket nozzle. A wall-burnout condition will exist if there is not enough flow of propellant to convect the energy back into the cavity. A reactor must therefore operate with a certain amount of excess propellant flow. Due to the thermal inertia of the flowing propellant, the reactor can undergo power transients in excess of the steady-state wall burnout power for short periods of time. The objective of the study was to determine how long the wall burnout power could be exceeded without burning out the cavity liner. The model used in the heat-transfer calculation was one-dimensional, and thermal radiation was assumed to be a diffusion process. (auth)

  11. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  12. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  13. Studies on the characteristics of the separated heat pipe system with non-condensible gas for the use of the passive decay heat removal in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Ishi, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Kazutaka

    1997-01-01

    Experiments on the separated heat pipe system of variable conductance type, which enclose non-condensible gas, have been carried out with intention of applying such system to passive decay heat removal of the modular reactors such as HTR plant. Basic experiments have been carried out on the experimental apparatus consisting of evaporator, vapor transfer tube, condenser tube and return tube which returns the condensed liquid back to the evaporator. Water and methanol were examined as the working fluids and nitrogen gas was enclosed as the non-condensible gas. The behaviors of the system were examined for the parametric changes of the heat input under the various pressures of nitrogen gas initially enclosed, including the case without enclosing N 2 gas for the comparison. The results of the experiments shows very clear features of self control characteristics. The self control mechanism was made clear, that is, in such system in which the condensing area in the condenser expands automatically in accordance with the increase of the heat input to keep the system temperature nearly constant. The working temperature of the system are clearly dependent on the pressure of the non-condensable gas initially enclosed, with higher system working temperature with higher initial gas pressure enclosed. The analyses were done on water and methanol as the working fluids, which show very good agreement with the experimental results. A lot of attractive applications are expected including the self switching feature with minimum heat loss during normal operation with maintaining the sufficient heat removal at accidents. (author)

  14. Void fraction development in gas-liquid flow after a U-bend in a vertically upwards serpentine-configuration large-diameter pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Baba, Yahaya D.; Lao, Liyun; Yeung, Hoi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a return U-bend on flow behaviour in the vertical upward section of a large-diameter pipe. A wire mesh sensor was employed to study the void fraction distributions at axial distances of 5, 28 and 47 pipe diameters after the upstream bottom bend. The study found that, the bottom bend has considerable impacts on up-flow behaviour. In all conditions, centrifugal action causes appreciable misdistribution in the adjacent straight section. Plots from WMS measurements show that flow asymmetry significantly reduces along the axis at L/D = 47. Regime maps generated from three axial locations showed that, in addition to bubbly, intermittent and annular flows, oscillatory flow occurred particularly when gas and liquid flow rates were relatively low. At this position, mean void fractions were in agreement with those from other large-pipe studies, and comparisons were made with existing void fraction correlations. Among the correlations surveyed, drift flux-type correlations were found to give the best predictive results.

  15. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  16. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must meet...

  17. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results

  18. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  19. Measurements of gravity and gravity-capillary waves in horizontal gas-liquid pipe flow using PIV in both phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birvalski, M.; Tummers, M.J.; Henkes, R.A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study was performed in stratified wavy flow of air and water through a horizontal pipe. The velocity fields in both phases were measured simultaneously using PIV and the interfacial shape was resolved using a profile capturing technique. The objective of the study was to

  20. Piping structural design for the ITER thermal shield manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Chang Hyun, E-mail: chnoh@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wooho, E-mail: whchung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kwanwoo; Kang, Kyoung-O. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jing Do; Cha, Jong Kook [Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute, Busan 606-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Kyu [Mecha T& S, Jinju-si 660-843 (Korea, Republic of); Hamlyn-Harris, Craig; Hicks, Robby; Her, Namil; Jun, Chang-Hoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We finalized piping design of ITER thermal shield manifold for procurement. • Support span is determined by stress and deflection limitation. • SQP, which is design optimization method, is used for the pipe design. • Benchmark analysis is performed to verify the analysis software. • Pipe design is verified by structural analyses. - Abstract: The thermal shield (TS) provides the thermal barrier in the ITER tokamak to minimize heat load transferred by thermal radiation from the hot components to the superconducting magnets operating at 4.2 K. The TS is actively cooled by 80 K pressurized helium gas which flows from the cold valve box to the cooling tubes on the TS panels via manifold piping. This paper describes the manifold piping design and analysis for the ITER thermal shield. First, maximum allowable span for the manifold support is calculated based on the simple beam theory. In order to accommodate the thermal contraction in the manifold feeder, a contraction loop is designed and applied. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is used to determine the optimized dimensions of the contraction loop to ensure adequate flexibility of manifold pipe. Global structural behavior of the manifold is investigated when the thermal movement of the redundant (un-cooled) pipe is large.

  1. Determination of Hydrodynamic Parameters on Two--Phase Flow Gas - Liquid in Pipes with Different Inclination Angles Using Image Processing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gustavo; Valecillos, María; Romero, Carlos; Gonzáles, Dosinda

    2009-11-01

    In the present research a digital image processing-based automated algorithm was developed in order to determine the phase's height, hold up, and statistical distribution of the drop size in a two-phase system water-air using pipes with 0 , 10 , and 90 of inclination. Digital images were acquired with a high speed camera (up to 4500fps), using an equipment that consist of a system with three acrylic pipes with diameters of 1.905, 3.175, and 4.445 cm. Each pipe is arranged in two sections of 8 m of length. Various flow patterns were visualized for different superficial velocities of water and air. Finally, using the image processing program designed in Matlab/Simulink^, the captured images were processed to establish the parameters previously mentioned. The image processing algorithm is based in the frequency domain analysis of the source pictures, which allows to find the phase as the edge between the water and air, through a Sobel filter that extracts the high frequency components of the image. The drop size was found using the calculation of the Feret diameter. Three flow patterns were observed: Annular, ST, and ST&MI.

  2. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Comment 4: Model Matching Hierarchy Comment 5: Nacobre's U.S. Date of Sale Comment 6: Treatment of Nacobre... suspension-of- liquidation instructions will remain in effect until further notice. Final Determination The...

  3. Strength analysis of copper gas pipeline span

    OpenAIRE

    Ianevski, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the stresses in a gas pipeline. While analyzing piping systems located inside building were used. Calculation of the strength of a gas pipeline is done by using information of the thickness of pipe walls, by choosing the suitable material, inner and outer diameter for the pipeline. Data for this thesis was collected through various internet sources and different books. From the study and research, the final results were reached and calculations were ...

  4. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  5. 78 FR 79664 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of the 2011-2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ..., the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and Amendment to Final Determination of Sales at...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (reseller policy). For all entries by Lamina... reseller policy. Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash deposit requirements will be effective upon...

  6. Identifying and mitigating flow-induced vibration in recycle loop gas piping at a centrifugal compressor station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broerman, Eugene L.; Gatewood, Jason T.; O' Grady, James T. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Troy, Russell F. [Spectra Energy, Houston, TX (United States); Rand, Charles L.; Stroud, Gary T. [R-S-H Engineering, Monroe, LA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The South East Supply Header joining Delhi, Louisiana, to Coden, Alabama, was put into service in 2008. During start-up of the mainline compressor station, located near Lucedale, MS, high amplitude vibration was detected on the second elbow downstream of the anti-surge valve/fast stop valve piping tee in the recycle loop piping. The aim of this paper is to present the issue and the solution adopted. An investigation of the high vibration was carried out and was followed by Strouhal and acoustic analyses. A solution to the problem was then proposed and mechanically analyzed. It was found that upfront analyses of these types can give an accurate prediction of the vibration and could have avoided the problem encountered and saved a lot of time and money since the modification costs were about 10 times higher than those for a typical analysis made at the installation design phase would have been.

  7. Measurement of characteristics of exhaust pipe for the system for gas-vapor medium filtration of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyakin, S.G.; Tsyganok, A.A.; Taranov, G.S.; Grigor'ev, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pilot investigation into the dependence of thermal power of pipe of (air-air heat exchanger) from the flow and temperature of heating air was conducted, temperature fields from top to bottom of the pipe was measured. Experiments were performed in the follow regime parameters: the flow of cold (heated) air is equal to 30 m 2 /h (∼0.01 kg/s), the temperature at the inlet was changed in the ranges of T inl c =28-36 Deg C; the flow of heating air was equal to 30, 90, 150 and 220 m 3 /h (0,01-0.075 kg/s) at the temperature at the inlet T inl h =170, 220 and 280 Deg C. In addition to experiments were conducted at 120 Deg C. At 280 Deg C increase of the flow from 0.01 to 0.02 kg/s is over thermal power approximately by 2 times [ru

  8. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  9. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  10. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  11. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  12. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  13. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  14. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  15. The impact analysis of the connecting pipe length and diameter on the operation of a piston hybrid power machine of positive displacement with gas suction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, V. E.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Averyanov, G. S.; Surikov, V. I.; Vedruchenko, V. P.; Galdin, N. S.; Trukhanova, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the connecting liquid pipe length and diameter on consumables and power characteristics of the piston hybrid power machine with gas suction capacity. The following operating characteristics of the machine were constructed and analyzed: the average height of the liquid column in the jacket space; instantaneous velocity and height of the liquid column in the jacket space; the relative height of the liquid column in the jacket space; volumetric efficiency; indicator isothermal efficiency; flowrate in the pump section; relative pressure losses during suction; relative flowrate. The dependence of the instantaneous pressure in the work space and the suction space of the compressor section on the rotation angle of the crankshaft is determined for different values of the length and diameter of the connecting pipeline.

  16. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  17. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  18. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  19. Experimental and numerical study of steel pipe with part-wall defect reinforced with fibre glass sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Lukasz; Tomaszewski, Michal; Malachowski, Jerzy; Sybilski, Kamil; Chebakov, Mikhail; Witek, Maciej; Yukhymets, Peter; Dmitrienko, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of the gas seamless hot-rolled steel pipe. The main goal was to estimate mechanical toughness of pipe wrapped with composite sleeve and verify selected sleeve thickness. The authors used a nonlinear explicit FE code with constitutive models which allows for steel and composite structure failure modelling. Thanks to the achieved numerical and analytical results it was possible to perform the comparison with data received from a capacity test and good correlation between the results were obtained. Additionally, the conducted analyses revealed that local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 mm to 2.4 mm due to corrosion defect can reduce high pressure resistance by about 40%. Finally, pipe repaired by a fibre glass sleeve with epoxy resin with 6 mm thickness turned out more resistant than an original steel pipe considering burst pressure. - Highlights: • Numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of steel pipe was performed. • Seamless hot-rolled steel pipe with and without corrosion defect were considered. • Local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 to 2.4 mm reduces resistance by 40%. • Pipe repaired by a 6 mm fibre glass sleeve was more resistant than an original pipe.

  20. A study on the concentration of CO by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe for a household gas boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leem, Sa Hwan; Huh, Yong Jeong; Lee, Jong Rark

    2008-01-01

    Energy and environment become increasingly serious after the industrial revolution. The demand for gas as an ecofriendly energy source is also increasing. With the demand, the installation and the use of gas boilers have also increased, so the damage to human life by the waste gas (CO and CO 2 ) continues increasing every year. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of CO (Carbon Monoxide) by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe by installing a boiler with the same method as a household boiler and to discover the harm to humans. For the effect of the length, the allowable concentration of CO is 50ppm, and the 3m of the once bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 5 minutes, and the 4m and 5m starts exceeding after 3 minutes. In addition, the 1m of three times bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 3 minutes

  1. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  2. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  3. Heat pipes for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heat pipes have known for years as effective constructional elements for temperature control. With the aid of special techniques (gas, liquid, steam, and voltage control), special operating characteristics can be obtained, e.g. variable heat conduction or diode behaviour. Their main field of application is in spacecraft technology and in nuclear technology in the isothermalisation of irradiation capsules. The different control techniques are presented and critically evaluated on the basis of characteristic properties like heat transfer capacity, volume and mass requirements, complexity of structure and production, reliability, and temperature control characteristics. Advantages and shortcomings of the different concepts are derived and compared. The state of the art of these control techniques is established on the basis of four development levels. Finally, the necessity and direction of further R + D activities are discussed, and suggestions are made for further work. (orig./HP) [de

  4. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  5. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  6. Modeling of the evolution of bubble size distribution of gas-liquid flow inside a large vertical pipe. Influence of bubble coalescence and breakup models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The range of gas-liquid flow applications in today's technology is immensely wide. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. In gas-liquid flows, the bubble size distribution plays an important role in the phase structure and interfacial exchange behaviors. It is therefore necessary to take into account the dynamic change of the bubble size distribution to get good predictions in CFD. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble-Size-Class Test Solver was introduced in Lucas et al. (2001) for the simulation of the development of the flow structure along a vertical pipe. The model considers a large number of bubble classes. It solves the radial profiles of liquid and gas velocities, bubble-size class resolved gas fraction profiles as well as turbulence parameters on basis of the bubble size distribution present at the given axial position. The evolution of the flow along the height is assumed to be solely caused by the progress of bubble coalescence and break-up resulting in a bubble size distribution changing in the axial direction. In this model, the bubble coalescence and breakup models are very important for reasonable predictions of the bubble size distribution. Many bubble coalescence and breakup models have been proposed in the literature. However, some obvious discrepancies exist in the models; for example, the daughter bubble size distributions are greatly different from different bubble breakup models, as reviewed in our previous publication (Liao and Lucas, 2009a; 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to compare and evaluate typical bubble coalescence and breakup models that have been commonly used in the literature. Thus, this work is aimed to make a comparison of several typical bubble coalescence and breakup models and to discuss in detail the ability of the Test Solver to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution. (orig.)

