WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas pipeline transportation

  1. Natural gas transport with the aid of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, A

    1978-01-01

    After giving a brief explanation on the term natural gas and the chemical composition of natural gases of different origin, the natural gas supply in the FRG and in Western Europe is discussed. Other discussions are included on: (1) planning, construction, and operation of the pipelines; (2) the equipment for pressure increase and the telecommunication equipment which are urgently necessary for gas transport through pipelines; (3) the problem of safety both in connection with the supply and protection of man and material; and (4) problems of profitability of natural gas transport through pipelines.

  2. Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelokhin, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

  3. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  4. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  5. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT...

  6. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. [[Page...

  7. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickl, Matthias; Wirl, Franz

    2011-01-01

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: → Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. → Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. → Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. → Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. → Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. → On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  8. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  9. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0100] Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION...

  11. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  12. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Advance notice of...

  13. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Regulations to require operators of gas distribution pipelines to develop and implement integrity management...

  14. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements.'' The final rule...

  15. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0156] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  16. The southern corridor for natural gas and the last days of Nabucco. Transport of natural gas and Nabucco pipeline; Der suedliche Gaskorridor und die letzten Tage von Nabucco. Gastransport und Nabucco-Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangott, Gerhard [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Politikwissenschaft und Soziologie

    2012-11-12

    As a strategic project management with a transport capacity of 31 billion m{sup 3} per year of natural gas, Nabucco 1.0 should diversify the natural gas suppliers for the EU market and the import pipeline network. Significant amounts of natural gas should be imported from the Caspian and the Middle East region. Nabucco 1.0 failed as a project management. The Nabucco consortium wants to convey natural gas through a small-scale and cheaper Nabucco west pipeline via Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary to Austria. Also the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline will transport the same natural gas reserves into the European Union (EU).

  17. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  18. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.; Volovyk, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine

  19. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts... Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  20. The use of the natural-gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport in a changing market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the transport and distribution aspects of hydrogen during the transition period towards a possible full-blown hydrogen economy are carefully looked at. Firstly, the energetic and material aspects of hydrogen transport through the existing natural-gas (NG) pipeline infrastructure is discussed. Hereby, only the use of centrifugal compressors and the short-term security of supply seem to constitute a problem for the NG to hydrogen transition. Subsequently, the possibility of percentwise mixing of hydrogen into the NG bulk is dealt with. Mixtures containing up to 17 vol% of hydrogen should not cause difficulties. As soon as more hydrogen is injected, replacement of end-use applications and some pipelines will be necessary. Finally, the transition towards full-blown hydrogen transport in (previously carrying) NG pipelines is treated. Some policy guidelines are offered, both in a regulated and a liberalised energy (gas) market. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the use of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures seems well suited for the transition from natural gas to hydrogen on a distribution (low pressure) level. However, getting the hydrogen gas to the distribution grid, by means of the transport grid, remains a major issue. In the end, the structure of the market, regulated or liberalised, turns out not to be important. (author)

  1. LNG transport through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, P; Philipps, A

    1975-01-01

    LNG pipelines could help solve some peakshaving problems if operated in conjunction with other facilities that could use the LNG cold recovered during regasification. In some areas at present, LNG is delivered by tanker and regasified near the terminal for transmission through conventional gas pipelines. In other places, utilities liquefy natural gas for easy storage for later peakshaving use. The only chance to avoid the second expensive liquefaction step would be to convey imported LNG through a suitable designed LNG pipeline. The technical problems involved in LNG pipeline construction have basically been solved in recent years, but those pipelines actually constructed have been only short ones. To be economically justified, long-distance LNG lines require additional credit, which could be obtained by selling the LNG cold recovered during regasification to industrial users located in or near the points of gas consumption. Technical details presented cover the pipe material, stress relief, steel composition, pressure enthalpy, bellows-type expansion joints, and mechanical and thermal insulation.

  2. Legal and regulatory possibility of connection between interstate natural gas distribution networks instead of constructing transport pipelines; Possibilidade juridoco-regulatoria da conexao interestadual entre redes de distribuicao de gas natural como alternativa a construcao de gasodutos de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Gustavo Mano [Andrade, Mano - Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    According to Revista Brasil Energia (2011a), the local natural gas distribution concessionaire in the State of Sao Paulo Gas Brasiliano Distribuidora - GBD, plans to expand its distribution pipeline network in western Sao Paulo up to the border of the State of Minas Gerais, near the region known as Minas Triangle where a connection with the pipeline network of the State of Minas Gerais' natural gas distribution company, Companhia de Gas de Minas Gerais - GASMIG shall be built in order to supply natural gas to an ammonia plant to be built by PETROBRAS in the City of Uberaba. Still according to the publication, the project described above would be an alternative to the construction of a transportation pipeline that, since the enforcement of the Gas Law - Law No. 11.909/09 (Brasil, 2009), should be subject to concession contracts preceded by a complex, and probably delayed, planning and procurement. However, there is a transportation pipeline project, deriving from the Bolivia-Brazil transportation pipeline near the city of Sao Carlos, in Sao Paulo, crossing the Minas Triangle and finishing in the State of Goias. This project is owned by TGBC Company. The existence of two gas pipeline projects with very similar paths to supply virtually the same regions and based on different regulatory frameworks, one consisting of a connection between the distribution networks of different States and another based on the concept of pipeline transportation of gas under the legal and regulatory federal jurisdiction raises the discussion about the possibility of legal and regulatory interstate connections of distribution pipeline networks as an alternative to planning, allocation and construction of a transportation pipelines. This article aims to examine the legal and regulatory foundations of both alternatives and delineate the limits of performance of States and Federal Government on legislation and regulation concerning the movement of natural gas pipeline through the Country

  3. Pipelines, inexpensive and safe mode of transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, D D

    1979-01-01

    Pipelines are the leading bulk commodity transporter and should play an even more important role in the future of energy transportation and distribution. As fossil fuel and low-cost uranium resources become depleted, it will be economical to produce hydrogen by electrolysis and transport it through underground pipelines to points of consumption. The cost would be only two to three times that of transporting natural gas per unit of heat energy and substantially less than the cost of transporting electric energy in overhead, extra-high-voltage transmission lines. Pipeline design, including economic pipe diameter; pipe material; operation by remote control and automation; cathodic protection; pipeline construction; and pipeline maintenance, particularly as regards the 1157 km long Oil India Pipeline, are discussed.

  4. 77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0024] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Incident Report...

  5. 78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0097] Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

  6. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0024] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Incident Report...

  7. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  8. Worldwide natural gas pipeline situation. Sekai no tennen gas pipeline jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, T [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    Constructing natural gas pipelines in wide areas requires investments of a huge amount. Many countries are building natural gas supply infrastructures under public support as nations' basic policy of promoting use of natural gas. This paper describes the present conditions of building pipelines in Western Europe, the U.S.A., Korea and Taiwan. In Western Europe, transporting companies established in line with the national policy own trunk pipelines and storage facilities, and import and distribute natural gas. The U.S.A. has 2300 small and large pipeline companies bearing transportation business. Pipelines extend about 1.9 million kilometers in total, with trunk pipelines accounting for about 440,000 kilometers. The companies are given eminent domain for the right of way. Korea has a plan to build a pipeline network with a distance of 1600 kilometers in around 2000. Taiwan has completed trunk pipelines extending 330 kilometers in two years. In Japan, the industry is preparing draft plans for wide area pipeline construction. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydrocarbons pipeline transportation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, A. V.; Milke, A. A.; Kvasov, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The pipeline transportation applying risks assessment issue in the arctic conditions is addressed in the paper. Pipeline quality characteristics in the given environment has been assessed. To achieve the stated objective, the pipelines mathematical model was designed and visualized by using the software product SOLIDWORKS. When developing the mathematical model the obtained results made possible to define the pipeline optimal characteristics for designing on the Arctic sea bottom. In the course of conducting the research the pipe avalanche collapse risks were examined, internal longitudinal and circular loads acting on the pipeline were analyzed, as well as the water impact hydrodynamic force was taken into consideration. The conducted calculation can contribute to the pipeline transport further development under the harsh climate conditions of the Russian Federation Arctic shelf territory.

  10. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  11. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, Giovanni; Salzano, Ernesto; Santucci de Magistris, Filippo; Fabbrocino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  12. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...] Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines October 21, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... comments on whether and how holders of firm capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  13. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  14. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  15. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  16. Stress test performed on gas transport pipelines as a method for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelzer, J.; Baessler, R.

    1991-01-01

    Modern pipeline construction increasingly uses the stress test as an integral component test while aiming at enhanced safety and availability. The application described by the article highlights the particular fact that expanded and non-expanded pipes of identical material quality will reveal a different behaviour in the stress test. (orig.) [de

  17. 78 FR 34703 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0004] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request...

  18. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  19. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0185] Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  20. 78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0097] Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION...

  1. Simulation of high consequence areas for gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Díaz-Parra; Enrique Vera-López

    2018-01-01

    The gas pipeline is used for the transport of natural gas at a great distance. Risks derived from the handling of a combustible material transported under high pressure, by pipelines that pass close to where people live, makes it necessary to adopt prevention, mitigation and control measures to reduce the effect in case of ignition of a gas leak. This work shows the development of a new mathematical model to determine areas of high consequence and their application, using widely available and...

  2. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  3. Pipeline system for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Tsutomu; Umezawa, Sadao.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  6. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior in terrain-inclined pipelines for gathering transport system of wet natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2018-01-01

    The Volume of Fluid method and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model were employed to predict the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a terrain-inclined pipeline with deposited liquids. The simulation was carried out in a 22.5 m terrain-inclined pipeline with a 150 mm internal diameter...... on the liquid level under the suction force which caused by the negative pressure around the elbow, and then it touched to the top of the pipe. When the liquid blocked the pipe, the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream of the elbow increased with the increase of the gas velocity. At larger gas...

  7. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  8. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION PLANNERS

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICO DOS SANTOS LIPORACE

    2005-01-01

    Oleodutos têm um papel importante no transporte de petróleo e de seus derivados, pois são a maneira mais eficaz de transportar grandes volumes por longas distâncias. A motivação deste trabalho é que uma parte não negligenciável do preço final de um derivado de petróleo é influenciada pelo custo de transporte. Apesar disso, até onde sabemos, apenas alguns autores trabalharam neste problema específico, a maioria utilizando técnicas de programação inteira. Este tr...

  9. Open access to natural gas pipeline transportation in North America: Lessons for the European internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The North American natural gas industry's experience with deregulation is described, with emphasis on the transition to competition and the conditions for viability under open access. Lessons learned from the North American experience are then examined for relevance to the European situation, which is emphasizing greater access to transmission systems. It is found likely that the European proposal will frequently operate only to facilitate negotiations among players already active in the gas market, and is less likely to introduce a large number of independent transactions or new merchants. Challenges for the system will include: government assurance of reliability to domestic gas users who have made arrangements with foreign suppliers; administration of pipeline grids; resolution of competing claims on available transmission services; planning for future suppliers; and impact on investment. 8 refs., 1 fig

  10. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  11. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  12. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  13. Simulation of high consequence areas for gas pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz-Parra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas pipeline is used for the transport of natural gas at a great distance. Risks derived from the handling of a combustible material transported under high pressure, by pipelines that pass close to where people live, makes it necessary to adopt prevention, mitigation and control measures to reduce the effect in case of ignition of a gas leak. This work shows the development of a new mathematical model to determine areas of high consequence and their application, using widely available and easy to use software, such as Google Earth and Excel, to determine and visualize the area up to which the level of radiation can affect the integrity of people and buildings. The model takes into account the pressure drop into the gas pipeline from the compression station, the gas leakage rate and possible forms of gas ignition. This development is an alternative to the use of specialized software and highly trained personnel. The simulation is applied to a traced of the Miraflores-Tunja gas pipeline, using a macro developed in Excel to determine the impact area and compare it with the coordinates of the vulnerable areas. The zones where these areas intersect are constituted in high consequence areas and are identified along with the sections of the pipeline that affect them, to provide the operator with a risk analysis tool for the determination and visualization of the gas pipeline and its environment.

  14. Strength analysis of copper gas pipeline span

    OpenAIRE

    Ianevski, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the stresses in a gas pipeline. While analyzing piping systems located inside building were used. Calculation of the strength of a gas pipeline is done by using information of the thickness of pipe walls, by choosing the suitable material, inner and outer diameter for the pipeline. Data for this thesis was collected through various internet sources and different books. From the study and research, the final results were reached and calculations were ...

  15. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  16. Integrated diagnostics of northern gas pipelines; Diagnostic integre des gazoducs septentrionaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volsky, E.; Dedikov, E.; Ananenkov, A.; Salchov, Z.; Yakupov, Z. [Joint-Stock Company, Gazprom (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The main part of gas joint - stock company 'Gazprom' extracts from the northern deposits, which are situated in the permafrost zone. Ensuring of gas transporting pipeline's safety operation is a very complex and priority problem. On the basis of usage of this complex of methods the problem to ensure the safety operation is solved systematically: gas-mine - plant IV - derivation pipelines (condensate pipeline Yamburg Novy Urengoy, gas pipeline IV - GCS with negative temperature of transported products) taking into account 'co-ordination' dynamics of changes in pipeline GTS and technological modes of equipment operation. All researches was executed on the high professional level. (authors)

  17. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  18. Gazprom looks for means to finance its gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Gazprom natural gas company wants to solve its short range problems in order to develop its activities in Western Europe rapidly. The transportation capacities remain the main problem of Gazprom which is looking for new financing for the development and maintenance of its pipelines network. Several pipeline projects are under study but the occidental banks remain suspicious and wait for the settlement of internal lawsuits between Gazprom and the Russian state. Short paper. (J.S.)

  19. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  1. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  2. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. 284.267 Section 284.267 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  3. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  4. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  5. Midwest gas and power markets, hubs, pipelines, and interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirick, J.

    2001-01-01

    The existing interstate pipelines and proposed pipeline projects for the Chicago hub area were illustrated. The presentation explained why energy suppliers in the current competitive market need to balance and manage energy and transportation services for gas-fired power generators in terms of hourly winter and summer peaking services. The new infrastructure of the energy market will include new pipelines, storage and balancing to meet the ever increasing power demand. One of the options to meet power demand is to increase natural gas supply, transportation, storage, and hourly balancing capabilities. Other options are to build nuclear or coal-fired power generating facilities, or to go with renewables such as solar and wind power. Energy conservation and the reduction of natural gas usage per capita is another option to eliminate blackouts. This presentation also addressed the role that local distribution companies (LDC) and unbundling will play in the choice of these options. tabs., figs

  6. Optimizing pipeline transportation using a fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago L.; Correa, Joao L. L.; Montalvoa, Antonio F. F. [National Control and Operation Center Tranpetro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of pipeline transportation is a big concern for the transporter companies. This paper is the third of a series of three articles which investigated the application of a system to simulate the human ability to operate a pipeline in an optimized way. The present paper presents the development of a proportional integral (PI) fuzzy controller, in order to optimize pipeline transportation capacity. The fuzzy adaptive PI controller system was developed and tested with a hydraulic simulator. On-field data were used from the OSBRA pipeline. The preliminary tests showed that the performance of the software simulation was satisfactory. It varied the set-point of the conventional controller within the limits of flow meters. The transport capacity of the pipe was maximize without compromising the integrity of the commodities transported. The system developed proved that it can be easily deployed as a specialist optimizing system to be added to SCADA systems.

  7. Mathematical modeling of non-stationary gas flow in gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V. G.; Nikolaev, A. K.; Lykov, Y. V.; Duchnevich, L. N.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of the operation of the gas transportation system shows that for a considerable part of time pipelines operate in an unsettled regime of gas movement. Its pressure and flow rate vary along the length of pipeline and over time as a result of uneven consumption and selection, switching on and off compressor units, shutting off stop valves, emergence of emergency leaks. The operational management of such regimes is associated with difficulty of reconciling the operating modes of individual sections of gas pipeline with each other, as well as with compressor stations. Determining the grounds that cause change in the operating mode of the pipeline system and revealing patterns of these changes determine the choice of its parameters. Therefore, knowledge of the laws of changing the main technological parameters of gas pumping through pipelines in conditions of non-stationary motion is of great importance for practice.

  8. Regulatory assessment with regulatory flexibility analysis : draft regulatory evaluation - Notice of Proposed Rulemaking -- Pipeline Safety : safety standards for increasing the maximum allowable operating pressure for natural gas transmission pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is proposing changes to the Federal pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Part 192, which cover the transportation of natural gas by pipeline. Specifically, PHMSA proposes allowing na...

  9. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  10. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR 191... Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Issuance of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a final rule on November 26, 2010...

  11. 75 FR 36615 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Gas Distribution Annual Report Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-RSPA-2004-19854] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Gas Distribution Annual Report Form AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Request...

  12. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VY (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  13. Corrosion behavior of API 5L-X80 Pipeline steel for natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Asyadi Azam Mohd Abid; Imai, Hachiro

    2007-01-01

    Natural energy problem, including the environmental aspects had changes into certain circumstances in recent years and natural gas has been a focus of constant attention from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and pollution free. From that kind of background, pipeline construction for petroleum and natural gas were considerate as energy infrastructure maintenance plan. Based on the clarification of Asian Pipeline Project (1997-2007) centered in Japan, international pipeline is needed as the natural gas is mainly transported from gas field in Russia and Middle East to consumer country such as Japan etc. It used in severe condition such as cold district and sea. In the meantime, pipeline steel is not just received damages by earth crust fluctuation and corrosion, but also suffered from the corrosion caused by anions that were dissolved in sea and groundwater. The diversification of dispersion and consumption structure of natural gas supply acceptance base are seen regarding, that made the needs of the storing are rising and dealt with the quantitative spatial expansion of the demand. By that, corrosion resistance, not only the hardness, tough, weldability, corrosiveness gas environment is extremely required. (author)

  14. Z662-96: oil and gas pipeline systems; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S; Burford, G; Martin, A; Adragna, M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This Standard is part of the pipeline systems and materials segment of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)`s Transportation program. It covers the design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that carry (1) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas, (2) oilfield water, (3) oilfield steam, (4) carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes, or (5) natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic gas. tabs. figs.

  15. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  16. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  17. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keun Wook Paik

    1996-01-01

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  18. Government Support for Synthetic Pipeline Gas Uncertain and Needs Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-14

    coal gas. Tear Sheetii RECOMMENDATIONS GAO recommends that the Secretary of Energy - --establish a plan to guide future support of high-Btu coal...recognizes that there are basic dif- ferences expected from large and small scale research projects, GAO believes that the report recognizes these...transportation, including the pipeline system. In its price-setting, or ratemaking function, it represents the interests of gas customers, sometimes

  19. Nova Gas`s pipeline to Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia`s peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI`s success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI`s ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners.

  20. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 64 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, ''Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply.'' Data reported on this form are not considered to be confidential. This publication is the 29th in a series of annual reports on the total gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies since the inception of individual company reports to the Federal Power Commission (FPC) in 1964 for report year 1963

  1. Outlook '98 - Gas and oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, B.

    1998-01-01

    Due to rising North American demand, especially by the United States, by the end of 1997 there were plans to build 15 new pipelines over the next three years, at an estimated cost of $17 billion. Canada''s proximity to the United States, combined with huge Canadian reserves, and the fact that Canada already supplies some 15 per cent of U.S. requirements, makes Canada the obvious choice for filling future demand. This explains why most, if not all, current pipeline expansion projects are targeting markets in the U.S. Market forces will determine which of the projects will actually go forward. From the point of view of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association pipeline regulatory reform, pipeline safety, integrity and climate change will be the Association''s key concerns during 1998. To that end, the Association is cooperating with the National Energy Board in a multi-million dollar study of stress corrosion cracking. The Association has also developed a Manual of Recommended Practices for the use of member companies to assist them to tailor stress corrosion cracking practices to their own operations. Meeting Canada''s commitment at the Kyoto Conference for greenhouse gas emissions of six per cent below 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 (in effect a 25 per cent reduction from the level anticipated in the year 2000), a very difficult task according to industry experts, is also among the high priority items on the pipeline industry''s agenda for 1998

  2. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim) ... This paper focuses on the development of software for optimum design and simulation of natural gas pipeline. General ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. The research of qualitative indicators of gas pipelines during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research of qualitative indicators of gas pipelines during the operation. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The quality control study of the inter-settlement gas pipeline section was conducted, and graphs of dependence of ...

  4. Optimization of pipeline transport for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Rudolph, V.

    2006-01-01

    Coal fired power generation will continue to provide energy to the world for the foreseeable future. However, this energy use is a significant contributor to increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and, hence, global warming. Capture and disposal of CO 2 has received increased R and D attention in the last decade as the technology promises to be the most cost effective for large scale reductions in CO 2 emissions. This paper addresses CO 2 transport via pipeline from capture site to disposal site, in terms of system optimization, energy efficiency and overall economics. Technically, CO 2 can be transported through pipelines in the form of a gas, a supercritical fluid or in the subcooled liquid state. Operationally, most CO 2 pipelines used for enhanced oil recovery transport CO 2 as a supercritical fluid. In this paper, supercritical fluid and subcooled liquid transport are examined and compared, including their impacts on energy efficiency and cost. Using a commercially available process simulator, ASPEN PLUS 10.1, the results show that subcooled liquid transport maximizes the energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO 2 transport over long distances under both isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Pipeline transport of subcooled liquid CO 2 can be ideally used in areas of cold climate or by burying and insulating the pipeline. In very warm climates, periodic refrigeration to cool the CO 2 below its critical point of 31.1 o C, may prove economical. Simulations have been used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature and ground level heat flux conditions

  5. PRODUT - a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in the oil and gas transportation in Brazil; PRODUT - um programa tecnologico de dutos para enfrentar os desafios do transporte de oleo e gas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Ney Goncalves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Following the international tendency of the pipeline companies, PETROBRAS has been investing relevant resources in new technologies, with the objective of increasing reliability and life span, and decreasing the cost and the risk of leakage. PETROBRAS created in 1998 the pipeline technological program, PRODUT, to be responsible for coordinating the development of the company R and D projects. This paper will present PRODUT and the good results obtained in order to increase reliability and competitiveness of transportation systems, essential for global performance of the petroleum industry. (author)

  6. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  8. Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... natural gas distribution construction. Natural gas distribution pipelines are subject to a unique subset... distribution pipeline construction practices. This workshop will focus solely on natural gas distribution...

  10. Freezing around a pipeline carrying cooled gas in flooded areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' kov, V P; Krivoshein, B L

    1978-12-01

    The USSR's NIPIESUneftegazstroi mathematically analyzed the problem of ice formation around a subcooled-gas pipeline submerged in water in cold regions and derived charts for determining heat-transfer coefficients and the rate of ice formation for various water and gas temperatures. Because the ice halo that forms around these pipelines necessitates additional anchoring of the line, NIPIESUneftegazstroi sought to quantify the weight required in order to minimize the cost and material needed. The differential heat-transfer equations given can be used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients and the specific heat flux from the water to the ice halo, as well as the radius of the ice halo. Values of the ice-halo radius are plotted graphically as parabolic function of time (to 15,000 h) for pipeline surface temperatures of 30.2, 27.5, 23, 18.5, and 14/sup 0/F. An equation indicates the limiting value of the temperature of the transported gas at which icing of an insulated pipeline will not occur.

  11. Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

  12. Internal sandblasting of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A B

    1969-09-29

    Trans-Canada is completing the fourth season of internal cleaning by sandblasting of its multiple-line gas transmission system, with Kleen Kote, Inc., as contractor. Flow efficiencies of 93% have been attained and have been maintained for periods of more than 2 yr for all normally expected flow rates, compared with 83.8% previously at flow rates up to 1.2 billion cu ft per day. It was estimated that increased efficiency through sandblasting reduced line pipe requirements for 36-in. looping by 47 miles, saving $8.7 million capital expenditures. At 70 cents/ft or $3,700 a mile for sandblasting, the cost of sandblasting was only one-quarter that of looping.

  13. Development and Applications of Pipeline Steel in Long-Distance Gas Pipeline of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyong, Huo; Yang, Li; Lingkang, Ji

    In past decades, with widely utilizing of Microalloying and Thermal Mechanical Control Processing (TMCP) technology, the good matching of strength, toughness, plasticity and weldability on pipeline steel has been reached so that oil and gas pipeline has been greatly developed in China to meet the demand of strong domestic consumption of energy. In this paper, development history of pipeline steel and gas pipeline in china is briefly reviewed. The microstructure characteristic and mechanical performance of pipeline steel used in some representative gas pipelines of china built in different stage are summarized. Through the analysis on the evolution of pipeline service environment, some prospective development trend of application of pipeline steel in China is also presented.