  7. Development of a Remote External Repair Tool for Damaged or Defective Polyethylene Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth H. Green; Willie E. Rochefort; Nick Wannenmacher; John A. Clark; Kevin Harris

    2006-06-30

    Current procedures for repairing polyethylene (PE) gas pipe require excavation, isolation, and removal of the damaged section of pipe followed by fusing a new section of pipe into place. These techniques are costly and very disruptive. An alternative repair method was developed at Timberline Tool with support from Oregon State University (OSU) and funding by the U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL). This project was undertaken to design, develop and test a tool and method for repairing damaged PE pipe remotely and externally in situ without squeezing off the flow of gas, eliminating the need for large-scale excavations. Through an iterative design and development approach, a final engineered prototype was developed that utilizes a unique thermo-chemical and mechanical process to apply a permanent external patch to repair small nicks, gouges and punctures under line pressure. The project identified several technical challenges during the design and development process. The repair tool must be capable of being installed under live conditions and operate in an 18-inch keyhole. This would eliminate the need for extensive excavations thus reducing the cost of the repair. Initially, the tool must be able to control the leak by encapsulating the pipe and apply slight pressure at the site of damage. Finally, the repair method must be permanent at typical operating pressures. The overall results of the project have established a permanent external repair method for use on damaged PE gas pipe in a safe and cost-effective manner. The engineered prototype was subjected to comprehensive testing and evaluation to validate the performance. Using the new repair tool, samples of 4-inch PE pipe with simulated damage were successfully repaired under line pressure to the satisfaction of DOE/NETL and the following natural gas companies: Northwest Natural; Sempra Energy, Southwest Gas Corporation, Questar, and Nicor. However, initial results of

  8. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  9. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  10. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  11. Development status and operational features of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1976-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the maturity of HTR-technology and to look out for possible technical problems, concerning introduction of large HTR power plants into the market. Further state and problems of introducing and closing the thorium fuel cycle is presented and judged. Finally, the state of development of advanced HTR-concepts for electricity production, the direct cycle HTR with helium turbine, and the gas-cooled fast breeder is discussed. In preparing the study, both HTR concepts with spherical and block-type fuel elements have been considered

  12. The final status of a metal surface after multipulse laser irradiation in an ambient gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulmer Leborgne, C.; Hermann, J.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the role of the ambient gas nature and pressure, and the influence of the laser pulse total duration and temporal shape in the coupling of the incident laser light of λ = 10.6μm wavelength to a metallic surface at intermediate laser intensities of 10 7 - 10 8 W/cm 2 . A plasma is accompanying then the action of the laser pulse. It is acting as an active moderator among laser beam and target thus determining the final status of the contact surface. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs

  13. Piping engineering for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curto, N.; Schmidt, H.; Muller, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop piping engineering, an adequate dimensioning and correct selection of materials must be secured. A correct selection of materials together with calculations and stress analysis must be carried out with a view to minimizing or avoiding possible failures or damages in piping assembling, which could be caused by internal pressure, weight, temperature, oscillation, etc. The piping project for a nuclear power plant is divided into the following three phases. Phase I: Basic piping design. Phase II: Final piping design. Phase III: Detail engineering. (Author)

  14. In Situ Corrosion and Heat Loss Assessment of Two Nonstandard Underground Heat Distribution System Piping Designs: Supplement-Appendices for Final Report on Project F07-AR01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    negative mission impacts . This report documents the assessment of two similar nonstandard UHDS piping system designs — one at Fort Carson, CO, and one at...psig and monitored for 2 hours to determine whether the conduit piping system is protected from ground water infiltration and its degrading impacts ...Conduits to/from this pit were tested from adjacent pits. 2. Supply, Return drains tested on 8/15/07: All Dry N S EW MH-3N ERDC/CERL TR-11-14 H13

  15. The effect of buoyancy on flow and heat transfer for a gas passing down a vertical pipe at low turbulent reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easby, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    For the analysis of low-flow situations in the core of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor it is necessary to have a knowledge of the variation of pressure drop and heat transfer with flow and buoyancy influence. Nitrogen at 4 bar has been used to simulate the high pressure helium in the reactor and an experiment performed for downward flow in a heated vertical pipe. The measurements show that for the range of flow and buoyancy influence parameters investigated, (2000 6 ), friction factors are reduced by up to 20% compared with a correlation for isothermal flows and heat transfer is increased by up to 40% compared with a correlation for constant fluid properties. Agreement with the limit amount of previous data is quite satisfactory. The changes in heat transfer and friction factor with buoyancy influence can be attributed to distortion of the normally linear, radial shear stress profile. Simple equations have been determined to correlate the present results but extrapolation to conditions of high flow and buoyancy influence, where the interaction of forced and free convection may be different, is not advised. (author)

  16. Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid slug flow along vertical pipes in turbulent regime-An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, T.S.; Ferreira, V.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Campos, J.B.L.M. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jmc@fe.up.pt

    2008-08-15

    An experimental study on free-bubbling gas-liquid (air-water) vertical slug flow was developed using a non-intrusive image analysis technique. The flow pattern in the near-wake of the bubbles and in the main liquid between bubbles was turbulent. A single correlation for the bubble-to-bubble interaction is proposed, relating the trailing bubble velocity to the length of the liquid slug ahead of the bubble. The proposed correlation is shown to be independent of column diameter, column vertical coordinate, superficial liquid and gas velocities and the velocity and length of the leading bubble. Frequency distribution curves, averages, modes and standard deviations are reported, for distributions of bubble velocity, bubble length and liquid slug length, for each experimental condition studied. Good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding the upward velocity of undisturbed bubbles, in a 0.032 m internal diameter column. A considerable discrepancy was found, though, for a 0.052 m internal diameter column. The acquired experimental data are crucial for the development and validation of a robust slug flow simulator.

  17. Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid slug flow along vertical pipes in turbulent regime-An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, T.S.; Ferreira, V.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Campos, J.B.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study on free-bubbling gas-liquid (air-water) vertical slug flow was developed using a non-intrusive image analysis technique. The flow pattern in the near-wake of the bubbles and in the main liquid between bubbles was turbulent. A single correlation for the bubble-to-bubble interaction is proposed, relating the trailing bubble velocity to the length of the liquid slug ahead of the bubble. The proposed correlation is shown to be independent of column diameter, column vertical coordinate, superficial liquid and gas velocities and the velocity and length of the leading bubble. Frequency distribution curves, averages, modes and standard deviations are reported, for distributions of bubble velocity, bubble length and liquid slug length, for each experimental condition studied. Good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding the upward velocity of undisturbed bubbles, in a 0.032 m internal diameter column. A considerable discrepancy was found, though, for a 0.052 m internal diameter column. The acquired experimental data are crucial for the development and validation of a robust slug flow simulator

  18. Ecoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide à poches et à bouchons en conduites Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Slug Flow in Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferschneider G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les écoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide ont été étudiés afin de contribuer à développer des modèles de calculs prédictifs des pertes de charge dans les conduites de production des bruts pétroliers. Les expériences nécessaires ont été réalisées sur la boucle diphasique de Boussens dans les conditions suivantes représentatives des conditions industrielles : diamètre 6 , longueur 120 m, disposition de la conduite horizontale ou faiblement ascendante, couple de fluide gaz naturel-huile légère. Le gradient de pression, le contenu global, et la distribution locale des phases ont été mesurés. Le traitement des équations de conservation phasique intégrées sur la section par différents types de moyennes a permis de développer un modèle cellulaire qui inclue un nombre limité d'équations constitutives nécessaires à sa fermeture. Ce modèle prédétermine convenablement le gradient de pression, le contenu gaz global et la longueur des poches et des bouchons. Two-phase gas-liquid flows were analyzed so as to develop models for prediction of pressure drops in crude-oil production lines. The experiments were performed on the two-phase loop at Boussens under the following representative industrial conditions: 6 diameter, 120 m length, horizontal or slightly rising pipe, couple of fluids natural gas and light oil. The pressure gradient, average content and local phase distribution were measured. Conservation phase equations integrated along the cross-section were processed by different time-averaged operators so as to develop a cellular model including a limited number of constitutive equations required for its closure. This model suitably predetermines the pressure gradient, the average gas content and the length of gas and liquid slug.

  19. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  20. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  1. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental...) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is announcing its... Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent to affected Federal, State...

  2. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe...

  3. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is...

  4. Measurement of the enrichment of uranium-hexafluoride gas in product pipes in the centrifuge enrichment plant at Almelo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Aaldijk, J.K.; Harry, R.J.S.

    1987-09-01

    One of the objectives of safeguarding centrifuge enrichment plants is to apply non-destructive measurements inside the cascade area to confirm that the enrichment level is in the low enriched uranium range. Research in the UK and USA has developed a NDA instrument which can confirm the presence of low enriched uranium on a rapid go/no go basis in cascade header pipework of their centrifuge enrichment plants. The instrument is based on a gamma spectroscopic measurement coupled with an X-ray fluorescence analysis. This report gives the results of measurements carried out at Almelo by the UKAEA Harwell, ECN Petten and KFA Juelich to determine if these techniques could be employed at Almelo and Gronau. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis has been applied to determine the total mass of uranium in the gas phase, and the deposit correction technique and the two geometry technique have been applied at Almelo to correct the measured gamma intensities for those emitted by the deposit. After an executive summary the report discusses the principles of the two correction methods. A short description of the equipment precedes the presentation of the results of the measurements and the discussion. After the conclusions the report contains two appendices which contain the derivation of the formulae for the deposit correction technique and a discussion of the systematic errors of this technique. 8 figs.; 11 refs.; 6 tables

  5. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  6. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report

  7. Administration and transaction cost estimates for a greenhouse gas offset system : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's Climate Change Plan provides large final emitters (LFEs) with the option to meet their emission targets through the purchase of domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) offset credits. This paper presents the results of a study which identified and estimated transaction costs associated with an offset system. The cost to both proponents and governments were identified. The study also suggested ways to reduce administration and transaction costs through design options. The study considered projects involving agriculture, forests, landfill gas capture, renewable energy and energy efficiency within a potential domestic offset system. It was determined that average transaction costs per tonne range from $19 per tonne to $0.05 depending on the design choice and project type. Total administration costs did not vary more than 5 per cent between different design choices. The total system costs, which are the combination of all transaction and administration costs, are the best indicator for the potential of a project. Eight case studies were examined and costs per tonne were presented. According to the results, the best opportunities to reduce both transaction and administration costs are to choose a broad approach to baselines, boundaries and quantification; and, to allow pooling in the forestry and agriculture sectors. Transaction costs can be lowered further by reducing the frequency of monitoring and verification and allowing pre-2008 crediting. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Construction of pipelines. Materials for the distribution of gas in the open country at operational pressures of up to 4 bar (gauge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, S [Westfaelische Ferngas-A.G., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The gas industry has recently faced the task of supplying regions with low energy demand, too. Because of the unfavourable ratio of pipe length to embed to the amount of gas to sell, projects can only be relaized if distribution expenses can be reduced by making use of cost-effective piping systems. Of all material suitable hard poly ethylene and the composite material polystal are examined. Material properties are discussed, which are considered in particular to avoid disadvantages when using the new system. Finally, cost relations are given resulting from the bedding of the piping system mentioned, compared with the conventional bedding of steel pipes.

  9. Training and certification of the personnel of gas distribution pipe-laying contractor companies in Spain; Formation et certification du personnel des contracteurs pour la pose des gazoducs en Espagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Since the end of the 1980's, the Spanish gas sector has been experiencing a strong rate of growth of consumption, extension of transportation and distribution networks, and numbers of customers, especially in the domestic and commercial market. Polyethylene is playing a primordial rote in the growing extension of distribution networks in Spain, being the material by far the most widely used both in terms of extension of the network and replacement of obsolete materials. For Spanish gas distribution companies, carrying out this extension of the transportation and distribution network is a primordial objective in order to reach and lay gas supplies on to new towns, with the highest levels of quality and safety. This payer describes the personnel certification work on the gas distribution pipe-laying contractor companies carried out by Sedigas within the framework of the requirements of the standard ISO 45013, on certification of personnel. (author)

  10. The Combined Use of a Gas-Controlled Heat Pipe and a Copper Point to Improve the Calibration of Thermocouples up to 1100 ˚C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, M.; Iacomini, L.; Battuello, M.

    2008-10-01

    The calibration of platinum-based thermocouples from 420 °C to 1,100 ˚C is currently carried out at INRIM making use of two different apparatus: for temperatures below 930 ˚C, a potassium gas-controlled heat pipe (GCHP) is used, whereas a metal-block furnace is adopted for higher temperatures. The standard uncertainty of the reference temperature obtained in the lower temperature range is almost one order of magnitude better than in the higher temperature range. A sealed copper cell was investigated to see if it could be used to calibrate thermocouples above 930 ˚C with a lower uncertainty than our current procedures allowed. The cell was characterized with Type S and Pt/Pd thermocouples and with an HTPRT. The freezing plateaux were flat within 0.01 ˚C and lasted up to 1 h with a repeatability of 0.02 ˚C. The temperature of the cell was determined with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 ˚C. Hence, the copper cell was found to be superior to the comparator furnace for the calibration of platinum-based thermocouples because of the significant decrease in the uncertainty that it provides. An analysis was also carried out on the calibration of Pt/Pd thermocouples, and it was found that the combined use of the potassium GCHP and the Cu fixed-point cell is adequate to exploit the potential of these sensors in the range from 420 °C to 1,084 °C. A comparison with a fixed-point calibration was also made which gave rise to agreement within 0.07 ˚C between the two approaches.

  11. On the whistling of corrugated pipes with narrow cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; González Diez, N.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes with a corrugated inner surface, as used inflexible pipes for gas production and transport, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocities are higher than a certain onset velocity. The onset velocity for classical corrugated pipes can be predicted on basis of the geometry

  12. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reutzel, Edward W; Kern, Ludwig; Sullivan, Michael J; Tressler, Jay F; Avalos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of laser welding with conventional gas metal arc welding technology offers substantial increases in production rate of joining pipe through single-pass joining compared to multi-pass...

  13. Study on pressure pulsation and piping vibration of complex piping of reciprocating compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Feng Quanke; Yu Xiaoling

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research on the piping vibration and pressure pulsation of reciprocating compressor piping system. On the basis of plane wave theory, the calculation of gas column natural frequency and pressure pulsation in complex pipelines is done by using the transfer matrix method and stiffness matrix method, respectively. With the discretization method of FEM, a mathematical model for calculating the piping vibration and stress of reciprocating compressor piping system is established, and proper boundary conditions are proposed. Then the structural modal and stress of the piping system are calculated with CAESAR II. The comparison of measured and calculated values found that the one dimensional wave equation can accurately calculate the natural frequency and pressure pulsation in gas column of piping system for reciprocating compressor. (authors)

  14. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  15. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2006-01-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 900 C and operational fuel temperatures above 1250 C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR's higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gases (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  16. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2006-03-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gasses (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  17. Framing scenarios of electricity generation and gas use: EPRI report series on gas demands for power generation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumb, S.; Glover, W.; Hughes, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Results of three EPRI projects have been combined to analyze power industry consumption of gas and other generating fuels. The report's capstone is a scenario analysis of power industry generation and fuel consumption. The Utility Fuel Consumption Model (UFCM), developed for the project, predicts generating capacity and generation by region and fuel through 2015, based on load duration curves, generation dispatch, and expected capacity additions. Scenarios embody uncertain factors, such as electricity demand growth, fuel switching, coal-gas competition, the merit order of gas-coal dispatch, and retirement of nuclear units, that substantially affect gas consumption. Some factors, especially electricity demand have very large effects. The report includes a consistent database on NUG (non-utility generation) capacity and generation and assesses historical and prospective trends in NUG generation. The report shows that NUG capacity growth will soon decline substantially. The study assesses industry capability for price-induced fuel switching from gas to oil and coal, documenting conversions of coal units to dual coal-gas capability and determining that gas-to-oil switching remains a strong influence on fuel availability and gas prices, though regulation and taxation have increased trigger prices for switching. 61 tabs

  18. Analysis of pipe stress using CAESAR II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of this piping stress with the purpose of knowing stress distribution piping system in order to determine pipe supports configuration. As an example of analysis, Gas Exchanger to Warm Separator Line was chosen with, input data was firstly prepared in a document, i.e. piping analysis specification that its content named as pipe characteristics, material properties, operation conditions, guide equipment's and so on. Analysis result such as stress, load, displacement and the use support type were verified based on requirements in the code, standard, and regularities were suitable with piping system condition analyzed. As the proof that piping system is in safety condition, it can be indicated from analysis results (actual loads) which still under allowable load. From the analysis steps that have been done CAESAR II code fulfill requirements to be used as a tool of piping stress analysis as well as nuclear and non nuclear installation piping system

  19. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 9: PRAISE computer code user's manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, E.Y.