  14. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  15. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  16. Condensation in gas transmission pipelines. Phase behavior of mixtures of hydrogen with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, J.A.; Michels, J.P.J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Rosmalen, R.J. van [Energy, Roden (Netherlands)

    2005-05-01

    Several pressure and temperature reductions occur along gas transmission lines. Since the pressure and temperature conditions of the natural gas in the pipeline are often close to the dew point curve, liquid dropout can occur. Injection of hydrogen into the natural gas will change the phase envelope and thus the liquid dropout. This condensation of the heavy hydrocarbons requires continuous operational attention and a positive effect of hydrogen may affect the decision to introduce hydrogen. In this paper we report on calculations of the amount of condensate in a natural gas and in this natural gas mixed with 16.7% hydrogen. These calculations have been performed at conditions prevailing in gas transport lines. The results will be used to discuss the difference in liquid dropout in a natural gas and in a mixture with hydrogen at pressure reduction stations, at crossings under waterways, at side-branching, and at separators in the pipelines. (author)

  17. Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew E.

    The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because

  18. Transport diphasique de gaz et de condensat. Aspects techniques et économiques Technical and Economic Aspects of Two-Phase Pipelining of Gas and Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évacuation diphasique de la production d'un gisement de gaz à condensat présente des avantages importants, en particulier sur le plan économique. Les caractéristiques des écoulements diphasiques sont exposées, avec les conséquences principales sur la définition d'un schéma d'exploitation. Une comparaison économique est ensuite présentée, pour illustrer la réduction des investissements qui peut être apportée par l'évacuation diphasique de la production. Enfin, les recherches françaises sur les écoulements diphasiques dans les conduites pétrolières sont brièvement décrites, ainsi qu'un exemple de calcul sur une conduite de gaz à condensat en exploitation diphasique. The two-phase pipelining of a wet gas field production presents many advantages, especially from an economic point of view. The characteristics of two-phase flow are described, together with their main consequences on the operational scheme. Then an economic comparison is made to illustrate the reduction in investment costs that can by achieved with two-phase pipelining. Research in France on two-phase flow in gas and condensate pipelines is briefly described, and an example is given of the designing of a wet-gas pipeline currently being operated in the two-phase mode.

  19. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under...

  20. Natural Gas pipelines: economics of incremental capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.

    2000-01-01

    A number of gas transmission pipeline systems in Australia exhibit capacity constraints, and yet there is little evidence of creative or innovative processes from either the service provides of the regulators which might provide a market-based response to these constraints. There is no provision in the Code in its current form to allow it to accommodate these processes. This aspect is one of many that require review to make the Code work. It is unlikely that the current members of the National Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (NGPAC) or its advisers have sufficient understanding of the analysis of risk and the consequential commercial drivers to implement the necessary changes. As a result, the Code will increasingly lose touch with the commercial realities of the energy market and will continue to inhibit investment in new and expanded infrastructure where market risk is present. The recent report prepared for the Business Council of Australia indicates a need to re-vitalise the energy reform process. It is important for the Australian energy industry to provide leadership and advice to governments to continue the process of reform, and, in particular, to amend the Code to make it more relevant. These amendments must include a mechanism by which price signals can be generated to provide timely and effective information for existing service providers or new entrants to install incremental pipeline capacity

  1. Gas pipeline Opon - Barrancabermeja. Consumption at low cost with environmental cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The gas pipeline Opon-Barrancabermeja, is part of a project to produce hydrocarbons in the Carare Region. For this line will be transported natural gas of the Opon Field, in Simitarra (Colombia). The benefits that it brings the presence of the gas pipeline for the community have to see from the same construction of the net, joined with diverse programs that link to communities of the influence areas, in aspects related with health, education, environmental reparation and agricultural diversification

  2. Natural gas pipelines: emerging market challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, A.; Balfe, P

    2001-01-01

    The Australian gas industry has come a long way in recent years. Most of the formerly government owned gas transmission, distribution and retail businesses have been privatised; major utility companies have been fundamentally restructured; the convergence of energy markets has seen many companies stepping outside the boundaries of their traditional businesses; and national competition policy has led to profound changes in the regulatory landscape. Yet despite the magnitude of these changes, it is clear that the journey of competitive reform has a long way to go. The Australian Gas Association's Industry Development Strategy identifies the potential for gas to increase its share of Australia's primary energy market, from around 18 percent at present to 22 percent by 2005, and 28 percent by 2015. Our analysis, using ACIL's Eastern Australian Gas Model, clearly shows that in the absence of major new sources of gas, these challenging targets will not be met and, indeed, there will be an increasing supply shortfall. However, with the emergence of new competitive supply sources such as Papua New Guinea and the Timor Sea, our modelling suggests that most of this demand can be satisfied at prices which will maintain gas' competitiveness in energy markets. Such developments provide both opportunities and challenges for the industry. In particular, they will profoundly affect the owners and operators of transmission pipeline systems. (Authors)

  3. Statistical analyses of incidents on onshore gas transmission pipelines based on PHMSA database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Chio; Zhou, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    This article reports statistical analyses of the mileage and pipe-related incidents data corresponding to the onshore gas transmission pipelines in the US between 2002 and 2013 collected by the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration of the US Department of Transportation. The analysis indicates that there are approximately 480,000 km of gas transmission pipelines in the US, approximately 60% of them more than 45 years old as of 2013. Eighty percent of the pipelines are Class 1 pipelines, and about 20% of the pipelines are Classes 2 and 3 pipelines. It is found that the third-party excavation, external corrosion, material failure and internal corrosion are the four leading failure causes, responsible for more than 75% of the total incidents. The 12-year average rate of rupture equals 3.1 × 10"−"5 per km-year due to all failure causes combined. External corrosion is the leading cause for ruptures: the 12-year average rupture rate due to external corrosion equals 1.0 × 10"−"5 per km-year and is twice the rupture rate due to the third-party excavation or material failure. The study provides insights into the current state of gas transmission pipelines in the US and baseline failure statistics for the quantitative risk assessments of such pipelines. - Highlights: • Analyze PHMSA pipeline mileage and incident data between 2002 and 2013. • Focus on gas transmission pipelines. • Leading causes for pipeline failures are identified. • Provide baseline failure statistics for risk assessments of gas transmission pipelines.

  4. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192...

  5. Facilitating major additions to gas pipeline capacity: innovative approaches to financing, contracting, and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.; George, R.

    1997-01-01

    The North American gas pipeline industry is in the process of changing from a highly regulated merchant business to a less-regulated, more competitive, transportation industry. This has changed the risk profiles of many companies. This study examined various innovative approaches to successfully financing major pipeline projects emphasizing pipeline capacity financing, contractual terms between shippers and pipelines, and regulatory developments. Besides suggesting options to enhance prospects for financing major pipeline expansion projects, the study also aimed at creating a better understanding of the regulatory market and commercial changes in the pipeline industry and their financing implications. The study also includes a review of the evolution in gas markets and a record of consultations with lenders, producers, marketers and users. Innovative financing, contracting and regulatory solutions are identified and assessed. 25 refs., 17 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  7. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xian; Liu, Kang; Sun, Pei-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential...

  8. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  9. State observers for monitoring gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, M.J.; Jones, R.P.; Pritchard, A.J.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes work performed on collaboration with the British Gas Corporation in relation to the development of algorithms for monitoring the condition of high-pressure gas pipelines. The practical problem considered is that of reconstructing the pressure profile along a single length of pipe from pressure measurements at the end points and a further measurement at an intermediate point along the pipe. The approach adopted is based on the implementation of a finite-dimensional asymptotic state observer derived from consideration of the distributed-parameter properties of the system. The paper includes the results of a computational study in which the observer was evaluated against experimental data corresponding to an 80 km section of pipe. These results indicate that the dynamic observer is capable of providing an accurate estimate of the pressure profile over a complete 24 h demand cycle. 5 refs. (authors).

  10. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  11. Modeling flows of heterogeneous media in pipelines when substantiating operating conditions of hydrocarbon field transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Novitskiy, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The works of researchers at VNIIgaz, Giprovostokneft, Kuibyshev NIINP, Grozny Petroleum Institute, etc., are devoted to modeling heterogeneous medium flows in pipelines under laboratory conditions. In objective consideration, the empirical relationships obtained and the calculation procedures for pipelines transporting multiphase products are a bank of experimental data on the problem of pipeline transportation of multiphase systems. Based on the analysis of the published works, the main design requirements for experimental installations designed to study the flow regimes of gas-liquid flows in pipelines were formulated, which were taken into account by the authors when creating the experimental stand. The article describes the results of experimental studies of the flow regimes of a gas-liquid mixture in a pipeline, and also gives a methodological description of the experimental installation. Also the article describes the software of the experimental scientific and educational stand developed with the participation of the authors.

  12. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  13. 78 FR 28837 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-129-001] Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition Take notice that on May 6, 2013, Acadian Gas Pipeline System (Acadian... concerns filed in the September 26, 2011 filing, as more fully detailed in the petition. Any person...

  14. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by interstate pipelines. 284.102 Section 284.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation by...

  15. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by intrastate pipelines. 284.122 Section 284.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation by...

  16. Evaluation of methane fugitive emissions in systems of natural gas transportation. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline case; Avaliacao das emissoes fugitivas de metano em sistemas de transporte de gas natural. O caso do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniele Mesquita Bordalo da; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: danielembc@poli.ufrj.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ruy@tbg.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper verifies the total annual of fugitive emissions of methane from the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, presently the largest pipeline in operation in Brazil, beside to estimate the financial loss associated to those emissions.

  17. software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... investment and operating cost required for natural gas pipeline transmission ... In the early development of the natural gas transmission industry, pressures were low and ..... The software has an error control capability in.

  18. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  19. Safety of the medical gas pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Sarangi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical gases are nowadays being used for a number of diverse clinical applications and its piped delivery is a landmark achievement in the field of patient care. Patient safety is of paramount importance in the design, installation, commissioning, and operation of medical gas pipeline systems (MGPS. The system has to be operational round the clock, with practically zero downtime and its failure can be fatal if not restored at the earliest. There is a lack of awareness among the clinicians regarding the medico-legal aspect involved with the MGPS. It is a highly technical field; hence, an in-depth knowledge is a must to ensure safety with the system.

  20. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Boothroyd, Ian; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The impact of unconventional natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing methods from shale gas basins has been assessed using life-cycle emissions inventories, covering areas such as pre-production, production and transmission processes. The transmission of natural gas from well pad to processing plants and its transport to domestic sites is an important source of fugitive CH4, yet emissions factors and fluxes from transmission processes are often based upon ver out of date measurements. It is important to determine accurate measurements of natural gas losses when compressed and transported between production and processing facilities so as to accurately determine life-cycle CH4 emissions. This study considers CH4 emissions from the UK National Transmission System (NTS) of high pressure natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions using a Picarro Surveyor cavity-ring-down spectrometer were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high pressure pipelines and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from these joints. When scaled up to the UK's National Transmission System pipeline length of 7600 km gives a fugitive CH4 flux of 4700 ± 2864 kt CH4/yr - this fugitive emission from high pressure pipelines is 0.016% of the annual gas supply.

  1. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  2. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  3. 49 CFR 192.937 - What is a continual process of evaluation and assessment to maintain a pipeline's integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.937 What is a...

  4. 77 FR 51848 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines. DATES: Interested persons are invited to submit comments on or.... These regulations require operators of hazardous liquid pipelines and gas pipelines to develop and...

  5. 77 FR 74275 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No.... These regulations require operators of hazardous liquid pipelines and gas pipelines to develop and... control room. Affected Public: Operators of both natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline systems. Annual...

  6. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements for gas transmission pipeline operators... Management in High Consequence Areas Gas Transmission Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0610...

  7. 78 FR 46560 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... class location requirements for gas transmission pipelines. Section 5 of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory... and, with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying IMP requirements to...

  8. 75 FR 53733 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0246] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... liquefied natural gas, hazardous liquid, and gas transmission pipeline systems operated by a company. The...

  9. 77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements for gas transmission pipeline operators... Management in High Consequence Areas Gas Transmission Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0610...

  10. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... information collection titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program Certification and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline... collection request that PHMSA will be submitting to OMB for renewal titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program...

  11. Black powder removal in a Mexico gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, John R. [TDW Services, Inc., New Castle, DE (United States); Drysdale, Colin; Warterfield, Bob D. [T.D.Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper focuses on the cleaning methodology and operational constrains involved with the removal of black powder in a high pressure natural gas transmission pipeline. In this case, the accumulation of black powder along the pipeline system over the seven year period since it was put into service was creating significant problems in the areas of maintenance, customer relations, and cost to the pipeline operator due to clogging of filters, reduced gas flow, and penalties as result of non-compliant delivery contracts. The pipeline cleaning project consisted of running cleaning pigs or scrappers with batches of cleaning solution through each section of the pipeline while dealing with such factors as three (3) pipeline section lengths in excess of 160 kms (100 miles), gas flow velocity fluctuations, shutdowns, and gas delivery schedule requirements. The cleaning program for the entire pipeline system included the use of chemical and diesel based cleaning solution, running multiple cleaning pigs, liquid injection and separation system, mobile storage tanks, various equipment and personnel for logistical support. Upon completion of the cleaning program, the level of black powder and other solids in all pipeline sections was reduced to approximately 0.5% liquid/solid ratio and the pipeline system returned to normal optimum operation. (author.

  12. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consumers within the State or municipality. (ii) Where natural gas not subject to state regulatory or... Act of 1920, except such crude oil which is either exchanged in similar quantity for convenience or... is temporarily exported for convenience or increased efficiency of transportation across parts of an...

  13. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Almond, S.; Boothroyd, I.

    2016-12-01

    Concern over the greenhouse gas impact of the exploitation of unconventional natural gas from shale deposits has caused a spotlight to be shone on to the entire hydrocarbon industry. Numerous studies have developed life-cycle emissions inventories to assess the impact that hydraulic fracturing has upon greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporated within life-cycle assessments are transmission and distribution losses, including infrastructure such as pipelines and compressor stations that pressurise natural gas for transport along pipelines. Estimates of fugitive emissions from transmission, storage and distribution have been criticized for reliance on old data from inappropriate sources (1970s Russian gas pipelines). In this study, we investigate fugitive emissions of CH4 from the UK high pressure national transmission system. The study took two approaches. Firstly, CH4 concentration is detected by driving along roads bisecting high pressure gas pipelines and also along an equivalent distance along a route where no high pressure gas pipeline was nearby. Five pipelines and five equivalent control routes were driven and the test was that CH4 measurements, when adjusted for distance and wind speed, should be greater on any route with a pipe than any route without a pipe. Secondly, 5 km of a high pressure gas pipeline and 5 km of equivalent farmland, were walked and soil gas (above the pipeline where present) was analysed every 7 m using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from

  14. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar

    2007-01-01

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  15. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  16. Numerical modeling of fires on gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Jianbo Lai; Lu Liu

    2011-01-01

    When natural gas is released through a hole on a high-pressure pipeline, it disperses in the atmosphere as a jet. A jet fire will occur when the leaked gas meets an ignition source. To estimate the dangerous area, the shape and size of the fire must be known. The evolution of the jet fire in air is predicted by using a finite-volume procedure to solve the flow equations. The model is three-dimensional, elliptic and calculated by using a compressibility corrected version of the k - ξ turbulence model, and also includes a probability density function/laminar flamelet model of turbulent non-premixed combustion process. Radiation heat transfer is described using an adaptive version of the discrete transfer method. The model is compared with the experiments about a horizontal jet fire in a wind tunnel in the literature with success. The influence of wind and jet velocity on the fire shape has been investigated. And a correlation based on numerical results for predicting the stoichiometric flame length is proposed. - Research highlights: → We developed a model to predict the evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames. → Measurements of temperature distributions match well with the numerical predictions. → A correlation has been proposed to predict the stoichiometric flame length. → Buoyancy effects are higher in the numerical results. → The radiative heat loss is bigger in the experimental results.

  17. GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM

  18. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  20. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This document contains phases 7, 8, and 9 of a review on the technology assessment of long distance liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines. Phase 7 contains 6 papers describing novel applications for LNG pipelines. Phase 8 contains a summary of material relating to cold utilization and rural service. Phase 9 presents a listing of materials and equipment used to construct an LNG pipeline. Separate abstracts for each phase of the study have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  2. Risk Analysis using Corrosion Rate Parameter on Gas Transmission Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikirono, B.; Kim, S. J.; Haryadi, G. D.; Huda, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the pipeline is a major component in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas. Oil and gas distribution process sometimes performed past the pipeline across the various types of environmental conditions. Therefore, in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas, a pipeline should operate safely so that it does not harm the surrounding environment. Corrosion is still a major cause of failure in some components of the equipment in a production facility. In pipeline systems, corrosion can cause failures in the wall and damage to the pipeline. Therefore it takes care and periodic inspections or checks on the pipeline system. Every production facility in an industry has a level of risk for damage which is a result of the opportunities and consequences of damage caused. The purpose of this research is to analyze the level of risk of 20-inch Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline using Risk-based inspection semi-quantitative based on API 581 associated with the likelihood of failure and the consequences of the failure of a component of the equipment. Then the result is used to determine the next inspection plans. Nine pipeline components were observed, such as a straight pipes inlet, connection tee, and straight pipes outlet. The risk assessment level of the nine pipeline’s components is presented in a risk matrix. The risk level of components is examined at medium risk levels. The failure mechanism that is used in this research is the mechanism of thinning. Based on the results of corrosion rate calculation, remaining pipeline components age can be obtained, so the remaining lifetime of pipeline components are known. The calculation of remaining lifetime obtained and the results vary for each component. Next step is planning the inspection of pipeline components by NDT external methods.

  3. Methodology for environmental audit of execution in gas-pipelines and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Palomino, Maria Patricia; Vargas Bejarano, Carlos Hernando

    1999-01-01

    In first instance the constructive aspects and the environmental impact related with the gas-pipes and pipelines construction are presented; then a methodology to make the environmental audit of execution in gas-pipes and pipelines, is showed. They contemplate four stages basically: planning, pre-auditory, execution and analysis, and post-auditory with their respective activities. Also, it is given to know, generalities of the practical case, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed methodology

  4. The method of predicting the process of condensation of moisture and hydrate formation in the gas pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Хвостова, Олена Вікторівна

    2014-01-01

    The problem of ensuring the required value of one of the natural gas quality indicators during its transportation to the consumer - moisture content is considered in the paper. The method for predicting possible moisture condensation and hydrate formation processes in gas pipelines considering mixing gas flows with different moisture content was developed.Predicting the moisture condensation and hydrate formation in gas pipelines is an actual task since a timely prevention of these processes ...

  5. Detection blockages and valve statues in natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl; Short, Gordon; Wang, Xuesong [Pipeline Engineering Ltd, North Yorkshire, (United Kingdom); Lennox, Barry; Lewis, Keith; Turner, John [University of Manchester, Manchester, (United Kingdom); Lewis, Chris [BP exploration, Aberdeen, (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Detecting features in pipelines containing flowing gas is difficult. This paper investigated a patented acoustic reflectometry technique for detecting defects in gas pipelines. The basic concept of this technique is to inject a pulse of sound into a pipeline and then measure the reflections produced while the signal travels along the length of the pipe. A modification in the internal section of the pipe will produce a reflection which, given with the speed of sound in the gas within the pipeline, provides the location of the feature. Laboratory tests on a 16m rigid PVC pipe and two field trials were undertaken to test this new method. The results showed that acoustic reflectometry can be used to identify features resulting from blockages and leakages. The field tests demonstrated that the method is capable of surveying both small and large diameter pipelines with lengths up to 10 km.

  6. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  7. Risk assessment in gas and oil pipelines based on the fuzzy Bow-tie technique

    OpenAIRE

    P. Heyrani; A. Baghaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, gas and oil account for 60 percent of world energy resources. Transporting crude oil and its products are accomplished through a number of ways among which pipelines are of the utmost significance. Considering the extent of pipelines in installation and residential areas and also high potential for damage, the safety of these pipes and application of risk management principles have undeniable importance. Bow-tie risk assessment method is one of the ways to determine sa...

  8. Investigation on potential SCC in gas transmission pipeline in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, S. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Zupei, Y.; Yunxin, M. [China Petroleum Pipeline Corp., Beijing (China). Science and Technology Center

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common phenomenon that occurs on the outer surfaces of buried pipelines. This paper investigated aspects of SCC on 3 transmission pipelines on the West-East Gas Pipeline Project in China. The study was comprised of 3 different investigations: (1) an investigation of SCC cases on constructed pipelines; (2) an evaluation of SCC sensitivity of pipeline steels in typical soil environments; and (3) an analysis of soil environments and operation conditions of western pipelines. The study included a review of pipeline corrosion investigations, as well as an examination of pipeline failure cases. Investigative digs were conducted at 21 sites to test soil chemistries. Slow strain rate stress were conducted to evaluate SCC sensitivity of steel pipelines used in China. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the X70 line pipe steel in different soil environments. Results of the study showed that the environmental conditions in many locations in China contributed to SCC in pipelines. SCC was observed on the surface of X70 steel pipe specimens in both marsh and saline environments. Seasonal temperature changes also contributed additional stress on pipelines. The movement of soil bodies in mountainous areas also contributed to stress and coating damage. It was concluded that proper cathodic protection can alleviate concentrations of local solutions under disbanded coatings. Overprotection of SCC will accelerate the growth of cracks and the degradation of coatings. Samples gathered from the solutions found under the disbanded coatings of pipelines will be used to form part of a reference database for predicting SCC in oil and gas pipelines in the future. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-13-000] Lion Oil... of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies...

  10. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory... Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused...

  11. GASVOL 18'' gas pipeline - risk based inspection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernoey, Ola H.; Etterdal, Birger A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Guarize, Rosimar; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Dias, Ricardo [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a risk based approach and inspection planning as part of the Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) system for the 95.5 km long 18'' GASVOL gas pipeline in the South eastern region of Brazil transporting circa 5 000 000 m3 dry gas per day. Pipeline systems can be subject to several degradation mechanisms and inspection and monitoring are used to ensure system integrity. Modern pipeline regulations and codes are normally based on a core safety or risk philosophy. The detailed design requirements presented in design codes are practical interpretations established so as to fulfill these core objectives. A given pipeline, designed, constructed and installed according to a pipeline code is therefore the realization of a structure, which, along its whole length, meets the applicable safety objectives of that code. The main objective of Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) is to control and document the integrity of the pipeline for its whole service life, and to do this in a cost-effective manner. DNV has a specific approach to RBI planning, starting with an initial qualitative assessment where pipelines and damage type are ranked according to risk and potential risk reduction by an inspection and then carried forward to a quantitative detailed assessment where the level of complexity and accuracy can vary based on availability of information and owner needs. Detailed assessment requires significant effort in data gathering. The findings are dependent upon the accuracy of the inspection data, and on DNV's interpretation of the pipeline reference system and simplifications in the inspection data reported. The following specific failure mechanisms were investigated: internal corrosion, external corrosion, third party interference, landslides and black powder. RBI planning, in general words, is a 'living process'. In order to optimize future inspections, it is essential that the analyses utilize the most recent information regarding

  12. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  13. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    protection technique as a method of controlling corrosion in oil and gas pipelines is effective and efficient when compared to ... In the field of crude oil production and associated engineering .... Industrial/Mechanical Systems, Joen Printing and.

  14. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; Hallack, Michelle; Glachant, Jean-Michel; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: →Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. →Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. →Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. →Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  15. Measurement of flow characteristics of solid particles mixed with gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siberev, S P; Nazarov, S I; Soldatkin, G I

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the interaction of solid particles in a gas stream flowing through a pipeline comprises equations for the energy and material balances in the system and for force and energy interactions between the solid particles and transducers located within the pipeline. Soviet researchers confirmed that the average value of stress recorded by a transducer is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles; for a constant particle speed, the stress is proportional to the mass flow of the particles. The analysis and flow transducer measurements are valuable in measuring and controlling flowline sand and soil in natural gas transport from gas wells and undergound storage facilities.

  16. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  17. A mathematical framework for modelling and evaluating natural gas pipeline networks under hydrogen injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabkhi, F.; Azzaro-Pantel, C.; Pibouleau, L.; Domenech, S. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR5503 CNRS/INP/UPS, 5 rue Paulin Talabot F-BP1301, 31106 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    This article presents the framework of a mathematical formulation for modelling and evaluating natural gas pipeline networks under hydrogen injection. The model development is based on gas transport through pipelines and compressors which compensate for the pressure drops by implying mainly the mass and energy balances on the basic elements of the network. The model was initially implemented for natural gas transport and the principle of extension for hydrogen-natural gas mixtures is presented. The objective is the treatment of the classical fuel minimizing problem in compressor stations. The optimization procedure has been formulated by means of a nonlinear technique within the General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) environment. This work deals with the adaptation of the current transmission networks of natural gas to the transport of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures. More precisely, the quantitative amount of hydrogen that can be added to natural gas can be determined. The studied pipeline network, initially proposed in [1] is revisited here for the case of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures. Typical quantitative results are presented, showing that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas decreases significantly the transmitted power: the maximum fraction of hydrogen that can be added to natural gas is around 6 mass% for this example. (author)

  18. 18 CFR 284.227 - Certain transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain transportation by intrastate pipelines. 284.227 Section 284.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.227 Certain...

  19. Fracture propagation in gas pipelines - relevance to submarine lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnehough, G D [British Gas Corp., Newcastle upon Tyne. Engineering Research Station

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews the factors which control fracture propagation in pipes and suggests how they are influenced by submarine environments. If fracture arrest capability is required then these factors should be considered in terms of the design philosophy and the maximum tolerable length of fracture which can be repaired. The paper shows that brittle fracture characteristics of submarine pipelines are probably similar to land based lines and fracture arrest can only be guaranteed by appropriate material toughness specification. Resistance to ductile fracture propagation in submarine lines is enhanced by lower design stresses, thicker pipe, concrete coating and the effect of hydrostatic head on gas dynamics. However, additional factors due to submarine design can be deleterious viz: uncertainty about backfill integrity and a tendency of thicker steels to low fracture resistance arising from 'separation' formation. Attention is drawn to problems which may arise with transportation of gases rich in hydrocarbons and the use of mechanical methods of fracture arrest.

  20. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... American Public Gas Association Association of Oil Pipelines American Petroleum Institute Interstate... the pipeline industry). Hazardous Liquid Gas Transmission/Gathering Natural Gas Distribution (10...

  2. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities that operators should immediately and directly notify the Public.... Background Federal regulations for gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities...

  3. A comparison of pipeline versus truck transport of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Biomass-based energy and fuels are receiving attention because they are considered carbon neutral; i.e. the amount of CO(2) released during combustion of this biomass is nearly the same as that taken up by the plants during their growth. Bio-oil is a dark viscous liquid consisting of hydrocarbons. These are produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass. "As-is" biomass material has a low energy density (MJ m(-3)), hence, the cost of transporting this energy is high. Bio-oil has a high energy density as compared to "as-is" biomass material, consequently it helps in reducing the cost of energy transport. This study compares the life cycle assessment of transportation of bio-oil by pipeline with that by truck. The scope of the work includes the transportation of bio-oil by truck or pipeline from a centralized plant (supplied with forest biomass) to an end-user. Two cases are studied for pipeline transport of bio-oil: the first case considers a coal-based electricity supply for pumping the bio-oil through a pipeline; the second case considers an electricity supply from a renewable resource. The two cases of pipeline transport are compared to two cases of truck transport (truck trailer and super B-train truck). The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pipeline transport of bio-oil for the two cases of electricity supply are 345 and 17 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Similar values for transport by trailer (capacity - 30 m(3)) and super B-train truck (capacity - 60 m(3)) are 89 and 60 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Energy input for bio-oil transport is 3.95 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by pipeline, 2.59 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by truck and 1.66 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by super B-train truck. The results show that GHG emissions in pipeline transport are largely dependent on the source of electricity (higher for coal-based electricity). Substituting 250 m(3) day(-1) of pipeline-transported bio-oil for coal-based electricity can mitigate about 5.1 million tonnes of CO(2) per year

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  5. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  6. Analysis of hydrodynamic regimes of operation of a gas pipeline from the Samotlor field to the Nizhnevartovsk gas refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' tshular, S A; Bragunov, N I; Ivanov, V N; Izmaylov, I Ye; Koroleva, L N

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the hydraulic losses of a gas-transport system. Oil gas in the first stage of separation of the Samotlor field according to the plan is transported on two gas pipelines to the Nizhnevartovsk and Belozersk gas refinery. On the route of the first gas pipeline in order to remove the released condensate, 12 gas-separator and condensate-settling tanks are installed. The second gas pipeline in the beginning, middle and end has asemblies for additional separation (separation (separator, drop-separator, condensate-collector). The studied material is presented in the form of the dependence of actual calculatedcoefficients of hydraulic resistance on the rate of gas supply in the range 80,000-230,000 m/sup 3//h (Re-(0.82.0) X 10/sup -6/. It has been established that with Re=1.6 X 10/sup -6/ the calculated and actual coeffic-ients of resistance become the same, while with smaller values of Re, the actual values exceed the calculated by 20-40%. In the opinion of the authors this difference is due to the effect of the liquid phase with low velocities of gas and the formation of stable foam. As a result of transillumination it was also established that the regime of flow on the ascending part is dispersion-ring and dispersion-semiring, and on the descending part stratified. Analysis of the transport of the gas-condensate stream with ring regime of flow permitted the authors to hypothesize transporting of gas without removal of the condensate. A certain increase in the coefficients of resistance for the case where the condensate is not removed from the gas pipeline is noted with experimental realization of the proposed variant. It is explained by the low velocities of gas in the beginning of the gas pipeline. It is stressed that the actual and calculated pressure differentials are distinguished less than the calculated and actual coefficients of resistance and that this indicates the practical preservation of the throughput of the gas pipeline.

  7. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  8. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  9. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  10. Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The document is presenting the idea of the CNGI Norm called The Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines and the way of using it by companies associated in the Chamber of the Natural Gas Industry in the business activity. It will be applied to improve the quality and reliability of gas transmission after full opening of Polish natural gas market. (author)

  11. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  12. The Effect of Landslide on Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkovič Vojtech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the calculation of stresses on the pipeline system embedded on a flexible substrate which is burdened by a landslide. As well as taking into account the probability of the influences acting on the pipe as wall thickness, and others.

  13. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  14. 78 FR 5866 - Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0319] Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and Validation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... 2012 gas transmission and gathering annual reports, remind pipeline owners and operators to validate...

  15. For the North, from the North : Enbridge perspectives on a Mackenzie Valley gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, E.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in natural gas demand and strong gas prices are the main driving forces behind northern pipeline development. While Western Canada can supply much of the demand growth to key markets in the Pacific Northwest, California, Eastern Canada, as well as the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. it is not expected to supply all the growth. Producers are acquiring land in the Northwest Territories (NWT) and planning to increase drilling activity. In February 2000, Imperial, Gulf, Shell and Mobil entered into an agreement to study the feasibility of developing Mackenzie Delta gas, a study in which Enbridge Inc. participated. Enbridge is the major transporter of Canadian crude oil and liquids and they have a growing involvement in natural gas transmission. They also own and operate the largest gas distribution company in Canada. They have extensive Northern experience and already operate two pipelines in the NWT. The proposed 2,100 km, 36 inch pipeline will transport 1.2 bcf/d of natural gas increasing to 1.7 bcf/d with more compression. Its estimated cost is $4.2 billion. Some of the economic risks of such a project include the need for large amounts of equity, timing of market development, competing sources of gas, and stability of gas prices. The multitude of regulatory processes are also complex. Clarity is needed in many jurisdictional processes. Support of indigenous people is also crucial. A historic January 25, 2000 meeting of Aboriginal leaders of the Northwest Territories resulted in a declaration of support for a Mackenzie Valley pipeline. Protecting the permafrost is also a priority when constructing and operating a pipeline in the North. It is unlikely that Mackenzie Delta gas will flow before 7 years .13 figs

  16. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  17. 75 FR 5640 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Revised Incident/Accident Report Forms for Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Distribution Systems, Gas Transmission and Gathering Systems, and Hazardous Liquid Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and.... SUMMARY: This notice advises owners and operators of gas pipeline facilities and hazardous liquid pipeline...

  18. 78 FR 38803 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revisions to Incident and Annual Reports for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Reports for Gas Pipeline Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... (OMB) Control No. 2137-0522, titled ``Incident and Annual Reports for Gas Pipeline Operators.'' PHMSA...

  19. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  20. Environmental, public health, and safety assessment of fuel pipelines and other freight transportation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strogen, Bret; Bell, Kendon; Breunig, Hanna; Zilberman, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Externalities are examined for pipelines, truck, rail, and barge. • Safety impact factors include incidences of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. • Environmental impact factors include CO_2eq emissions and air pollution disease burden. • Externalities are estimated for constructing and operating a large domestic pipeline. • A large pipeline has lower cumulative impacts than other modes within ten years. - Abstract: The construction of pipelines along high-throughput fuel corridors can alleviate demand for rail, barge, and truck transportation. Pipelines have a very different externality profile than other freight transportation modes due to differences in construction, operation, and maintenance requirements; labor, energy, and material input intensity; location and profile of emissions from operations; and frequency and magnitude of environmental and safety incidents. Therefore, public policy makers have a strong justification to influence the economic viability of pipelines. We use data from prior literature and U.S. government statistics to estimate environmental, public health, and safety characterization factors for pipelines and other modes. In 2008, two pipeline companies proposed the construction of an ethanol pipeline from the Midwest to Northeast United States. This proposed project informs our case study of a 2735-km $3.5 billion pipeline (2009 USD), for which we evaluate potential long-term societal impacts including life-cycle costs, greenhouse gas emissions, employment, injuries, fatalities, and public health impacts. Although it may take decades to break even economically, and would result in lower cumulative employment, such a pipeline would likely have fewer safety incidents, pollution emissions, and health damages than the alternative multimodal system in less than ten years; these results stand even if comparing future cleaner ground transport modes to a pipeline that utilizes electricity produced from coal

  1. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Gas pipeline system optimization involving Ukrainian pipeline modification for reduction in global warming gas emissions; 1999 nendo ondanka gas haishutsu sakugen no tame no Ukraina ni okeru gas pipeline no kaishu wo fukumu pipeline system no saitekika chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The result of a survey which involves a 520km-long gas pipeline (Shebelinka-Dikanka-Kyiv) modification in the Ukraine is described, which will promote joint implementation programs under COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Since the greenhouse effect of methane gas is 21 times as serious as that of CO2, it is important to ensure good maintenance and structural soundness for natural gas transporting pipeline systems. The currently available Ukrainian gas turbines and compressors are so obsolescent that their efficiency rate is as low as 23%. The rate will rise to 36% when the old ones are replaced by high power equipment capable of high efficiency combustion. Pipelines will be checked for deterioration due to stress corrosion cracking and dangerous pipes will be replaced, with attention paid particularly to joint sections. It is expected that there will be a greenhouse gas reduction of 512,000 tons (in terms of CO2) and a saving of 103,000 tons on fuel (in terms of crude). Balance is tentatively estimated in case the expected reduction in emissions is transacted in emission trading. Profitability will occur, in view of profit from emission trading and gas sales revenue after gas leakage prevention thanks to project implementation, when the emission right sells at 30 dollars/ton or higher. The rippling effect will be great now that the Ukrainian pipeline system is quite extensive (with 30% thereof superannuated). (NEDO)

  2. Real gas flow simulation in damaged distribution pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Skorek, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses chosen issues concerning damaged gas pipelines. Attention is paid to modelling the steady-state flow of natural gas in distribution pipelines, and the most commonly applied models of isothermal and adiabatic flow are evaluated for both the ideal and the real gas properties. A method of accounting for a leakage by means of a reference flow equation with a discharge coefficient is presented, and the dependency of the discharge coefficient on pressure is demonstrated both with literature data and the authors' experimental results. A relevant computational study of a pipeline failure is presented for a high- and a medium pressure pipeline. The importance of an appropriate choice of the flow model (isothermal or adiabatic flow of real or ideal gas) is demonstrated by the results of the study. It is shown that accounting for the variability of the discharge coefficient is required if medium pressure pipelines are analysed. However, it is eventually shown that the impact of the discharge coefficient on the predicted outflow rate is of lesser importance than that of the applied flow model. -- Highlights: ► Comparison of real/ideal gas, isothermal/adiabatic gas flow in a damaged pipeline. ► Variability of the discharge coefficient with pressure is demonstrated. ► Isothermal model predicts wrong values of downstream pressure, not just temperature. ► Isothermal model may cause significant error (for 2 case studies is >20%). ► Error in the discharge coefficient has a weak influence on the predicted flow rate.

  3. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... pipeline facilities that could result in $50,000 damage (the value of a typical residential meter set is a... and to establish a volumetric basis for reporting unexpected or unintentional gas loss. 3. Require... every effort to assure that the outcome of this rulemaking will minimize the need for any future changes...

  4. On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    T. Davitashvili; G. Gubelidze

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detect...

  5. Technical consideration of Niigata-Sendai natural gas pipeline; Niigata Sendaikan tennen gas pipeline no seko to gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, O.; Sugai, H.; Koizumi, H. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The Niigata-Sendai natural gas pipeline was constructed in 1996 by Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. to transmit indigenous gas produced off Niigata Pref. and imported gas from Indonesia in the form of LNG to Tohoku Electric Power Co.`s Sendai Thermal Power Station. It is the second longest onshore pipeline in Japan extending 251km (nominal diameter: 20in.). Kawasaki Steel participated in the construction project from the preliminary investigation and planning stage, and constructed a 97km long section, which is approximately 39% of the total length. Various new techniques were applied to secure safety and reduce cost. This paper outlines the project and some of the representative techniques adopted for the project, such as field bends cold-worked on 11m long straight pipes, work management system for constructing long-distance pipelines, coordination for the test runs and verification of the designs. 3 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  7. Recommendations on X80 steel for the design of hydrogen gas transmission pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briottet, L.; Batisse, R.; De Dinechin, G.; Langlois, P.; Thiers, L.

    2012-01-01

    By limiting the pipes thickness necessary to sustain high pressure, high-strength steels could prove economically relevant for transmitting large gas quantities in pipelines on long distance. Up to now, the existing hydrogen pipelines have used lower-strength steels to avoid any hydrogen embrittlement. The CATHY-GDF project, funded by the French National Agency for Research, explored the ability of an industrial X80 grade for the transmission of pressurized hydrogen gas in large diameter pipelines. This project has developed experimental facilities to test the material under hydrogen gas pressure. Indeed, tensile, toughness, crack propagation and disc rupture tests have been performed. From these results, the effect of hydrogen pressure on the size of some critical defects has been analyzed allowing proposing some recommendations on the design of X80 pipe for hydrogen transport. Cost of Hydrogen transport could be several times higher than natural gas one for a given energy amount. Moreover, building hydrogen pipeline using high grade steels could induce a 10 to 40% cost benefit instead of using low grade steels, despite their lower hydrogen susceptibility. (authors)

  8. Lay Pipeline Abandonment Head during Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... is very cruel to the structural integrity of the pipeline structure after ... and properties may be jeopardized should the pipeline structure be used for oil or gas transport when such ... pipelines under bending may alter the material.

  9. 49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Distribution Pipeline Integrity Management (IM...

  10. Hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of high strength steel gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Ian D.; Norfolk, Mark I. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid Laser/arc welding process (HLAW) can complete 5G welds, assure weld soundness, material properties, and an acceptable geometric profile. Combining new lasers and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) has led to important innovations in the HLAW process, increasing travel speed for successful root pass welding. High power Yb fiber lasers allow a 10 kW laser to be built the size of a refrigerator, allowing portability for use on the pipeline right-of-way. The objective was to develop and apply an innovative HLAW system for mechanized welding of high strength, high integrity, pipelines and develop 5G welding procedures for X80 and X100 pipe, including mechanical testing to API 1104. A cost-matched JIP developed a prototype HLAW head based on a commercially available bug and band system (CRC-Evans P450). Under the US Department of Transportation (DOT) project, the subject of this paper, the system was used to advance pipeline girth welding productivity. External hybrid root pass welding achieved full penetration welds with a 4-mm root at a travel speed of 2.3-m/min. Welds were made 'double down' using laser powers up to 10 kW and travel speeds up to 3-m/min. The final objective of the project was to demonstrate the hybrid LBW/GMAW system under simulated field conditions. (author)

  11. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities... Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To further enhance the...

  12. 76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: 12,120. Frequency of Collection: On occasion. 2. Title: Recordkeeping for Natural Gas Pipeline... investigating incidents. Affected Public: Operators of natural gas pipeline systems. Annual Reporting and...

  13. 77 FR 34457 - Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... notice provides clarification to owners and operators of gas distribution pipeline facilities when... of a gas distribution pipeline facility to file a written report for any mechanical fitting failure...

  14. Simulation of non-isothermal transient flow in gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Luis Carlos; Soares, Matheus; Lima, Enrique Luis; Pinto, Jose Carlos [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Muniz, Cyro; Pires, Clarissa Cortes; Rochocz, Geraldo [ChemTech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Modeling of gas pipeline usually considers that the gas flow is isothermal (or adiabatic) and that pressure changes occur instantaneously (quasi steady state approach). However, these assumptions are not valid in many important transient applications (changes of inlet and outlet flows/pressures, starting and stopping of compressors, changes of controller set points, among others). Besides, the gas properties are likely to depend simultaneously on the pipe position and on the operation time. For this reason, a mathematical model is presented and implemented in this paper in order to describe the gas flow in pipeline when pressure and temperature transients cannot be neglected. The model is used afterwards as a tool for reconciliation of available measured data. (author)

  15. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  16. The pipeline transportation of natural gas and the regulation of open access in Brazil: historical perspectives and current; Os dutos de transporte do gas natural e a regulacao do livre acesso no Brasil: perspectivas historicas e atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present research, attempting for the economic relevance of the natural gas sector, for the inexistence of a law that disciplines it and, still, for the structural question of the natural gas ducts activity; it analyzes the monopoly of the natural gas ducts activity and the mechanism of competition chosen to brighten up it: the open access. The regulation of the open access and the viability that the insert of this practice has to Brazil nowadays are very important points to be discussed and, in that way, the present research also analyses them. (author)

  17. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  18. 75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements (One Rule). The Notice of Proposed...

  19. Competition in the natural gas pipeline industry: An economic policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) currently regulates the price at which natural gas can be sold by regulated interstate natural gas pipelines. Whether pipelines should be deregulated depends, to an important extent, on the competitive nature of the market. The key question is whether pipelines can successfully raise price (i.e., the transport fee) and reduce output if the market is deregulated. In most natural gas pipeline markets, there are a small number of current suppliers. Opponents of deregulation argue that the unrestrained market power of pipelines in many local markets will introduce inefficiencies in the sale of natural gas. Implicit in their arguments is a narrow view of competition: the number of current suppliers. The competitive effect of potential entry is largely ignored. These commentators would argue that without potential entry, it may be true that the net social cost of deregulation exceeds the costs of maintaining present regulation. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which potential entry might constrain the exercise of market power by natural gas pipelines if price and entry regulation is removed. Potential entrants are defined in the context of antitrust markets. That is, these markets are consistent with the Department of Justice (DOJ) Merger Guidelines. The study attempts to quantify the effects of potential entry on the market power of current suppliers. The selection of potential entrants therefore considers a number of factors (such as the size of the nearby supplier and the distance to the market) that are expected to affect the likelihood of collision in a deregulated market. The policy implications of the study are reviewed

  20. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  1. US gas pipelines respond to FERC Order 636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. pipelines are continuing to examine the react to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. Among the latest responses: Bill Vititoe, president and chief executive officer of ANR Pipeline Co., a subsidiary of Coastal Corp., Houston, the his company's recently proposed comprehensive service restructuring and rate settlement basically is consistent with Order 636. Paul M. Anderson, executive vice-president of Panhandle Eastern Corp., Houston, the Order 63 likely will increase reliance on long term gas sales contracts and shrink or eliminate spot market sales

  2. Upgrading Algeria-Italy trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first trans-Mediterranean pipeline system, which went into service in 1983, had to be doubled in capacity in order to meet increased European demand for Algerian natural gas. After a brief review of the contractual, planning and construction history of the first pipeline, this paper discusses the strategies taken which led to the decision to double the line's capacity. Descriptions are then given of the different construction phases realized in Tunisia, the Sicilian Channel and Italian mainland. Focus is on construction schedules, problems and solutions. The report comes complete with details of project financing, organizing, materials supply programs, innovative technology applications, design philosophy and construction techniques

  3. 76 FR 79673 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application On December 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C... (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, and part 157 of the... Rocan, Senior Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  4. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Antonia, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  5. 77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ...] Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... FERC) is proposing to amend its regulations to revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines...) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA clause must make a tariff filing to reflect a...

  6. 77 FR 10415 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines.\\1\\ The Commission also... Quadrant (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  7. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...; Order No. 587-V] Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. In addition, based on... (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  8. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  9. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  10. Evaluation of Failure Pressure for Gas Pipelines with Combined Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Vilkys

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the influence of mechanical damage on the safe operation of gas transmission pipelines. The main types of pipeline damage with the actual parameters and their influence on the operational parameters are analysed. The damaged fractures of the section of the pipeline Kaunas (Lithuania–Kaliningrad (Russia were investigated in the laboratory. The main operational characteristics and the structure of the pipeline’s metal after the period of long-term operation were determined using various research and experimental methods. The influence of the pipeline’s damage was modelled by using the Finite Element Method and the ANSYS code. The predictions of the failure pressure were made, taking into consideration the actual properties of the pipeline’s metal. Techniques including the hardness and microhardness measurement, chemical analysis, the impact strength test, and metallography analysis with an optical microscope, were used in the experimental study.

  11. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  12. Study of gas pipelines cracks using transmission and scattering measures with nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marcela F.; Salgado, César M.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the natural gas production is transported through pipelines that require periodic inspections to evaluate the structural integrity of the pipelines due to possible defects caused by degradation that can rupture causing leakage of the fluid causing major disasters. Based on this, the project presents a methodology for predicting cracks in pipe used in gas pipelines. The approximation is based on the principles of gamma densitometry to calculate the density of the pipe wall in order to investigate possible cracks. The natural gas fluid is found in such systems and interferes in the density calculations and therefore will be considered in the simulations. The detection system uses a narrow beam geometry appropriately, comprising gamma ray source ( 137 Cs) and NaI(Tl) 3 ″ x 3 ″ detectors for calculating transmitted and scattered photons. Different positioning angles of the detector are investigated. In this study, the MCNP-X code is used to perform the simulations, in order to develop a counting geometry. Simulations of different thicknesses of the crack were also used to determine the minimum thickness detected by the two NaI(Tl) detectors. Having equipment that can estimate cracks present in pipes used in gas pipelines, in addition to predicting their location can reduce costs and make a major contribution to this sector. (author)

  13. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  14. Study of gas pipelines cracks using transmission and scattering measures with nuclear technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcela F.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: marcelafreita@gmail.com, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Most of the natural gas production is transported through pipelines that require periodic inspections to evaluate the structural integrity of the pipelines due to possible defects caused by degradation that can rupture causing leakage of the fluid causing major disasters. Based on this, the project presents a methodology for predicting cracks in pipe used in gas pipelines. The approximation is based on the principles of gamma densitometry to calculate the density of the pipe wall in order to investigate possible cracks. The natural gas fluid is found in such systems and interferes in the density calculations and therefore will be considered in the simulations. The detection system uses a narrow beam geometry appropriately, comprising gamma ray source ({sup 137}Cs) and NaI(Tl) 3 ″ x 3 ″ detectors for calculating transmitted and scattered photons. Different positioning angles of the detector are investigated. In this study, the MCNP-X code is used to perform the simulations, in order to develop a counting geometry. Simulations of different thicknesses of the crack were also used to determine the minimum thickness detected by the two NaI(Tl) detectors. Having equipment that can estimate cracks present in pipes used in gas pipelines, in addition to predicting their location can reduce costs and make a major contribution to this sector. (author)

  15. U.S. natural gas pipeline flow and demand trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is no surprise that regional natural gas supply and demand patterns in North America are constantly changing. A consensus of forecasters agree that the natural gas resource base is larger than envisaged in the early 1980s due to advances in exploration and production technology. In addition, on the demand side more gas will be burned by US power generators to meet growth in electricity. Gas consumption is up in the commercial sector, and natural gas is correctly seen as environmentally protective. But how much more natural gas does the US need? This paper reports that new pipeline projects are springing up all over the nation --- 43 to be exact, with most of them connecting gas deliverability out of basins west of the Mississippi to new markets along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

  16. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Committee Meetings AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION... safety standards, risk assessments, and safety policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous...