    1981-08-01

    The PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) computer code estimates the influence of earthquakes on the probability of failure at a weld joint in the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor. Failure, either a through-wall defect (leak) or a complete pipe severance (a large-LOCA), is assumed to be caused by fatigue crack growth of an as-fabricated interior surface circumferential defect. These defects are assumed to be two-dimensional and semi-elliptical in shape. The distribution of initial crack sizes is a function of crack depth and aspect ratio. Crack propagation rates are governed by a Paris-type relationship with separate RMS cyclic stress intensity factors for the depth and length. Both uniform through the wall and radial gradient thermal stresses are included in the calculation of the stress intensity factors. The failure probabilities are estimated by applying Monte Carlo methods to simulate the life histories of the selected weld joint. In order to maximize computational efficiency, a stratified sampling procedure is used to select the initial crack size. Hydrostatic proof test, pre-service inspection, and in-service inspection can be simulated. PRAISE treats the inter-arrival times of operating transients either as a constant or exponentially distributed according to observed or postulated rates. Leak rate and leak detection models are also included. The criterion for complete pipe severance is exceedance of a net section critical stress. Earthquakes of various intensity and arbitrary occurrence times can be modeled. PRAISE presently assumes that exactly one initial defect exists in the weld and that the earthquake of interest is the first earthquake experienced at the reactor

  20. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems... pipeline on a pier or wharf must be located so that it is not exposed to physical damage from vehicular...

  1. Stress-intensity factors for surface cracks in pipes: a computer code for evaluation by use of influence functions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedhia, D.D.; Harris, D.O.

    1982-06-01

    A user-oriented computer program for the evaluation of stress intensity factors for cracks in pipes is presented. Stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical, complete circumferential and long longitudinal cracks can be obtained using this computer program. The code is based on the method of influence functions which makes it possible to treat arbitrary stresses on the plane of the crack. The stresses on the crack plane can be entered as a mathematical or tabulated function. A user's manual is included in this report. Background information is also included

  2. Underground docking of shields for the first time under the sea by MSD method. Shield for a gas pipe line to Shin Nagoya thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co. Ltd.,; Kaiteika hatsu no MSD koho ni yoru shirudo chichu setsugo. Chubu Denryoku Shin Nagoya Karyoku Hatsudensho gas dokan shirudo koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-25

    MSD (mechanical shield docking) method is a method for mechanical docking two shields which have been extended simultaneously from both ends of one section of tunnel boring to shorten work term. One of the two shields has a piercing ring on its tip and another has a receiving ring. In the final stage of boring, the two ring are docked directly by piercing-receiving. The MSD method has been applied for the first time under sea to a boring work of an under sea tunnel on a route of a gas pipe line from Chita LNG base, Aichi prefecture to the title power station. This paper reports the outline of the shield machine and horizontal boring for confirming shield position that is a key to an underground docking as well as docking work. In the horizontal boring, after the shield machine on receiving side had reached the docking point predestined, the shield machine on piercing side conducted primary boring at 20 m front of the docking point and then secondary boring at 3 m front, whereby the boring hole was pierced into the shield machine on the receiving side. The accomplishment of this work made certain the reliability of MSD method even under sea. 1 ref., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  4. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  5. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  6. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-02-01

    utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR's Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument's robustness in a real-world situation.

  8. Proposed systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in residues produced in Brazilian natural gas pipes; Proposicao de um modelo analitico sistematico da atividade de Pb-210 em residuos gerados em linhas de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    2003-11-15

    Since the 80's, the potential radiological hazards due to the handling of solid wastes contaminated with Rn-222 long-lived progeny - Pb-210 in special - produced in gas pipes and removed by pig operations have been subject of growing concern abroad our country. Nevertheless, little or no attention has been paid to this matter in the Brazilian plants up to now, being these hazards frequently underestimated or even ignored. The main purpose of this work was to propose a systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in black powder samples from some Brazilian plants, through the evaluation of direct Pb-210 gamma spectrometry and Bi-210 beta counting technical viabilities. In both cases, one in five samples of black powder analysed showed relevant activity (above 1Bq/kg) of Pb-210, being these results probably related to particular features of each specific plant (production levels, reservoir geochemical profile, etc.), in such a way that a single pattern is not observed. For the proposed methodology, gamma spectrometry proved to be the most reliable technique, showing a 3.5% standard deviation, and, for a 95% confidence level, overall fitness in the range of Pb-210 concentration of activity presented in the standard sample reference sheet, provided by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. In the Brazilian scene, however, the availability of statistically supported evidences is insufficient to allow the potential radiological hazard due to the management of black powder to be discarded. Thus, further research efforts are recommended in order to detect the eventually critical regions or plants where gas exploration, production and processing practices will require a regular program of radiological surveillance, in the near future. (author)

  9. Minimisation of pressure pulsations in the screw compressor discharge piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, D. [Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology, Berlin (Germany). R and D Screw Compressors

    2006-07-01

    A problem of noise and vibration in the piping between the screw compressor and oil separator arises if the natural gas pulsations in the piping get in the resonance with the pulsations sent by the compressor. Several typical piping geometries such as a short and a long pipe with the open end and a short pipe with agglomerator have been studied to evaluate the natural frequency of the gas column. It was found that because of the wave reflection from the open pipe end the gas in such a pipe has several natural frequencies dependent on the sound speed and on the pipe length. Since the sound speed of various refrigerants differs significantly, the resonance pipe length will also vary strongly from one refrigerant to another. Hence, to avoid the resonance a separate examination for each refrigerant would be required at the compressor package design stage. Unlike open ended pipes, in the pipe with agglomerator the wave reflection at the agglomerator side is reduced. This allows using of one standard discharge pipe geometry resonance-free independent on the refrigerant. (orig.)

  10. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  11. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter provides atmospheric data during Aerobraking into its final orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; Bruinsma, Sean; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; ExoMars 2016 Team

    2017-10-01

    After the arrival of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) at Mars on 19 October 2016 a number of initial orbit change manoeuvres were executed and the spacecraft was put in an orbit with a 24 hour period and 74 degrees inclination. The spacecraft and its four instruments were thoroughly checked out after arrival and a few measurements and images were taken in November 2016 and in Feb-March 2017. The solar occultation observations have however not yet been possible due to lack of the proper geometry.On 15 March a long period of aerobraking to reach the final 400km semi-circular frozen orbit (370x430km, with a fixed pericentre latitude). This orbit is optimised for the payload observations and for the communication relay with the ExoMars Rover, due to arrive in 2021.The aerobraking is proceeding well and the final orbit is expected to be reached in April 2018. A large data set is being acquired for the upper atmosphere of Mars, from the limit of the sensitivity of the accelerometer, down to lowest altitude of the aerobraking at about 105km. Initial analysis has shown a highly variable atmosphere with a slightly lower density then predicted by existing models. Until the time of the abstract writing no dust storms have been observed.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the Proton launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission, consisting of a Rover and a Surface platform also launched by a Proton rocket, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and Surface Platform through its (NASA provided) UHF communication system.

  12. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  13. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release

  14. Advanced industrial ceramic heat pipe recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumpf, H.J.; Stillwagon, T.L.; Kotchick, D.M.; Coombs, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation involving the use of ceramic heat pipe recuperators for high-temperature heat recovery from industrial furnaces. The function of the recuperator is to preheat combustion air with furnace exhaust gas. The heat pipe recuperator comprises a bundle of individual ceramic heat pipes acting in concert, with a partition separating the air and exhaust gas flow streams. Because each heat pipe is essentially an independent heat exchanger, the failure of a single tube does not compromise recuperator integrity, has only a minimal effect on overall heat exchanger performance and enables easier replacement of individual heat pipes. In addition, the heat pipe acts as an essentially isothermal heat transfer device, leading to a high thermodynamic efficiency. Cost estimates developed for heat pipe recuperator systems indicate favorable payback periods. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating the required ceramic tubes, coating the inside of the tubes with CVD tungsten, and sealing the heat pipe with an electron-beam-welded or vacuum-brazed end cap.

  15. Catalytic upgrading of gas from biofuels and implementation of electricity production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran; Frostaeng, Sten [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The project aimed at research and development concerning processes for production of fuel gas and systems for production of electricity in the small to intermediate size range (100 kW{sub e} to 5 MW{sub e}. The project included building and testing of a complete 'biomass-to-electricity' chain at scale of 100 kW{sub th}. Research work was focused on improvements in reduction of contents of tar and ammonia, and on the influences from sulphur on nickel catalysts, and from chlorine on dolomite catalysts. The project was divided into four main tasks, comprising 19 work packages which included basic and applied research and process development. The work was to some extent a further development of results obtained in a previous EC project (AIR2-CT93-1436). A pilot plant at scale 100 kW{sub th} was designed and erected by BTG. This system consists of a fluidized bed gasifier, a reversal flow tar converter (RFTC), a gas cooler, dust filter and a gas engine. A main effort was put into the optimisation of the RFTC. Tar contents obtained varied between 50 and 150 mg/Nm{sup 3} . Finally, a short test programme was executed, where the technical feasibility of the RFTC was demonstrated successfully at real conditions in the complete biomass-to-electricity system. Specific investment costs were estimated for scales of 0.4, 1 and 2 MW{sub el}. For the largest scale the specific investment costs were estimated to about 165 ECU/kW{sub el}. The fundamental work consisted of basic investigations of catalysts, catalysed reactions, catalyst poisoning by sulphur and tar characterisation. Issues addressed were such as factors that influence activity of different catalysts for elimination of tars, search for new catalysts and optimal use of known and new catalysts. Detailed kinetics of catalysed reactions that convert tar into desired permanent fuel gas components was determined for the most stable tar components, which play major roles in the overall conversion of tar. The

  16. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  17. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment

  18. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  19. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, R., E-mail: chenrui1005@hotmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Urban and Civil Engineering for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  20. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  1. Hydrogen isotope effect through Pd in hydrogen transport pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    This investigation concerns hydrogen system with hydrogen transport pipes for transportation, purification, isotope separation and storage of hydrogen and its isotopes. A principle of the hydrogen transport pipe (heat pipe having hydrogen transport function) was proposed. It is comprised of the heat pipe and palladium alloy tubes as inlet, outlet, and the separation membrane of hydrogen. The operation was as follows: (1) gas was introduced into the heat pipe through the membrane in the evaporator; (2) the introduced gas was transported toward the condenser by the vapor flow; (3) the transported gas was swept and compressed to the end of the condenser by the vapor pressure; and (4) the compressed gas was exhausted from the heat pipe through the membrane in the condenser. The characteristics of the hydrogen transport pipe were examined for various working conditions. Basic performance concerning transportation, evacuation and compression was experimentally verified. Isotopic dihydrogen gases (H 2 and D 2 ) were used as feed gas for examining the intrinsic performance of the isotope separation by the hydrogen transport pipe. A simulated experiment for hydrogen isotope separation was carried out using a hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The hydrogen transport pipe has a potential for isotope separation and purification of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium in fusion reactor technology. (author)

  2. Geochemical and geologic factors effecting the formulation of gas hydrate: Task No. 5, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of our work has been to determine the primary geochemical and geological factors controlling gas hydrate information and occurrence and particularly in the factors responsible for the generation and accumulation of methane in oceanic gas hydrates. In order to understand the interrelation of geochemical/geological factors controlling gas hydrate occurrence, we have undertaken a multicomponent program which has included (1) comparison of available information at sites where gas hydrates have been observed through drilling by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) on the Blake Outer Ridge and Middle America Trench; (2) regional synthesis of information related to gas hydrate occurrences of the Middle America Trench; (3) development of a model for the occurrence of a massive gas hydrate as DSDP Site 570; (4) a global synthesis of gas hydrate occurrences; and (5) development of a predictive model for gas hydrate occurrence in oceanic sediment. The first three components of this program were treated as part of a 1985 Department of Energy Peer Review. The present report considers the last two components and presents information on the worldwide occurrence of gas hydrates with particular emphasis on the Circum-Pacific and Arctic basins. A model is developed to account for the occurrence of oceanic gas hydrates in which the source of the methane is from microbial processes. 101 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite: GAMBIT Club Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R.; Rodwell, W.R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the second phase of a programme of work to develop a computational model of gas migration through highly compacted bentonite. Experimental data that have appeared since the earlier report are reviewed for the additional information they might provide on the mechanism of gas migration in bentonite. Experiments carried out by Horseman and Harrigton (British Geological Survey) continued to provide the main data sets used in model evaluation. The earlier work (POSIVA Report 98-08) had resulted in a preliminary model of gas migration whose main features are gas invasion by microcrack propagation, and dilation of the pathways formed with increasing gas pressure. New work was carried out to further explore the capabilities of this model. In addition, a feature was added to the model to simulate gas pathway creation by water displacement rather than crack propagation. The development of a new alternative gas migration model is described. This is based on a volume-averaged representation of gas migration rather than on a description of flow in discrete pathways. Evaluation of this alternative model showed that it can produce similar agreement with experimental results to the other models examined. The implications of flow geometry, confining conditions and flow boundary conditions on gas migration behaviour in bentonite are reviewed. Proposals are made for the development of the new model into a tool for simulating gas migration through a bentonite buffer around a waste canister, and for possible enhancements to the model that might remove some of its currently perceived deficiencies. (orig.)

  4. Research on pipe welding information management system basedon RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the construction background, construction target and construction principle of the pipe welding management system based on RFID. Then, describes the specific requirements of the system. The basic principle and key technology of the system are introduced. The structure of the system (including the system design, the selections of handheld devices and high frequency passive RFID tags is described .Then the system management software designs (including software structure, the main functions of the management center system and the main functions of the handheld detection system are described in detail. Finally, the management system is implemented, and it is deployed to several Gas Co, which has chieved good results.

  5. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented

  6. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  7. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  8. Gas cooled reactor assessment. Volume II. Final report, February 9, 1976--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report was prepared to document the estimated power plant capital and operating costs, and the safety and environmental assessments used in support of the Gas Cooled Reactor Assessment performed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The gas-cooled reactor technologies investigated include: the High Temperature Gas Reactor Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC), the HTGR Direct Cycle (HTGR-DC), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Reference technologies used for comparison include: Light Water Reactors (LWR), the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), conventional coal-fired steam plants, and coal combustion for process heat

  9. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  10. Numerical Prediction of Turbulent Oscillating Flow and Heat Transfer in Pipes with Various End Geometries. Ph.D. Thesis, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, Kirk Leroi

    1995-01-01

    Unsteady flow is present in man, machine and nature. The flow of blood in arteries and capillaries in the human body is pulsatile-composed of a mean flow superposed with an oscillating component. The tides that wash in and out of rivers, harbors and estuaries are unsteady flows with very long periods of oscillation. Many engineering devices employ pulsatile and oscillating flow. Pulsating flow is defined here as a periodic flow with a net displacement of fluid over each flow cycle. Oscillating flow is defined as a period flow with a zero mean over each cycle. The subject of this thesis is oscillating flow and heat transfer in pipes which make up the heater and cooler sections of the NASA Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) currently under development. This engine uses the Stirling cycle as the thermal energy converter in a power plant for future space applications. The information presented in this thesis will of course be applicable to the design of many types of machinery which employ oscillating flow and heat transfer.

  11. Electrochemical Noise Sensors for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines. Final Report for the Period July 2001-October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; Russell, James H.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  12. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  13. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite: gambit club phase 3. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, A.R.; Cliffe, K.A.; Swift, B.T.; Rodwell, W.R.

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the third phase of a programme of work to develop a computational model of gas migration through highly compacted water-saturated bentonite. One difficulty with this endeavour is the definitive determination of the mechanism of the gas migration from the available experimental data. The report contains a brief review of the experimental data and their interpretation. The model development work reported involves the investigation of two ways of enhancing a model proposed in the previous phase of the programme. This model was based on the concept that gas migration pathways were created by consolidating the clay fabric by application of gas pressure to create porosity through which the gas could flow. The two developments of this model that are separately explored in this work are: (a) The incorporation of a proper treatment of the stress-strain behaviour of the clay in (b) response to gas migration. The previous model had only considered stress effects through simple volume changes to the clay fabric. The inclusion of a dual-porosity feature into the model in an attempt to address the role that the clay fabric might play in gas migration through the clay, in particular the role that pre-existing interstack voids might have in gas migration. The consideration of hysteresis effects was also included in this study. As in previous GAMBIT Club work, the models are tested against the results of laboratory experiments. (orig.)

  14. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  15. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.

  16. Measurements and modeling to quantify emissions of methane and VOCs from shale gas operations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, Albert A [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to determine the leakage rates of methane and ozone-forming Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the emission rates of air toxics from Marcellus shale gas activities. Methane emissions in the Marcellus Shale region were differentiated between “newer” sources associated with shale gas development and “older” sources associated with coal or conventional natural gas exploration. This project conducted measurements of methane and VOC emissions from both shale and non-shale natural gas resources. The initial scope of the project was the Marcellus Shale basin, and measurements were conducted in both the western wet gas regions (southwest PA and WV) and eastern dry gas region (northeast PA) of the basin. During this project, we obtained additional funding from other agencies to expand the scope of measurements to include additional basins. The data from both the Marcellus and other basins were combined to construct a national analysis of methane emissions from oil & gas production activities.

  17. Further development of probabilistic analysis method for lifetime determination of piping and vessels. Final report; Weiterentwicklung probabilistischer Analysemethoden zur Lebensdauerbestimmung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, K.; Grebner, H.; Sievers, J.

    2013-07-15

    Within the framework of research project RS1196 the computer code PROST (Probabilistic Structure Calculation) for the quantitative evaluation of the structural reliability of pipe components has been further developed. Thereby models were provided and tested for the consideration of the damage mechanism 'stable crack growth' to determine leak and break probabilities in cylindrical structures of ferritic and austenitic reactor steels. These models are now additionally available to the model for the consideration of the damage mechanisms 'fatigue' and 'corrosion'. Moreover, a crack initiation model has been established supplementary to the treatment of initial cracks. Furthermore, the application range of the code was extended to the calculation of the growth of wall penetrating cracks. This is important for surface cracks growing until the formation of a stable leak. The calculation of the growth of the wall penetrating crack until break occurs improves the estimation of the break probability. For this purpose program modules were developed to be able to calculate stress intensity factors and critical crack lengths for wall penetrating cracks. In the frame of this work a restructuring of PROST was performed including possibilities to combine damage mechanisms during a calculation. Furthermore several additional fatigue crack growth laws were implemented. The implementation of methods to estimate leak areas and leak rates of wall penetrating cracks was completed by the inclusion of leak detection boundaries. The improved analysis methods were tested by calculation of cases treated already before. Furthermore comparative analyses have been performed for several tasks within the international activity BENCH-KJ. Altogether, the analyses show that with the provided flexible probabilistic analysis method quantitative determination of leak and break probabilities of a crack in a complex structure geometry under thermal-mechanical loading as

  18. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  19. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  20. Formulation and evaluation of gas release scenarios for the silo in Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR) has been in operation since 1988 and is located in the crystalline rock, 60 m below the Baltic Sea. In the licensing procedure for the SFR the safety assessment has been complemented with a detailed scenario analysis of the performance of the repository. The scenarios include the influence on radionuclide release by gas formation and gas transport processes in the silo. The overall conclusion is that the release of most radionuclides from the silo is only marginally affected by the formation and release of gas, even for scenarios considering unexpected events. The largest effects were found for short-lived radionuclides and radionuclides that have no or low sorption ability. Except for very extreme scenarios for the silo the overall impact from repository on the environment is by far dominated by the release of radionuclides from the rock vaults. 10 refs., 6 figs

  1. Not simply a pipe dream : new concept in pipelaying is helping to build one of Europe's major gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    This article discussed Volvo Construction Equipment's new concept in pipelaying machinery and its use in building the Bunde-Etzel pipeline. The Volvo PL4611 can lower a 1-kilometre-long pipe at once using 10 Volvo pipelayers at the same time. Lowering and laying is the sole purpose of the Volvo machines, and they are accompanied by 10 Volvo EC290BNLC crawler excavators. The Volvo pipelayers differ from conventional side-boom track-type tractor pipelayers in that the boom can turn 360 degrees, providing greater flexibility, precision, and control for placing pipe. The PL4611 is based on the EC460C standard excavator hydraulic design, so it can be disassembled easily and transported quickly. By switching the boom for digging equipment, the PL4611 can be changed into an excavator. The boom is longer than a standard pipelayer, allowing the machine to sit back from the trench, lessening the risk of tipping. The boom is mounted inside the track frame, near the machine's central line, providing it with a higher lift capacity and greater stability. The standard fully enclosed Volvo Care Cab provides the operator with excellent visibility. The boom is asymmetrical, allowing the pipe to be seen at all times for placing loads safely and precisely. A standard Load Management System enables the operator to determine what can be lifted safely. The pipelayer also meets the highest emission standards. 3 figs.

  2. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  3. Costs reduced by innovative plastic distribution pipe use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a strategic corporate cost-reduction initiative, Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Gas Distribution Group has achieved some quick but significant cash savings. System design, construction, and the purchasing function were areas that produced some fast paybacks while maintaining reliability and safety. The primary savings were made by optimizing pipe specifications to match system operating parameters. This allowed the use of smaller diameter pipes and/or thinner wall pipes which conserved the materials cost of the pipeline. Other realized savings in the form of coiled pipe, purchasing changes, and backfilling specifications are also described

  4. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  5. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  6. Chemical conversion of natural gas. Final report; Kjemisk konvertering av naturgass. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Haavard

    2000-07-01

    This report presents examples of gas research of a high international class. This research has strengthened the technological position of Norwegian industry in the field of gas utilization, which will be of great importance for Norwegian industry, nationally and internationally. The competence of the research and development institutions has been further developed within the subjects of catalysis, reactor technology and chemical engineering. These subjects are of central importance irrespective of whether or not the gas is to be utilized with or without CO{sub 2} deposition, for synthetic diesel, for methanol, for olefins, for proteins, for hydrogen or other purposes. The main purpose of the programme discussed was to educate PhDs and to develop skill of strategic importance for Norwegian industry. There are sections on synthesis gas, direct conversion, methanol to olefins, fluidized bed reactors and system technology.

  7. FFTF fuel failure detection and characterization by cover gas monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Holt, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will include a Fuel Failure Monitoring (FFM) System designed to detect, characterize, and locate fuel and absorber pin failures (i.e., cladding breaches) using a combination of delayed neutron detection, cover gas radioisotope monitoring, and gas tagging. During the past several years the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory has been involved in the development, design, procurement, and installation of this integrated system. The paper describes one portion of the FFM System, the Cover Gas Monitoring System (CGMS), which has the primary function of fuel failure detection and characterization in the FFTF. By monitoring the various radioisotopes in the cover gas, the CGMS will both detect fuel and absorber pin failures and characterize those failures as to magnitude and severity

  8. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the market for natural gas storage that will provide for rigorous evaluation of federal research and development opportunities in storage technologies. The project objectives are: (1) to identify market areas and end use sectors where new natural gas underground storage capacity can be economically employed; (2) to develop a storage evaluation system that will provide the analytical tool to evaluate storage requirements under alternate economic, technology, and market conditions; and (3) to analyze the economic and technical feasibility of alternatives to conventional gas storage. An analytical approach was designed to examine storage need and economics on a total U.S. gas system basis, focusing on technical and market issues. Major findings of each subtask are reported in detail. 79 figs.

  9. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid (∼70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  10. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  11. Multi-electrode gas sensor system - MEGAS. Final report; Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem - MEGAS. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidtkamp, C.

    2002-07-01

    A tungsten/titanium - mixed-oxide based sensor for selective exhaust gas measurement of e.g. diesel engines (NO{sub x}, CO, hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3},..) is described. The special design of the used sensors should allow operation at high ambient temperature with the potential of quantitative determination of different exhaust gas components with only one sensor. Several batches of sensor prototypes are characterised according to sensitivity and stability. (orig.)

  12. Seismic test of high temperature piping for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobatake, Kiyokazu; Midoriyama, Shigeru; Ooka, Yuzi; Suzuki, Michiaki; Katsuki, Taketsugu

    1983-01-01

    Since the high temperature pipings for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor contain helium gas at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , the double-walled pipe type consisting of the external pipe serving as the pressure boundary and the internal pipe with heat insulating structure was adopted. Accordingly, their aseismatic design is one of the important subjects. Recently, for the purpose of grasping the vibration characteristics of these high temperature pipings and obtaining the data required for the aseismatic design, two specimens, that is, a double-walled pipe model and a heat-insulating structure, were made, and the vibration test was carried out on them, using a 30 ton vibration table of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. In the high temperature pipings of the primary cooling system for the multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled experimental reactor, the external pipes of 32 B bore as the pressure boundary and the internal pipes of 26 B bore with internal heat insulation consisting of double layers of fiber and laminated metal insulators as the temperature boundary were adopted. The testing method and the results are reported. As the spring constant of spacers is larger and clearance is smaller, the earthquake wave response of double-walled pipes is smaller, and it is more advantageous. The aseismatic property of the heat insulation structure is sufficient. (Kako, I.)

  13. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography for OCS oil and gas impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The volume is the second of two volumes to the final report, Potential Impacts of OCS Oil and Gas Activities on Fisheries. The volume presents an annotated bibliography of published and grey literature related to OCS oil and gas activity impacts of finfish and shellfish in marine and estuaring waters. The studies presented in the bibliography include those related to the following pollutants or impact-causing activities: Rig/reef effects, Drilling discharges (muds or cuttings), Oil (petroleum hydrocarbons), Trace metals, Produced water, Habitat alteration, Debris, Rig placement (avoidance), Pipelines, and Socioeconomic effects. The studies are listed alphabetically by the primary author's last name. An index is provided to help the reader identify studies related to a specific impact

  14. Thermal expansion movements of piping during FFTF plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1981-03-01

    FFTF liquid metal piping exhibits significant displacements during heatup of the plant heat transport system. Verification of correct piping movements is important to assure that no restraints are present and to provide data for additional piping design/analysis validation. A test program is described in which a series of measurements were taken at selected piping locations. These data were obtained during Plant Acceptance Testing involving system heatup cycles to approximately 800 0 F(427 0 C). Typical test data are shown and compared to analytical predictions. Two piping system problems that were identified as a result of the testing are described along with resolutions thereof. Establishment of final baseline data is discussed

  15. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  16. Final report on 9 kW Stirling Engine for biogas and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell

    2001-01-01

    The need for a simple and robust engine for natural gas and low quality gas has resulted in the design of a single cylinder, hermetic Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 9 kW. Two engines have been built. One engine is intended for natural gas as fuel and the other is intended...... eliminates guiding forces on the pistons and the need for X-heads. Grease lubricated needle and ball bearings are used in the kinematic crank mechanism in order to avoid oil penetrating into the cylinder volumes. Working gas is Helium at 8 MPa mean pressure. The engine produce up to 11 kW of shaft power...... corresponding to approximately 10 kW of electric power. The design target was an efficiency of 26 % based on lower heat content of the gas to electricity, but only 24% were obtained. The decrease of efficiency is caused by inhomogeneous capacity flows in the air preheater and insufficient insulation...

  17. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  18. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  19. Natural gas assessment in France in 2015: final results - February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mombel, David

    2017-02-01

    Illustrated by tables and graphs, this publication presents and comments data related to primary consumption of natural gas in France (increase in 2015), national production (still marginal), the evolution of imports and re-exports (a decrease of imports more than balanced by the strong decrease of re-exports), the origin of supplies (a rather diversified supply still dominated by Norway and still attractive short-term contracts), stocks, the evolution of consumption in relationship with climate and use of gas-fired plants (evolution of consumption since 1970, supplies to the different sectors), and the evolution of supplies to the different regions

  20. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  1. Mobile hybrid LiDAR & infrared sensing for natural gas pipeline monitoring, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The natural gas distribution system in the U.S. has a total of 1.2 million miles of mains and about 65 million service lines as of 2012 [1]. This distribution system consists of various material types and is subjected to various threats which vary ac...

  2. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  3. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  4. Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  5. Future use of BI-GAS facility. Final report, Part II. [Other possible uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The 120 tpd BI-GAS pilot plant, intended to produce SNG at high pressure, was completed in 1976. For the next three and a half years, the operator, Stearns-Roger Inc., was engaged in operating the plant while overcoming a series of mechanical problems that have prevented the plant from running at design capacity and pressure. Since July 1980, these problems have apparently been corrected and considerable progress was made. In late 1979, the Yates Congressional Committee directed DOE to investigate the possibility of establishing an entrained-bed gasifier test facility at the site. In January 1981, the DOE established a study group composed of DOE and UOP/SDC personnel to determine how best to use the BI-GAS facility. The group considered four possibilities: Continue operation of the facility in accordance with the technical program plan developed by DOE and Stearns-Roger; modify the plant into an entrained-bed facility for testing components and processes; mothball the facility, or dismantle the facility. The group took the view that modifying the plant into a test facility would increase substantially the amount of engineering data available to the designers of commercial gasification plants. Since it appears that syngas plants will be of commercial interest sooner than SNG plants will, it was decided that the facility should test syngas production components and processes at high pressure. Consequently, it was recommended that: Operation of the plant be continued, both to collect data and to prove the BI-GAS process, as long as the schedule of the technical program plan is met; Begin at once to prepare a detailed design for modifying the BI-GAS plant to a high-pressure, entrained flow syngas test facility; and Implement the modification plan as soon as the BI-GAS process is proven or it becomes apparent that progress is unsatisfactory.

  6. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  7. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  8. Partial catalytic oxidation of CH{sub 4} to synthesis gas for power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzaras, I.; Schneider, A.