  17. Economics of LNG and pipeline gas export from GC C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the economic and non-economic considerations underlying gas exports from the GC C and the Arabian Peninsula in general. It addresses four themes: policy issues, political risks, technical risks and economics. It examines the distance between the regional resource areas and the major gas markets in the Far East and Europe, and examines the implications for moving gas to those markets in liquid form or by pipeline, in terms of number of LNG vessels required, and capital costs. (Author)

  18. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  19. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  20. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  1. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, E.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  2. Towards CFD modeling of turbulent pipeline material transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahirpour, Amir; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Cristoph

    2013-04-01

    Safe and financially efficient pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide is a critical issue in the developing field of the CCS Technology. In this part of the process, carbon dioxide is transported via pipes with diameter of 1.5 m and entry pressure of 150 bar, with Reynolds number of 107 and viscosity of 8×10(-5) Pa.s as dense fluid [1]. Presence of large and small scale structures in the pipeline, high Reynolds numbers at which CO2 should be transferred, and 3 dimensional turbulence caused by local geometrical modifications, increase the importance of simulation of turbulent material transport through the individual components of the CO2 chain process. In this study, incompressible turbulent channel flow and pipe flow have been modeled using OpenFoam, an open source CFD software. In the first step, simulation of a turbulent channel flow has been considered using LES for shear Reynolds number of 395. A simple geometry has been chosen with cyclic fluid inlet and outlet boundary conditions to simulate a fully developed flow. The mesh is gradually refined towards the wall to provide values close enough to the wall for the wall coordinate (y+). Grid resolution study has been conducted for One-Equation model. The accuracy of the results is analyzed with respect to the grid smoothness in order to reach an optimized resolution for carrying out the next simulations. Furthermore, three LES models, One-Equation, Smagorinsky and Dynamic Smagorinsky are applied for the grid resolution of (60 × 100 × 80) in (x, y, z) directions. The results are then validated with reference to the DNS carried out by Moser et al.[2] for the similar geometry using logarithmic velocity profile (U+) and Reynolds stress tensor components. In the second step the similar flow is modeled using Reynolds averaged method. Several RANS models, like K-epsilon and Launder-Reece-Rodi are applied and validated against DNS and LES results in a similar fashion. In the most recent step, it has been intended

  3. [Natural gas rate design and transportation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is presented from an industrial user viewpoint with regards to natural gas distribution and pricing. The author reviews the problems with rate structures at local distributing companies and gas utility companies which resort to charging high prices to industrial users while subsidizing residential users. He goes on then to discuss the lack of innovation amount LDCs to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Secondly it analyses the regulation and price structure of the pipeline industry which drastically affects all gas prices. The paper specifically discusses 'equivalent margin rates' which are being used by many states to control transportation rates. The author feels that these margin rates are inappropriate in that it transfers much of the LDC's exploration and development costs to the pipeline company which transfers it on to the consumer. He feels that the transportation rates should exclude all costs that are clearly not incurred by an LDC to provide transportation service. The paper concludes with recommendations to regulators regarding the need for regulatory reform of deregulation of the gas industry with regards to profit-taking and the transportation industry with regards to developing capacity assignment programs

  4. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... program performance measures for gas distribution, gas transmission, and hazardous liquids pipelines. The... distribution pipelines (49 CFR 192.1007(e)), gas transmission pipelines (49 CFR 192.945) and hazardous liquids...

  5. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  6. 77 FR 23472 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 4, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in the..., Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002...

  7. 78 FR 6313 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 14, 2013, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in... directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana...

  8. 77 FR 8247 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application Take notice that on February 2, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket... Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713) 420...

  9. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Operator Identification Numbers AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities that the Pipeline and Hazardous...

  10. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  11. Conceptual design of multi-source CCS pipeline transportation network for Polish energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoli, Niccolo; Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an optimal CCS transport infrastructure for Polish energy sector in regards of selected European Commission Energy Roadmap 2050 scenario. The work covers identification of the offshore storage site location, CO2 pipeline network design and sizing for deployment at a national scale along with CAPEX analysis. It was conducted for the worst-case scenario, wherein the power plants operate under full-load conditions. The input data for the evaluation of CO2 flow rates (flue gas composition) were taken from the selected cogeneration plant with the maximum electric capacity of 620 MW and the results were extrapolated from these data given the power outputs of the remaining units. A graph search algorithm was employed to estimate pipeline infrastructure costs to transport 95 MT of CO2 annually, which amount to about 612.6 M€. Additional pipeline infrastructure costs will have to be incurred after 9 years of operation of the system due to limited storage site capacity. The results show that CAPEX estimates for CO2 pipeline infrastructure cannot be relied on natural gas infrastructure data, since both systems exhibit differences in pipe wall thickness that affects material cost.

  12. Fluid-induced vibration of composite natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, G.P.; Cheraghi, N.; Taheri, F. [Dalhousie Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Advancements in materials bonding techniques have led to the use of reinforced composite pipelines. The use of steel pipe with a fiber-reinforced composite over-wrap together has produced an exceptionally strong pipe with positive advantages in weight and corrosion resistivity. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of this kind of sub-sea composite pipelines, which often accommodate axial flow of gas, and prediction of their response is of great interest. This paper presents a state-variable model developed for the analysis of fluid-induced vibration of composite pipeline systems. Simply supported, clamped and clamped-simply supported pipelines are investigated. The influence of fluid's Poisson ratio, the ratio of pipe radius to pipe-wall thickness, laminate layup, the ratio of liquid mass density to pipe-wall mass density, the fluid velocity, initial tension and fluid pressure are all considered. The results of our proposed methodology are compared with those of finite element analysis, using ANSYS ssoftware. (Author)

  13. China's modern day Great Wall : the 40 inch West to East Gas Pipeline Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to fuel China's economic growth, PetroChina began construction of the West to East Natural Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP) in 2001 to transport large quantities of natural gas reserves from the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China to markets in eastern China. The WEPP is the first large diameter, cross-country pipeline project ever constructed in China, and was the first to use automatic welding and automatic ultrasonic inspection on pipelines in China. This paper addressed the management, engineering, procurement and construction challenges of the WEPP. Upon completion of the 3,800 km, 1.016 mm mainline pipeline, construction will begin on other major facilities, such 294 km of lateral line, dual fiber optic conduits with the mainline, 1,100 km of access roads, 23 metering stations, 18 pigging stations, 10 compressor stations, 16 mountain tunnels, 16 aerial crossings, 1 crossing of the Yangtze River, 3 crossings of the Yellow River, a gas control center, and SCADA system. Houston-based Universal Ensco Inc. was awarded a contract to perform a feasibility study as well as a construction supervision contract by PetroChina for the WEPP. Universal also designed a gas turbine drive compressor station at Lunnan and an electric drive compressor station at Zhengzhou. This paper demonstrated that business in China for foreign companies in the pipeline industry is evolving and several changes can be expected as the state planned economy is reformed to a free market economy. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Mechanical properties of steel for construction of gas transfer pipelines and their modification resulting from expanding of gas pipelines during hydraulic pressure testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopczynski, A.

    1997-01-01

    There are discussed the mechanical properties of the new generation of steel as per European Standard EN 10208.2: 1996. on the basis of the mechanical parameters of steel the normalized graphs of steel tensioning are presented. Analysis of influence of expanding gas pipelines on changes of steel tensioning graphs were performed. Advantages, resulting from expanding of gas pipelines, were shown. (author)

  15. Europe's gas imports via pipelines. Projects and safety aspects; Europas Gasimporte durch Pipelines. Projekte und Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2008-08-15

    By the year 2030 Europe's gas imports will have risen to approximately 200 bn m{sup 3}, necessitating the installation of new pipelines and LNG terminals. The largest growth in imports is not expected from Russia but from Africa and the Near East. An analysis of projected pipelines demonstrates these regions' contribution to securing Europe's gas supply. Because they help to establish market dominance or to fend off potential competitors these pipelines also serve corporate strategies. The most reliable supply will continue to come from Norway. By contrast, gas imports via pipelines from North Africa, Russia and the Persian Gulf all carry high risks of approximately the same degree. The greatest risks are associated with gas imports from the Caspian Sea.

  16. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  17. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however, did not propose to adopt two standards it found... Wholesale Gas Quadrant of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas...

  18. Reliability analysis of land pipelines for hydrocarbons transportation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, D.; Cortes, C. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The reliability of a land pipeline operated by PEMEX in Mexico was estimated under a range of failure modes. Reliability and safety were evaluated in terms of the pipeline's internal pressure, bending, fracture toughness and its tension failure mode conditions. Loading conditions were applied individually, while bending and tension loads were applied in a combined fashion. The mechanical properties of the steel were also considered along with the degradation effect of internal corrosion resulting from the type of product being transported. A set of internal pressures and mechanical properties were generated randomly using Monte Carlo simulation. Commercial software was used to obtain the pipeline response under each modeled condition. The response analysis was based on the nonlinear finite element method involving a calculation of maximum stresses and stress concentration factors under conditions of corrosion and no corrosion. The margin between maximum stresses due to internal pressure, tension and bending was evaluated along with the margin between stress concentration factor and fracture initiation toughness. The study showed that internal pressure, stress concentration and tension-bending were the critical failure modes. It was suggested that more research should be conducted to improve the modeling of the deteriorating effects of corrosion and to adjust the probability distribution for fracture toughness and the length/depth defect ratio. The consideration of welding geometries along with features of marine pipelines and pipeline products would help to generalize the study to facilitate the creation of codes for the construction, design, inspection and maintenance of pipelines in Mexico. 7 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  19. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  20. Leak detection in gas pipeline by acoustic and signal processing - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. F.; Ghazali, M. F.; Amin, M. M.; Hamat, A. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The pipeline system is the most important part in media transport in order to deliver fluid to another station. The weak maintenance and poor safety will contribute to financial losses in term of fluid waste and environmental impacts. There are many classifications of techniques to make it easier to show their specific method and application. This paper's discussion about gas leak detection in pipeline system using acoustic method will be presented in this paper. The wave propagation in the pipeline is a key parameter in acoustic method when the leak occurs and the pressure balance of the pipe will generated by the friction between wall in the pipe. The signal processing is used to decompose the raw signal and show in time- frequency. Findings based on the acoustic method can be used for comparative study in the future. Acoustic signal and HHT is the best method to detect leak in gas pipelines. More experiments and simulation need to be carried out to get the fast result of leaking and estimation of their location.

  1. Leak in spiral weld in a 16 inches gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo G; Bona, Jeremias de [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina); Otegui, Jose L [University of Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses a failure analysis after a leak in the spiral weld of a 16 inches natural gas pipeline, in service since 1974. The leak was the result of the coalescence of two different defects, on each surface of the pipe wall, located in the center of the inner cord of the helical DSAW weld. Fractographic and metallographic studies revealed that the leak was a combination of three conditions. During fabrication of the pipe, segregation in grain boundary grouped in mid weld. During service, these segregations underwent a process of selective galvanic corrosion. One of these volumetric defects coincided with a tubular pore in the outer weld. Pigging of the pipeline in 2005 for cleaning likely contributed to the increase of the leak flow, when eliminating corrosion product plugs. Although these defects are likely to repeat, fracture mechanics shows that a defect of this type is unlikely to cause a blowout. (author)

  2. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  3. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  4. Technology and equipment to improve reliability of pipeline transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, D. F.; Shulayev, N. S.; Bondar, K. E.; Laponov, S. V.; Uzinger, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article is dedicated to development of technology and hardware design of method pipeline transport reliability improving by improving the isolated coating properties modified by microwave radiation. The article describes the technology of the modification process of the coating and instrumentation production, which allows improving operational properties not only in stationary conditions in the manufacture of the insulation coating, but also during its replacement in the field.

  5. A new algorithm predicts pressure and temperature profiles of gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhatab, Saied [OIEC - Oil Industries' Engineering and Construction Group, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vatani, Ali [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of the present study has been the development of a relatively simple analytical algorithm for predicting flow temperature and pressure profiles along the two-phase, gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines. Results demonstrate the ability of the method to predict reasonably accurate pressure gradient and temperature gradient profiles under operating conditions. (author)

  6. Research on Connection and Function Reliability of the Oil&Gas Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline transportation is the optimal way for energy delivery in terms of safety, efficiency and environmental protection. Because of the complexity of pipeline external system including geological hazards, social and cultural influence, it is a great challenge to operate the pipeline safely and reliable. Therefore, the pipeline reliability becomes an important issue. Based on the classical reliability theory, the analysis of pipeline system is carried out, then the reliability model of the pipeline system is built, and the calculation is addressed thereafter. Further the connection and function reliability model is applied to a practical active pipeline system, with the use of the proposed methodology of the pipeline system; the connection reliability and function reliability are obtained. This paper firstly presented to considerate the connection and function reliability separately and obtain significant contribution to establish the mathematical reliability model of pipeline system, hence provide fundamental groundwork for the pipeline reliability research in the future.

  7. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  8. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation

  9. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  10. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  11. Strategy and use of pipelined natural gas in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The systems of energy distribution by pipelined fuel gas in the residential sector of the state of Rio de Janeiro is analyzed. It studies the potential market for the expansion of pipelined gas and its distribution in urban areas, and presents as well commentaries and recommendation on energy policy for the use of natural gas. (author)

  12. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 8, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: Effective... of Subjects in 18 CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  13. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 9, 2012. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  14. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final..., Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Jeff C. Wright, Director, Office of Energy Projects...

  15. 78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ...; Order No. 776] Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy... Commission (Commission or FERC) is amending its regulations to revise the filing requirements for natural gas...) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA clause must make an annual tariff filing to...

  16. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... following correcting amendments: PART 192--TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  17. The Vulnerability Formation Mechanism and Control Strategy of the Oil and Gas Pipeline City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.; Han, L.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the pipelines of oil and gas pipelines in our country have been for more than 25 years. These pipes are buried underground and was difficult to daily test. In addition, it was vulnerable to environmental, corrosion and natural disasters, So there is a hidden nature of accidents. The rapid development of urbanization, population accumulation, dense building and insufficient safety range are all the reasons for the frequent accidents of oil and gas pipelines. Therefore, to appraise and know the safe condition of the city various regions oil and gas pipelines is vital significant. In order to ensure the safety of oil and gas pipeline city, this paper defines the connotation of oil and gas pipeline city vulnerability according to the previous research on vulnerability. Then from three perspectives of environment, structure and behavior, based on the analytical paradigm of “structure—vulnerability conduct—performance” about oil and gas, the influential indicators of vulnerable oil and gas pipelines were analysed, the vulnerability mechanism framework of Oil and gas pipeline city was also constructed. Finally, the paper proposed the regulating strategy of the vulnerability of the oil and gas pipeline city to decrease its vulnerability index, which can be realize the city’s vulnerability evaluation and provides new ideas for the sustainable development of the city.

  18. Plan of gas; the technique of transforming oil pipelines into gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The discovery, development and commercialization of a high one number of gas deposits with big reserves, guided to establish the National Plan, for massive use for gas, whose social objective is the of arriving with this clean and economic fuel to all the places of the country

  19. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  20. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  1. 75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...-Related Conditions on Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas... Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities.'' The Pipeline Safety Laws (49 U.S.C. 60132) require each...

  2. Remote laser detection of natural gas leakages from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V O; Gorobets, V A; Andreev, Yu M; Lanskii, G V

    2010-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO 2 laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 01 1 1 - 11 1 0 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 μm is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h -1 and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hamidi; I. Mohamadfam; M. Motamedzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.Results...

  4. Innovation tube transport using helicopters to minimize the construction risk of Urucu-Manaus pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Jean Luis C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Jeane R.; Rodrigues, Jose Alberto S.; Rocha, Katia Rosilene S. [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose is to focus on the Safety, Environment and Health (SEH) Management, integrated to pipeline construction and assembly, aiming at minimizing the risks involving the transportation and handling of 20-inch pipes. Please note that peculiar, challenging situations occur when constructing a gas pipeline at the Coari-Anama Section, which leads to some difficulty in the exploitation of oil and gas, where fragile elements represented by the environment and man are faced in this evolution and progress process. Overcoming the severe conditions while streaming 196.6-km-length of pipes in flooded lands no doubt represented a real challenge. State-of-the-art techniques have been implemented such as air transportation of pipes, with two large-sized helicopters being used (Kamov and S64 Skycrane). This has demanded integrated actions to be adopted, involving transportation of concrete pipes, double joints, pipesak, hydraulic excavators, net carrier containing assorted materials, skids and natural gas pressure, measurement and filtering equipment. Nevertheless, we have succeeded in reducing the rate of exposure to the construction and assembly process risks, thus minimizing occurrences and improving the conditions of processes, where, had the conventional method been used, would have led to a great amount of incidents and accidents, resulting mainly from the huge logistic difficulties, which would expose the task force to high potential risks. (author)

  5. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  6. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  7. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebouba, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew'' gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew'' gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem

  8. Analysis of the strength of sea gas pipelines of positive buoyancy conditioned by glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Venyamin; Kurbatova, Galina; Ermolaeva, Nadezhda; Malkova, Yulia; Petrukhin, Ruslan

    2018-05-01

    A technique for estimating the stress state of a gas pipeline laid along the seabed in northern latitudes in the presence of glaciation is proposed. It is assumed that the pipeline lies on the bottom of the seabed, but under certain conditions on the some part of the pipeline a glaciation is formed and the gas pipeline section in the place of glaciation can come off the ground due to the positive buoyancy of the ice. Calculation of additional stresses caused by bending of the pipeline is of practical interest for strength evaluation. The gas pipeline is a two-layer cylindrical shell of circular cross section. The inner layer is made of high-strength steel, the outer layer is made of reinforced ferroconcrete. The proposed methodology for calculating the gas pipeline for strength is based on the equations of the theory of shells. The procedure takes into account the effect of internal gas pressure, external pressure of sea water, the weight of two-layer gas pipeline and the weight of the ice layer. The lifting force created by the displaced fluid and the positive buoyancy of the ice is also taken into account. It is significant that the listed loads cause only two types of deformation of the gas pipeline: axisymmetric and antisymmetric. The interaction of the pipeline with the ground as an elastic foundation is not considered. The main objective of the research is to establish the fact of separation of part of the pipeline from the ground. The method of calculations of stresses and deformations occurring in a model sea gas pipeline is presented.

  9. Evaluation of stream crossing methods prior to gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.H.; Rogers, J.S.; Ricca, A.

    1995-01-01

    Stream surveys are conducted along proposed gas pipeline routes prior to construction to assess potential impacts to stream ecosystems and to recommend preferred crossing methods. Recently, there has been a high level of scrutiny from the Public Service Commission (PSC) to conduct these stream crossings with minimal effects to the aquatic community. PSC's main concern is the effect of sediment on aquatic biota. Smaller, low flowing or intermittent streams are generally crossed using a wet crossing technique. This technique involves digging a trench for the pipeline while the stream is flowing. Sediment control measures are used to reduce sediment loads downstream. Wider, faster flowing, or protected streams are typically crossed with a dry crossing technique. A dry crossing involves placing a barrier upstream of the crossing and diverting the water around the crossing location. The pipeline trench is then dug in the dry area. O'Brien and Gere and NYSEG have jointly designed a modified wet crossing for crossing streams that exceed maximum flows for a dry crossing, and are too wide for a typical wet crossing. This method diverts water around the crossing using a pumping system, instead of constructing a dam. The trench is similar to a wet crossing, with sediment control devices in place upstream and downstream. If streams are crossed during low flow periods, the pumping system will be able to reduce the majority of water flow and volume form the crossing area, thereby reducing ecological impacts. Evaluation of effects of this crossing type on the stream biota are currently proposed and may proceed when construction begins

  10. Transient dynamic crack propagation in gas pressurised pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldis, E.S.; Owen, D.R.J.; Taylor, C.

    1983-01-01

    The prime limitation of dynamic fracture analysis is the lack of a fundamental crack advance theory which can be easily and economically adopted for use with numerical models. The necessity for the inclusion of inertia effects in the solution of certain problem classes is now evident, but most transient dynamic fracture models considered to date include (of necessity) some intuitive/empirical parameters with a frequent need of a priori knowledge of experimental solutions. The particular problem considered in this study is Mode I transient dynamic crack propagation in gas pressurised pipelines. The steel pipe is modelled using thin shell Semiloof finite elements and its transient response is coupled to a one-dimensional finite element model of the compressible gas equations, incorporating a lateral gas flow parameter. The pipe is governed by the usual dynamic equilibrium equation which is discretised in the time domain by a central difference explicit algorithm. The compressible gas response is modelled by the Continuity and Momentum equations and time discretisation is performed by means of a fully backward difference scheme in time. (orig./GL)

  11. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.T.; Radwan, M.H.; Jones, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  12. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Young-Do; Ahn, Bum Jong

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in many countries are moving away from prescriptive approaches for keeping natural gas pipelines safe. As an alternative, risk management based on a quantitative assessment is being considered to improve the level of safety. This paper focuses on the development of a simplified method for the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines and introduces parameters of fatal length and cumulative fatal length. The fatal length is defined as the integrated fatality along the pipeline associated with hypothetical accidents. The cumulative fatal length is defined as the section of pipeline in which an accident leads to N or more fatalities. These parameters can be estimated easily by using the information of pipeline geometry and population density of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). To demonstrate the proposed method, individual and societal risks for a sample pipeline have been estimated from the historical data of European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco. With currently acceptable criteria taken into account for individual risk, the minimum proximity of the pipeline to occupied buildings is approximately proportional to the square root of the operating pressure of the pipeline. The proposed method of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of a buried pipeline

  13. Gas pipelines and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.A. [Connecticut Univ., Groton, CT (United States); Clancy, M. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cobb, J.S. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main objectives of the megabenthic study of the New England continental shelf conducted during the 1970s and the 1980s was to define the migratory behavior and overall ecology of the offshore American lobster. The study involved more than 100 manned submersible divers on the outer continental shelf, upper continental slope, Georges Bank and submarine canyons. It also included an extensive lobster tagging program. The study provided valuable information on the ecology and behaviour of the lobster and several other megabenthic fauna that could be affected by the presence of a gas pipeline running parallel to the outer continental shelf, from eastern Georges Bank to northern New Jersey. The study showed that an exposed 2-4 diameter pipeline would impede the normal onshore and offshore migration of this deep water lobster species because its' migration is done by walking rather than swimming, and any overhanging structure would block its path. It was emphasized that it is extremely important to maintain spring to early summer onshore migration in the multi-million dollar lobster industry. This paper offered suggestions for modifying pipe encasements to solve the migration problem.

  14. 77 FR 64972 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a...

  15. Ecoefficiency indicators for natural gas transportation companies; Proposta de indicadores de desempenho ambiental para empresas do segmento de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Garcia, Katia Cristina; Salgado, Vivian Gullo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Faertes, Denise [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to present a cast of environmental indicators, more specifically ecoefficiency indicators, to natural gas pipeline transportation companies. So as to do that, are defined the concepts of ecoefficiency and sustainability with its principal related environmental indicators. The environmental impacts and aspects of the natural gas pipeline transportation are discussed, and the concept of cleaner service and production is considered in the context of this activity. Are also presented and analyzed the most important indicators of environmental performance used by oil and gas companies and by natural gas transportation companies, so as to support the choice of the proposed indicators. Finally, the cast of the indicators, which was based on the assessment of the Brazilian Northeast System of gas pipelines, operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., TRANSPETRO, is presented. (author)

  16. Papers of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association's 7. annual climate change workshop : energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference focused on the role that Canadian pipeline companies will play in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. Ninety-five per cent of Canada's oil and gas is transported by pipeline. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) is a national association representing all the major crude oil and natural gas transportation companies in Canada which operate 100,000 kilometres of pipeline in the country. CEPA's ongoing commitment to climate change includes a commitment to participate in the climate change process, share best management practices, develop energy efficient technology, and position Canadian companies so that they can be part of the solution. It was emphasized that a strong commitment to an effective innovation strategy will be crucial to a successful long term energy policy that meets both economic and environmental objectives. One of the key messages at the conference was that Canada's climate change policies should be consistent with those of the United States, its major trading partner, to ensure that Canada is not placed at a competitive disadvantage within North American and world energy markets. It was also noted that greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced in all consuming and producing sectors of the economy through energy efficiency practices and not through reductions in Canadian industry output for domestic or export markets. Five presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  17. 75 FR 35700 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...] Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines June 17, 2010. AGENCY... reporting forms required to be filed by natural gas companies (FERC Form Nos. 2, 2-A, [[Page 35701

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE BETWEEN CAPITAL EXPENDUTURES OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS AND GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPELINE DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabunshchikov Yuriy Andreevich

    2012-10-01

    The research also contemplates the structure of expenses associated with the piping of gas distribution networks. Mathematical equations have been derived to perform sufficiently accurate calculations of costs of construction of various types and various lengths of gas pipelines.

  19. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.ResultsOnce applying this method, collection of required data and performing needed experiments, scoring results showed 96 risk segments along the pipeline length in which lengths 100+860, 101+384 and 103+670 had relative risk scores 9.74, 9.82 and 9.91 respectively and therefore these segments were identified as focal risk points and priority for improvement actions.ConclusionRegarding importance of pipeline failure, inspection and regular patrol along the pipeline route, precise control of cathodic protection of pipeline and using communication technologies such as SCADA or optical fibers along the pipeline route were amongst the mostimportant control action suggested by the study.

  20. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  1. Planning the network of gas pipelines through modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucupira, Marcos L.L.; Lutif Filho, Raimundo B. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Natural gas is a source of non-renewable energy used by different sectors of the economy of Ceara. Its use may be industrial, residential, commercial, as a source of automotive fuel, as a co-generation of energy and as a source for generating electricity from heat. For its practicality this energy has a strong market acceptance and provides a broad list of clients to fit their use, which makes it possible to reach diverse parts of the city. Its distribution requires a complex network of pipelines that branches throughout the city to meet all potential clients interested in this source of energy. To facilitate the design, analysis, expansion and location of bottlenecks and breaks in the distribution network, a modeling software is used that allows the network manager of the net to manage the various information about the network. This paper presents the advantages of modeling the gas distribution network of natural gas companies in Ceara, showing the tool used, the steps necessary for the implementation of the models, the advantages of using the software and the findings obtained with its use. (author)

  2. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  3. Comparisons of sediment losses from a newly constructed cross-country natural gas pipeline and an existing in-road pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Bridget M. Harrison; Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads were measured for about one year from natural gas pipelines in two studies in north central West Virginia. One study involved a 1-year-old pipeline buried within the bed of a 25-year-old skid road, and the other involved a newly constructed cross-country pipeline. Both pipelines were the same diameter and were installed using similar trenching and...

  4. Invisible transport pathways. How dangerous are pipeline tracks?; Unsichtbare Transportwege. Wie gefaehrlich sind Pipelinetrassen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konersmann, Rainer; Kuehl, Christiane; Wilk, Werner [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Risikomanagement'

    2008-11-15

    Pipelines are usually buried and have the function of long-distance transport. For this, special safety measures are requires. For example, pipelines of the chemical industry have defined locations that must be easily identifiable. Pipelines must be adapted to infrastructural and topographic boundary conditions, in consideration of environmental protection and because the pipeline may be damaged by external influences. Even minor releases of chemical substances may pollute water and soil and cause damage to humans. The contribution discusses the possible damage resulting from a pipeline leak. (orig.)

  5. Limits of civil and environmental responsibility in transport through pipelines; Limites da responsabilidade civil e ambiental no transporte por dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Andreia Carneiro [EnviroCompliance Assessoria Ambiental (Brazil); Guilherme Samico, Natalizim Luiz [Webler e Advogados Associados, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Throughout the historic evolution of the Brazilian legislation, including a brief analysis of the prevailing laws regarding the subject, this paper provides an ample vision of the civil and environmental liability in transport contracts, and, especially, in the transport of oil and gas through pipelines, discussing the present influence of environmental norms and the New Brazilian Civil Code. And what was brought to a conclusion is, if on one hand were kept the liability of the Sender (user company of the transportation service contracted with the Carrier) and Carrier (personal entity operator of the pipeline system), who respond jointly and regardless of fault for damages to third parties and the environment (extendible also to the owner of the product and to financial institutions that participate in some form in the contract), on the other hand the New Civil Code authorizes the National Petroleum Agency - ANP to rule the liabilities between the parties to the transport contract, providing greater safety to the system operators. (author)

  6. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-01-01

    The basis of the article has been the steadily increasing focus particularly from EU, on increased competition in the natural gas markets. This could influence the profit distribution between the gas producing and consuming counties which is an important problem situation for Norway as a gas producer. The gas market value chain consist of three parts (production, transport and distribution). How the countries may use strategic regulation of the transport tariff for the transport and distribution systems in order to move as much as possible of the total profit to the part of the value chain in control is studied. The focus has been on how increased competition influences the incentives of the authorities through low or high transport tariff and to what extent increased competition influences the welfare level in the producer and consumer counties when strategic regulations of the transport occur. The analysis is based on a theoretical model developed in 2005. Some central mechanisms related to the natural gas market are mapped and Norway may counteract some negative effects of liberalisation of the European gas market through strategic adaptation of the transport tariff to the Norwegian gas transport systems

  7. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  8. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17

    the pipeline route within the ADM plant. Leakage scenarios at sites along the route of the pipeline, where plant operations (e.g., vehicular and train transportation) seem to present a higher likelihood of accidental failure, for example due to vehicles or equipment crashing into the pipeline and completely severing it, were modeled by allowing them to have a double source consistent with the pipeline releasing high-pressure CO{sub 2} from both ends of the broken pipe after a full-bore offset rupture. Simulation results show that the built environment of the plant plays a significant role in the dispersion of the gas as leaking CO{sub 2} can impinge upon buildings and other infrastructure. In all scenarios simulated, the region of very high-concentration of CO{sub 2} is limited to a small area around the pipeline failure, suggesting the likelihood of widespread harmful CO{sub 2} exposure to plant personnel from pipeline leakage is low. An additional risk is posed by the blast wave that emanates from a high-pressure pipeline when it is breached quickly. We estimate the blast wave risk as low because it occurs only for a short time in the immediate vicinity of the rupture, and requires an instantaneous large-scale rupture to occur. We recommend consideration of signage and guard rails and posts to mitigate the likelihood of vehicles crashing into the pipeline. A standardized emergency response plan applicable to capture plants within industrial sites could be developed based on the IBDP that would be useful for other capture plants. Finally, we recommend carrying out coupled wellbore-reservoir blowout scenario modeling to understand the potential for hazardous conditions arising from an unexpected blowout at the wellhead.

  9. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of... Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, delegated to DOT the authority to develop...

  10. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  11. The impact of market changes on long-term take-or-pay export contracts for LNG and pipeline gas from Mena regions: lessons from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the contracting structures and prices of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas pipeline projects, pricing arrangements in Great Britain, the continental West European gas price adjustment formula, and pricing of LNG transport by ship. The price review introduced in Continental North West European contracts, gas liberalisation and price shocks in Great Britain, the demise of British Gas, and gas liberalisation in continental Europe are discussed. Gas suppliers and European market liberalisation are considered, and MENA (Middle East and North Africa) gas supply arrangements, European buyers, and future price adjustment methods are addressed. (uk)

  12. Deployment Algorithms of Wireless Sensor Networks for Near-surface Underground Oil and Gas Pipeline Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ping YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas pipelines are the infrastructure of national economic development. Deployment problem of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN for oil and gas pipeline systems is a fundamental problem. This paper firstly analyzed the wireless channel characteristics and energy consumption model in near-surface underground soil, and then studied the spatial structure of oil and gas pipelines and introduced the three-layer system structure of WUSN for oil and gas pipelines monitoring. Secondly, the optimal deployment strategy in XY plane and XZ plane which were projected from three-dimensional oil and gas pipeline structure was analyzed. Thirdly, the technical framework of using kinetic energy of the fluid in pipelines to recharge sensor nodes and partition strategy for energy consumption balance based on the wireless communication technology of magnetic induction waveguide were proposed, which can effectively improve the energy performance and connectivity of the network, and provide theoretical guidance and practical basis for the monitoring of long oil and gas pipeline network, the city tap water pipe network and sewage pipe network.

  13. Power law of distribution of emergency situations on main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, K. S.; Akulov, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of emergency situations on a main gas pipeline. A power law of distribution of emergency situations is revealed. The possibility of conducting further scientific research to ensure the predictability of emergency situations on pipelines is justified.

  14. 77 FR 43277 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 6, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above referenced... Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, or telephone (713) 420- 3299, or facsimile...

  15. Risk based asset management of pipeline networks for gas and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, L.M.; Courage, W.M.G.; Broeck, W. van den; Kruse, H.

    2017-01-01

    Pipeline networks for gas and water are the lifelines of our society. Their presence and correct functioning translates in benefits and any disruption, malfunctioning or ruptures represent hazards for the community. Most pipelines are buried, which impedes direct monitoring of the structural

  16. 75 FR 15485 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of workshop. SUMMARY... ``Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe in Gas Transmission Pipelines'' and related Frequently...

  17. 75 FR 14243 - Pipeline Safety: Girth Weld Quality Issues Due to Improper Transitioning, Misalignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No..., and Welding Practices of Large Diameter Line Pipe AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... bulletin to notify owners and operators of recently constructed large diameter natural gas pipeline and...

  18. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Mitigation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... system. To that end, the Hazardous Liquid and Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management (IM...

  19. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of... occurs. This reporting requirement is applicable to all gas transmission pipeline facility owners and...

  20. 75 FR 22678 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Electronic Filing for Recently Revised Incident/Accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Liquid Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: This notice advises owners and operators of gas pipeline...

  1. Gas transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Clifford K

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.

  2. The Application of Simulation Method in Isothermal Elastic Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chunlei; Guan, Shiming; Zhao, Yue; Cao, Jinggang; Chu, Yanji

    2018-02-01

    This Elastic pipeline mathematic model is of crucial importance in natural gas pipeline simulation because of its compliance with the practical industrial cases. The numerical model of elastic pipeline will bring non-linear complexity to the discretized equations. Hence the Newton-Raphson method cannot achieve fast convergence in this kind of problems. Therefore A new Newton Based method with Powell-Wolfe Condition to simulate the Isothermal elastic pipeline flow is presented. The results obtained by the new method aregiven based on the defined boundary conditions. It is shown that the method converges in all cases and reduces significant computational cost.

  3. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  4. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  5. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  7. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  8. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierrez-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm 3 with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm 3 for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others remained

  9. Cracking resistance study of steel for gas pipelines; Badania odpornosci stali przeznaczonej na rurociagi gazowe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Wagner, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The results of cracking resistance of steel tubes for gas pipelines have been performed. The temperature dependence of mechanical properties of X56 steel used as tube material have been shown. 2 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs.

  10. Use of GRASS for routing gas pipeline rights-of-way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydelko, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study, sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), was conducted to illustrate how a GIS (Geographic Information System) can be used to assess alternative routes for new gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs). The results show that a least-cost analysis using GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis and Support System) is a good method for siting new gas pipeline ROWs on the basis of environmental and engineering constraints to pipeline construction and maintenance. The cost and time needed to use this least-cost approach compare favorably with the current methods used by gas pipeline company planners and engineers. The types of criteria used, as well as the costs or weights given to the criteria, can be changed easily. This provides the flexibility to assess several alternatives quickly and easily

  11. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  12. Management of gas pipelines maintenance. La gestion integrada del mantenimiento de gaseoductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Pascal, J; Zarraga Uribarri, J M [ENAGAS (Spain)

    1993-03-01

    A overview on problems and unconveniences arising from the maintenance of pipeline gas networks is given. Computerized data processing can be a solution to optimize the available resources in order to achieve complete reliability and safety. (Author)

  13. 75 FR 10242 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... (TGP) in the above referenced docket. TGP requests authorization to expand its natural gas pipeline... potentially affected by TGP's proposal and participate in the NEPA analysis. These cooperating agencies will...

  14. Vibrational methods of the overhead gas-pipelines technological equipment diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhezin, A.M.; Malysheva, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of overhead gas-pipelines of the technical equipment of gas-compressor station are considered in this article by carrying out registration certification documentation. Some faults of overhead technical gas-pipelines have been proposed. This paper is devoted to the diagnostic methods of the whole gas- pipelines and their parts for some faults during expert checking fulfillment and carrying out registration certification documentation. The analysis of all defects allows to determine a 'between-repairs interval', to develop some operations to avoid these faults and to estimate the repair operation quality, to reduce failure probability. As an example of the effectiveness of technical condition service of vibrational methods by expertise fulfillment have been considered for some defects of the overhead pipelines. (author)

  15. Development of corrosion defect assessment program for API X65 gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Youn Ho; Kim, Young Jin; Goo, Bon Geol; Kim, Yound Pyo; Baek, Jong Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik

    2001-01-01

    Pipelines have the highest capacity and are the safest and the least environmentally disruptive way for gas or oil transmission. Recently, failures due to corrosion defects have become of major concern in maintaining pipeline integrity. A number of solutions have been developed for the assessment of remaining strength of corroded pipelines. However, these solutions are known to be dependent on material properties and pipeline geometries. In this paper, a fitness-for-purpose type limit load solution for corroded gas pipelines made of the X65 steel is proposed. For this purpose, a series of burst tests with various types of corrosion defects are performed. Finite element simulations are carried out to derive an appropriate failure criterion. And then, further, extensive finite element analyses are performed to obtain the FFP type limit load solution for corroded X65 gas pipelines as a function of defect depth, length and pipeline geometry. And also, a window based computer program for the assessment of corrosion defect, which is named as COPAP(COrroded Pipeline Assessment Program) has been developed on the basis of proposed limit load solution

  16. Reauthorizations for hazardous materials transportation and pipeline safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Surface Transportation of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transporation, US Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, April 24, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Witnesses from pipeline and trucking companies and state and federal transportation agencies testified at a hearing on the reauthorization of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974, the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979. Senator Specter spoke in favor of S. 2356, requiring a detailed environmental impact statement for the shipment of radioactive waste material through metropolitan areas. In addition to safety issues, witnesses spoke of tax inequities imposed on gas pipeline property, the need for more uniformity in safety requirements and emergency responses, and the quality of the safety record which the transport industry maintains. Additional articles, letters, and statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of 15 witnesses

  17. The tightness of the globe valves in the exploitations practice of the gas pipe-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrak, T.; Rudzki, Z.; Surmacz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological units of the Transit Gas Pipeline (i.e. Compressor Stations, Valve Stations, Stations or National Network Service Installations) have been fitted with Ball Valves as shut-off devices (block valves). Internal tightness of the valves' seat becomes major factor in securing proper service conditions during normal pipeline operation as well as for isolating of pipeline sections in emergency situations (loss of pipeline integrity or uncontrolled gas escape). Internal tightness of the valves is being inspected during scheduled maintenance of the pipeline units. Any leak revealed during inspection is being repaired, following instructions provided in the Manufacturer's Valve Manual. After a time, some cases have been identified, when repair of the revealed leak was found to be difficult, despite close following of the repair manuals. The paper presents analysis of the issue and corrective actions taken accordingly. (authors)

  18. Public perceptions of CO2 transportation in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, Clair; O'Keefe, Laura; Mander, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the response by members of the lay public to the prospect of an onshore CO 2 pipeline through their locality as part of a proposed CCS development and presents results from deliberative Focus Groups held along a proposed pipeline route. Although there is a reasonable level of general knowledge about CO 2 across the lay public, understanding of its specific properties is more limited. The main concerns expressed around pipelines focused on five areas: (i) safe operation of the pipeline; (ii) the risks to people, livestock and vegetation arising from the leakage of CO 2 from the pipeline; (iii) the innovative and ‘first of its kind' nature of the pipeline and the consequent lack of operational CO 2 pipelines in the UK to demonstrate the technology; (iv) impacts on coastal erosion at the landfall site; and (v) the potential disruption to local communities during pipeline construction. Participants expressed scepticism over the motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. Trust that the developer will minimise risk during the route selection and subsequent construction, operation and maintenance of the pipeline is key; building trust within the local community requires early engagement processes, tailored to deliver a variety of engagement and information approaches. - Highlights: • Lay publics express good general knowledge of CO 2 but not of its specific properties. • Key concerns relate to risk and safety and ‘first of a kind' nature of CO 2 pipeline. • Group participants are sceptical about motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. • Communities' trust in developer is a major element of their risk assessment

  19. Feasibility study on rehabilitation and optimization of gas pipeline network/system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a survey was conducted on repairs and optimization of gas pipeline net/system in Bangladesh. In the survey, the measurement of methane gas concentration, wind direction/velocity and temperature was made for 16 stations of BC pipeline and BD pipeline including Ring Line. As a result of the measurement, the amount of methane leakage totaled 5,300 tons/year including 1,300 tons in BD pipeline, 2,500 tons in BC pipeline and 1,500 tons in Ring Line. For repairs/optimization of the pipeline net/system, the necessity of the following was pointed out: exchanges of gaskets, piping and valves; repairs of portions of the pipeline exposure; exchanges of pressure control valves and flowmeters; repair of the corrosion prevention system. In this improvement project, the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions will be 5,300 tons/year and approximately 106,000 tons in 20 years. The conservation will amount to 0.66 MMUS$/year. (NEDO)

  20. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-547-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas..., filed in Docket Number CP11-547-000, pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an...

  1. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-452-000] Natural Gas..., Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-7918, filed in Docket Number CP10-452-000, pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas...

  2. 76 FR 4516 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...; Order No. 710-B] Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines... for natural gas companies, contained in FERC Form Nos. 2, 2-A, and 3-Q, to include functionalized fuel..., and reports for natural gas companies, contained in FERC Form Nos. 2, 2-A, and 3-Q, to include...

  3. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-97-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas..., filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the Commission's...

  4. CO2 slurry pipeline to transport solid marketable products to improve CCS economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide pipelines are anticipated to be a key element in CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) to transport the carbon dioxide to sequestration sites or to oil fields for use in enhanced oil recovery applications. However the economics of CCS are such that the operations are economically challenged. The concept of using super critical (liquid) carbon dioxide in a slurry pipeline is to use the pipeline constructed for environmental purposes to transport marketable products such as sulphur, petroleum coke, limestone and others to market thereby generating additional income to make CCS carbon dioxide transportation economically attractive.

  5. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... installed to lessen the volume of natural gas and hazardous liquid released during catastrophic pipeline... p.m. Panel 3: Considerations for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection Systems 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p...

  6. Gasification of the southern spread of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisoli, Caetano; Senna, Ferando Jose Ennes de; Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de

    2000-01-01

    As to the commissioning of the Northern spread, Inert Direct Purging was also adopted for purging the Southern Spread of Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. This section is 1191 km long and lies between the city of Paulinia in the State of Sao Paulo up to Canoas in the Sate of Rio Grande do Sul. The Inert Direct Purging is based on the principle of high gas injection flow rates at the initial point and the purging of air at the other end, separated by a nitrogen plug. A purging model, developed by The Gas Research Institute, was used in conjunction with the software Pipeline Studio for planning purposes. The arrival of gas at each valve and the size of gas/nitrogen/air interfaces were also recorded. Graphs and tables compare calculated and recorded data. Final results demonstrated model accuracy and its suitable applicability for purging, as well as the Inert Direct Purging method for gas pipelines of extensive lengths. (author)

  7. Decision 99-13: Crestar Energy Inc. applications to construct and operate sour gas batteries and pipelines, Vulcan Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    On 1 December 1998, the applicant applied pursuant to Part 4 of the Pipeline Act and Section 7.001 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for approval to construct and operate a sour gas pipeline and various surface facilities to tie in three wells. These are located at Legal Subdivision 12 of Section 36, Township 16, Range 24, West of the fourth Meridian (12-36 facility), Lsd 10-35-16-24 WM4 (10-35 facility), and Lsd 7-26-16-24 WM4 (7-26 facility), to an existing pipeline and proposed surface facility at Lsd 16-16-16-24 WM4. The 10-35, 7-26 and 16-16 facilities would each have a separator, a flare knockout drum, and a flare stack. The 12-36 facility would have two separators, one for each of the two producing zones at the 12-36 facility, a flare knockout drum, and flare stack. A compressor would be installed at the 16-16 facility. All fluids would be measured and re-injected into the pipeline for removal at the 16-16 facility. All proposed flare stacks would consists of a continuously burning sweet gas pilot and would be used for emergencies, routine well servicing, and pigging operations only. The pipeline would be designated as a Level 1 facility, and would transport up to 18 moles of hydrogen sulfide per kilomole of natural gas. Although the Board approved Application No. 1037084 after carefully considering the evidence, subject to meeting all the regulatory requirements and conditions set out in Attachment 1, it rejected Application No. 1033453

  8. TePiTri : a screening method for assessing terrorist-related pipeline transport risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The article proposes an approach to determine relative terrorist-related security risk levels of pipeline transportation. Pipeline routes are divided into smaller route segments. Subsequently, likelihood scores of possible terrorist-related incidents are determined per route segment and per

  9. 18 CFR 284.223 - Transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of shippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of shippers. 284.223 Section 284.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... by Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.223...

  10. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  11. Leak detection for city gas pipelines based on instantaneous energy distribution characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigang, Chen [Deijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, (China)

    2010-07-01

    Many natural gas pipelines are used in our cities. The development of efficient leakage detection systems is fundamental for safety issues avoidance. This paper investigated a new solution to the leak detection problem in city gas pipelines based on instantaneous energy distribution. In a theoretical approach, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was used to provide the instantaneous energy distribution feature of an unstable pressure signal. The signal noise was eliminated thanks to the instantaneous energy contribution. A leakage detection model with instantaneous energy distribution (IED) was then established. The correlation coefficients of instantaneous energy distribution were through correlation analysis. It was found that in different pipeline states, the instantaneous energy distribution characteristics are different. A strong correlation of IED signal characteristics was found of the two ends of a city gas pipeline in the same operation. The test results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the method.

  12. The transit oil and gas pipeline and the role of bargaining: A non-technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omonbude, Ekpen J.

    2007-01-01

    Transit oil and gas pipelines are growing in relevance, and face a number of topical problems. One of such issues is the problem of potential disruption from a number of sources, notably post-construction behaviour of the transit country. Present and future pipelines face the risk of continuous conflict over legal, economic and political issues. Once the pipeline is built and in operation, the threat of disruption of the pipeline by the transit country over disputed transit terms exists. This is due to two key problems: first, a shift in bargaining powers to the transit country upon construction and operation of the pipeline and, second, changes in the value of the throughput imply price changes that can affect the behaviour of the transit country. This paper discusses the role of basic bargaining principles in cross-border oil and gas pipelines involving transit through one or more countries. It finds that the motive behind the pipeline plays a key role in the prevention of potential disruptions to the pipeline due to rent squeezing. Also, although the potential of such disruptions does exist, there are a number of factors that could serve to mute the consequences of shifts in bargaining power to the transit countries

  13. Managing change : natural gas transportation to the eastern toll zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiante, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Cogenerators Alliance includes Ontario's largest end-use natural gas consumers, Tractebel Power, Westcoast Power, Lake Superior Power, TransAlta Energy, Cardinal Power of Canada and Whitby Cogeneration. Together, they represent 157,798 GJ/day contracted volume. This paper focused on the changing face of the natural gas industry in North America with closer economic ties between Canada, the United States and Mexico in a competitive energy market. The role of Alliance Pipeline in transporting natural gas to markets and the implication of regulation and toll increases were also discussed. It was noted that there is a need for regulatory changes to provide existing pipelines with the appropriate tools needed to ensure the competitive environment will function effectively. tabs., figs

  14. Transport of natural gas; criterions for the infrastructure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The planning of the expansion of transport of natural gas system; should keep in mind the changes that are happening in the structure of this industry in the country. In this respect, it is growing the number of actors private present in her, what determines a indicative type planning, whose main objective is to serve as information or guide in decisions of investment involved agents in the maintenance and the amplification of the net of transport for the national supply of natural gas. An indicative plan has objectives different to those of an operative plan of short term. While this last search to establish a program of adjustments to manage commitments of transport and to maintain, this way, the validity of the gas pipeline, The indicative plan of transport is guided to quantify the intensity of the financial effort that is required so that the capacity of the gas pipeline net, responds to the prospective growth of the gas industry. In other words, the indicative plan should contribute to identify the type of works and the one mounts of the investments that the transport of gas system needs in the long term. In this sense, it is important to specify the function objective that will optimize, this precision it should take into account, in our case, the foreseen expansion of the electric sector, because this it depends in good measure of the costs and of the geographical readiness of fuels as the natural gas and the coal. Said otherwise, the function objective that should be optimized involves the expansion of the net of transport of natural gas and the expansion of the generation capacity simultaneously and of the infrastructure of electricity transmission

  15. Location class change impact on onshore gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas de [DNV Energy Solutions, Oslo (Norway); Leal, Cesar Antonio [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas and Energy

    2009-07-01

    During a pipeline life cycle, some significant changes in the population may happen along its route. Such changes are indirectly evaluated by the increase in the amount of buildings constructed along the route, which determines the so called Location Class. Such changes, after licensing, provoke differences between what is required by the standards and what is actually done. This work has two goals. One is to study the requirements of international standards and legislations as well as some solutions used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Netherlands. This goal intends to provide some technical bases for a comparative analysis on how the location class changes, during the life cycle of a pipeline, are treated in each country. Another goal is to present a risk-based methodology for the guideline development which can be used in decision-making concerning what to do in case of any location class change. Particularly, it has given special attention to the requirements which are imposed for the pipeline operational license continuation. This work is of supreme importance for the Brazilian pipeline segment, since the existing Brazilian design standard, ABNT NBR12712 for transmission and distribution pipeline design, does not deal with that issue. Moreover, a summary of the main solutions found in those countries together with a guideline, customized for the Brazilian reality, is presented. (author)

  16. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... DAMIS Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT..., hazardous liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must...

  17. Coalbed methane : evaluating pipeline and infrastructure requirements to get gas to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.

    2005-01-01

    This Power Point presentation evaluated pipeline and infrastructure requirements for the economic production of coalbed methane (CBM) gas. Reports have suggested that capital costs for CBM production can be minimized by leveraging existing oil and gas infrastructure. By using existing plant facilities, CBM producers can then tie in to existing gathering systems and negotiate third party fees, which are less costly than building new pipelines. Many CBM wells can be spaced at an equal distance to third party gathering systems and regulated transmission meter stations and pipelines. Facility cost sharing, and contracts with pipeline companies for compression can also lower initial infrastructure costs. However, transmission pressures and direct connect options for local distribution should always be considered during negotiations. The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) commingling services was also recommended. A map of the North American gas network was provided, as well as details of Alberta gas transmission and coal pipeline overlays. Maps of various coal zones in Alberta were provided, as well as a map of North American pipelines. refs., tabs., figs

  18. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  19. 76 FR 21423 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0063] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... application is for two 30-inch segments, segments 3 and 4, of the TPL 330 natural gas pipeline located in St...

  20. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0004] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  1. 75 FR 35516 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0147] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... with the Class 1 location portion of a 7.4 mile natural gas pipeline to be constructed in Alaska. This...

  2. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0068] Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities to verify...

  3. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0034] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  4. 75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0377] Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... coating on its gas pipeline. DATES: Submit any comments regarding this special permit modification request...

  5. 76 FR 11853 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0027] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... a 24-inch mainline natural gas pipeline, 595 feet in length. The first segment of the special permit...

  6. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0112] Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking relief from compliance with...

  7. 78 FR 14877 - Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2013-0028] Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... PHMSA F 7100.2--Incident Report--Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems and...

  8. 78 FR 65429 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0041] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...-0041 Williams Gas Pipeline 49 CFR 192.150........ To authorize the extension Company, LLC (WGP). of a...

  9. The limits to deregulation of entry and expansion of the US gas pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosput, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    US consumers of natural gas have enjoyed significant benefits as the pricing of the commodity has been deregulated. Thanks in large part to the success of deregulation of the natural gas commodity. US federal regulators have embarked upon a wide-ranging programme of eliminating barriers to entry and expansion of natural gas pipelines, which have traditionally been regulated as natural monopolies. As a result, there is now significant excess capacity in the natural gas transmission sector, without measurable benefits to consumers. (author)

  10. Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

  11. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  12. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  13. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  14. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  15. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Yu; Renjian Feng; Jiangwen Wan; Yinfeng Wu; Yang Yu

    2011-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initia...

  16. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 9. Available and/or required equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the technology assessment of liquid natural gas pipelines assembles a listing of the materials and equipment which might be used to mechanically build an LNG pipeline. It lists material and equipment which practically could be used in such a pipeline either at a present state of the art, or by adaptation in terms of materials or techniques, or after some development work. Other than that the material and equipment is proposed for use in an LNG pipeline, no new real concept of pipeline or refrigeration plant equipment is proposed. Rather the equipment has been selected so as to conform as closely as possible to established pipeline practice.

  17. Risk analysis of urban gas pipeline network based on improved bow-tie model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M. J.; You, Q. J.; Yue, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Gas pipeline network is a major hazard source in urban areas. In the event of an accident, there could be grave consequences. In order to understand more clearly the causes and consequences of gas pipeline network accidents, and to develop prevention and mitigation measures, the author puts forward the application of improved bow-tie model to analyze risks of urban gas pipeline network. The improved bow-tie model analyzes accident causes from four aspects: human, materials, environment and management; it also analyzes the consequences from four aspects: casualty, property loss, environment and society. Then it quantifies the causes and consequences. Risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk control, and risk management will be clearly shown in the model figures. Then it can suggest prevention and mitigation measures accordingly to help reduce accident rate of gas pipeline network. The results show that the whole process of an accident can be visually investigated using the bow-tie model. It can also provide reasons for and predict consequences of an unfortunate event. It is of great significance in order to analyze leakage failure of gas pipeline network.

  18. Risk-targeted safety distance of reinforced concrete buildings from natural-gas transmission pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paola; Parisi, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Natural-gas pipeline accidents mostly result in major damage even to buildings located far away. Therefore, proper safety distances should be observed in land use planning to ensure target safety levels for both existing and new buildings. In this paper, a quantitative risk assessment procedure is presented for the estimation of the annual probability of direct structural damage to reinforced concrete buildings associated with high-pressure natural-gas pipeline explosions. The procedure is based on Monte Carlo simulation and takes into account physical features of blast generation and propagation, as well as damage to reinforced concrete columns. The natural-gas jet release process and the flammable cloud size are estimated through SLAB one-dimensional integral model incorporating a release rate model. The explosion effects are evaluated by a Multi-Energy Method. Damage to reinforced concrete columns is predicted by means of pressure–impulse diagrams. The conditional probability of damage was estimated at multiple pressure–impulse levels, allowing blast fragility surfaces to be derived at different performance limit states. Finally, blast risk was evaluated and allowed the estimation of minimum pipeline-to-building safety distances for risk-informed urban planning. The probabilistic procedure presented herein may be used for performance-based design/assessment of buildings and to define the path of new natural-gas pipeline networks. - Highlights: • The safety of buildings against blast loads due to pipeline accidents is assessed. • A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is presented for natural-gas pipelines. • The annual risk of collapse of reinforced concrete building columns is evaluated. • Monte Carlo simulation was carried out considering both pipeline and column features. • A risk-targeted safety distance is proposed for blast strength class 9.

  19. Gas transport in graphitic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoinkis, E.

    1995-02-01

    The characterization of the gas transport properties of porous solids is of interest in several fields of science and technology. Many catalysts, adsorbents, soils, graphites and carbons are porous. The gas transport through most porous solids can be well described by the dusty gas model invented by Evans, Watson and Mason. This model includes all modes of gas tranport under steady-state conditions, which are Knudsen diffusion, combined Knudsen/continuum diffusion and continuum diffusion, both for gas pairs with equal and different molecular weights. In the absence of a pressure difference gas transport in a pore system can be described by the combined Knudsen/continuum diffusion coefficient D 1 for component 1 in the pores, the Knudsen diffusion coefficient D 1K in the pores, and the continuum diffusion coefficient D 12 for a binary mixture in the pores. The resistance to stationary continuum diffusion of the pores is characterized by a geometrical factor (ε/τ) 12 = (ε/τ)D 12 , were D 12 is the continuum diffusion coefficient for a binary mixture in free space. The Wicke-Kallenbach method was often used to measure D 1 as function of pressure. D 12 and D 1K can be derived from a plot 1/D 1 νs P, and ε/τcan be calculated since D 12 is known. D 1K and the volume of dead end pores can be derived from transient measurements of the diffusional flux at low pressures. From D 1K the expression (ε/τ c ) anti l por may be calculated, which characterizes the pore system for molecular diffusion, where collisions with the pore walls are predominant. (orig.)

  20. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  1. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.-PETROBRAS, Av. Almirante Barroso, 81, 12 andar, Centro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 20031-004 (Brazil); Eugenio Leal, Jose, E-mail: jel@puc-rio.br [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Fabricio [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: > We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. > The system may be applied to new or existing projects. > The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. > An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. > The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  2. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney; Eugenio Leal, Jose; Oliveira, Fabricio

    2011-01-01

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: → We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. → The system may be applied to new or existing projects. → The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. → An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. → The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Rusin, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO 2 . • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO 2 . • Optimization of CO 2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO 2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO 2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO 2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO 2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO 2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO 2 , a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the

  4. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  5. Integrated failure probability estimation based on structural integrity analysis and failure data: Natural gas pipeline case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Žutautaitė, Inga; Janulionis, Remigijus; Ušpuras, Eugenijus; Rimkevičius, Sigitas; Eid, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an approach as an overall framework for the estimation of the failure probability of pipelines based on: the results of the deterministic-probabilistic structural integrity analysis (taking into account loads, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, crack size, and defected zone thickness), the corrosion rate, the number of defects and failure data (involved into the model via application of Bayesian method). The proposed approach is applied to estimate the failure probability of a selected part of the Lithuanian natural gas transmission network. The presented approach for the estimation of integrated failure probability is a combination of several different analyses allowing us to obtain: the critical crack's length and depth, the failure probability of the defected zone thickness, dependency of the failure probability on the age of the natural gas transmission pipeline. A model's uncertainty analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis are performed, as well. - Highlights: • Degradation mechanisms of natural gas transmission pipelines. • Fracture mechanic analysis of the pipe with crack. • Stress evaluation of the pipe with critical crack. • Deterministic-probabilistic structural integrity analysis of gas pipeline. • Integrated estimation of pipeline failure probability by Bayesian method.

  6. Application of Flash Setting Material for Temporary Earthquake Disaster Restoration of Gas Pipelines Using Fly Ash Cement Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hideki; Sasaoka, Takashi; Matsui, Kikuo; 島田, 英樹; 笹岡, 孝司; 松井, 紀久男

    2010-01-01

    There are many earthquakes in Japan. If a large earthquake were to occur, it is necessary to consider how pipelines such as: gas, sewage, telecommunications, and so on are restored quickly. At that time, damaged gas pipelines are very dangerous because fire in large areas could be caused by the leakage of gas from the damaged pipeline. Accordingly, it is necessary for gas companies to stop the supply of gas to houses over a large area. Once the gas supply is stopped, there is a considerable a...

  7. Application of Fracture-Mechanics Approach to Gas Pipelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin

    VII, č. 73 (2011), s. 480-487 ISSN 2010-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052; GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/10/P555 Grant - others:GAMPO(CZ) FT-TA5/076 Program:FT Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : axial crack * fracture-mechanics * J integral * pipeline wall Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Useful effectiveness of plastic pipes for gas pipelines operating at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayutsev, K I

    1976-06-01

    Because a significant portion of the feeder lines in the Soviet union operate at relatively low pressures up to 75 to 150 psi, it is economically feasible to replace the conventional pipeline material (steel) with plastic. Cost savings result from lower material costs and ease of laying plastic pipe. Because of stiffness and corrosion requirements, the steel pipe used for these low-pressure pipelines is much thicker than needed to withstand the pressure used. Data are tabulated on the comparative costs and manpower requirements for the construction of 1 km of steel, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene gas pipelines ranging in diameter from 3 to 14 in. Generally, the plastic pipelines required 15 to 30% less man-days and were 20 to 35% lower in cost to build. The plastic pipelines can operate at 150 to 175 psi pressure and at temperatures up to 100 to 140/sup 0/F. In research conducted at VNIIST (All-Union Research Institute for the Construction of Trunk Pipelines) on plastic pipelines, a 2.5-mile test section has been operating successfully for 2 years, and new techniques and equipment for joining plastic pipe up to 25-in. diameter are being developed.

  9. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas-solids pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, S R; Denham, J C; Armour-Chelu, D I

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas-solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powdered materials can lead to electrostatic discharge and so is of interest from a safety viewpoint. The charging of powders can also adversely affect their mechanical handling characteristics and so is of interest to handling equipment engineers. The paper presents the design of the sensors, the design of the electric charge test rig and electric charge measurement test results

  10. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, G.

    1992-12-01

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  11. 75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities are required to have and follow.... Advisory Bulletin (ADB-10-06) To: Owners and Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems...

  12. Construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Construcao e montagem do gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Antonio E; Sarno, Ruy [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to present the strategies adopted for the development of the construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus Gas Pipeline and its branches, emphasizing the logistics. With 662 km of extension and crossing 7 Amazonian counties, the construction of this pipeline will take in consideration particular aspects of the region (wavy relief, local population, Amazonian forest and diverse water bodies) and its interference in the works, mainly transport of workers and equipment, distribution of supplying points of fuels and foods, and localization of support work sites. Considering the importance of the region watercourses, techniques for its passages were studied, on a case by case basis and the conventional process, directional drilling and special launching for the passage of the Black river have been adopted. Moreover, this paper presents the activities summary of both environmental licensing process and pre communication related to the communities directly affected by the works, aiming at the beginning of the services of construction and assembly, as well as a story brief of the experiences gathered during the construction of the Poliduto and the Urucu-Coari Gas Pipeline, both constructed between the years of 1997 and 1999. (author)

  13. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline: an illusion or a real prospect?; Le trans Saharan Gas Pipeline Mirage ou reelle opportunite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auge, B.

    2010-07-01

    The African continent holds 8% of global natural gas reserves. Its relative economic weakness and the almost total absence of natural gas networks means there is very limited internal gas consumption - almost none outside of Algeria and Egypt - giving it considerable exporting capabilities. A pipeline joining up Sub-Saharan Africa with the European Union (EU) is therefore a reasonably logical project in economic terms. The two interested blocks have been discussing this with increasing intensity since early 2000. On the face of it the strategy seems obvious, the European area has three important gas producers: Norway (a non-EU member but closely associated with its energy policy), Great Britain and the Netherlands, with respective outputs of 99.2, 69.5 and 67.5 billion m{sup 3} in 2008. However, Norwegian and Dutch production will begin to decrease in several years time; and British production has already fallen considerably since 2000. Britain currently imports one-third of its gas for domestic consumption (93.9 billion m3 in 2008). Logically EU imports are going to increase progressively. And yet, a fear of dependency on Russian natural gas - currently the average rate of Russian gas supply amongst the EU 27 is 25% - in the near future, is leading the EU to consider diversifying its supply source. Without this diversification Russia could be supplying around 70% of the European market (27 countries) by 2050. Presently some EU countries clearly favour an increase in 're-gasification' plants in order to import more liquefied natural gas (LNG): France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Poland. The Persian Gulf countries, Egypt and Algeria and the U.S. will supply these new plants. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) which would link Nigeria to Niger and Algeria, itself connected to Spain and Italy by existing pipelines or those currently under construction, could turn out to be an additional supply option in the long term. However

  14. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  15. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, G; Jiang, J; Li, D D; Yi, W S; Zhao, Z; Nie, L N

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system

  16. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-02-01

    The basis of the article has been the growing focus on competition within the natural gas markets particularly in the EU. Increased competition whether upstream or downstream may influence the distribution of profit between producing and consuming countries. For Norway as a large exporter of natural gas to the European market this would be an important problem. The chain of values in the gas market consists of three complementary parts (production, problem definition and distribution). With this in mind it is studied how the countries would use strategic availability pricing for transport and distribution systems for moving as large a part of the total profit as possible to the parts of the chain of value they control themselves. The focus has been on how increased competition in the market for natural gas influence the authority incentives for stipulating a high or low availability price and to what extent increased competition influence the welfare level in the producing and consuming countries when they use strategic availability pricing. The analysis builds on a theoretical model developed by the company Nese and Straume (2005). Finally some of the more interesting results as to the Norwegian position as a gas producer are presented. One of the more surprising results was that for an exporting country and an importing country increased competition upwards may be an advantage for the exporting country while negative for the importing country. The result was valid also when a competing export country was included when this country did not use strategic availability pricing. If the competing country also acted strategically the result inverted. However, if the gas exporting countries were capable of perfect coordination of their availability pricing the case would revert to the situation with only one exporting country and the result would be valid. If a future formation of a ''gas-OPEC'' is considered where for example Norway and Russia cooperate in a gas

  17. North American natural gas pipeline and supply update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which presented an update of North American natural gas supply. Some of the graphs depicted the following: (1) natural gas consumption in the United States, (2) U.S. imports of Canadian natural gas, (3) natural gas prices differential: Henry Hub versus Empress, (4) natural gas production in the U.S., and (5) Baker Hughes active rig count, U.S. gas rigs. First Energy's view of U.S. natural gas supply is that the estimate of 50.0 Bcf/d for U.S. domestic production is looking too high. The first quarter 1999 exit production rates are behind expectations. U.S. domestic natural gas expenditure budgets are still down by more than 40 per cent compared to 1998 levels. The impact that this will have on prices was discussed. 21 figs

  18. 76 FR 45904 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... at U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200...: On Occasion. Title: Record Keeping for Natural Gas Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0049...

  19. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The gas century: worldwide LNG developments may deal death blow to Alaskan pipeline dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG), which casts doubt on the viability of the Alaska gas pipeline, and the potential impacts on Canadian gas exports to the United States are discussed. There is currently a proposal before Congress for an Alaskan LNG project, and consensus appears to be building among American energy experts and law-makers that building a multitude of LNG facilities would be more flexible and cheaper than building the proposed Alaska pipeline. As further proof of the growing popularity of LNG, U.S. industry lobbyists are said to be rapidly gaining congressional support for the idea of building eight to ten billion cubic feet per day of LNG capacity along the U. S. coast. Either development, -- LNG facilities or the Alaska pipeline -- have the potential to seriously impact Canadian natural gas exports. If the Alaska pipeline is built, the addition of five billion cubic feet per day of new gas on the market would cause gas prices to fall; if the U.S. decides to subsidize its gas industry, Canadian gas would be put at a serious disadvantage. Conversely, if the Alaskan LNG proposal were to succeed, the potential demise of the Alaska pipeline would mean the loss of about 12,000 jobs that would be created during the Canadian construction phase of the pipeline, as well as the loss of tariffs. Industry experts predict that by 2005 LNG terminals will dot the periphery of the U. S. coast line; to prepare for these eventualities, Canadian companies, such as Irving Oil, TransCanada Pipelines and EnCana are taking note, and are scrambling not to be left out of the game. As proof of the seriousness of their concern, Irving Oil is adding a Can$500 million LNG facility to its Canaport terminal on the Scotian shelf; TCPL is working to supply an LNG terminal offshore Massachusetts, and EnCana is refurbishing a Louisiana salt cavern to prepare for storage of gas delivered to the Gulf Coast

  1. Correlation between designed wall thickness of gas pipelines and external and internal corrosion processes; Adequacao de espessura de parede projetada em funcao de processos de corrosao externa e interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jose Antonio da Cunha Ponciano [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion control on gas pipelines plays an important role on the assessment of pipeline integrity and reliability. In many countries a great extension of buried pipelines is used on transport and distribution systems. This extension will be certainly increased in a near future due to the increasing consumption of natural gas. Inadequate corrosion control can drive to pipeline failures, bringing up the possibility of accidents in populated or environmental protected areas, bringing together severe economical, legal and environmental consequences. Corrosion is frequently considered as a natural and inevitable phenomenon. Based upon this assumption, some recommendations are included on design standards of gas pipelines in order to compensate its detrimental effect. The aim of this work is to present a review of the correlation between external corrosion process and the guidelines established during the project phase of gas pipelines. It is intended to contribute for a better understanding of the impacts of corrosion on integrity, reliability and readiness of gas transport and distribution systems. Some aspects regarding external corrosion of pipelines extracted from technical papers will be summarised. Information provided will be compared to design criterion prescribed by the NBR 12712 Standard. (author)

  2. Regulatory assessment with regulatory flexibility analysis and paperwork reduction act analysis : draft regulatory evaluation : Notice of Proposed Rulemaking -- Pipeline Safety : Polyamide-11 (PA-11) plastic pipe design pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is proposing changes to the Federal pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Part 192, which cover the transportation of natural gas by pipeline. Specifically, PHMSA is proposing to chan...

  3. GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) process development for girth welding of high strength pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, Vaidyanath; Daniel, Joe; Quintana, Marie [The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chen, Yaoshan [Center for Reliable Energy Systems (CRES), Dublin, OH (United States); Souza, Antonio [Lincoln Electric do Brasil, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and findings from the first phase of a consolidated program co-funded by US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) and Pipeline Research Council Inc (PRCI) to develop pipe weld assessment and qualification methods and optimize X 100 pipe welding technologies. One objective of the program is to establish the range of viable welding options for X 100 line pipe, and define the essential variables to provide welding process control for reliable and consistent mechanical performance of the weldments. In this first phase, a series of narrow gap girth welds were made with pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW), instrumented with thermocouples in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal to obtain the associated thermal profiles, and instrumented to measure true energy input as opposed to conventional heat input. Results reveal that true heat input is 16%-22% higher than conventional heat input. The thermal profile measurements correlate very well with thermal model predictions using true energy input data, which indicates the viability of treating the latter as an essential variable. Ongoing microstructural and mechanical testing work will enable validation of an integrated thermal-microstructural model being developed for these applications. Outputs from this model will be used to correlate essential welding process variables with weld microstructure and hardness. This will ultimately enable development of a list of essential variables and the ranges needed to ensure mechanical properties are achieved in practice, recommendations for controlling and monitoring these essential variables and test methods suitable for classification of welding consumables. (author)

  4. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  5. Traditional and incentive regulation - applications to natural gas pipelines in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansell, R.L.; Church, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to examine alternative regimes for the regulation of major natural gas pipelines in Canada, with the specific objective of clarifying and analyzing key issues relating to these regulatory alternatives. An overview of the development and structure of the gas pipeline industry and a discussion of the main changes in the market and regulatory environment was included. The appropriateness of greater tolling flexibility and the role that competition plays in optimizing the use of existing pipelines was also discussed. Some of the incentive alternatives included price caps, automatic rate adjustment mechanisms, yardstick competition, profit sharing, benchmarking, capital cost incentives, and franchising. An evaluation of each alternative was provided. Examination of the various alternatives led to the conclusion that none of the new-style incentive regimes represent a panacea, nor is any of them uniformly better in terms of the key evaluation criteria than the traditional cost of service (COS) approach, especially that which incorporates streamlining. 163 refs., 13 figs.

  6. A study on the development of repair procedure for gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W S; Kim, Y P; Baek, J H [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    In the buried natural gas pipelines, many defects may occur by construction faults, corrosion, third-party interference and ground movement. When a segment of a pipeline is found to be defective, one of the repair methods is to remove its contents and cut out the defective segment after shutting down the pipeline. However, the cost is extremely high in terms of venting and disrupting the gas supply. Therefore, most pipeline companies have developed in-service repair methods without removing the line from service. In general, in order to avoid removing the line from service, direct deposition of weld metal, full-encirclement sleeve, patches, stopple fittings, half-sole and branch connections are required. There are three important concerns in the sleeve-repair welding like other methods of in-service repair-welding. The first concern is the possibility of burn-through which is due to the localized heating and loss of meterial strength on the inner surface of pipe during the welding process. The pipe wall may burst under internal pressure if the loss in strength is too great. The second concern is the high cooling rates by the flowing gas which quickly removes heat from the pipe wall, resulting in accelerated cooling of the weld. Such rapid cooling rates promote the formation of hard heat affected zone microstructure making these welds susceptible to hydrogen cracking. The third concern is for the load carrying ability, such as tensile strength, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. This study was taken to investigate the effect of in-service welding conditions and assess the mechanical properties for the direct deposition welding and sleeve-repair welding of in-service gas pipelines and develope the welding procedure specification for in-service pipeline repair. 81 figs., 40 tabs.

  7. EU Security of Gas Supplies: Solidarity Runs Through the Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Rutten, Daan

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing efforts to lessen the European Union's (EU) vulnerability to gas shortages by adopting internal measures were triggered by the Ukrainian gas disputes of 2006 and 2009. The latter deprived several EU Member States of 20% of their gas supplies (30% of imports) for 14 days in the middle of winter due to tensions with Russia. This prompted Member States in 2010 to adopt a Regulation for the Security of Gas Supply, replacing the skeletal 2004 Directive. Since 2014, tensions have increased significantly between the EU and Russia, the block's main gas supplier. Although this has not led to any gas supply disruptions in Europe, and this time Ukraine has been able to revert to reverse flows, national production and storage withdrawals to replace the Russian gas flows, there remains a perceived elevated risk of gas supply disruptions to the EU, especially by certain Member States. This led the European Commission (EC) to publish its first-ever European Energy Security Strategy in May 2014, which was followed by the Gas Stress Tests of October 2014. In February 2015, the EC published its Energy Union Strategy Framework, which was strongly motivated by energy security concerns. In that context, the EC announced a series of proposals for its gas and electricity markets in 2016 and 2017, among which was the 'Sustainable Energy Security Package' (hereafter: Package). This Package, published in February 2016, consists of four proposals. Two of them have a legislative nature, namely a Regulation for Security of Gas Supply and a Decision on Intergovernmental Agreements on energy. The two non-legislative proposals are strategy papers dealing respectively with LNG and Gas Storage, and Heating and Cooling. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the proposed Regulation and to offer considerations on some of its provisions, in particular on the move from the national to the regional level of cooperation and on the legislative formalization of solidarity. (author)

  8. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) also noted that, although... operator from discussions between RTOs/ ISOs and natural gas pipelines regarding the status of a generator... not customers of electric transmission operators. Likewise, in the case of RTOs/ISOs, they are not...

  9. Component-based control of oil-gas-water mixture composition in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article theoretically proves the method for measuring the changes in content of oil, gas and water in pipelines; also the measurement system design for implementation thereof is discussed. An assessment is presented in connection with random and systemic errors for the future system, and recommendations for optimization thereof are presented.

  10. New method of leak detecting in diagnostic of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Dabrowski, A.; Sobkiewicz, D.; Oracz, H.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes new directions in gas transmission pipelines diagnostics as well as new methods and equipment used to detect leaks. It was also shown that efficient and functional diagnostics system is the necessary condition to keep the exploitation of transmission systems safe. (author)

  11. Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P, Loldrup Fosboel

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also

  12. Powers of detection : technology companies vie to capture leak survey business for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2005-09-01

    ITT Industries Inc., Physical Sciences Inc., and LaSen Inc. are 3 American companies leading the way to find more efficient methods for identifying leaks from natural gas pipelines. Edmonton-based Synodon Inc. has recently joined the leaders with its newly developed and more sensitive equipment that it hopes to have on the market by the summer of 2006. Leak detection technology was first developed in 1993 in response to concerns about the reliability of aging pipeline infrastructure. In addition to safety concerns, there are concerns over global warming. Methane is a potential greenhouse gas and the United states Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 300 billion cubic feet escape into the atmosphere every year from pipeline leaks. The 2002 Pipeline Safety Improvement Bill in the United States stipulates that leak inspections must be conducted up to 4 times per year in densely populated areas. Violators face fines as high as $1 million. In response to the pipeline safety bill, Synodon raised private equity financing to commercialize an airborne leak detection technology stemming from Canada's space program. In the United States, leak detection technologies that appear likely to take 5 to 20 years for commercialization have been been financed by the Department of Energy and the Office of Pipeline Safety. This paper summarized 5 leak detection prototypes, including ITT's Airborne Natural Gas Emission LiDAR (ANGEL) system which targets high-pressure, long-distance pipelines in North America, LaSen's Airborne LiDAR Pipeline Inspection System (ALPIS) based on DIAL Technology, and a hand-held remote methane leak detector developed jointly by Physical Sciences Inc. of Massachusetts and Houston-based Heath Consultants Inc. Synodon claims that hand-held detectors are too slow and that LiDAR systems still aren't reliable for detection of leaks much below 500 scf/h. Synodon's realSens technology may be more difficult to develop, but it detects

  13. Natural Gas Exploration and Supply in India and the Prospects of a Bangladesh-to-India Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Mamunur [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Energy consumption in India is growing very rapidly. India.s own existing as well as any new discoveries of natural gas revenues may meet only a fraction of its growing demand for energy. Hence, it will become more dependent on the global market for the supply of gas. But it is always difficult for different nations to reach a bilateral agreement on joint projects such as gas pipelines. India has been importing natural gas mostly in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). But for the last two decades, it has shown an increasing interest in importing gas from international market by a pipeline. For example, it has planned to import natural gas from Iran, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Turkmenistan via a pipeline. But India.s best option is to purchase gas from its neighbor Bangladesh via a pipeline. Union Oil of California (Unocal), a large investor in Bangladeshi gas, has proposed to build a pipeline, to sell the gas from its Bibiyana field. A Bangladesh-India pipeline potentially offers several socio-economic benefits. But the project, however, so far has made a little progress. Political issues attached to the project. If the Bangladeshi pipeline plan fails, India will turn other alternative options to meet its gas demand. India already has entered into agreement with International consortiums for LNG purchase. Furthermore, the country is also keen on increasing its effort to develop non-conventional sources in the near future. If these alternatives become viable, India.s demand for and dependence on foreign natural gas will decrease and natural gas (of Bangladesh, for example) might lose some of its value. Keywords: Natural gas exploration and supply in India and Bangladesh, Bangladesh-to-India pipeline, Unocal, natural gas import, market, politics, LNG, non-conventional hydrocarbon sources.

  14. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  15. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  16. The new gas law and the concession of use of pipeline; A nova lei do gas e a concessao para uso de gasoduto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiad, Patricia S. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Lima, Juliana Cardoso de [Escritorio Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The development of the gas industry and the recent energy crises in Latin America demand an adequate answer from the legal framework. There are three main projects in course in Legislative which aim at regulating the gas industry specifically: Law Project n. 226 of 2005, of ex-senator Tourinho; Law Project n. 6.673 of 2006, of Executive; and Law Project n. 6.666 of 2006, of Deputy Luciano Zica. The pipeline is the materialization of the integration among the countries of the continent. The adoption of mechanisms to make feasible the regional integration and to stimulate the private sector, in order to react against the progressive deficit between consumption and exploration of energy, becomes fundamental to the industry. In compliance with the current legislation, the transportation of gas is made through authorization. The discussion focus on the possibility of public tender for concession of the service and how it would stimulate the market. (author)

  17. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingshan; Li, Rui; Nie, Baohua; Liu, Shucong; Zhao, Lianyu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC) inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology. PMID:28036016

  18. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  19. Development of a Free-Swimming Acoustic Tool for Liquid Pipeline Leak Detection Including Evaluation for Natural Gas Pipeline Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Significant financial and environmental consequences often result from line leakage of oil product pipelines. Product can escape into the surrounding soil as even the smallest leak can lead to rupture of the pipeline. From a health perspective, water...

  20. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  1. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  2. 78 FR 6402 - Pipeline Safety: Accident and Incident Notification Time Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No.... SUMMARY: Owners and operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline systems and liquefied natural gas (LNG... operators of gas and hazardous liquids pipeline systems and LNG facilities that, ``at the earliest...

  3. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  4. Oil and gas pipelines with hydrophobic surfaces better equipped to deal with gas hydrate flow assurance issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; Sharifi, Hassan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposition can cause plugging in oil and gas pipelines with resultant flow assurance challenges. Presently, the energy industry uses chemical additives in order to manage hydrate formation, however these chemicals are expensive and may be associated with safety and environmental...... concerns. Here we show the effect of a hydrophobically coated surface on hydrate formation in the presence of an antifreeze protein type I (AFP I) and a biodegradable synthetic polymer (LuvicapBio) in a high pressure crystallizer setup. The hydrophobic surface increased the hydrate induction time...... crystallizer. This indicates that 10 to 14 times less KHI is needed in the presence of a hydrophobically coated surface. These experimental studies suggest that the use of hydrophobic surfaces or pipelines could serve as an alternative or additional flow assurance approach for gas hydration mitigation...

  5. Evaluation of the sources of error in the linepack estimation of a natural gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Fabio Capelassi Gavazzi de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A. (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The intent of this work is to explore the behavior of the random error associated with determination of linepack in a complex natural gas pipeline based on the effect introduced by the uncertainty of the different variables involved. There are many parameters involved in the determination of the gas inventory in a transmission pipeline: geometrical (diameter, length and elevation profile), operational (pressure, temperature and gas composition), environmental (ambient / ground temperature) and those dependent on the modeling assumptions (compressibility factor and heat transfer coefficient). Due to the extent of a natural gas pipeline and the vast amount of sensor involved it is infeasible to determine analytically the magnitude of resulting uncertainty in the linepack, thus this problem has been addressed using Monte Carlo Method. The approach consists of introducing random errors in the values of pressure, temperature and gas gravity that are employed in the determination of the linepack and verify its impact. Additionally, the errors associated with three different modeling assumptions to estimate the linepack are explored. The results reveal that pressure is the most critical variable while the temperature is the less critical. In regard to the different methods to estimate the linepack, deviations around 1.6% were verified among the methods. (author)

  6. The cost of pipelining climate change mitigation: An overview of the economics of CH4, CO2 and H2 transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, B.C.C. van der; Schoots, K.; Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Learning for pipeline construction, if available, is outshadowed by cost variability. → Pipelining is a mature technology, for which much experience has been gained. → Pipeline projects are heterogeneous with widely varying technical and cost specifics. → Pipeline cost components tend to reflect (commodity) market price developments. → Pipeline costs are strongly determined by the properties of the transported gas. -- Abstract: Gases like CH 4 , CO 2 and H 2 may play a key role in establishing a sustainable energy system: CH 4 is the least carbon-intensive fossil energy resource; CO 2 capture and storage can significantly reduce the climate footprint of especially fossil-based electricity generation; and the use of H 2 as energy carrier could enable carbon-free automotive transportation. Yet the construction of large pipeline infrastructures usually constitutes a major and time-consuming undertaking, because of safety and environmental issues, legal and (geo)political siting arguments, technically un-trivial installation processes, and/or high investment cost requirements. In this article we focus on the latter and present an overview of both the total costs and cost components of the distribution of these three gases via pipelines. Possible intricacies and external factors that strongly influence these costs, like the choice of location and terrain, are also included in our analysis. Our distribution cost breakdown estimates are based on transportation data for CH 4 , which we adjust for CO 2 and H 2 in order to account for the specific additional characteristics of these two gases. The overall trend is that pipeline construction is no longer subject to significant cost reductions. For the purpose of designing energy and climate policy we therefore know in principle with reasonable certainty what the minimum distribution cost components of future energy systems are that rely on pipelining these gases. We describe the reasons why we observe

  7. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  8. Investing in CO2 transport infrastructure under uncertainty : A comparison between ships and pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J; Ramírez, A.; Faaij, A. P C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the value of flexibility can influence the investment decision between CO2 ship and pipeline transport and, therefore, the way the infrastructure develops. For this, the value of a carbon capture and storage project are calculated with the

  9. 18 CFR 284.221 - General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others. 284.221 Section 284.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  10. Impact of the rheological studies in the transport for pipeline of paraffinic crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L; Vidales, H; Castaneda, M; Leal, O; Barrero R; Garzon, J

    2000-01-01

    The results of this applied research contribute fundamental elements for handling paraffinic crude oils (pipeline design and operation) and the optimization of the use of Pour Point Depressor additives. The rheological studies support the fluid-dynamic analyses that accurately predict the pipeline transport operation, unlike traditional parameters such as pour point and cloud point. Evaluations of rheological behavior was carried out at the laboratory level in concentric viscometers and were scaled at the pilot plant level in a fluid-dynamic test circuit in pipes with diameters from 1.27 to 15.24 cm (1/2 to 6 inches), where the laboratory scale was confirmed. The tests were performed under strain rate temperature and conditions similar to those of pipeline and flow line operation in production fields. Also, the viability to restart pumping after a prolonged shutdown with extreme temperatures was calculated, evaluating creep stress. The study has allowed us to transport Cupiagua crude oil without the PPD additive in a segregated manner, showing that despite its high pour point 300K (27 grades Celsius), in dynamic conditions similar to those in the pipeline, the crude oil flows at temperatures near 283K (10 Celsius degrades) without putting the integrity of the pipe in danger and within operational and equipment restrictions for the company operating the pipeline. This has generated significant savings, due to the additive as well as the possibility to segregate the crude oils, which facilitates the operation of the paraffin plant at the Barrancabermeja Industrial Complex

  11. Water vapor and gas transport through PEO PBT block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Introduction At the bore well natural gas is saturated with water. Downstream the presence of water may cause: formation of methane hydrates (blocking eventually the pipeline), condensation of water in the pipeline and corrosion effects. A process used for the dehydration of natural gas is glycol

  12. A Reliability Assessment of the Hydrostatic Test of Pipeline with 0.8 Design Factor in the West–East China Natural Gas Pipeline III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of 0.8 design factor in Chinese pipeline industry is a breakthrough with the success of the test pipe section in the west–east China gas pipeline III. For such a design factor, the traditional P-V (Pressure-Volume curve based pressure test control cannot describe the details of the process, and the 0/1 type failure is not an efficient index to show the safety level of the pipeline. In this paper, a reliability based assessment method is proposed to monitor the real-time failure probability of the pipeline during the hydrostatic test process. The reliability index can be used as the degree of risk. Following the actual hydrostatic testing of a test pipe section with 0.8 design factor in the west–east China gas pipeline III, reliability analysis was performed using Monte Carlo technique. The basic values of input parameters of the limit state equations are based on the data collected from either the tested section or the recommended value in the codes. The analysis of limit states, i.e., the yielding deformation and the excessive plastic deformation of pipeline, proceeded based on these distributions. Finally, it is found that the gradually increased water pressure makes the failure probability increase accordingly. A reliability assessment method was proposed and illustrated with the practical pressure test process.

  13. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to the...

  14. Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation. The employment generation according to Leontief's matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieroni, Fernando de Paiva; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy

    1999-01-01

    During the past 15 years, a strong evolution in the concept of the use of energy for industrial purpose was brought in step by step by the Governments and users themselves. The progress within the fields of energy savings, thermal control and reduction of air pollution must be pointed out. Within this scheme the natural gas technology has overcome many technical difficulties and the solutions using natural gas rank among the most efficient to tackle current problems. The aim of this work is to analyse Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation and it influences in the Brazilian economy

  15. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  16. An integrated transient model for simulating the operation of natural gas transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    This paper presents an integrated transient hydraulic model that describes the dynamic behavior of natural gas transport systems (GTS). The model includes sub models of the most important facilities comprising a GTS, such as pipelines, compressor stations, pressure reduction stations, underground

  17. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzias, F.A.; Siontorou, C.G.; Spanidis, P.-M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  18. Multi-attribute risk assessment for risk ranking of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.J.; Almeida, A.T. de

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a decision model for risk assessment and for risk ranking of sections of natural gas pipelines based on multi-attribute utility theory. Pipeline hazard scenarios are surveyed and the reasons for a risk assessment model based on a multi-attribute approach are presented. Three dimensions of impact and the need to translate decision-makers' preferences into risk management decisions are highlighted. The model approaches these factors by using a multi-attribute utility function, in order to produce multi-dimensional risk measurements. By using decision analysis concepts, this model quantitatively incorporates the decision-maker's preferences and behavior regarding risk within clear and consistent risk measurements. In order to support the prioritizing of critical sections of pipeline in natural gas companies, this multi-attribute model also allows sections of pipeline to be ranked into a risk hierarchy. A numerical application based on a real case study was undertaken so that the effectiveness of the decision model could be verified

  19. Evaluation of revegetation progress and erosion-prone areas along oil and gas pipelines in Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramov, Emil [BP British Petroleum, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2012-09-15

    The construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil and South Caucasus gas (SCP) pipelines was completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The Azerbaijan section of the BTC oil and SCP gas pipelines is 442 km long and lies in a 44 m wide corridor named as the Right-of-Way (RoW). BTC and SCP pipelines are aligned parallel to each other within the RoW. The construction process significantly disturbed vegetation and soil cover along the RoW of the pipelines. The revegetation and erosion control measures were conducted after the completion of construction to restore disturbed footprints of construction. The general goals of the present studies, dedicated to the environmental monitoring and erosion control measures were to evaluate the status of the revegetation in 2007 since the completion of the construction activities and to determine erosion-prone areas along the RoW. Quantitative assessment of vegetation cover (VC) was based on the regression and RMSE analysis using IKONOS NDVI 2007 and in-situ estimation of VC percentage for the normalization of NDVI to VC. The prediction of erosion-prone areas was based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The prediction reliability of USLE was evaluated using in-situ collected erosion occurrences. (orig.)

  20. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzias, F.A., E-mail: fbatzi@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Siontorou, C.G., E-mail: csiontor@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Spanidis, P.-M.P., E-mail: pspani@asprofos.gr [Asprofos Engineering S.A, El. Venizelos 284, 17675 Kallithea (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  1. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  3. Understanding Natural Gas Methane Leakage from Buried Pipelines as Affected by Soil and Atmospheric Conditions - Field Scale Experimental and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K. M.; Mitton, M.; Moradi, A.; Chamindu, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing the amount of leaked natural gas (NG) from pipelines from production to use has become a high priority in efforts to cut anthropogenic emissions of methane. In addition to environmental impacts, NG leakage can cause significant economic losses and safety failures such as fires and explosions. However, tracking and evaluating NG pipeline leaks requires a better understanding of the leak from the source to the detector as well as more robust quantification methods. Although recent measurement-based approaches continue to make progress towards this end, efforts are hampered due to the complexity of leakage scenarios. Sub- surface transport of leaked NG from pipelines occurs through complex transport pathways due to soil heterogeneities and changes in soil moisture. Furthermore, it is affected by variable atmospheric conditions such as winds, frontal passages and rain. To better understand fugitive emissions from NG pipelines, we developed a field scale testbed that simulates low pressure gas leaks from pipe buried in soil. The system is equipped with subsurface and surface sensors to continuously monitor changes in soil and atmospheric conditions (e.g. moisture, pressure, temperature) and methane concentrations. Using this testbed, we are currently conducting a series of gas leakage experiments to study of the impact of subsurface (e.g. soil moisture, heterogeneity) and atmospheric conditions (near-surface wind and temperature) on the detected gas signals and establish the relative importance of the many pathways for methane migration between the source and the sensor location. Accompanying numerical modeling of the system using the multiphase transport simulator TOUGH2-EOS7CA demonstrates the influence of leak location and direction on gas migration. These findings will better inform leak detectors of the leak severity before excavation, aiding with safety precautions and work order categorization for improved efficiency.

  4. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.; Mubin, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to cater for its high energy demand, Pakistan is planning to import natural gas through pipelines from neighboring countries. For fully utilizing the imported gas, providing it to end customers, the infrastructure of gas pipeline needs to be developed. Therefore, huge investment has been done and proposed in this sector in coming future. Considering geological, topographical, geopolitical and climatic conditions of the country, there is added risk of earthquake, landslides and floods. Due to current geopolitical situation there is a persistent threat of unrest and terrorism in the country. Instable Government policies, high rate of inflation, rapid change in material prices are also important risk factors. All these factors make the situation very complex in quantifying the risk especially for a project in which the risk impact factor rises exponentially in case of risk occurrence. In this paper, most appropriate risk classification is made based on technological, organizational, political, natural climatic, security and environmental risk factors. Effort has been made to device a simpler risk management methodology to analyze and manage risks of gas pipeline project. In the proposed risk management model Monte Carlo simulation has been used to identify critical risks. (author)

  5. Suitability of pipeline material for buried gas and water piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, R

    1976-01-01

    Following a brief review of the development of the individual pipe materials and their use in the field of gas and water supply, the various stressing possibilities are dealt with. The corrosion influences from inside and outside, the material specifically for internal and external insulation, as well as the stressing due to sediments, are particularly brought out in this connection. A few remarks on the pressure pipes made of ductile cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, asbestos cement and plastics are followed by comparisons with representations on material parameters to be proved, safety factors, tensile and pressure resistance, breaking tension and stress-strain diagram, wall thicknesses, friction losses, reactions depending on the E. modulus and distribution of the single pipe materials in the gas and water supply.

  6. Russian energy imperialism: the world mapped along the gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baločkaitė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    Energy imperialism refers to the use of natural resources for political purposes, i.e. weaponization of energy. At the state level, it means specific institutional structure, as the state building is predetermined by oil led developments. At the international level, it means international nets of energy dependency, centered around the mother state possessing oil, gas and other natural resources. In a paradox way, the so called Western world (Western Europe and North America) becomes increasin...

  7. Friction factor in smooth and rough gas pipelines. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletfjerding, Elling

    1999-01-01

    Flow of high pressure natural gas in pipelines has been studied experimentally. Pipeline flow of natural gas is characterized by high Reynolds numbers due to the low viscosity and relatively high density of pressurized gas. Friction factor correlations for high Reynolds number flow in smooth and rough pipes were developed. To study the effect of wall roughness on pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers 8 test pipes with different wall roughness were fabricated. The wall roughness in 6 of the test pipes was varied by adding glass beads in an epoxy coating applied on the pipe wall. One test pipe was treated with a smooth epoxy coating and one was left untreated. The inner diameter of the test pipes was 150 mm. Measurements of the pressure drop in the pipes were made in a closed flow loop at line pressures of 25, 70, 95 and 120 bar. The Reynolds number of the flow was varied in the range 2-30 million. The wall roughness of the test pipes was measured with a stylus instrument. Correlations between the directly measured wall roughness and the friction factor at fully rough flow conditions were presented. To characterize the wall roughness of the test pipes a parameter combining a measure of the roughness height (R{sub q}) and the texture of the wall roughness was used. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow, minute irregularities of the pipe wall had significant effect on the friction factor in the pipe. The measured wall roughness of the test pipes was in the range 1.4 < R{sub q} <31 (my)m. The flow experiments in test pipes was compared with data from operating pipelines in the North Sea. The offshore pipelines are coated with the same epoxy coating as used in the test pipes. The friction factor in coated offshore gas pipelines showed smooth behavior when the additional pressure drop due to welds were accounted for. The study of coated gas pipelines showed that the friction factor was significantly lower than predicted by standard correlations.

  8. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, L.M.C.; Henriques, J.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas

  9. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: lgato@mail.ist.utl.pt; Henriques, J.C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: jcch@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas.

  10. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  11. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ..., Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 (PL112-90), have imposed additional demands on their... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0009] RIN 2137-AE71 Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves...

  12. Influence of in-service degradation on strain localization in steel of main gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Maruschak, Pavlo; Bishchak, Roman; Panin, Sergey Viktorovich; Pylypenko, Andriy; Menou, Abdellah; Danyliuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    General regularities in the failure kinetics of steel of main gas pipelines (17GS) are established using the method of complete stress-strain curves, meanwhile in-service degradation of metals is taken into account. The influence of material degradation on material properties under static tensioning is considered using two independent approaches: the phenomenological model of damage accumulation in metals, and the fractographic analysis method. The accumulation of in-service damage is found t...

  13. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  14. Failure analysis of natural gas buried X65 steel pipeline under deflection load using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.F.; Zheng, J.Y.; Zhang, B.J.; Shi, P.

    2010-01-01

    A 3D parametric finite element model of the pipeline and soil is established using finite element method to perform the failure analysis of natural gas buried X65 steel pipeline under deflection load. The pipeline is assumed to be loaded in a parabolic deflection displacement along the axial direction. Based on the true stress-strain constitutive relationship of X65 steel, the elastic-plastic finite element analysis employs the arc-length algorithm and non-linear stabilization algorithm respectively to simulate the strain softening properties of pipeline after plastic collapse. Besides, effects of the soil types and model sizes on the maximum deflection displacement of pipeline are investigated. The proposed finite element method serves as a base available for the safety design and evaluation as well as engineering acceptance criterion for the failure of pipeline due to deflection.

  15. Considerations about the Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline design; Consideracoes sobre o projeto do gasoduto Urucu-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Claudio Henrique Lobianco G.; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main purpose of this job is to present the characteristics that influenced the elaboration of the Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline Project and the difference between this pipeline and other pipelines already installed on the Amazon region. In this project were emphasized the aspects related to the route definition, mapping technologies that had not been utilized in our pipeline projects, the crossing of vast flooded areas, requiring specific studies, as well the minimization of the environment impacts, in this case the existence of animal species present only in this region. Other differential factor was the Rio Negro crossing, where the pipeline will be installed in the riverbed. The know-how attained with this project consolidates ever so the activity of building pipelines in tropical forest regions. (author)

  16. Behavior and dynamics of bubble breakup in gas pipeline leaks and accidental subsea oil well blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lai, Chris C K; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C

    2018-06-01

    Subsea oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks release oil and gas to the environment through vigorous jets. Predicting the breakup of the released fluids in oil droplets and gas bubbles is critical to predict the fate of petroleum compounds in the marine water column. To predict the gas bubble size in oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks, we observed and quantified the flow behavior and breakup process of gas for a wide range of orifice diameters and flow rates. Flow behavior at the orifice transitions from pulsing flow to continuous discharge as the jet crosses the sonic point. Breakup dynamics transition from laminar to turbulent at a critical value of the Weber number. Very strong pure gas jets and most gas/liquid co-flowing jets exhibit atomization breakup. Bubble sizes in the atomization regime scale with the jet-to-plume transition length scale and follow -3/5 power-law scaling for a mixture Weber number. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Guidelines for Constructing Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines Through Areas Prone to Landslide and Subsidence Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines provide recommendations for the assessment of new and existing natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines subjected to potential ground displacements resulting from landslides and subsidence. The process of defining landslide and s...

  18. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline: an illusion or a real prospect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, B.

    2010-01-01

    The African continent holds 8% of global natural gas reserves. Its relative economic weakness and the almost total absence of natural gas networks means there is very limited internal gas consumption - almost none outside of Algeria and Egypt - giving it considerable exporting capabilities. A pipeline joining up Sub-Saharan Africa with the European Union (EU) is therefore a reasonably logical project in economic terms. The two interested blocks have been discussing this with increasing intensity since early 2000. On the face of it the strategy seems obvious, the European area has three important gas producers: Norway (a non-EU member but closely associated with its energy policy), Great Britain and the Netherlands, with respective outputs of 99.2, 69.5 and 67.5 billion m 3 in 2008. However, Norwegian and Dutch production will begin to decrease in several years time; and British production has already fallen considerably since 2000. Britain currently imports one-third of its gas for domestic consumption (93.9 billion m3 in 2008). Logically EU imports are going to increase progressively. And yet, a fear of dependency on Russian natural gas - currently the average rate of Russian gas supply amongst the EU 27 is 25% - in the near future, is leading the EU to consider diversifying its supply source. Without this diversification Russia could be supplying around 70% of the European market (27 countries) by 2050. Presently some EU countries clearly favour an increase in 're-gasification' plants in order to import more liquefied natural gas (LNG): France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Poland. The Persian Gulf countries, Egypt and Algeria and the U.S. will supply these new plants. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) which would link Nigeria to Niger and Algeria, itself connected to Spain and Italy by existing pipelines or those currently under construction, could turn out to be an additional supply option in the long term. However, if this 4,128 km

  19. Experimental Study on Methane Hydrate Formation and Transport from Emulsions in a “Gas Lift” Riser in a Flowloop

    OpenAIRE

    Pham , Trung-Kien; Cameirao , Ana ,; Herri , Jean-Michel; Glenat , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Session : Flow Assurance: Transportability Strategies - GasHyDyn : Logiciel de simulation de la composition et de la stabilité des hydrates de gaz; International audience; Production of crude oil with natural gas and water at low temperature and high pressure favours conditions for gas hydrate formation which can cause many troubles, up to blockage of pipelines. This work deals with hydrate kinetics of crystallization and agglomeration together with slurry transport and deposition under flowi...

  20. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... prescribed in Sec. 195.452(h).'' Operators of shallow-water gas and hazardous liquid pipelines in the Gulf of... pipeline safety: 1. Identify persons who normally engage in shallow-water commercial fishing, shrimping... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...

  1. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  2. A Robust Bayesian Approach to an Optimal Replacement Policy for Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Arias-Nicolás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we address Bayesian sensitivity issues when integrating experts’ judgments with available historical data in a case study about strategies for the preventive maintenance of low-pressure cast iron pipelines in an urban gas distribution network. We are interested in replacement priorities, as determined by the failure rates of pipelines deployed under different conditions. We relax the assumptions, made in previous papers, about the prior distributions on the failure rates and study changes in replacement priorities under different choices of generalized moment-constrained classes of priors. We focus on the set of non-dominated actions, and among them, we propose the least sensitive action as the optimal choice to rank different classes of pipelines, providing a sound approach to the sensitivity problem. Moreover, we are also interested in determining which classes have a failure rate exceeding a given acceptable value, considered as the threshold determining no need for replacement. Graphical tools are introduced to help decisionmakers to determine if pipelines are to be replaced and the corresponding priorities.

  3. An emerging methodology of slope hazard assessment for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.J.; O' Neil, G.; Rizkalla, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A new slope assessment methodology has been developed by TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. in an effort to switch from a reactive to a proactive hazard management approach and to optimize maintenance expenditure. The company operates 37,000 km of natural gas gathering and transmission pipelines, portions of which traverse slopes and stream crossings. The newly developed rainfall-ground movement model provides site-specific ground movement predictions for approximately 1100 slopes and establishes a risk-ranked list of slopes upon which maintenance decisions can be based. The input to the predictive model is derived from internal and public information regarding site conditions. This information serves as input to a pipe-soil interaction model to determine the probability of pipeline failure for each slope. The ground movement for this model is limited to creep-type which is typically less than 100 mm per year. Landslides are not addressed in this paper. A system-wide database has been constructed for slopes to prioritize the slope movement hazards. The slope information includes geotechnical data such as bedrock geology, surficial geology, slope details, precipitation and erosion potential. Information related to the pipeline includes the location, age, size, as well as design pressure and temperature. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Conditions of the optimum development of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline system regarding up-to-date gas economy. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csako, D.; Torok, A.; Vasvari, V.

    1980-03-01

    Hungarian engineers enumerate the factors to consider in the planning, construction, and expansion of gas pipeline systems to obtain an optimum solution, both technically and economically. Future development of pipeline systems in Hungary will place equal emphasis on system quality and network expansion.

  5. Natural gas transport, regulation in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The detailed analysis contained in this case history demonstrates the great efforts made in the field of incentive regulation in order to promote competition in the gas market and to improve the efficiency of the gas transport system. The next challenge will be to preserve competition and efficiency in a quite different gas-supply condition [it

  6. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  7. Tunnel construction used as solution for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Teixeira, Andre N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The construction of tunnels for pipeline routes has started being adopted as a solution for technical, environmental and safety issues in the oil and gas industry. Although it is not yet a common practice, PETROBRAS decided to use this type of construction on part of 178 extension kilometers of the main line for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline located in the Gavioes mountains in the district of Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ). The project implementation follows a growing trend of combining efficiency and environmental protection during its execution. Because the region is full of steep grades and is located in an environmentally sensitive area, the use of a tunnel connection removes some of the risks associated with that type of terrain. Among the many technical challenges involved in the project, one must include: access through dense forest, moving personnel, building material and equipment over step terrain and providing protection from corrosion. And as far as protecting the environment is concerned, the use of a pipeline results in a significant reduction in the loss of native vegetation and damage to the ecosystem. To increase these advantages, PETROBRAS seeks to adopt the kinds of construction methods that are most adequate for the challenge at hand, while producing the best results for the project. Whether using new or tried-and-true methods, the focus is always on perfecting the quality of service provided. (author)

  8. Adding new natural gas pipeline capacity during a transition toward competitive natural gas markets: the case of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimison, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Major changes are imminent for the California natural gas market. Enlargements of interstate natural gas pipeline capacity have been proposed, to California from six producing regions in the U.S. and Canada. Planned to alleviate current constraints, the proposed new capacity, if it is all built, will exceed the projected amount required for peak day supplies for years to come, and could overturn current market dynamics and price-setting. Concurrently, the regulatory controls applying to California utilities and customers have been undergoing a profound change under guidance of the California Public Utility Commission, as have the regulations applying to interstate pipelines under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Under the new rules, the risks but not necessarily the benefits of excess pipeline construction and market changes appear likely to fall on shippers and industrial customers, rather than small utility ratepayers. Disputes are under way over the entitlement of various groups to the depreciated value of some existing capacity, including the issue of pricing the new capacity on a rolled-in or incremental basis. Disputes are also likely over responsibility for the costs of other existing interstate capacity which may be idled as a result of the surplus

  9. Methane emissions from natural gas pipelines - current estimates, technologies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.C.; Crook, L.

    1997-01-01

    Methane is the major component of natural gas. World-wide methane emissions from gas systems is estimated to be between 50 and 25 tera grams or about 5 percent of the world-wide total of anthropogenic methane emissions. Technologies and practices are described that are currently being used or are planned to be used in the US to both measure and/or reduce methane emissions from natural gas pipelines. One of the technologies that is described includes a high flow sampling instrument. One of the practices that is described is the current voluntary program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency called the Natural Gas Star program. This program supports research into best management practices, information sharing and technology transfer to promote methane emissions reductions profitably. (R.P.)

  10. U.S., Canadian pipelines producers lining up to meet Mexican gas demand growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on prospects for continued strong growth in Mexican demand for natural gas imports that have U.S. and Canadian producers and pipelines queueing up to serve expected demand. In 1991, more than 25 U.S. companies exported a combined 61.7 bcf of gas into Mexico, an increase of more than 390% from 1990's total of 15.7 bcf. According to the Department of Energy Office of Fuels Programs (OFP), about 27.5 bcf of gas left the U.S. for Mexico in fourth quarter 1991 alone, an average 299 MMcfd. DOE has granted short term authorization to more than 65 countries to export gas into Mexico. Another 25 companies have short term export applications pending

  11. 210Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ('black-powder') and its correlation with the chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the 210 Pb content in 'black-powder' found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with 210 Pb concentration evaluated. Typical 'black-powder' generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide (∼81%) and residual organic matter (∼9%). The 210 Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04 kBq kg -1 and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, 226 Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. 228 Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest 226 Ra content

  12. A method for simulating the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Hu, Hongbing; Yu, Bo; Sun, Dongliang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Yongtu

    2018-01-15

    The rupture of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline can pose a serious threat to human life and environment. In this research, a method has been proposed to simulate the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain. The process of gas releases from the rupture of a high-pressure pipeline is divided into three stages, namely the discharge, jet, and dispersion stages. Firstly, a discharge model is established to calculate the release rate of the orifice. Secondly, an improved jet model is proposed to obtain the parameters of the pseudo source. Thirdly, a fast-modeling method applicable to any terrain is introduced. Finally, based upon these three steps, a dispersion model, which can take any terrain into account, is established. Then, the dispersion scenarios of released gas in four different terrains are studied. Moreover, the effects of pipeline pressure, pipeline diameter, wind speed and concentration of hydrogen sulfide on the dispersion scenario in real terrain are systematically analyzed. The results provide significant guidance for risk assessment and contingency planning of a ruptured natural gas pipeline. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, Farid; Oviedo, Juan Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  14. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasmi, Farid [Toulouse School of Economics (ARQADE and IDEI), Universite Toulouse 1 Capitole (France); Oviedo, Juan Daniel [Universidad del Rosario (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  15. Calculating the strength of a gas pipeline with a reinforced coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' shanov, A P; Abdullaev, G T; Ali-Zade, A N

    1981-10-01

    Reinforcing the coatings of gas pipelines allows an increase in their operating pressure and thus their throughput; combined with strong insulation, such reinforcing materials as metal screens and fiberglass also protect the pipeline. Soviet analysts have mathematically derived the limiting internal pressure in a line with a reinforced coating as a function of the coating's thickness and mechanical properties. The method assumes that the pipe material is isotropic and elastic. The calculations help in determining (1) the dependence of the relative limiting pressure on the relative coating thickness and (2) the effect of the ratio of the Young's modulus of the reinforcing material to that of the pipe material upon the dependence of the relative limiting pressure on coating thickness. The analysis awaits experimental confirmation.

  16. Polar gamma ray mode for testing weld quality natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahout, A. M.; Mahmood, A.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    The polar gamma-ray radiography method was studied extensively, gamma ray from Ir 192 source was used to detect weld defects in the main gas pipeline extending from Kh oms to Tripoli, gamma ray radiographic inspections were carried out according to the Astm(1) standards, and the radiographs were analyzed according to quality specifications API(2) standard-1104. The polar gamma ray mode has been applied to specimens of weld joints of pipes used in this pipeline in the reg [the kilometer 118(3)] and [the kilometer 123], and weld joints in the SLR 7 stz in the region [the kilometer 125]. The results obtained from gamma-rays have discussed and analyzed

  17. Influence of old rectangular repair patches on the burst pressure of a gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzini, Pablo Gabriel; Otegui, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    Seven full scale hydrostatic burst tests were carried out on pipes extracted from an API 5LX52 gas pipeline that contained rectangular and elliptical fillet welded patches and other repairs of different geometries. All breaks took place after widespread yielding. This analysis shows that the patches that generate greater risks are those that: (1) were attached to the pipeline at very low pressure (2) were placed to repair large defects (3) are rectangular, long in the direction of the pipe, and narrow (4) the quality of the weld is doubtful. Based on data reported by In Line Inspection (ILI), of the four conditions mentioned above, only the third can be assessed in order to quantify risks and to schedule replacements

  18. Cost Minimization Model of Gas Transmission Line for Indonesian SIJ Pipeline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septoratno Siregar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of Indonesian SIJ gas pipeline network is being discussed here. Optimum pipe diameters together with the corresponding pressure distribution are obtained from minimization of total cost function consisting of investment and operating costs and subjects to some physical (Panhandle A and Panhandle B equations constraints. Iteration technique based on Generalized Steepest-Descent and fourth order Runge-Kutta method are used here. The resulting diameters from this continuous optimization are then rounded to the closest available discrete sizes. We have also calculated toll fee along each segment and safety factor of the network by determining the pipe wall thickness, using ANSI B31.8 standard. Sensitivity analysis of toll fee for variation of flow rates is shown here. The result will gives the diameter and compressor size and compressor location that feasible to use for the SIJ pipeline project. The Result also indicates that the east route cost relatively less expensive than the west cost.

  19. 77 FR 17119 - Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary Advisory Bulletin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... national attention and highlight the need for continued safety improvements to aging gas pipeline systems... 26, 1992) covering the continued use of cast iron pipe in natural gas distribution pipeline systems...

  20. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  1. Web-based continuous internal corrosion monitoring of a sweet natural gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchi, Sam; Vorozcovs, Andrew [Fiber Optic Systems Technology Inc. (FOX-TEK), Bedford, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Inspection of pipelines susceptible to internal corrosion is a key ingredient in maintaining their reliable throughput. While conventional inspection consisting of in line inspection, radiography and ultrasound remain the mainstay of most integrity programs, challenging circumstances in some cases make the availability of such data inadequate, cost prohibitive, and at times entirely unavailable. These scenarios include aggressive internal corrosion, expensive excavation conditions, low or stagnant flow, and non-piggable pipeline segments. While some gas pipelines in these circumstances are considered relatively low risk and low consequence, due to the significant reclamation costs and cleanup time associated with liquid pipelines, those areas identified as being high-risk are often high-consequence and thus require a specialized inspection solution. For areas deemed to be at high-risk, or areas of low-risk with high consequence, Electrical Field Mapping (EFM) has provided a practical solution to safe operation without introducing expensive and potentially dangerous dig programs. Historically, however, this inspection approach has required manual data acquisition as part of a scheduled EFM site visit schedule. Due to the tedious nature of this data acquisition approach, the remoteness of some pipeline inspection sites and the complexity of data analysis, it has been difficult to closely monitor the most critical assets on a continuous basis. The manual component of this approach also often eliminates EFM as a practical solution due to lack of properly trained personnel. In this paper, we will discuss a new approach to data acquisition where data is acquired, transmitted, analyzed, and displayed completely automatically and remotely with virtually no human overhead or recurring operating costs. An overview of the PinPoint monitoring setup covering 180 degrees of pipe circumference is described. This advanced EFM system allows operators to observe, essentially in real

  2. Optimal design of a gas transmission network: A case study of the Turkish natural gas pipeline network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Ersin Fatih

    Turkey is located between Europe, which has increasing demand for natural gas and the geographies of Middle East, Asia and Russia, which have rich and strong natural gas supply. Because of the geographical location, Turkey has strategic importance according to energy sources. To supply this demand, a pipeline network configuration with the optimal and efficient lengths, pressures, diameters and number of compressor stations is extremely needed. Because, Turkey has a currently working and constructed network topology, obtaining an optimal configuration of the pipelines, including an optimal number of compressor stations with optimal locations, is the focus of this study. Identifying a network design with lowest costs is important because of the high maintenance and set-up costs. The quantity of compressor stations, the pipeline segments' lengths, the diameter sizes and pressures at compressor stations, are considered to be decision variables in this study. Two existing optimization models were selected and applied to the case study of Turkey. Because of the fixed cost of investment, both models are formulated as mixed integer nonlinear programs, which require branch and bound combined with the nonlinear programming solution methods. The differences between these two models are related to some factors that can affect the network system of natural gas such as wall thickness, material balance compressor isentropic head and amount of gas to be delivered. The results obtained by these two techniques are compared with each other and with the current system. Major differences between results are costs, pressures and flow rates. These solution techniques are able to find a solution with minimum cost for each model both of which are less than the current cost of the system while satisfying all the constraints on diameter, length, flow rate and pressure. These results give the big picture of an ideal configuration for the future state network for the country of Turkey.

  3. Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG), in Bolivia. The development of a company and the construction of the pipeline in a regulated and competitive environment; Gasoducto Yacuiba - Rio Grande (GASYRG), in Bolivia - experiencias de la creacion de una empresa y de la construccion del gasoducto bajo las condiciones de un escenario competitivo e regulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de Oliveira; Montano, Jose Ruben [Transierra S.A. (Bolivia)

    2003-07-01

    In order to fulfill contractual agreements, three Bolivian companies decided to create Transierra S.A., a gas transportation company that would increase the gas transportation capacity from the gas fields, located in the Southern part of Bolivia. The overall objective was to build and operate a gas pipeline from Yacuiba to Rio Grande in time to comply with already agreed dates to star commercial operation. The creation of the company and the construction process were conducted in a highly competitive and regulated environment. Construction completion schedules were tight; therefore, under the previously mentioned scenario, the company implemented creative strategies to achieve its goals. (author)

  4. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  5. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  6. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna, E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.p [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  7. 76 FR 39864 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Dominion Gas Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ...\\ A ``pig'' is a tool that is inserted into and moves through the pipeline, and is used for cleaning....ferc.gov using the eLibrary link. A limited number of copies of the EA are available for distribution..., which is located on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov under the link to Documents and...

  8. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Distribution Pipeline Integrity Management (IM) § 192.1015 What must...

  9. Papers of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference : oil sands supply and infrastructure : labour supply, upgraders, transportation, pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this conference was on the development of the oil sands industry, with specific reference to issues concerning supply and infrastructure. Energy source development and transmission issues were discussed, as well as transportation systems. The impact of increased oil sands development on pipelines was also examined. Various fuel options were discussed, including the use of hydrogen, natural gas and alternate fuels in manufacturing and processing plants. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed. The environmental impact of increased oil sands activity was discussed, with specific reference to the Boreal regions. Management challenges in the oil sands industry were also discussed along with issues concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  11. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lavanya; G. Anand; S. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure var...

  12. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to the risks that hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines pose to the environment. In the Pipeline...

  13. Operator splitting method for simulation of dynamic flows in natural gas pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, Sergey A.; Zlotnik, Anatoly; Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Chertkov, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.

  14. Expert System for natural gas transportation network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da; Porciuncula, Gilson Simoes [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica Lab. de Sistemas Hidraulicos e Pneumaticos

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a project to integrate expert system and dynamic simulation of natural gas transportation network applying the concept of agents. Natural gas pipeline operation requires the intermittent analysis of hundreds interrelated operational parameters, which represent the network state. The combination of expert system and dynamic simulation is a synergic solution for this kind of problem. With expert system techniques, it is possible to implement rules that describe the relationship between current operational parameters and the network normal operational conditions based on heuristic knowledge. By applying such rules, the system aims to evaluate the real network state and to predict abnormal conditions via dynamic simulation, allowing time analysis of operational situation in advance. At the current stage, the project presents a well defined model. The process of knowledge acquisition and representation has taken place following an incremental approach, considered as development paradigm. The project objectives are to reduce costs, increase the reliability and organize pipeline operation and maintenance information. This work is part of SEGRED project established as partnership among LASHIP/UFSC, SCGAS, TBG and PETROBRAS. The project also received support from FINEP. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 192.65 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.65 Transportation of pipe. (a) Railroad...

  16. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G J; Watt, J S; Zastawny, H W [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  17. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  18. A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.B.; Ju, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process was proposed to liquefy natural gas by utilizing the pressure exergy. • The process is zero energy consumption. • The maximum liquefaction rate of the process is 12.61%. • The maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. • The economic analysis showed that the payback period of the process is quit short. - Abstract: A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction is designed and presented. The novel process can utilize the pressure exergy of the pipeline to liquefy a part of natural gas without any energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis including mass, energy balance and exergy analysis are adopted in this paper. The liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate are chosen as the objective functions. Several key parameters are optimized to approach the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate. The optimization results showed that the maximum liquefaction rate is 12.61% and the maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. What is more, the economic performances of the process are also discussed and compared by using the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate as indexes. In conclusion, the novel process is suitable for pressure exergy utilization due to its simplicity, zero energy consumption and short payback period

  19. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs

  20. Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point's position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  1. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  2. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate. PMID:22368464

  3. Pigging analysis for gas-liquid two phase flow in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, K.; Suzukawa, Y.; Furukawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to analyze transient phenomena caused by pigging in gas-liquid two-phase flow is developed. During pigging, a pipeline is divided into three sections by two moving boundaries, namely the pig and the leading edge of the liquid slug in front of the pig. The basic equations are mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The boundary conditions at the moving boundaries are determined from the mass conservation across the boundaries, etc. A finite difference method is used to solve the equations numerically. The method described above is also capable of analyzing transient two-phase flow caused by pressure and flow rate changes. Thus the over-all analysis of transient two-phase flow in pipelines becomes possible. A series of air-water two-phase flow pigging experiments was conducted using 105.3 mm diameter and 1436.5 m long test pipeline. The agreement between the measured and the calculated results is very good

  4. Determination of the longest permissible distance between expansion compensators in gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huening, R [Fachhochschule Muenster, Burgsteinfurt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik

    1977-01-01

    In order to effectively protect long-distance gas pipelines against mountain damage in the areas in which underground mining is done, expansion compensators must be built in at certain distances. The tests to determine the slippage resistance and the highest permissible distance of expanders Lsub(max) in a transmission line NW 600 having a plastic insulation are described in this work. In addition, a way of calculating the Lsub(max) value from the existing data for pipes of varying diameter and different insulating material is shown.

  5. Axisymmetric wave propagation in gas shear flow confined by a rigid-walled pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Huang Yi-Yong; Chen Xiao-Qian; Bai Yu-Zhu; Tan Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The axisymmetric acoustic wave propagating in a perfect gas with a shear pipeline flow confined by a circular rigid wall is investigated. The governing equations of non-isentropic and isentropic acoustic assumptions are mathematically deduced while the constraint of Zwikker and Kosten is relaxed. An iterative method based on the Fourier–Bessel theory is proposed to semi-analytically solve the proposed models. A comparison of numerical results with literature contributions validates the present contribution. Meanwhile, the features of some high-order transverse modes, which cannot be analyzed based on the Zwikker and Kosten theory, are analyzed (paper)

  6. The influence of the internal microbiome on the materials used for construction of the transmission natural gas pipelines in the Lodz Province

    OpenAIRE

    Staniszewska Agnieszka; Jastrzębska Magdalena; Ziemiński Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of gas microbes on the biocorrosion rate of the materials used for gas pipelines construction in the Lodz Province. Samples of two types of carbon steel and cast iron were stored in the laboratory pipeline model reflecting the real conditions of working natural gas pipelines were. In the next step the influence of cathodic protection with parameters recommended for protection of underground structures was tested. Analyses of biologica...

  7. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A.; Marks, Christopher R.; Stamps, Blake W.; Harriman, Brian H.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O32-, SO42-, and HS-). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  8. Design of Submarine Pipeline With Respect to Corrosion and Material Selection

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mogi, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology : subsea technology Pipelines are an essential part of the oil and gas industry as they are the main means of transportation. As the offshore technology advances, subsea pipelines are being operated in more demanding environments. For the pipelines to operate efficiently, they have to be carefully designed. One of the main threats to the integrity of the pipeline is corrosion, which has caused many failures. Corrosion in subsea pipelines has different...

  9. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  10. The political economy of trans-Pakistan gas pipeline project: assessing the political and economic risks for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing realisation among Indian policy makers to consider the import of natural gas to address India's growing energy demand. Among many policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long-term energy demands. Such a pipeline would have to traverse Pakistani territory thereby necessitating a role for Pakistan in the pipeline project. Though security guarantees have been offered, India refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for a fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of a military conflict with Pakistan. This paper argues that gas pipeline project is not only aimed at addressing India's energy concerns but also to further its strategic objectives. This paper contends that India, Iran and Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project a political and commercial reality. India's stakes in the overland pipeline project are high as India's economic interests in the pipeline project are not in congruence with the politico-economic and strategic objectives of Iran and Pakistan. (author)

  11. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  12. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales by intrastate... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any...

  13. Analytical modeling of pipeline failure in multiphase flow due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pipeline could be said to be the safest and the most economical means of transportation of hydrocarbon fluids. Pipelines carrying oil and gas may suffer from internal corrosion when water is present. The corrosivity varies due to several factors such as; temperature, total pressure, CO2 and H2S content in the gas, pH of the ...

  14. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  15. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  16. Monitoring internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Monitoracao da corrosao interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Ana C.V.; Silva, Djalma R.; Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, Andrea F.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the pipelines and equipment made in carbon steel and used by the natural gas, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, controlling failures for internal corrosion. Also, of that process it origins the black powder (solid particles) that can not commit the structural integrity of the equipment, but it can also bring the company other implications very serious, like quality of the sold product, as well as stops due to blockages and wastes for erosion of the equipment. The monitoring methodology and control of the corrosion in field consisted of the use of corrosion test equipment, chemical characterization of samples of black powder and liquids and analysis of the operational data of processes and plants. Like this, it was identified for the gas pipeline in analysis the most responsible parameters for the corrosive action of the fluid, establishing a controlling methodology and operational actions to maintain the corrosion rates at safe levels and structural warranty of the same. (author)

  17. Reliability centred maintenance of the cathodic protection system of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto, TBG, Bolivia-Brasil S.A (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the Reliability-Centred Maintenance study performed on the Cathodic Protection System of the Bolivia -Brazil Gas Pipeline. The Cathodic Protection installation for the north spread (from Corumba to Guararema, 1413 km) was commissioned in March 1999 and for the south spread (from Campinas to Porto Alegre, 1180 km) one year after. The protection against corrosion of the buried external surface of our gas pipeline is provided, primarily, by an high-efficient external coating, complemented by a impressed current cathodic protection system consisting of: - Forty-one rectifiers and respective anodes ground beds; - One solar panel and respective anodes ground beds; - Fifty-nine insulating joints and respective protective devices; - Nine hundred and ninety pipe-to-soil test stations; - Thirty-six pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices; - Forty-one electrical power feeder network to the rectifiers. The rectifiers/anodes ground beds are installed at each 50 km approximately, including the solar panel, and the pipe-to-soil test stations at each 2.5 km, under different environment conditions. The insulating joints and theirs protective devices are installed inside stations (launch and receive scrapers, compression and metering) and city-gates, as well, the pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices. The cathodic protection system and electrical power feeder network are inspected and maintained by a TBG third part Contractor.

  18. Membrane-Coated Electrochemical Sensor for Corrosion Monitoring in Natural Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beck

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors can be used for a wide range of online in- situ process monitoring applications. However, the lack of a consistent electrolyte layer has previously limited electrochemical monitoring in gas and supercritical fluid streams. A solid state sensor is being designed that uses an ion conducting membrane to perform conductivity and corrosion measurements in natural gas pipelines up to 1000 psi. Initial results show that membrane conductivity measurements can be correlated directly to water content down to dew points of 1°C with good linearity. Corrosion monitoring can also be performed using methods such as linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, though care must be taken in the electrode design to minimize deviation between sensors.

  19. Research on application of GIS and GPS in inspection and management of city gas pipeline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Meng, Xiangyin; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Fengpei

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems existing in the current Gas Company patrol management, such as inaccurate attendance, whether or not the patrol personnel exceed the scope of patrol inspection. This paper Proposed that we apply the SuperMap iDeskTop 8C plug-in desktop GIS application and development platform, the positioning function of GPS and the data transmission function of 3G/4G/GPRS/Ethernet to develop a gas pipeline inspection management system. We build association between real-time data, pipe network information, patrol data, map information, spatial data and so on to realize the bottom data fusion, use the mobile location system and patrol management client to achieve real-time interaction between the client and the mobile terminal. Practical application shows that the system has completed the standardized management of patrol tasks, the reasonable evaluation of patrol work and the maximum utilization of patrol resources.

  20. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)