    2006-03-15

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over rhodium catalysts has been investigated experimentally and numerically in the pressure range of 4 to 10 bar. The methane/oxidizer feed has been diluted with large amounts of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} (up to 70% vol.) in order to simulate new power generation cycles with large exhaust gas recycle. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible channel-flow reactor that facilitated laser-based in situ measurements, and also in a subscale gas-turbine catalytic reactor. Full-elliptic steady and transient two-dimensional numerical codes were used, which included elementary hetero-/homogeneous chemical reaction schemes. The following are the key conclusions: a) Heterogeneous (catalytic) and homogeneous (gas-phase) schemes have been validated for the partial catalytic oxidation of methane with large exhaust gas recycle. b) The impact of added H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} has been elucidated. The added H{sub 2}O increased the methane conversion and hydrogen selectivity, while it decreased the CO selectivity. The chemical impact of CO{sub 2} (dry reforming) was minimal. c) The numerical model reproduced the measured catalytic ignition times. It was further shown that the chemical impact of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} on the catalytic ignition delay times was minimal. d) The noble metal dispersion increased with different support materials, in the order Rh/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Rh/ZrO{sub 2}, and Rh/Ce-ZrO{sub 2}. An evident relationship was established between the noble metal dispersion and the catalytic behavior. (authors)

  9. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    these pipes to ones with material which enable it to resist corrosion highly (i.e. stainless steel) instinctively. Finally, we sincerely and deeply apologized to the victims and their families. In order to ensure that such an accident will never happen again, we will make every possible effort to study the causes and take action to prevent recurrence. (author)

  10. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebowitz, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

  11. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  12. Performance measurement of the gas tax and public transit funds : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Federal funding for the gas tax fund and public transit fund are provided through Infrastructure Canada for municipal infrastructure across Canada in a broad range of municipal service projects. In order to identify appropriate outcomes that would meet reporting requirements for the gas tax fund and public transit fund, this report outlined a performance measurement approach that would allow for the reporting of projects under both funds and provide a structured methodology for multiple year analysis of benefits. The report discussed the performance measures process review and outcomes approach logic model. It also provided an outline of information sourcing strategies including an overview of the project types and expenditures; information sourcing strategy; typical municipal information sources by project type; performance measurement framework assumptions and limitations; and modeling of outcomes from outputs. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that based on a comprehensive review of ancillary benefits and outcomes of various historic funding programs, there are 3 foundational outcomes that should be considered to assess all initial program outcomes. These include cleaner air, cleaner water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. tabs., figs

  13. Facilitated transport ceramic membranes for high-temperature gas cleanup. Final report, February 1990--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Minford, E.; Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.; Hart, B.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of developing high temperature, high pressure, facilitated transport ceramic membranes to control gaseous contaminants in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. Meeting this objective requires that the contaminant gas H{sub 2}S be removed from an IGCC gas mixture without a substantial loss of the other gaseous components, specifically H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. As described above this requires consideration of other, nonconventional types of membranes. The solution evaluated in this program involved the use of facilitated transport membranes consisting of molten mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salts immobilized in a microporous ceramic support. To accomplish this objective, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Golden Technologies Company Inc., and Research Triangle Institute worked together to develop and test high temperature facilitated membranes for the removal of H{sub 2}S from IGCC gas mixtures. Three basic experimental activities were pursued: (1) evaluation of the H{sub 2}S chemistry of a variety of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salt mixtures; (2) development of microporous ceramic materials which were chemically and physically compatible with molten carbonate salt mixtures under IGCC conditions and which could function as a host to support a molten carbonate mixture and; (3) fabrication of molten carbonate/ceramic immobilized liquid membranes and evaluation of these membranes under conditions approximating those found in the intended application. Results of these activities are presented.

  14. Design guideline to prevent the pipe rupture by radiolysis gases in BWR steam piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Miyagawa, M.; Ota, T.; Sato, T.; Sakata, K.

    2009-01-01

    In late 2001, pipe rupture accidents due to fast combustion of radiolysis gas occurred in Japan and elsewhere's BWR power plants. TENPES began to set up the guideline as action to such a new problem to prevent accumulation and combustion of radiolysis gas in BWR steam piping. And then, the first edition of guideline was published in October 2005. Afterwards, the experimental study about combustion/detonation of radiolysis gas have been continued. And in March 2007, TENPES published a revised edition of the guideline. This is the report of the revised edition of that guideline. According to this guideline, it became possible to design BWR's steam piping to prevent accumulation of radiolysis gas. (author)

  15. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  16. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. During the Draft Environmental Impact Statement comment period, written statements and oral testimonies were provided by various governmental agencies, organizations, businesses, and individuals. This report contains a review and analysis of comments received on the above issues. Appendices are included which contain resource estimates and various issues relating to oil spills

  17. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  18. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  19. Final Rule for Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA finalized findings that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from certain classes of engines used in aircraft contribute to the air pollution that causes climate change endangering public health and welfare under section 231(a) of the Clean Air Act.

  20. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  1. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  2. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  3. Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong

    With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the

  4. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  5. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  6. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  7. MEGAS multi-electrode gas sensor system. Final report; MEGAS - Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleter, J.

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the MEGAS project, GTE developed and and constructed an electronic system for controlling and data acquisition of sensors for laboratory and test applications. The system is based on microcontrollers and has a data bus connection. Measurements made in order to find out whether the concentrations of a binary gas mixture and combustion gases are detected separately were successful. A demonstration system was constructed. The MEGAS project showed that it is possible to separate two gases by a sensitive layer at constant sensor temperature. The sensor element is a promising technology. Further research is required on suppressing sensor poisoning by siloxanes, and on reduced sensitivity to interfering gases (e.g. ethanol in the case of combustion gases). (orig.)

  8. Data for the analysis of non-energetic consumption under greenhouse gas aspects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.; Jochem, E.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Radgen, P.; Brandt, U.; Luellau, A.; Marquardt, J.; Sutter, J.

    1996-06-01

    Non-energetic consumption is the consumption in non-energy-related terms of energy sources as listed in the national energy statistics /VDI 4600/, i.e., essentially fossil primary and secondary energy sources such as natural gas, naphtha and fuel oil. These energy sources are present in converted form mainly in plastic products, chemical fibres, paints and varnishes as well as in lubricants, fertilizers and bitumen. Because of the non-negligible share of non-energetic consumption in total emissions of climate-relevant substances and the foreseeable long-term accumulation of a carbon dioxide emission potential in long-lived products and in landfills, the investigation pursues the following aim: to make, by means of highly differentiated input-output tables, a technologically differentiated life cycle analysis including production, external trade, phase of use, and waste treatment for the years 1989, 2005, and 2020. (orig./UA)

  9. The factor 4 in France: dividing by 4 greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetiere, Jean-Rene; Alexandre, Sylvie; D'Aubreby, Marc; Debiesse, Georges; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Perret, Bernard; Schwartz, Dominique

    2013-02-01

    After a methodological presentation (reason for a sector-based approach, implemented method, global economic approaches and models), this voluminous report discusses the French commitments in terms of greenhouse gas emission and the monitoring system: commitment status and predictions, measurement sources and methods, emission levels and evolution trajectories, prospective approach. Then, the author address the different sectors: transports (current status of emissions, prospective studies, sub-sector issues), industry (current status of emissions and prospective, economic tools), agriculture, land uses and their changes and forest (emissions, prospective studies and emission evolution trajectories, specific issues), building (current status and objectives, issues related to housing and office building) and energy (prospective and choices for the future). A last chapter addresses inter-sector issues: biomass and CO 2 , land and urban planning, innovation or energy 2.0, evolution of behaviour (building use, mobility)

  10. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  11. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  12. An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken

    2000-01-01

    To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)

  13. Beaufort Sea planning area oil and gas Lease Sale 170. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) assesses Lease Sale 170 proposed for August 1998 and comprised of 363 lease blocks in the Beaufort Sea planning area. The analysis addresses the significant environmental and socioeconomic concerns identified in the scoping process. Scoping consisted of input from State and Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, Native groups, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The potential effects expected from the interaction between environmental resources and OCS-related activities were determined with respect to available scientific information and traditional knowledge. This EIS incorporates information from the Final EIS for the Beaufort Sea OCS Sale 144 (USD01, MMS, 1996a)

  14. Response of buried pipes to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanega, C.; Cremonini, M.G.; Mirone, M.; Luciani, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the analyses carried out to determine an effective layout and the dynamic response of safety related cooling water pipes, buried in backfill, for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant in Italy, subjected to missile impact loading at the backfill surface. The pipes are composed of a steel plate encased in two layers of high-quality reinforced concrete. The methodology comprises three steps. The first step is the definition of the 'free-field' dynamic response of the backfill soil, not considering the presence of the pipes, through a dynamic finite element direct integration analysis utilizing an axisymmetric model. The second step is the pipe-soil interaction analysis, which is conducted by utilizing the soil displacement and stress time-histories obtained in the previous steps. Soil stress time-histories, combined with the geostatic and other operational stresses (such as those due to temperature and pressure), are used to obtain the actions in the pipe walls due to ring type deformation. For the third step, the analysis of the beam type response, a lumped parameter model is developed which accounts for the soil stiffness, the pipe characteristics and the position of the pipe with respect to the impact area. In addition, the effect of the presence of large concrete structures, such as tunnels, between the ground surface and the pipe is evaluated. The results of the structural analyses lead to defining the required steel thickness and also allow the choice of appropriate embedment depth and layout of redundant lines. The final results of the analysis is not only the strength verification of the pipe section, but also the definition of an effective layout of the lines in terms of position, depth, steel thickness and joint design. (orig.)

  15. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Study on pipe deflection by using numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini; Zaki Mubarak, Amir; Agustiar, Rizki

    2018-05-01

    Piping systems are widely used in a refinery or oil and gas industry. The piping system must be properly designed to avoid failure or leakage. Pipe stress analysis is conducted to analyze the loads and critical stress occurred, so that the failure of the pipe can be avoided. In this research, it is analyzed the deflection of a pipe by using Finite Element Method. The pipe is made of A358 / 304SS SCH10S Stainless Steel. It is 16 inches in size with the distance between supports is 10 meters. The fluid flown is Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) with the range of temperature of -120 ° C to -170 ° C, and a density of 461.1 kg / m 3. The flow of LNG causes deflection of the pipe. The pipe deflection must be within the permissible tolerable range. The objective is to analyze the deflection occurred in the piping system. Based on the calculation and simulation, the deflection is 4.4983 mm, which is below the maximum limit of deflection allowed, which is 20.3 mm.

  17. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulsa Fluid Flow

    2008-08-31

    closure relation development for different flow conditions. Modeling studies were performed in two parts, Technology Assessment and Model Development and Enhancement. The results of the Technology assessment study indicated that the performance of the current state of the art two-phase flow models was poor especially for three-phase pipeline flow when compared with the existing data. As part of the model development and enhancement study, a new unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase pipe flow was developed. The new model is based on the dynamics of slug flow, which shares transition boundaries with all the other flow patterns. The equations of slug flow are used not only to calculate the slug characteristics, but also to predict transitions from slug flow to other flow patterns. An experimental program including three-phase gas-oil-water horizontal flow and two-phase horizontal and inclined oil-water flow testing was conducted utilizing a Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects Three-phase Flow Facility. The experimental results were incorporated into the unified model as they became available, and model results were used to better focus and tailor the experimental study. Finally, during the Period 2, a new three-phase databank has been developed using the data generated during this project and additional data available in the literature. The unified model to predict the gas-oil-water three phase flow characteristics was tested by comparing the prediction results with the data. The results showed good agreements.

  18. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  19. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  20. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  1. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  2. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  3. Design of a cavity heat pipe receiver experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark H.; Greenlee, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A cavity heat pipe experiment has been designed to test the critical issues involved with incorporating thermal energy storage canisters into a heat pipe. The experiment is a replication of the operation of a heat receiver for a Brayton solar dynamic power cycle. The heat receiver is composed of a cylindrical receptor surface and an annular heat pipe with thermal energy storage canisters and gaseous working fluid heat exchanger tubes surrounding it. Hardware for the cavity heat pipe experiment will consist of a sector of the heat pipe, complete with gas tube and thermal energy storage canisters. Thermal cycling tests will be performed on the heat pipe sector to simulate the normal energy charge/discharge cycle of the receiver in a spacecraft application.

  4. A thermal study of pipes with outer transverse fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of thermal investigations on pipes with outer transverse fins produced by placing a strip, being a form of helical spring which functions as a radiator, on the basis pipe. The investigations were carried out at the facility that enables measurements with respect to both natural and forced convection. Performance of the investigated pipes was assessed in relation to a non-finned pipe and a pipe welded with the use of Metal Active Gas (MAG technology. The experiments have shown that the finned pipe welding technology does not markedly affect their thermal efficiency, which has been confirmed by performed model calculations, while the welding technology has a crucial impact on their operating performance.

  5. Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  6. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-08

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Data Fusion System for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Non-Piggable Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall; and (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. This final report summarizes all research activities conducted by Rowan University during the project period. This includes the design and development of experimental validation test platforms, the design and development of data fusion algorithms for defect identification and sizing, and finally, the design and development of advanced visualization algorithms for the effective management of data resulting from multi-sensor interrogation of gas transmission pipelines.

  8. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  9. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  10. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. Descriptions of the (1) leasing and scoping process are given in Section 1, (2) alternatives and mitigating measures in Section 2, and (3) description of the environment in Section 3. The potential effects of the lease sale are analyzed in Section 4. Alternative 1, the proposed action, is based on offering for lease 402 blocks (approximately 0.8 million hectares--1.98 million acres) in lower Cook Inlet that range from about 5 to 50 kilometers (3 to 25 mi) offshore. Alterative 2 (No Lease Sale) would cancel the proposed lease sale tentatively scheduled for April 1996. Alternative 2 (Delay the Sale) would delay the proposed sale for 2 years. Alternatives 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 would defer from leasing areas adjacent to the lower Cook Inlet and northwestern Shelikof Strait: the size of areas deferred ranges from about 5 to 45% of the area proposed for Alternative 1. After a thorough review, the Secretary of the Interior will decide which alternative or combination of alternatives will be included in the Notice of Sale

  11. City of North Vancouver greenhouse gas local action plan : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presented details of a greenhouse gas (GHG) local action plan developed as a result of the City of North Vancouver's participation in the Partners for Climate Protection Program (PCPP). The plan is intended to better manage the impacts of urban development related to GHG and air quality, while also achieving community objectives related to affordable housing, transportation management, job creation and economic development. The report reviewed the local emissions inventory in addition to various programs, plans, policies and by-laws relating to energy management. Potential policies and programs were identified to achieve GHG emissions reductions in accordance with the PCPP. A plan for emissions reductions was also presented. A situation analysis was presented with details of population, transportation, residential and commercial building and industry. Solid waste management and transportation plans were outlined. A GHG emissions profile and forecast was presented. An outline of a GHG management framework included information on initiatives in the city as well as details of public consultation feedback. A program implementation plan includes forecasts of the program's impact, as well as details of program delivery and a performance measurement framework. Proposed initiatives in the plan included new building guidelines; fuel switching for light and heavy duty vehicles; driver training and enhanced vehicle maintenance programs; and, an environmental procurement policy. Community programs include residential and commercial building retrofits; land use planning; support for community energy systems; green building design guidelines; transportation demand management; and, public engagement and outreach programs. 21 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel-cost assessment. Final report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    This program, contracted to provide a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment, comprised the following basic activities: establish agreement on the ground rules for cost assessment, prepare a fuel factory flow sheet, and prepare a cost assessment for fuel assembly fabrication. Two factory sizes, 250 and 25 MTHM/year, were considered for fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment. The work on this program involved utilizing GE LMFBR cost assessment and fuel factory studies experience to provide a cost assessment of GCFR fuel assembly fabrication. The recent impact of highly sensitive safety and safeguards environment policies on fuel factory containment, safety, quality assurance and safeguards costs are significantly higher than might have been expected just a few years ago. Fuel assembly fabrication costs are significant because they represent an estimated 30 to 60% of the total fuel cycle costs. In light of the relative high cost of fabrication, changes in the core and assembly design may be necessary in order to enhance the overall fuel cycle economics. Fabrication costs are based on similar operations and experience used in other fuel cycle studies. Because of extrapolation of present technology (e.g., remote fuel fabrication versus present contact fabrication) and regulatory requirements, conservative cost estimates were made.

  13. Notice of availability, final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) is proposing to develop the Northstar Unit, located approximately 6 miles offshore of Point Storkensen in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. BPXA's proposed action is a self-contained development/production facility located on a reconstructed gravel island in 39 feet of water. Also proposed is construction of two buried subsea pipelines between the island and shoreline to transport oil and gas. The pipelines would connect with onshore facilities and the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). In response to BPXA's submittal of a permit application under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the US Army Corps of engineers, Alaska District (Corps) determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting by the EPA for BPXA's proposed project also constituted a major federal action that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternates, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  14. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinum, T.; Nieuwenhuy, C.

    1994-11-01

    The procedure developed at TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNO-PML) for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples was improved. The last step in this procedure, the laborious and non-reproducible transfer of an ethyl acetate extract onto a Tenax-adsorption tube followed by thermal desorption of the Tenax-tube, was replaced by large volume injection of the extract onto a capillary gas chromatographic system. The parameters controlling the injection of a large volume of an extract (200 ul) were investigated and optimized. As ethyl acetate caused severe problems, potential new solvents were evaluated. With the improved procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and VX could be determined in freshly prepared water samples at pg/ml (ppt) levels. The fate of the nerve agents under study in water at two pH`s (4.8 and 6) was investigated. For VX, the pH should be adjusted before extraction. Moreover, it is worthwhile to acidify water samples to diminish hydrolysis.

  15. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO(sub 2) emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO(sub 2) removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge

  16. Field investigation on structural performance of the buried UPVC pipes with and without geogrid reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja, Akkineni Surya; Rajkumar, R.; Gokula Krishnan, B.; Aravindh, R.

    2018-02-01

    Buried pipes are used mainly for water supply and drainage besides many other applications such as oil, liquefied natural gas, coal slurries and mine tailings. The pipes used may be rigid (reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and ductile iron) or flexible (Steel, UPVC, aluminium, Fiber glass and High-density polyethylene) although the distinction between them is blurring. Flexible pipe design is governed by deflection or buckling. UPVC pipes are preferred due to light weight, long term chemical stability and cost efficiency. This project aims to study the load deformation behaviour of the buried pipe and stress variation across the cross section of the pipe under static loading along with the influence of depth of embedment, density of backfill on the deformation and stresses in pipe and the deformation behaviour of buried pipe when soil is reinforced with geogrid reinforcement and evaluate the structural performance of the pipe.

  17. Assessment of private sector anticipatory response to greenhouse gas market development : Final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrister, D.; Marsh, D.; Varilek, M.

    2002-01-01

    Some active markets in greenhouse gases are beginning to emerge, which will lead to actual data concerning market performance becoming available and rendering the prediction of future prices for global greenhouse gas reductions more accurate. Market participants use studies as a starting point for the calibration of their understanding then seize opportunities in the external market and therefore refine their price expectations. In addition, they attempt to outperform their competitors. In this study, the authors reviewed the results of some of the most recent economic modeling results, synthesized pricing data, assessed the price and risk expectations of a broad range of corporate market players and examined their response strategies. The authors also took advantage of their expertise as market brokers to offer their views. The representatives of 35 companies operating in Canada, the United States, Japan, the European Union and Russia were interviewed for this study. Their price expectations were just over 5 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2005 before the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and raised to an average of 11 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2010. The major assumption was that the Kyoto Protocol would begin to take effect in 2002, and also that the United States would fail to ratify the Protocol. The respondents believed that some demand would force state and/or local programs to be implemented for a carbon reduction program. Poorly harmonized or delayed national policies, the potential costs of the Clean Development Mechanism projects and national pressure to take action at home are some of the concerns expressed which could prevent prices from becoming fully efficient. 41 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  19. ADDIGAS. Advective and diffusive gas transport in rock salt formations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jockwer, Norbert; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Beside granite and clay formations also rock salt is investigated as potential host rock for the disposal or radioactive waste. As a result of the mining activities the stress and strain state is changed which leads to dilatancy (i.e., volume increase, manly caused by microfracturing) in the vicinity of the excavations. The affected area is termed as Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) and is characterized by an increased porosity and permeability with micro- and potential macrofractures. For the radioactive waste disposal in a geologic formation the properties of the EDZ with its permeability, extent, and evolution with time is of importance especially for the construction and building of geotechnical barriers. In the recent years the EDZ in rock salt formations was investigated at GRS in the frame of various projects. Main subjects of these projects were the characterisation of the EDZ with regard to its extent, hydraulic behaviour and possible healing at the in-situ stress conditions. The main emphasis of the ADDIGAS project reported here was the evolution of the EDZ after cutting off the drift contour, the anisotropy of permeability, and the diffusive gas transport which had not been investigated in earlier projects. Moreover, an constitutive model for calculating EDZ behaviour which had been developed in the frame of the BAMBUS II project was tested. The experimental work was performed on the 800-m level of the ASSe salt mine. The project ran from 2004 to 2007 and was funded by German Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA) under the contract No. 02 E 9924. The modelling work was co-funded by the CEC in the frame of the Integrated Project NF-PRO under contract no. F16W-CT-2003-002389. (orig.)

  20. Efficient simulation of flow and heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen Esquivel, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of fluids through pipes is a very common application. Corrugated pipes have characteristics such as local stiffness and flexibility that makes them convenient in several application areas such as offshore LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transfer, cryogenic engineering, domestic appliances, etc. Nonetheless, the introduction of pipes with corrugated walls increases the difficulty of simulating flow and heat transfer in these type of pipes. The present thesis addresses the development...

  1. Gas release and leachates at bark storage: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirjis, Raida; Andersson, Paal; Aronsson, Paer

    2005-01-01

    Large volumes of bark are produced as a by-product from saw mills and pulp and paper industry all year round in Sweden. Most of the bark is used as a biofuel. Due to the uneven demand for the fuel during the year, bark has to be often stored for a few months. Storage normally takes place outdoors in fairly large piles. A number of biological and chemical processes are known to occur during storage. These processes can lead to the emission and leakage of environmentally unaccepted products which can also affect working environment. The aim of this project was to evaluate the outcome of some of these processes and to asses its effect on working environment as well as the surrounding environment. This study investigates the storage of fresh bark from pine and spruce in laboratory scale experiments and a large scale storage trial. Results of the analyses of bark material, before and after storage, and the chemical constituents of the released gases and leached material are presented. Estimation of the total amounts that can be released in gas form or leached out from bark piles during storage, and possible environmental consequences are discussed. Conclusions and some practical suggestion concerning bark storage are given in this report. The laboratory experiment involved storage of fresh bark in a 34 litres cylindrical chamber at room temperature (RT) or heated to an average of 55 deg C. The chambers were designed to provide gas samples during emissions experiment and allow irrigation during leakage experiments. Sampling of the released gases (using Tenax-adsorbent) was performed during two or three weeks of storage for spruce and pine bark respectively. The total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and individual monoterpenes were determined. Changes in the chemical constituents of bark during storage were studied using different extraction methods and measuring instruments including Gas spectroscopy (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC- mass spectroscopy (MS

  2. Radiation doses due to natural radon gas releases from the final disposal facility of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, K.; Arvela, H.

    1998-03-01

    Building an underground repository for the spent nuclear fuel increases releases of natural radon gas. In the report the radon releases, the resulting doses as well as the radon concentration in the repository air are investigated. There are four optional building locations for the underground repository and three different strategies of construction. Optional sites are Olkiluoto of Eurajoki, Romuvaara of Kuhmo, Haestholmen of Loviisa and Kivetty of Aeaenekoski. The most significant radon sources in the underground repository are the rockwalls and the groundwater leaking to the repository. High groundwater radon concentrations can increase significantly radon concentration in the repository air despite the groundwater leak rate is low. The radon source strength from the rockwalls, groundwater and macadam spreaded on the floor of the repository is estimated in this report. Using these results the radon concentration in the repository is calculated for several air exchange rates. Data from petrological studies performed at the optional building sites as well as the measurement data of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has been utilized. Rough approximations were needed when estimating the radon source strength. The estimated total radon source strength varies between 1 - 600 MBq/h depending on the repository construction strategy. Repository indoor air radon concentration with no air exchange varies between 0,7 - 120 kBq/m 3 . Using the most probable estimates on radon source strength, the allowed indoor radon concentration of 400 Bq/m 3 at workplaces is achieved by using the air exchange rate of 0,5 l/h in every optional repository. Repository exhaust air and the pile of macadam increases the radon levels in the environment. The radiation dose to the critical person depends on the open volume of the repository. The annual radiation dose calculated from the most probable radon source strength at the distance of 500 metres is below 0,005 mSv at all sites

  3. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  4. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  5. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  6. Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature Programmed Gas Microsensors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semancik, S.; Cavicchi, R. E.; DeVoe, D. L.; McAvoy, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report describes efforts and results for a 3-year DoE/OST-EMSP project centered at NIST. The multidisciplinary project investigated scientific and technical concepts critical for developing tunable, MEMS-based, gas and vapor microsensors that could be applied for monitoring the types of multiple analytes (and differing backgrounds) encountered at DoE waste sites. Micromachined ''microhotplate'' arrays were used as platforms for fabricating conductometric sensor prototypes, and as microscale research tools. Efficient microarray techniques were developed for locally depositing and then performance evaluating thin oxide films, in order to correlate gas sensing characteristics with properties including composition, microstructure, thickness and surface modification. This approach produced temperature-dependent databases on the sensitivities of sensing materials to varied analytes (in air) which enable application-specific tuning of microsensor arrays. Mechanistic studies on adsorb ate transient phenomena were conducted to better understand the ways in which rapid temperature programming schedules can be used to produce unique response signatures and increase information density in microsensor signals. Chemometric and neural network analyses were also employed in our studies for recognition and quantification of target analytes

  7. Improvement activities to soil stabilization near Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline crossing through an embankment over a corrugated drainage pipe, at Km 247 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Melhorias para estabilidade do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil em cruzamento de aterro sobre tubo de drenagem tipo ARMCO, no km 247 em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Kemal Vieira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Cesar Augusto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO)

    2005-07-01

    A hundred and seventy kilometers from Campo Grande city, on Mato Grosso do Sul State, the Brasil-Bolivia Gas Pipeline crosses a 8,5 meters high landfill, over a drainage systems made of a 2,8 meters of diameter corrugated pipe. This drainage pipe was installed to allow the drainage of the valley, and the landfill above it was built so the Gas pipeline could cross easier the 80 meters deep and 30 degree vertices valley. This paper illustrates the work tasks and solutions taken to monitor and guarantee the integrity of the drainage and landfill structures, as well as the integrity of the Gas Pipeline. Some of the work tasks illustrated are the investigation of the support conditions of the Gas Pipeline, the analysis of a drainage system under the pipeline, on a rocky soil, the analysis of the stability of the landfill, the construction of a gravity retaining walls and the monitoring of the deformations on the drainage pipe. (author)

  8. IEA-R1 renewed primary coolant piping system stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainer, Gerson; Faloppa, Altair A.; Oliveira, Carlos A. de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A partial replacement of the IEA-R1 piping system was conducted in 2014. The aim of this work is to perform the stress analysis of the renewed primary piping system of the IEA-R1, taking into account the as built conditions and the pipe modifications. The nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor designed by Babcox-Willcox, which is operated by IPEN since 1957. The primary coolant system is responsible for removing the residual heat of the Reactor core. As a part of the life management, a regular inspection detected some degradation in the primary piping system. In consequence, part of the piping system was replaced. The partial renewing of the primary piping system did not imply in major piping layout modifications. However, the stress condition of the piping systems had to be reanalyzed. The structural stress analysis of the primary piping systems is now presented and the final results are discussed. (author)

  9. Residual stress measurements in coil, linepipe and girth welded pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Prask, H.; Luzin, V.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines come from forming operations in producing the coil and pipe, seam welding the pipe, and girth welding pipes together to form a gas pipeline. Welding is used extensively in gas pipelines, the welds are made without post weld heat treatment. The three normal stresses were measured by neutron diffraction for three types of sample: coil, unwelded rings cut from the pipe made from this coil, and girth welded rings cut from linepipe. All three specimens came from three thicknesses of manufacture (5.4, 6.4, and 7.1 mm). The welds are manual metal arc cellulosic electrode welds made in X70 linepipe, these were measured at 5 through-thickness positions at 19 locations (from the center of the weld up to 35 mm away from the weld) with a spatial resolution of 1 mm 3 . The coil and unwelded rings were measured at the same five through-thickness positions

  10. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in real engines’ exhaust pipes. This work also considers how the simulation must be made, based on the previous exploration. The results (presented as e- quations in this first paper show the great influence exerted by pressure wave movement on flow through the engine and there- fore on its final performance.

  11. Gas exploitation and gas conversion; Gassutnyttelse og gasskonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laading, Gjert

    1998-07-01

    This presentation deals with some of the challenges and possibilities connected with ''stranded'' gas. These are offshore gas reserves, especially associated gas, that is not connected with the market and that cannot be piped onshore, and where reinjection is not profitable, and where flaring off is not an option. There is increasing interest all over the world to find economical and environmentally friendly solutions to this problem. A good solution will render such fields economically developable and will to a high degree increase the total volume of the world's exploitable gas reserves. Since synthesis gas is a dominating cost element in most chemical conversion processes for gas, the synthesis gases are discussed in some detail. There is also a discussion of the conversion of the gas to Methanol, Synthetic oil (Syncrude and Synfuels) and to DME (Di-methyl-ether). Two methods for gas transport from the field are discussed; LNG on floating production storage and off loading (FPSO), and Gas hydrates. Principles, limitations and conditions for placing those processes on a FPSO. Finally, the presentation discusses the most important economic factors related to the exploitation of offshore gas, and suggests some possibilities for future development.11 figs.

  12. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  13. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  14. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  15. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  16. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Final Results of Antidumping... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. For the final results we... pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. We...

  17. Natural gas quality for the future. Part 1. Technical/economical inventory of consequences of natural gas quality variations for final consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsky, H.B.; Van Rij, M.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    By request of various market parties (suppliers and users of natural gas), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) took a leading role in anticipating the future changes in gas quality. ELI requested an inventory of the consequences of variations in natural gas quality for end users. [nl

  18. Natural gas tariffs peak-free with freedom of choice for contracts. Final report of the project 'Balancing with cost-effectiveness with regard to the profile contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Market gardeners who approach the profile boundary of 170,000 m 3 gas may face high gas prices in certain situations. LTO Glaskracht Nederland (the Dutch association of entrepreneurs in this sector) examined this problem together with LTO Groeiservice (Organisation for Agriculture and Horticulture Growing). The final report provides recommendations for market gardeners and the organizations LTO Glaskracht Nederland and Productschap Tuinbouw (Commodity Board for Horticulture) [nl

  19. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  20. Valve for the mechanical isolation of a pipe to take up a test probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uecker, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A valve is introduced for application in a pipe in which a test probe is arranged. The valve serves to isolate the pipe in a gas-tight way, thus preventing the escape of radioactive gas or dust during operation in a nuclear reactor. (TK) [de

  1. Full-signature real-time corrosion detection of underground casing pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Jiming; Lu, Mi; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Corrosion monitoring and early detection of pits and wall thinning for casing pipes are considerably important to gas and petroleum industries since the frequently occurring corrosion at the internal or external parts of those steel casing pipes used in underground gas storage or oil fields causes

  2. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  3. Evaluation of a Transportable Hot-Gas Decontamination System for the Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Debris & Piping. Operations & Maintenance Manual. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-27

    L’at.e DE sr .o: irca oeo’ ccI_. L* r-b t ~ dýcBE6 s - s r3 E-cd ro ri tID TeH b-rccc:, 3-.izo Ura- T-a H Se-ii~ ý9 1,C UN:’ :i zo -Zr e: e - i. xr-- c4...30750596-001 Battery 1 9 PROM- 28 piOW Mernloy Ugrade Kits I (all lrcjde Commurications) 3075S133-S01 Autotune + Input 3 30756134-501 Autotune + Input 3...Sa:Lu the gas flow, refe to "gn 3 wtfle pwtm’ the towg stems 1) Locsen the head sgaw urd ycu can mray mtoe the low 4at l cap. 2) WtVAe hong to vako

  4. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  5. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  6. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  7. Leak test of the pipe line for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji; Mori, Shoji.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tokai Research Establishment, most of the radioactive liquid waste is transferred to a wastes treatment facility through pipe lines. As part of the pipe lines a cast iron pipe for town gas is used. Leak test has been performed on all joints of the lines. For the joints buried underground, the test was made by radioactivity measurement of the soil; and for the joints in drainage ditch by the pressure and bubble methods. There were no leakage at all, indicating integrity of all the joints. On the other hand, it is also known by the other test that the corrosion of inner surface of the piping due to liquid waste is only slight. The pipe lines for transferring radioactive liquid waste are thus still usable. (auth.)

  8. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S&M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S&M. These S&M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D&D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D&D activities.

  9. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S ampersand M. These S ampersand M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D ampersand D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D ampersand D activities

  10. A pilot study for the extraction and treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes a pilot study involving treatment of contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site on the eastern seaboard of the US. The work was performed in order to provide the design basis for a full-scale groundwater extraction and treatment system at the site, as well as to develop a generic approach to selection of groundwater treatment sequences at other MGP sites. It included three main components: hydrogeologic investigations, bench-scale treatability studies, and pilot-scale treatability studies. Technologies evaluated in bench-scale work included gravity settling, filtration, and dissolved air flotation (DAF) for primary treatment of nonaqueous phase materials; biological degradation, air stripping, and carbon adsorption for secondary treatment of dissolved organics; and carbon adsorption as tertiary treatment of remaining dissolved contaminants. Pilot-scale studies focused on collecting system performance data fore three distinct levels of contamination. Two treatment trains were evaluated. One consisted of DAF, fluidized-bed biotreatment, and filtration plus carbon adsorption; the other used the same steps except to substitute air stripping for fluidized bed treatment. The final effluents produced by both treatment sequences were similar and demonstrated complete treatment of the groundwater. Besides detailing system design and performance for the treatability studies, the report includes an analysis of groundwater treatment applications to MGP sites in general, including a discussion of capital and operating costs

  11. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  12. Localization of leaks in underground pipes with the application of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupa, A.; Morawiec, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method of leaks localization on gas pipe-lines during resistance and tightness tests was elaborated. The leaks were localized using tracer technique. Sodium 24 was used as a tracer for short sections of the pipe-line (up to 30 km). Only 1 m 3 of water with a tracer was introduced into the pipe-line. A measuring probe was also put into pipe-line. All leaks were detected and the method appeared useful. For the longer sections of the pipe-line iodine 131 ought to be used. (A.S.)

  13. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  14. Metallized ceramic vacuum pipe for particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.L.; Featherby, M.

    1990-01-01

    A ceramic vacuum chamber segment in the form of a long pipe of rectangular cross section has been assembled from standard shapes of alumina ceramic using glass bonding techniques. Prior to final glass bonding, the internal walls of the pipe are metallized using an electroplating technology. These advanced processes allow for precision patterning and conductivity control of surface conducting films. The ability to lay down both longitudinal and transverse conductor patterns separated by insulating layers of glass give the accelerator designer considerable freedom in tailoring longitudinal and transverse beam pipe impedances. Assembly techniques of these beam pipes are followed through two iterations of semi-scale pipe sections made using candidate materials and processes. These demonstrate the feasibility of the concepts and provide parts for electrical characterization and for further refinement of the approach. In a parallel effort, a variety of materials, joining processes and assembly procedures have been tried to assure flexibility and reliability in the construction of 10-meter long sections to any required specifications

  15. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  16. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1991-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  17. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M; Wuschke, D M; Brown, A; Hayles, J G; Kozak, E T; Lodha, G S; Thorne, G A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1992-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  18. Study on structural integrity of thinned wall piping against seismic loading-overview and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Otani, Akihito; Shiratori, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of thinned wall pipes under seismic events, cyclic in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending tests on thinned straight pipe and elbow and also shaking table tests using degraded piping system models were conducted. Relation between the failure mode and thinned condition and the influence of the final failure mode of degraded piping systems were investigated. In addition to these experiments, elastic-plastic FEM analysis using ABAQUS were conducted on thinned piping elements. It has been found that the strain concentrated point could be predicted and the cause of its generation could be explained by the simulated deformation behavior of the pipe. In order to predict the piping system's maximum response under elastic-plastic response, a simple response prediction method was proposed. Further tests and safety margin analyses of thinned pipes against seismic loading will be performed. (T. Tanaka)

  19. A coupled approach for the three-dimensional simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Graf, Thomas; Fuchs, Lothar; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-12-01

    In urban water pipe networks, pipe leakage may lead to subsurface contamination or to reduced waste water treatment efficiency. The quantification of pipe leakage is challenging due to inaccessibility and unknown hydraulic properties of the soil. A novel physically-based model for three-dimensional numerical simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil is presented. We describe the newly implemented coupling between the pipe flow simulator HYSTEM-EXTRAN and the groundwater flow simulator OpenGeoSys and its validation. We further describe a novel upscaling of leakage using transfer functions derived from numerical simulations. This upscaling enables the simulation of numerous pipe defects with the benefit of reduced computation times. Finally, we investigate the response of leakage to different time-dependent pipe flow events and conclude that larger pipe flow volume and duration lead to larger leakage while the peak position in time has a small effect on leakage.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Control of Wastewater Dual Wall Polyethylene Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipes are the most important components of wastewater collection systems accounting for considerable costs in constructing such systems. In view of this and regarding the growing trend in design and execution of wastewater collection and transmission lines in recent years, various types of pipes have been introduced into the market. Selection of appropriate pipes and their qualitative and quantitative control, therefore, call for due consideration given their high cost share in collection systems. In this paper, efforts are made to consider various types of pipes used in (urban and rural wastewater collection networks in an attempt to signal the significance of qualitative and quantitative control of different dual wall polyethylene pipes used as sewers. Finally, the relevant issues regarding the methods and conditions for technical control and inspection of polyethylene sewer lines during construction and operation stages are provided.

  1. Development and testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners cooled by heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granzow, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    A severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can lead to core damage in conjunction with the release of large amounts of hydrogen. As hydrogen mitigation measure, passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) are used in today's pressurized water reactors. PARs recombine hydrogen and oxygen contained in the air to steam. The heat from this exothermic reaction causes the catalyst and its surroundings to heat up. If parts of the PAR heat up above the ignition temperature of the gas mixture, a spontaneous deflagration or detonation can occur. The aim of this work is the prevention of such high temperatures by means of passive cooling of the catalyst with heat pipes. Heat pipes are completely passive heat exchanger with a very high effective thermal conductivity. For a deeper understanding of the reaction kinetics at lower temperatures, single catalytic coated heat pipes are studied in a flow reactor. The development of a modular small-scale PAR model is then based on a test series with cooled catalyst sheets. Finally, the PAR model is tested inside a pressure vessel under boundary conditions similar to a real NPP. The experiments show, that the temperatures of the cooled catalytic sheets stay significantly below the temperature of the uncooled sheets and below the ignition temperature of the gas mixture under any set boundary conditions, although no significant reduction of the conversion efficiency can be observed. As a last point, a mathematical model of the reaction kinetics of the recombination process as well as a model of the fluid dynamic and thermohydraulic processes in a heat pipe are developed with the data obtained from the experiments.

  2. Gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable direct cooling of reactor cores thereby improving the cooling efficiency upon accidents. Constitution: A plurality sets of heat exchange pipe groups are disposed around the reactor core, which are connected by way of communication pipes with a feedwater recycling device comprising gas/liquid separation device, recycling pump, feedwater pump and emergency water tank. Upon occurrence of loss of primary coolants accidents, the heat exchange pipe groups directly absorb the heat from the reactor core through radiation and convection. Although the water in the heat exchange pipe groups are boiled to evaporate if the forcive circulation is interrupted by the loss of electric power source, water in the emergency tank is supplied due to the head to the heat exchange pipe groups to continue the cooling. Furthermore, since the heat exchange pipe groups surround the entire circumference of the reactor core, cooling is carried out uniformly without resulting deformation or stresses due to the thermal imbalance. (Sekiya, K.)

  3. Tropospheric trace gas measurement by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Final report. Messung troposphaerischer Spurengase mittels Dioden-Laser-Spektroskopie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, J P; Crutzen, P J; Harris, G W; Klemp, D; Johnson, T J; Perner, D; Wienhold, F G; Zenker, T

    1991-01-01

    This final report is concerned with tropospheric trace gas measurements by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLAS). A TDLAS instrument was built which simultaneously measures four selected trace gases and is sufficiently sensitive for use in 'clean' air conditions. The instrument is the first of its kind to be used for measurements aboard ship platforms in clean marine air. In order to guarantee that the instrument function continuously for several weeks at a time under the difficult conditions encountered at sea, a variety of innovative technical developments were necessary. The TDLAS instrument was used to investigate boundary layer tropospheric chemistry in one engineering test and four field campaigns. Three of the field campaigns took place on board the German research vessels. The measurements on board the research vessels enabled different types of tropospheric air to be investigated: (i) clean maritime air; (ii) maritime regions influenced by continental sources of trace gases and pollutants, in particular the coastal region around the west coast of Africa was thoroughly investigated under downwind conditions. A large set of data of simultaneous measurements of key tropospheric trace gases (NO{sub 2}, CO, HCHO, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}) were obtained which help paint a more complete picture of tropospheric oxidation cycles. The first measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the remote marine boundary layer are reported. In selected regions successful TDLAS measurements of HCl and COS were obtained, results in themselves of importance. Intercomparisons of TDLAS and other measurement techniques were successfully undertaken. (orig./BBR).

  4. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  5. Factors affecting seasonal gas prices: Analysis of trends and R and D implications. Final report, November 1990-February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.C.

    1992-02-01

    Three economic factors were identified which influence the seasonality of gas prices: fuel switching, storage, and utilization of wellhead deliverability. Also, contract structures will have an influence on the seasonality of natural gas prices. Increases in the utilization of wellhead deliverability tends to increase the seasonality of gas prices. Price-induced fuel switching capability is too small to significantly influence the seasonality of gas prices. If there is adequate deliverability, the cost of interruptible storage, including carry cost, will place a ceiling on the seasonability of gas prices. This cost is about $.70 per MMBtu. If deliverability tightens, then the cost of firm storage or producer shut-ins will place a ceiling on gas prices. The ceiling would range from $1.00 to $1.20 per MMBtu. There is concern about whether the current market structure will provide for a smooth return to full cycle pricing. The current premiums for new contracts are inadequate to achieve this objective

  6. Assessing the safety aspects for use of multilayer pipes in gas distribution of domestic installation; Avaliacao dos aspectos de seguranca para utilizacao de tubos multicamada em instalacoes de distribuicao de gas em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Carlos do Amaral Coutinho [Bratfisch - Engenharia em Gas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Emmeti, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Collela, Ricardo [FGS Brasil Industria e Comercio Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The gas distribution networks average flow at the Brazilian market is low and the operating pressure is less than 2.0 kgf/cm{sup 2}. These values are lower if compared to other countries and due this, gas distribution companies, major builders and developers have started a movement to find alternatives to reduce their installation costs, and they have identified in other countries the multilayer system. Because of the great interest of the consumer market for this alternative, and since there is no standards in Brazil that could regulate it, a technical committee was established under the ABNT in order to prepare a standard draft meeting the local market particularities as well this technology requirements. Then it was initiated a quest looking for the knowledge of the 'state of the art' of this technology in various locations around the world, especially Europe, Asia and Oceania, which shows that, with few exceptions, the knowledge of this alternative is still on the beginning, and even in countries where this system is a pioneer some doubts exist with respect to their usage limit. The multilayer system materials were already used at hot and cold water networks for more than twelve years, but only after that it was made an adaptation for building installations of gas distribution networks. Due the need to search and establish safety criteria both with respect to the product as its installation shape, did the necessary motivation to perform a more detailed study of this new technology, meeting the needs of this market. The intention is to present to the consumer market a series of comparative data definitions and techniques to identify this as a modern, updated, economic, efficient and safe alternative option for gas distribution networks. (author)

  7. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  8. Hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. Development of CO{sub 2}-selective biogas membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestboe, A.P.

    2012-02-15

    porous material, PMP (poly(methyl)pentene). It was possible to directly extrude this as a first step, and in a process line to add a thin membrane on top of the carrier tube. This membrane consisted of the material mentioned above which had small particles of zeolites added in a prior compounding step. The final tubes were about 1 m long and 4 og 2 mm in diameter. The thickness of the membranes was along the development of the production line decreased from about 200 {mu}m to 75 {mu}m, thus increasing the permeance (flux) of the membrane tubes. The tubes were bundled and put in pressure-resistant PVC tubes of a diameter of about 10 cm and 110 cm in length. A structural adhesive (epoxy) was used to seal the membranes at each end to allow for streams of gas (a CO{sub 2}-rich stream and a CH{sub 4}-rich stream) to be processed through the membranes. (LN)

  9. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  10. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  11. Conceptual design of pipe whip restraints using interactive computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protection against pipe break effects necessitates a complex interaction between failure mode analysis, piping layout, and structural design. Many iterations are required to finalize structural designs and equipment arrangements. The magnitude of the pipe break loads transmitted by the pipe whip restraints to structural embedments precludes the application of conservative design margins. A simplified analytical formulation of the nonlinear dynamic problems associated with pipe whip has been developed and applied using interactive computer analysis techniques. In the dynamic analysis, the restraint and the associated portion of the piping system, are modeled using the finite element lumped mass approach to properly reflect the dynamic characteristics of the piping/restraint system. The analysis is performed as a series of piecewise linear increments. Each of these linear increments is terminated by either formation of plastic conditions or closing/opening of gaps. The stiffness matrix is modified to reflect the changed stiffness characteristics of the system and re-started using the previous boundary conditions. The formation of yield hinges are related to the plastic moment of the section and unloading paths are automatically considered. The conceptual design of the piping/restraint system is performed using interactive computer analysis. The application of the simplified analytical approach with interactive computer analysis results in an order of magnitude reduction in engineering time and computer cost. (Auth.)

  12. OPDE-The international pipe failure data exchange project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, Bengt [OPDE Clearinghouse, 16917 S. Orchid Flower Trail, Vail, AZ 85641-2701 (United States)], E-mail: boylydell@msn.com; Riznic, Jovica [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Operational Engineering Assessment Division, PO Box 1046, Station B, Ottawa, Ont. K1P 5S9 (Canada)], E-mail: jovica.riznic@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca

    2008-08-15

    Certain member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD) in 2002 established the OECD pipe failure data exchange project (OPDE) to produce an international database on the piping service experience applicable to commercial nuclear power plants. OPDE is operated under the umbrella of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The Project collects pipe failure data including service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall crack, pinhole leak, leak, and rupture/severance (i.e., events involving large through-wall flow rates up to and beyond the make-up capacity of engineered safeguards systems). The part through-wall events include degradation in excess of design code allowable for pipe wall thinning or crack depth. OPDE also addresses such degradation that could have generic implications regarding the reliability of in-service inspection. Currently the OPDE database includes approximately 3,700 records on pipe failure affecting ASME Code Class 1 through 3 and non-safety-related (non-Code) piping. This paper presents the motivations and objectives behind the establishment of the OPDE project. The paper also summarizes the unique data quality considerations that are associated with the reporting and recording of piping component degradation and failure. An overview of the database content is included to place it in perspective relative to past efforts to systematically collect and evaluate service experience data on piping performance. Finally, a brief summary is given of current database application studies.

  13. OPDE-The international pipe failure data exchange project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, Bengt; Riznic, Jovica

    2008-01-01

    Certain member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD) in 2002 established the OECD pipe failure data exchange project (OPDE) to produce an international database on the piping service experience applicable to commercial nuclear power plants. OPDE is operated under the umbrella of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The Project collects pipe failure data including service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall crack, pinhole leak, leak, and rupture/severance (i.e., events involving large through-wall flow rates up to and beyond the make-up capacity of engineered safeguards systems). The part through-wall events include degradation in excess of design code allowable for pipe wall thinning or crack depth. OPDE also addresses such degradation that could have generic implications regarding the reliability of in-service inspection. Currently the OPDE database includes approximately 3,700 records on pipe failure affecting ASME Code Class 1 through 3 and non-safety-related (non-Code) piping. This paper presents the motivations and objectives behind the establishment of the OPDE project. The paper also summarizes the unique data quality considerations that are associated with the reporting and recording of piping component degradation and failure. An overview of the database content is included to place it in perspective relative to past efforts to systematically collect and evaluate service experience data on piping performance. Finally, a brief summary is given of current database application studies

  14. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  15. Inspection of Pipe Inner Surface using Advanced Pipe Crawler Robot with PVDF Sensor based Rotating Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal AGARWAL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to corrosive environment, pipes used for transportation of water and gas at the plants often get damaged. Defects caused by corrosion and cracking may cause serious accidents like leakage, fire and blasts. It also reduces the life of the transportation system substantially. In order to inspect such defects, a Polyvinyledene Fluoride (PVDF based cantilever smart probe is developed to scan the surface quality of the pipes. The smart probe, during rotation, touches the inner surface of the pipe and experience a broad-band excitation in the absence of surface features. On the other hand, whenever the probe comes across any surface projection, there is a change in vibration pattern of the probe, which causes a high voltage peak/pulse. Such peaks/pulses could give useful information about the location and nature of a defect. Experiments are carried out on different patterns, sizes and shapes of surface projections artificially constructed inside the pipe. The sensor system has reliably predicted the presence and distribution of projections in every case. It is envisaged that the new sensing system could be used effectively for pipe health monitoring.

  16. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock - final report for the joint UKDOE/AECL project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A.

    1991-12-01

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model derived from Thunvik and Braester (1987). Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determined the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 37 figs

  17. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  18. Method and device for characterization of two-phase flow in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsvaag, K.; Sunde, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma radiation transmission measurements are made with one-shot-collimation to determine the distribution of voids within a gas-liquid mixture flowing in a pipe. The distribution of voids in selected portions of the pipe, taken together with statistical and logical tests applied thereto, provides information from which are determined: type of flow pattern or flow regime, the profile of a large gas bubble in slug flow, and the gas and the liquid volume flow rates in slug flow. 4 refs

  19. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  20. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  1. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Final Results of Antidumping... alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. The period of review is August 1, 2010..., line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard...

  2. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  3. Electron beam welding in the fabrication of thick-walled large-size pipes of C-Mn steels. Final report; Elektronenstrahlschweissen bei der Fertigung von dickwandigen Grossrohren aus C-Mn-Staehlen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woeste, K

    2001-11-01

    This research project investigates electron beam welding as a method of fabrication of large-size pipes with longitudinal welds. The effects of the welding speed on the mechanical and technological properties of the weld are investigated. From the economic view, electron beam welding is much more favourable than submerged-arc welding. [German] Dieses Forschungsprojekt soll dazu beitragen, das Elektronenstrahlschweissen als Fertigungsverfahren fuer laengsnahtgeschweisste Grossrohre zu qualifizieren. Dabei wird der Einfluss der Schweissgeschwindigkeit auf die mechanisch-technologischen Eigenschaften der Schweissung untersucht. Im Wirtschaftlichkeitsvergleich schneidet Elektronenstrahlschweissverfahren gegenueber dem Unterpulverschweissverfahren eindeutig besser ab.

  4. Assessment of cracked pipes in primary piping systems of PWR nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Rudolf Peter de

    2004-01-01

    Pipes related to the Primary System of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) are manufactured from high toughness austenitic and low alloy ferritic steels, which are resistant to the unstable growth of defects. A crack in a piping system should cause a leakage in a considerable rate allowing its identification, before its growth could cause a catastrophic rupture of the piping. This is the LBB (Leak Before Break) concept. An essential step in applying the LBB concept consists in the analysis of the stability of a postulated through wall crack in a specific piping system. The methods for the assessment of flawed components fabricated from ductile materials require the use of Elasto-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM). Considering that the use of numerical methods to apply the concepts of EPFM may be expensive and time consuming, the existence of the so called simplified methods for the assessment of flaws in piping are still considered of great relevance. In this work, some of the simplified methods, normalized procedures and criteria for the assessment of the ductile behavior of flawed components available in literature are described and evaluated. Aspects related to the selection of the material properties necessary for the application of these methods are also discussed. In a next .step, the methods are applied to determine the instability load in some piping configurations under bending and containing circumferential through wall cracks. Geometry and material variations are considered. The instability loads, obtained for these piping as the result of the application of the selected methods, are analyzed and compared among them and with some experimental results obtained from literature. The predictions done with the methods demonstrated that they provide consistent results, with good level of accuracy with regard to the determination of maximum loads. These methods are also applied to a specific Study Case. The obtained results are then analyzed in order to give

  5. Automatic inspection of oil and gas pipe welded joints by radiographic images analyses; Analise automatica de imagens radiologicas aplicada a inspecao de juntas soldadas em tubulacoes de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Guilherme A.; Felisberto, Marcelo K.; Pilkel, Lucas V.; Centeno, Tania M.; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica (CPGEI). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas de Controle Avancado

    2004-07-01

    The reliability and integrity evaluation of structures and equipment on the petroleum and gas industry is an absolute necessary care due to economic reasons and safety. As a consequence, new supporting technologies for well known nondestructive test and evaluation methods have been developed in order to automate these inspection processes, improving their robustness, accuracy and quickness. On this way, the present work introduces solutions to overcome some obstacles to the automation of the radiographic image analysis task for the pipeline weld joint inspection, on radiographic non-destructive tests and evaluations. The main contributions are related to the improvements to techniques for the automatic weld bean segmentation and the development of an effective algorithm for the weld bean defect detection and extraction of relevant defect descriptors. (author)

  6. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2013-01-01

    The PUMA project - the acronym stands for “Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors” - was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the Euratom 6th Framework (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO2-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a variety

  7. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-01

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO 2 -free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a

  8. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J; Van Den Durpel, L; Chauvet, V; Cerullo, N; Cetnar, J; Abram, T; Bakker, K; Bomboni, E; Bernnat, W; Domanska, J G; Girardi, E; De Haas, J B.M.; Hesketh, K; Hiernaut, J P; Hossain, K; Jonnet, J; Kim, Y; Kloosterman, J L; Kopec, M; Murgatroyd, J; Millington, D; Lecarpentier, D; Lomonaco, G; McEachern, D; Meier, A; Mignanelli, M; Nabielek, H; Oppe, J; Petrov, B Y; Pohl, C; Ruetten, H J; Schihab, S; Toury, G; Trakas, C; Venneri, F; Verfondern, K; Werner, H; Wiss, T; Zakova, J

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a

  9. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR

  10. Characteristics of coupled acoustic wave propagation in metal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Wuk; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2008-01-01

    The circular cylinder pipes are used in the many industrial areas. In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in the pipe containing gas is researched. First of all, the theory for the coupled acoustic wave propagation in a pipe is investigated. Acoustic wave propagation in pipe can not be occurred independently between the wave of the fluid and the shell. It requires complicated analysis. However, as a special case, the coupled wave in a high density pipe containing a light density medium is corresponded closely to the uncoupled in-vacuo shell waves and to the rigid-walled duct fluid waves. The coincidence frequencies of acoustic and shell modes contribute to the predominant energy transmission. The coincidence frequency means the frequency corresponding to the coincidence of the wavenumber in both acoustic and shell. In this paper, it is assumed that the internal medium is much lighter than the pipe shell. After the uncoupled acoustic wave in the internal medium and uncoupled shell wave are considered, the coincidence frequencies are found. The analysis is successfully confirmed by the verification of the experiment using the real long steel pipe. This work verifies that the coupled wave characteristic of the shell and the fluid is occurred as predominant energy transmission at the coincidence frequencies

  11. Development of VHTR high temperature piping in KHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Takano, Shiro

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature pipings used for multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors are the internally insulated pipings for transporting high temperature, high pressure helium at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , and the influences exerted by their performance as well as safety to the plants are very large. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has engaged in the development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs for years. In this report, the progress of the development, the test carried out recently and the problems for future are described. KHI manufactured and is constructing a heater and internally insulated helium pipings for the large, high temperature structure testing loop constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The design concept for the high temperature pipings is to separate the temperature boundary and the pressure boundary, therefore, the double walled construction with internal heat insulation was adopted. The requirements for the high temperature pipings are to prevent natural convection, to prevent bypass flow, to minimize radiation heat transfer and to reduce heat leak through insulator supporters. The heat insulator is composed of two layers, metal laminate insulator and fiber insulator of alumina-silica. The present state of development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs is reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Innovative technology summary report: High-speed clamshell pipe cutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated the High-Speed Clamshell Pipe Cutter technology, developed and marketed by Tri Tool Inc. (Rancho Cordova, California). The models demonstrated are portable, split-frame pipe lathes that require minimal radial and axial clearances for severing and/or beveling in-line pipe with ranges of 25 cm to 41 cm and 46 cm to 61 cm nominal diameter. The radial clearance requirement from the walls, floors, or adjacent pipes is 18 cm. The lathes were supplied with carbide insert conversion kits for the cutting bits for the high-speed technique that was demonstrated. Given site-specific factors, this demonstration showed the cost of the improved technology to be approximately 30% higher than the traditional (baseline) technology (oxyacetylene torch) cost of $14,400 for 10 cuts of contaminated 41-cm and 61-cm-diameter pipe at C Reactor. Actual cutting times were faster than the baseline technology; however, moving/staging the equipment took longer. Unlike the baseline torch, clamshell lathes do not involve applied heat, flames, or smoke and can be operated remotely, thereby helping personal exposures to be as low as reasonably achievable. The baseline technology was demonstrated at the C Reactor north and south water pipe tunnels August 19--22, 1997. The improved technology was demonstrated in the gas pipe tunnel December 15--19

  13. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe, Greife [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  14. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  15. Development of fast-burn combustion with elevated coolant temperatures for natural gas engines. Final report, May 1985-May 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, K.L.; Dennis, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of the work was to improve the state of the art in the gas fired spark ignited engine for use in a cogeneration system. Four characteristics were enhanced for cogeneration, namely, Low Pressure Gas Induction, Improved Shaft Thermal Efficiency, Low NOx Emissions, and Increased Jacket Coolant Temperature. Using Taguchi methods and statistical design of experiment methodologies, an engine design evolved that exhibited: The ability to run satisfactorily on supply gas pressure as low as 1.5 psig (goal: 1 psig); A brake specific fuel consumption as low as 6950 Btu/hp-hr (36.6% thermal efficiency) at 2 gm/hp-hr NOx (goal: 7000 acceptable, 6800 excellent with NOx no more than 2 gm/hp-hr); A jacket water coolant system (with oil cooler on the same circuit) temperature of 225 F (goal); and The ability to burn gas with Methane Number as low as 67 (goal).

  16. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  17. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, K.

    2012-01-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  18. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling through a fan-based heat sink. Successful heat pipe operation and experimental performances are determined for seven heating configurations, considering active bottom, middle and top sections, and four orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). For all heating sections active, the heat pipe oriented vertically in an evaporator-down mode and a power input of 150 W, the overall thermal resistance was 0.014 K/W at a thermal gradient of 2.1 K and an average operating temperature of 50.7 °C. Vertical operation showed best results, as can be expected; horizontally the heat pipe could not be tested up to the power limit and dry-out occurred between 20 and 80 W depending on the heating configuration. Heating configurations without the bottom section active demonstrated a dynamic start-up effect, caused by heat conduction towards the liquid pool and thereafter batch-wise introducing the working fluid into the two-phase cycle. By analysing the heat pipe limitations for the intended operating conditions, a suitable heat pipe geometry was chosen. To predict the thermal performance a thermal model using a resistance network was created. The model compares well with the measurement data, especially for higher input powers. Finally, the thermal model is used for the design of a 1 kW planar system-level electronics cooling infrastructure featuring six 1 m heat pipes in parallel having a long ( 75%) evaporator section.

  19. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  20. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature