WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas liquid products

  1. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  2. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  3. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid

  4. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  5. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Lei [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Yu, Yang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Meng, Xingbang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Sharma, Sharanya [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Huang, Siyuan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Shen, Ziqi [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhang, Yao [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wang, Xiukun [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Carey, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nguyen, Phong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mody, Fersheed [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, Warren [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Cook, Tim [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Griffith, Paul [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  6. Gas separation techniques with liquid Ar for production of 11C ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Satoru; Honma, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Yukio; Sugiura, Akinori; Suzuki, Naokata; Noda, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion cancer therapy with 12 C-beam has been carried out at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) since 1994. One of the feasibility study in HIMAC is to use a positron emitter beam such as 11 C-beam for the cancer therapy. A nuclear reaction, 14 N (p,α) 11 C will be applied in the present study; it can be expected to obtain a considerably large number of 11 C-particles by utilizing the commonly used short-lives RI production techniques for PET (Positron Emission Tomography). The amount of 11 C gas is limited in this technique. The 11 CO 2 gas was produced from N 2 gas that is irradiated high-energy proton beam. Therefore, CO 2 gas separation from N 2 gas is very important. The gas-separation techniques with cryogenic system utilizing a liquid Ar were tested by dummy gas (N 2 + 12 CO 2 ). Details of the gas-separation techniques and measurement of CO 2 partial pressure are discussed. (author)

  7. Liquid Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the origins of the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) industry the production and transportation of LNG are discussed. Special attention is paid to the importance of the safety aspect during every activity or handling of LNG. Next the most important trade flows for LNG are dealt with. Two zones can be distinguished: the western part of the Pacific and the Atlantic basin. Subsequently the main aspects of a LNG-project are mentioned, as well as the success factors. Finally the prospects for the LNG-industry are reviewed. 11 figs

  8. Ensuring full-capacity production in case of liquid loading in gas wells; Aufrechterhalten der Produktion aus verwaessernden Erdgasbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; Albrecht, I. [Schlumberger Holding GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Thurow, M. [ILF Consulting Engineers, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In the late production stages, water production from natural gas wells may become a problem that may require abandoning the well, thus losing valuable productive assets. In a joint project of organisations of the Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle, a status report was made in 2005, and best practice methods for dewatering natural gas wells were identified. This contribution presents some of the results: common methods for improved liquid unloading from natural gas wells, preconditions for their application, experience of the industries in this field, elements of the selection and planning process, and an outlook. (orig.)

  9. Syngas production for gas-to-liquids applications. Technologies, issues and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, D.J.; Simbeck, D.R.; Karp, A.D.; Dickenson, R.L. [SFA Pacific, Inc., 444 Castro St., Suite 720, 94041 Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    The main gas-to-liquids (GTL) interest now is in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons. While synthesis gas (syngas) for GTL can be produced from any carbon-based feedstock (hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum coke, biomass), the lowest cost routes to syngas so far are based on natural gas. Thus, the focus for GTL has been largely on associated gas, so-called stranded or remotely located gas reserves, and larger gas reserves that are not currently being economically exploited. The principal technologies for producing syngas from natural gas are: catalytic steam methane reforming (SMR), two-step reforming, autothermal reforming (ATR), partial oxidation (POX), and heat exchange reforming. The distinguishing characteristics of these technologies and their commercial uses are discussed in this paper. Ongoing R and D efforts to develop lower-cost syngas generation technologies are also briefly discussed.Relevant commercial experience with large-scale syngas generation for GTL is also discussed. As a frame of reference, in terms of syngas flow rates, a 20,000 b/day F-T plant would be comparable to three 2500 mt/day methanol plants. Single-train methanol plants are now producing more than 2500 t/day-and plants approaching 3000 mt/day have been announced. The projected relative economies of scale of the various syngas production technologies indicate that two-step reforming and ultimately, ATR, should be the technologies of choice for large-scale GTL plants. Nevertheless, for a 20,000 b/day F-T liquids plant, capital charges still dominate the manufacturing costs. Syngas production (oxygen plant and reforming) comprises half of the total capital cost of this size GTL plant. While air-blown reforming eliminates the expensive oxygen plant, air-blown reforming is unlikely to be competitive with, or offer the flexibility of, oxygen-blown reforming. The reasons for this conclusion are discussed.The proposed and future GTL facilities should be substantially less costly than

  10. Syngas production for gas-to-liquids applications. Technologies, issues and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, D.J.; Simbeck, D.R.; Karp, A.D.; Dickenson, R.L. [SFA Pacific, Inc., 444 Castro St., Suite 720, 94041 Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    The main gas-to-liquids (GTL) interest now is in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons. While synthesis gas (syngas) for GTL can be produced from any carbon-based feedstock (hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum coke, biomass), the lowest cost routes to syngas so far are based on natural gas. Thus, the focus for GTL has been largely on associated gas, so-called stranded or remotely located gas reserves, and larger gas reserves that are not currently being economically exploited. The principal technologies for producing syngas from natural gas are: catalytic steam methane reforming (SMR), two-step reforming, autothermal reforming (ATR), partial oxidation (POX), and heat exchange reforming. The distinguishing characteristics of these technologies and their commercial uses are discussed in this paper. Ongoing R and D efforts to develop lower-cost syngas generation technologies are also briefly discussed. Relevant commercial experience with large-scale syngas generation for GTL is also discussed. As a frame of reference, in terms of syngas flow rates, a 20,000 b/day F-T plant would be comparable to three 2500 mt/day methanol plants. Single-train methanol plants are now producing more than 2500 t/day-and plants approaching 3000 mt/day have been announced. The projected relative economies of scale of the various syngas production technologies indicate that two-step reforming and ultimately, ATR, should be the technologies of choice for large-scale GTL plants. Nevertheless, for a 20,000 b/day F-T liquids plant, capital charges still dominate the manufacturing costs. Syngas production (oxygen plant and reforming) comprises half of the total capital cost of this size GTL plant. While air-blown reforming eliminates the expensive oxygen plant, air-blown reforming is unlikely to be competitive with, or offer the flexibility of, oxygen-blown reforming. The reasons for this conclusion are discussed. The proposed and future GTL facilities should be substantially less costly

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  12. Evaporation release behavior of volatile fission products from liquid sodium pool to the inert cover gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, T; Miyahara, S [Oarai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oaraimachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In fuel failure of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, released volatile fission products (VFPs) such as iodine and cesium from the fuel will be dissolved into the liquid sodium coolant and transferred to the cover vaporization. In the cover gas system of the reactor, natural convection occurs due to temperature differences between the sodium pool and the gas phase. The release rates of VFPs together with sodium vaporization are considered to be controlled by the convection. In this study, three analytical models are developed and examined to calculate the transient release rates using the equilibrium partition coefficients of VFPs. The calculated release rates are compared with experimental results for sodium and sodium iodide. The release rate of sodium is closest to the calculation by the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The release rate of sodium iodide obtained from the experiment is between the release rates calculated by the model based on heat-and-mass transfer analogy and the Hill`s theory. From this study, it is confirmed that the realistic release rate of sodium is able to be calculated by the model based on the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The conservative release rate of sodium iodide is able to be calculated by the model based on the Hill`s theory using the equilibrium partition coefficient of sodium iodide. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  13. Analyses of one-step liquid hydrogen production from methane and landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Conventional liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) production consists of two basic steps: (1) gaseous hydrogen (GH{sub 2}) production via steam methane reformation followed by purification by means of pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and (2) GH{sub 2} liquefaction. LH{sub 2} produced by the conventional processes is not carbon neutral because of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission from PSA operation. A novel concept is herein presented and flowsheeted for LH{sub 2} production with zero carbon emission using methane (CH{sub 4}) or landfill gas as feedstock. A cryogenic process is used for both H{sub 2} separation/purification and liquefaction. This one-step process can substantially increase the efficiency and reduce costs because no PSA step is required. Furthermore, the integrated process results in no CO{sub 2} emissions and minimal H{sub 2} losses. Of the five flowsheets presented, one that combines low and high temperature CO/CH{sub 4} reforming reactions in a single reactor shows the highest overall efficiency with the first and second law efficiencies of 85% and 56%, respectively. The latter figure assumes 10% overall energy loss and 30% efficiency for the cryogenic process. (author)

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of thermal degradation products of common plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Pacakova, V.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The thermo-oxidation of five commonly used materials, namely low-density polyethylene, retarded polyethylene, paper with a polyethylene foil, a milk package and filled polypropylene, was studied. Capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the volatile degradation products, while high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results are discussed from the point of view of toxicity of the prod...

  15. Production of liquid nitrogen using liquefied natural gas as sole refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.; Ayres, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the liquefaction of a nitrogen stream produced by a cryogenic air separation unit having at least one distillation column. It comprises compressing the nitrogen stream to a pressure of at least 350 psi in a multi-stage compressor wherein interstage cooling is provided by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; condensing the compressed nitrogen stream by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; reducing the pressure of the condensed, compressed nitrogen stream thereby producing a two phase nitrogen stream; phase separating the two phase nitrogen stream into a liquid nitrogen stream and a nitrogen vapor stream; and warming the nitrogen vapor stream to recover refrigeration

  16. Unstable well behaviour in gas well liquid loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wijhe, A. van

    2017-01-01

    Liquid loading is the mechanism that is associated with increased liquid hold-up and liquid back flow at lower gas flow rates in gas production wells. In laboratory, most liquid loading experiments are performed at fixed gas and liquid rates (mass flow controlled). In the field, the well behavior is

  17. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  18. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  19. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  20. Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, A.; Al-Kassir, A.; Cuadros, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [School of Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. De Elva, s/n, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Mohamad, A.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestion of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain). The experiments were performed using a 2 l capacity discontinuous digester at 38 C. The loading rate were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 g COD for wastewater (washing water and blood; Mixture 1), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g COD for the co-digestion of a mixture of 97% liquid effluent and 3% solid wastes v/v (Mixture 2) which represents the annual mean composition of the waste generated by the slaughterhouse. The maximal biodegradation rates obtained were: Mixture 1, 56.9% for a COD load of 1 g; and Mixture 2, 19.1% for a COD load of 2 g. For both mixtures, the greatest methane production was for the maximum COD load (4.5 g for Mixture 1, and 4 g for Mixture 2), at which values the amounts of methane obtained during and at the end of the co-digestion were practically indistinguishable between the two mixtures. The results will be used to design, construct, and establish the optimal operating conditions of a continuous complete-mixture biodigester. (author)

  1. Natural gas liquids: market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1996-01-01

    Future market outlook for natural gas liquids was discussed. It was shown that Canadian natural gas and natural gas liquid (NGL) production levels have experienced extraordinary growth over the past few years due to an increased U.S. demand for Canadian natural gas. Recent supply and demand studies have indicated that there will be growing surpluses of NGLs in Canada. By 1996, the majority of NGL surplus that is forecast to be available is ethane (64%), followed by propane (22%), butane (12%) and pentane plus (2%). Throughout the forecast period, the ratio of incremental ethane to the total NGL surplus, over and above forecast demand, was expected to continue to rise. The viability of producing and processing that ethane and transporting it to market, will be crucial. Development of a large ex-Alberta C2+ pipeline from Empress to Mont Belvieu under the reference case supply projection is a possibility, but only if total tariff and fractionation charge on the line is less than or equal to 10 US cents/USG (currently 16-22 US cents/USG). 11 figs

  2. Quantification of liquid products from the electroreduction of CO2 and CO using static headspace-gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Abghoui, Younes; Jovanov, Zarko P.

    2017-01-01

    Static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) useful for ex-situ liquid product analysis. Could complement high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. Particularly high sensitivity towards compounds with high vapor pressure. Detection limits below 0.5μM were shown for acetaldehyde...

  3. Gas-to-liquid technologies: India's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Keshav, Tirupati; Basu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technologies are capable of converting gas to clean, useful liquid hydrocarbons and thus suitable for addressing problems of remote gas utilization, increase in crude oil price, depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution. The Indian state of Tripura is considered to be the richest province with 26 billion cubic meters of gas reserves. Neighboring country Myanmar has huge gas reserves but these reserves remain unutilized mainly because of land-locked situation. GTL is a well developed and proven technology and it is an important option for moving natural gas to the market place. GTL options include not only the well-known production of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquids but also the production of oxygen containing fuels, fuel additives and chemicals, such as methanol and DME. An alternative, promising option to convert surplus gas is the direct route of methane conversion, which is more energy efficient than the indirect route since it bypasses the energy intensive endothermic steam reforming step of syngas formation. On-site conversion to liquid products of commercial importance using direct route would make transportation of these natural deposits much more economical and practical. In this paper an attempt has been made to review recent developments in syngas technologies, direct routes of methane conversion into useful liquids, and status of both existing and future developments in GTL industry around the world. Finally challenges in GTL technology are discussed. (author)

  4. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  5. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Odebunmi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  6. Gas/liquid flow configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Jacques; Fitremann, J.-M.

    1978-01-01

    Prediction of flow configurations (morphology) for gas/liquid or liquid/vapour mixtures is an important industrial problem which is not yet fully understood. The ''Flow Configurations'' Seminar of Societe Hydrotechnique de France has framed recommendations for investigation of potential industrial applications for flow configurations [fr

  7. Economics of gas to liquids manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The last year has seen a great deal in the literature about the rebirth of gas to liquids processes, most notably, Fischer Tropsch processes. This renewed interest has been brought about by a technology that is said to have been so improved that it is now a commercially attractive option for natural gas monetization. No one single reason can be cited for this positive economic change. Rather, it is the result of several technological improvements that together have cut the capital cost of Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids projects in half. Among these technological improvements are lower cost syngas preparation and lower cost gas to liquids reactors. This paper examines the economics of Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids manufacture, using recent literature articles to develop process capital costs, operating expenses, liquid product value parameters, and other economic factors, to paint a general picture of the technology's current economic status. While manufacturing economics are reviewed, the answer to the question of gas to liquids project profitability is left to the individual investor whose economic thresholds must, in the final analysis, be met. 15 refs

  8. Development of a gas-liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of fatty acid tryptamides in cocoa products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Bernadette; Golay, Pierre-Alain; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2006-05-03

    The determination of the occurrence and level of cocoa shells in cocoa products and chocolate is an important analytical issue. The recent European Union directive on cocoa and chocolate products (2000/36/EC) has not retained the former limit of a maximum amount of 5% of cocoa shells in cocoa nibs (based on fat-free dry matter), previously authorized for the elaboration of cocoa products such as cocoa mass. In the present study, we report a reliable gas-liquid chromatography procedure suitable for the determination of the occurrence of cocoa shells in cocoa products by detection of fatty acid tryptamides (FATs). The precision of the method was evaluated by analyzing nine different samples (cocoa liquors with different ranges of shells) six times (replicate repeatability). The variations of the robust coefficient of variation of the repeatability demonstrated that FAT(C22), FAT(C24), and total FATs are good markers for the detection of shells in cocoa products. The trueness of the method was evaluated by determining the FAT content in two spiked matrices (cocoa liquors and cocoa shells) at different levels (from 1 to 50 mg/100 g). A good relation was found between the results obtained and the spiking (recovery varied between 90 and 130%), and the linearity range was established between 1 and 50 mg/100 g in cocoa products. For total FAT contents of cocoa liquor containing 5% shells, the measurement uncertainty allows us to conclude that FAT is equal to 4.01 +/- 0.8 mg/100 g. This validated method is perfectly suitable to determine shell contents in cocoa products using FAT(C22), FAT(C24), and total FATs as markers. The results also confirmed that cocoa shells contain FAT(C24) and FAT(C22) in a constant ratio of nearly 2:1.

  9. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  10. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  11. Gas Enrichment at Liquid-Wall Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammer, S.M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid,

  12. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Containing Nanoparticles on Alumina A Potential Catalyst for Gas to Liquid Fuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Jonathan; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2016-01-01

    Fisher-Tröpsch synthesis (FTS) is a century-old gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology that commonly employs cobalt (Co, on an oxide support) or iron (supported or not) species catalysts. It has been well established that the activity of the Co catalyst depends directly upon the number of surface Co atoms. The addition of promoter (mainly noble) metals has been widely utilized to increase the fraction of Co that is available for surface catalysis. Direct synthesis of Co nanoparticles is a possible alternative approach; our preliminary synthesis and characterization efforts are described. Materials were characterized by various transmission microscopies and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and dicobalt octacarbonyl were heated under argon to a temperature of 180 deg with constant stirring for 1 hr. Quenching the reaction in toluene produced Co-containing nanoparticles with a diameter of 5 to 10 nm. Alternatively, an alumina support (SBA-200 Al2O3) was added; the reaction was further stirred and the temperature was decreased to 140 deg to reduce the rate of further growth/ripening of the nucleated Co nanoparticles. A typical size of Co-containing NPs was also found to be in the range of 5 to 10 nm. This can be contrasted with a range of 50 to 200 nm for conventionally-produced Co-Al2O3 Fischer-Tröpsch catalysts. This method shows great potential for production of highly dispersed catalysts that are either supported or unsupported.

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  16. Gas-liquid reactor / separator: dynamics and operability characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranade, V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed to simulate gas¿liquid reactor in which both, reactants as well as products enter or leave the reactor in gas phase while the reactions take place in liquid phase. A case of first-order reaction (isothermal) was investigated in detail using the dynamic

  17. The release code package REVOLS/RENONS for fission product release from a liquid sodium pool into an inert gas atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starflinger, J.; Scholtyssek, W.; Unger, H.

    1994-12-01

    For aerosol source term considerations in the field of nuclear safety, the investigation of the release of volatile and non-volatile species from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere is important. In case of a hypothetical liquid metal fast breeder reactor accident with tank failure, primary coolant sodium with suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products may be released into the containment. The computer code package REVOLS/RENONS, based on a theoretical mechanistic model with a modular structure, has been developed for the prediction of sodium release as well as volatile and non-volatile radionuclide release from a liquid pool surface into the inert gas atmosphere of the inner containment. Hereby the release of sodium and volatile fission products, like cesium and sodium iodide, is calculated using a theoretical model in a mass transfer coefficient formulation. This model has been transposed into the code version REVOLS.MOD1.1, which is discussed here. It enables parameter analysis under highly variable user-defined boundary conditions. Whereas the evaporative release of the volatile components is governed by diffusive and convective transport processes, the release of the non-volatile ones may be governed by mechanical processes which lead to droplet entrainment from the wavy pool surface under conditions of natural or forced convection into the atmosphere. The mechanistic model calculates the liquid entrainment rate of the non-volatile species, like the fission product strontium oxide and the fuel (uranium dioxide) from a liquid pool surface into a parallel gas flow. The mechanistic model has been transposed into the computer code package REVOLS/RENONS, which is discussed here. Hereby the module REVOLS (RElease of VOLatile Species) calculates the evaporative release of the volatile species, while the module RENONS (RElease of NON-Volatile Species) computes the entrainment release of the non-volatile radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Prcontinuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Rapid analysis of ethanol and water in commercial products using ionic liquid capillary gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detection and/or barrier discharge ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Woods, Ross M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-02-26

    Analysis of ethanol and water in consumer products is important in a variety of processes and often is mandated by regulating agencies. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of ethanol and water that is simple, accurate, precise, rapid, and cost-effective is demonstrated. This approach requires no internal standard for the quantitation of both ethanol and water at any/all levels in commercial products. Ionic liquid based gas chromatography (GC) capillary columns are used to obtain a fast analysis with high selectivity and resolution of water and ethanol. Typical run times are just over 3 min. Examination of the response range of water and ethanol with GC, thermal conductivity detection (TCD), and barrier ionization detection (BID) is performed. Quantitation of both ethanol and water in consumer products is accomplished with both TCD and BID GC detectors using a nonlinear calibration. Validation of method accuracy is accomplished by using standard reference materials.

  2. Gas-liquid contacting in mixing vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    This report by Dr. R. Mann of UMIST presents a critical survey of literature on the contacting of gases with liquids in stirred vessels. Research undertaken in the last fifteen years in analysed, and promising areas for future research are identified. The report deals with physical contacting, mass transfer between the gas and liquid phases and the utilisation of the stirred vessel as a gas-liquid reactor. Three sections are given on gas-liquid contacting: physical aspects; interphase mass transfer; and chemical reactions. It also discusses recent new approaches and includes a summary of conclusions, nomenclature and references

  3. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  4. Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, Rizwan

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. L...

  5. Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.; Hashemi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows

  6. Gas-to-liquids : who cares?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakobson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology was presented along with its capital costs, economics and market niche. GTL technology is a process developed by Fischer-Tropsch in the 1920s, in which carbonaceous feedstock is catalytically converted into synthetic oil. The feedstock can be natural gas, coal, or refinery bottoms, bitumen, Orimulsion TM or biomass. The process involves the making of a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and then feeding that mixture into a reactor containing a catalyst. The last step involves the processing of the synthetic oil into fractions for sale. The issue of whether GTL will compete with refinery production or supplement it was also raised. The potential for GTL projects in North America were reviewed. The five companies which have matured GTL technologies are Exxon, Rentech, Sasol, Shell and Syntroleum

  7. Gas To Liquids Technology: A Futuristic View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Shamy, A A [Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Opr. Development Depart., P.O No. 11742, Cairo (Egypt); Zayed, A M [Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Quality Control Department, P.O No. 11742, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide efforts aimed to the formulation of environment friendly diesel fuels able to meet the advanced fuel specifications of the 21 st century and able to meet the global demand on diesel fuels. Synthetically derived gas to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel promises to meet these challenges and spearhead the way to the future. This technology will produce almost zero sulfur, high cetane, low aromatic diesel and naphtha which will be sold regionally and internationally. GTL fuel is cleaner than any conventional fuel which will help the environment. It can be used in conventional diesel engines to give reductions in emission levels. Construction of such technology will reduce the gap between production and consumption by maximizing the gross profitability of natural gas.

  8. Gas To Liquids Technology: A Futuristic View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shamy, A.A; Zayed, A.M

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide efforts aimed to the formulation of environment friendly diesel fuels able to meet the advanced fuel specifications of the 21 st century and able to meet the global demand on diesel fuels. Synthetically derived gas to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel promises to meet these challenges and spearhead the way to the future. This technology will produce almost zero sulfur, high cetane, low aromatic diesel and naphtha which will be sold regionally and internationally. GTL fuel is cleaner than any conventional fuel which will help the environment. It can be used in conventional diesel engines to give reductions in emission levels. Construction of such technology will reduce the gap between production and consumption by maximizing the gross profitability of natural gas

  9. Production and correlation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in gas- and liquid-phase generated by helium plasma jets under different pulse widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Chunxi; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Dehui; Xia, Wenjie; Cui, Qingjie; Wang, Bingchuan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of the pulse width (PW) on the plasma jet's discharge characteristics, particularly focusing on the production and correlation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in gas- and liquid-phase. It is found that the length of plasma jet plume first increases before the PW of 10 μs, then gradually decreases and finally almost remains unchanged beyond 150 μs. The plasma bullet disappears after the falling edge of the voltage pulse at low PW, while it terminates far ahead of the falling edge of voltage pulse at high PW. This is mainly attributed to accumulation of space charges that lead to weakening of the reduced electric field with an increase of PW from low to high. More important, it is found that the excited reactive species, the positive and negative ions from plasma jet, and the concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in deionized water exposed to plasma jet also display the first increasing and then decreasing change trend with increase of PW, while the concentration of H2O2 in water almost displays the linearly increasing trend. This mainly results from the formation of the H3O+ and HO2-, as well as their ion water clusters that can produce more OH radicals to be converted into H2O2, while the NO2- and NO3- in gas phase can transport into water and exist most stably in water. The water cluster formation at gas-liquid interface is an important key process that can affect the chemical nature and dose of aqueous RONS in water; this is beneficial for understanding how the RONS are formed in liquid-phase.

  10. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  11. Gas-Liquid Precipitation of water dissolved heavy metal ions using hydrogen sulfide gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Tarazi, M.Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation of solids promoted by gas-liquid reactions is applied in many industrial processes such as the production of ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, barium carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, ypsum (calcium sulphate), goethite, sodium bicarbonate, strontium carbonate and

  12. Cavitation in gas-saturated liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooze, J.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillating gas bubbles can be created in a liquid by exposing it to ultrasound. These gas bubbles implode if the sound pressure is high enough. This process is called cavitation. Interesting phenomena take place during the collapse. The gas and vapour inside the bubble are compressed and reach

  13. Stabilized ultrathin liquid membranes for gas separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetz, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although immobilized liquid membranes have the desirable properties of high selectivity and permeability, their practical application to gas phase separations is hindered because of the instability of the liquid phase and the relative thickness of current membranes. The problem of liquid instability, which is due to both liquid volatilization and flooding, can be reduced, or eliminated, by immobilizing the liquid phase in pores small enough to significantly reduce the molar free energy of the solution via the Kelvin effect. The obstacle of membrane thickness can be overcome by selectively immobilizing the liquid phase into the skin of a porous asymmetric membranes

  14. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...... processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures...

  15. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of thermal degradation products of common plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacakova, V.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The thermo-oxidation of five commonly used materials, namely low-density polyethylene, retarded polyethylene, paper with a polyethylene foil, a milk package and filled polypropylene, was studied. Capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the volatile

  17. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  18. On-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography: A novel approach for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Wocheslander, Stefan; Lander, Vera; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-29

    A novel methodology for the automated qualitative and quantitative determination of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods via on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) was established. The approach is based on the LC pre-separation of acetylated phytosterols and their corresponding oxides using silica as stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/isopropanol as eluent. Two LC-fractions containing (i) 5,6-epoxy- and 7-hydroxyphytosterols, and (ii) 7-ketophytosterols are transferred on-line to the GC for the analysis of their individual compositions on a medium polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane capillary column. Thus, conventionally employed laborious off-line purification and enrichment steps can be avoided. Validation data, including recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method, were elaborated using an enriched margarine as example. The margarine was subjected to a heating procedure in order to exemplarily monitor the formation of phytosterol oxidation products. Quantification was performed using on-line LC-GC-FID, identification of the analytes was based on on-line LC-GC-MS. The developed approach offers a new possibility for the reliable and fast analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of gas entrainment into liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, T., E-mail: t.vogt@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Boden, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Andruszkiewicz, A. [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Eckert, K. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present liquid metal experiments dedicated to gas entrainment on the free surface. • Ultrasonic and X-ray attenuation techniques have been used to study the mechanisms of gas entrainment. • A comparison between bubbly flow in water and GaInSn showed substantial differences. • Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation. - Abstract: Entrainment of cover gas into the liquid metal coolant is one of the principal safety issues in the design of innovative liquid metal-cooled fast reactors. We present generic experimental studies of this phenomenon in low-melting metals. Ultrasonic and X-ray diagnostic tools were considered for a visualization of gas entrainment at the free surface of the melt. Laboratory experiments were conducted using the eutectic alloy GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature. Vortex-activated entrainment of air at the free surface of a rotating flow was revealed by ultrasonic techniques. X-ray radioscopy was used to visualize the behavior of argon bubbles inside a slit geometry. The measurements reveal distinct differences between water and GaInSn, especially with respect to the process of bubble formation and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles. Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation.

  20. Desorption of trihalomethanes in gas liquid contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quesada, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Updated studies show that gastric cancer is related with the existence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water. The trihalomethanes are sub products from the degradation of humic acids and your reaction with chlorine and bromine used like decontaminates. The desorption process is used to eliminate the THMs with air in contact with the water. The experimental design was used in three contactors. The contactors selected were: the bubbling's column, the packed column and the shaken tank without screen. There were selected three variable: initial concentration of THMs, the residence time and the turbulence degree (measured with the Reynolds number). The concentrations were made with a gas chromatograph. The objective of this project is to do a comparison with the gas liquid contactors more used in the industrial level to determinate which ones are the best in the desorption process. The conclusion of the experimental design is that the tank is the equipment with the best capacity to eliminate THMs. Too it includes other techniques to eliminate THMs of the water and your treatment [es

  1. Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2011-04-01

    This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Sadeghi; Reza Valizadeh; Abasali naserian; Abdolmansoor Tahmasebi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for the...

  3. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  4. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  5. Pump Propels Liquid And Gas Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Demler, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Design for pump that handles mixtures of liquid and gas efficiently. Containing only one rotor, pump is combination of centrifuge, pitot pump, and blower. Applications include turbomachinery in powerplants and superchargers in automobile engines. Efficiencies lower than those achieved in separate components. Nevertheless, design is practical and results in low consumption of power.

  6. Adiabatic gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.

    1982-01-01

    The author starts by discussing the gas-fluidic mixture, its application and its special characteristics. The conservation theorems for these mixtures are then presented, including the continuity equation, the impulse equation, and energy balance. The type of flow in vertical channels, vertical downwards flow and flow in horizontal and inclined tubes is discussed followed by a short section on local volumetric steam contents and slip. The expressions for the slip and for the local volumetric steam contents are explained before discussing phase separation in nonflowing fluids. Pressure loss in tubes and channels is followed by discussion of pressure loss in various types of moulded bodies with particular reference to fuel rod bundles. In conclusion the author discusses pressure wave expansion, critical discharge and cross exchange in sub-divided channels. (A.N.K.)

  7. Microwave plasma for hydrogen production from liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czylkowski Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen production by conversion of liquid compounds containing hydrogen was investigated experimentally. The waveguide-supplied metal cylinder-based microwave plasma source (MPS operated at frequency of 915 MHz at atmospheric pressure was used. The decomposition of ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene was performed employing plasma dry reforming process. The liquid was introduced into the plasma in the form of vapour. The amount of vapour ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 kg/h. Carbon dioxide with the flow rate ranged from 1200 to 2700 NL/h was used as a working gas. The absorbed microwave power was up to 6 kW. The effect of absorbed microwave power, liquid composition, liquid flow rate and working gas fl ow rate was analysed. All these parameters have a clear influence on the hydrogen production efficiency, which was described with such parameters as the hydrogen production rate [NL(H2/h] and the energy yield of hydrogen production [NL(H2/kWh]. The best achieved experimental results showed that the hydrogen production rate was up to 1116 NL(H2/h and the energy yield was 223 NL(H2 per kWh of absorbed microwave energy. The results were obtained in the case of isopropanol dry reforming. The presented catalyst-free microwave plasma method can be adapted for hydrogen production not only from ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene, but also from different other liquid compounds containing hydrogen, like gasoline, heavy oils and biofuels.

  8. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  9. Huff 'n puff to revaporize liquid dropout in an Omani gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wadhahi, M.; Boukadi, F.H.; Al-Bemani, A.; Al-Maamari, R.; Al-Hadrami, H. [Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khod 123 (Oman)

    2007-01-15

    In this study, Huff 'n Puff technique is used as a production mechanism to revaporize liquid dropout in the Saih Rawl retrograde condensate gas field, Oman. During the huff cycle, a number of wells were shut in to achieve revaporization. The same wells were put on stream, during the puff cycle. Liquid dropout induced a mechanical skin around the wellbore and hampered gas production capabilities but has been revaporized through pressurization. The pressure buildup in the rich-gas condensate reservoir was due to a cross flow originating from a deeper highly pressurized lean-gas bearing formation. The pressure communication was taking place through the wellbore during shut-in cycles. A compositional simulation model was used to confirm the theory of condensate revaporization. Simulation results indicated that Huff 'n Puff is a viable production technique. The technique improved gas deliverability and enhanced gas-liquid production by minimizing the skin caused by gas-liquid dropout. (author)

  10. Liquid petroleum gas fracturing fluids for unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Watkins, H.; Attaway, D. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S.; Wilson, L. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented details of a gelled liquid petroleum gas (LPG) based fracturing fluid designed to address phase trapping concerns by replacing water with a mixture of LPG and a volatile hydrocarbon fluid. The system eliminates the need for water, which is a growing concern in terms of its availability. In the application process, up to 100 per cent gelled LPG is used for the pad and flush. Sand slurry stages are comprised of a mixture of up to 90 per cent LPG, with the balance of the volume being a volatile hydrocarbon base fluid. The fluid system is not adversely affected by shear, which ensures that acceptable fluid rheology is delivered. Viscosity can be adjusted during the treatment because the surfactant gellant and crosslinker are run in a 1:1 ratio and have good tolerance to concentration variations. The application ratio also allows for fast and accurate visual checks on amounts pumped during the treatment. A portion of the LPG in the fluid can be reproduced as a gas, while the remaining LPG is dissolved in the hydrocarbon fluid and is produced back as a miscible mixture through the use of a methane drive mechanism. Clean-up is facilitated by eliminating water and having LPG as up to 80-90 per cent of the total fluid system, even when wells have low permeability and reservoir pressure. However, LPG and optimized base oils are more expensive than other fluids. It was concluded that the higher costs of the system can be recovered through eliminating the need for swabbing, coiled tubing and nitrogen. Higher final stabilized productions rates may also offset initial costs. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Gas-Liquid Separator design of SWRPRS in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung; Lee, Tae-ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There is the Sodium-Water Reaction Pressure Relief System (SWRPRS) in PGSFR to prevent the Sodium- Water Reaction (SWR) due to the break of the steam generator tube. The piping to atmosphere includes several components such as gasliquid separator, backpressure rupture disk, and hydrogen igniter. Among these components, gas-liquid separator separates the liquid sodium which is included in gas SWR products not to react sodium and air. In this study, the size of gas-liquid separator, which is based on the hydrogen volume which is exhausted in the sodium dump tank, is determined. To determine the gas-liquid separator for the separation of gas and sodium particle dumped the SDT, Stairmand's model which has high performance among standard cyclone separator models is selected. The body diameter is determined, and other dimensions are determined due to the ratio about the body diameter. Shepherd and Lapple's model is selected as the pressure drop calculation model considering the conservation.

  12. Effects of gas liquid ratio on the atomization characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Zhang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Peng

    2018-05-01

    To understand the atomization characteristics and atomization mechanism of the gas-liquid swirl coaxial (GLSC) injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of gas liquid ratio (GLR) on the spray pattern, Sauter mean diameter (SMD), diameter-velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the atomization of the GLSC injector is dominated by the film breakup when the GLR is small, and violent gas-liquid interaction when the GLR is large enough. The film breakup dominated spray can be divided into gas acceleration region and film breakup region while the violent gas-liquid interaction dominated spray can be divided into the gas acceleration region, violent gas-liquid interaction region and big droplets breakup region. The atomization characteristics of the GLSC injector is significantly influenced by the GLR. From the point of atomization performance, the increase of GLR has positive effects. It decreases the global Sauter mean diameter (GSMD) and varies the SMD distribution from a hollow cone shape (GLR = 0) to an inverted V shape, and finally slanted N shape. However, from the point of spatial distribution, the increase of GLR has negative effects, because the mass flow rate distribution becomes more nonuniform.

  13. Canadian natural gas liquids : market outlook 2000 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, L.; Mortensen, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the availability of Canadian natural gas liquids. The analysis was developed from production profiles and gas compositions for individual gas pools and takes into account the effects of market factors. On the demand side, the effects of new infrastructure and changes in corporate structures have been evaluated. The study was initiated at a time when energy prices were stable and the major concern was to see how the addition of the Alliance pipeline, the Aux Sable gas processing plant, the Empress V straddle plant and the Nova/UCC E3 ethylene plant would affect the Canadian liquids business. The study was complicated by the advent of unexpected factors affecting the supply and demand of natural gas liquids (NGLs). These included extremely high prices for natural gas, an apparent inability of the supply basin to respond to the high gas prices with increased supply, and the very high electricity costs in Alberta. The weak supply of NGLs coincides with the increase in ethane demand from the start-up of Alberta's fourth ethylene facility and the addition of the high vapour pressure Alliance pipeline. This weak supply suggests there will be an ethane shortage for at least the next few years. The longer term outlook, however, is less certain and will require an analysis of the outlook for gas production, gas composition and NGL extraction capacity. This study developed two forecasts for natural gas prices. Both presume rising gas demand across North America driven by increased gas use for power generation. The Low Case assumes modest growth in domestic Canadian gas demand and the High case predicts strong growth in domestic demand as higher levels of exports to the United States, resulting in a doubling in growth for Canadian gas production from 2000-2015 compared to the Low Case. Both High and Low Case scenarios suggest that prices will decline from current levels so that Alberta plant gate prices fall by 2005 and will then

  14. Canadian natural gas liquids : market outlook 2000 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, L.; Mortensen, P.

    2001-04-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the availability of Canadian natural gas liquids. The analysis was developed from production profiles and gas compositions for individual gas pools and takes into account the effects of market factors. On the demand side, the effects of new infrastructure and changes in corporate structures have been evaluated. The study was initiated at a time when energy prices were stable and the major concern was to see how the addition of the Alliance pipeline, the Aux Sable gas processing plant, the Empress V straddle plant and the Nova/UCC E3 ethylene plant would affect the Canadian liquids business. The study was complicated by the advent of unexpected factors affecting the supply and demand of natural gas liquids (NGLs). These included extremely high prices for natural gas, an apparent inability of the supply basin to respond to the high gas prices with increased supply, and the very high electricity costs in Alberta. The weak supply of NGLs coincides with the increase in ethane demand from the start-up of Alberta's fourth ethylene facility and the addition of the high vapour pressure Alliance pipeline. This weak supply suggests there will be an ethane shortage for at least the next few years. The longer term outlook, however, is less certain and will require an analysis of the outlook for gas production, gas composition and NGL extraction capacity. This study developed two forecasts for natural gas prices. Both presume rising gas demand across North America driven by increased gas use for power generation. The Low Case assumes modest growth in domestic Canadian gas demand and the High case predicts strong growth in domestic demand as higher levels of exports to the United States, resulting in a doubling in growth for Canadian gas production from 2000-2015 compared to the Low Case. Both High and Low Case scenarios suggest that prices will decline from current levels so that Alberta plant gate prices fall by 2005 and will

  15. Gas flow headspace liquid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Qiu, Jinxue; Ren, Chunyan; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Xifeng; Wu, Xue; Li, Donghao

    2009-11-06

    There is a trend towards the use of enrichment techniques such as microextraction in the analysis of trace chemicals. Based on the theory of ideal gases, theory of gas chromatography and the original headspace liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) technique, a simple gas flow headspace liquid phase microextraction (GF-HS-LPME) technique has been developed, where the extracting gas phase volume is increased using a gas flow. The system is an open system, where an inert gas containing the target compounds flows continuously through a special gas outlet channel (D=1.8mm), and the target compounds are trapped on a solvent microdrop (2.4 microL) hanging on the microsyringe tip, as a result, a high enrichment factor is obtained. The parameters affecting the enrichment factor, such as the gas flow rate, the position of the microdrop, the diameter of the gas outlet channel, the temperatures of the extracting solvent and of the sample, and the extraction time, were systematically optimized for four types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results were compared with results obtained from HS-LPME. Under the optimized conditions (where the extraction time and the volume of the extracting sample vial were fixed at 20min and 10mL, respectively), detection limits (S/N=3) were approximately a factor of 4 lower than those for the original HS-LPME technique. The method was validated by comparison of the GF-HS-LPME and HS-LPME techniques using data for PAHs from environmental sediment samples.

  16. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  17. Aerospace gas/liquid separator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The space gas/liquid separator, a key component in the heat transport subsystem of a space reactor power system, was developed to remove helium gas from liquid lithium in zero gravity. Helium is generated from lithium irradiation in the reactor core and would reach saturation in lithium after 48 hours of full power operations. The gas/liquid separator is also applicable for large commercial powerplants to deaerate the water before and after the feedwater heaters. Another terrestrial application is for industrial companies to use the gas/liquid separator and wet chemistry to remove all the gases from the air and only discharge clean air to the atmosphere. An additional application that resulted from this gas/liquid separator technology, was separating liquid carbon dioxide from nitrogen. This application is opposite from the space application in that it is removing a liquid from a gas rather than a gas from a liquid

  18. Technological innovations to development remote gas reserves: gas-to-liquids; Inovacoes tecnologicas no desenvolvimento de reservas remotas de gas natural: gas-to-liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Berenice D. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Falabella, Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The GTL - gas to liquids technology was born in Germany, after the 20's with the goal to product liquid fuel from coal to supply the bellicose and domestic demand. The grow of the petroleum industry lead the world to the forgiveness of the GTL technology, except in South Africa. In the last two decades the number of news natural gas reserves and the perspectives of the increase demand from natural gas for the next 20 years change this scenario. Nearly 60% of this reserves are calling stranded or remote, meaning reserves which can't produce with conventional technologies (logistics and economics barriers). So, the oil and gas industry restart to analyze the economics and applicability of the GTL technology. The competitively and applicability of this technology were evaluated and compared to the traditional way of natural gas transport, as well as the solidification of the new environmental rules and the creation of niche to this kind of fuel - the cleans ones - seams the cause of this changes in the oil and gas industries. Which began to adjust to all this news rules and conditions, as show in the sum of investments in R and D area. So, is in this new scenario that the reappear of GTL technology is consider has a technological innovation. (author)

  19. Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Baba, K.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we have succeeded in creating the static and stable gas (plasmas)-liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field using a direct current discharge under a low gas pressure condition. It is clarified that the ionic liquid works as a nonmetal liquid electrode, and furthermore, a secondary electron emission coefficient of the ionic liquid is larger than that of conventional metal electrodes. The plasma potential structure of the gas-liquid interfacial region, and resultant interactions between the plasma and the ionic liquid are revealed by changing a polarity of the electrode in the ionic liquid. By utilizing the ionic liquid as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma region are found to be irradiated to the ionic liquid. This ion irradiation causes physical and chemical reactions at the gas-liquid interfacial region without the vaporization of the ionic liquid.

  20. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  1. Continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow synthesis of 4-fluoropyrazole derivatives by selective direct fluorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Breen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials.

  2. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  3. Forecasting: Canada's NGL [natural gas liquids] supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A perspective is given on Canada's supply and demand balance of ethane, propane, and butane, and Canada's participation in meeting the expected increases in United States import requirements. Increases in Canadian natural gas liquids (NGL) supply depends on increases in natural gas production. Since new production (except for the Shell Caroline gas discovery) is tending to have lower yields of liquids, NGL supply will not increase as much as the increase in natural gas production. Nearly 50% of Canadian NGLs are produced in straddle plants located at the inlet of gas transmission lines. Surpluses of ethane and high capital costs means that new straddle plants will not be built in the near future, but expansions of existing plants will occur to maximize propane and butane production. The potential ethane supply will increase, notably from the Shell Caroline project. The primary market for ethane in Canada is the Alberta petrochemical industry, and a new ethylene plant to be started up in 1994 will increase demand. The use of ethane for miscible flooding will decrease to the end of the decade. Propane production is expected to increase to a total of 180,000 bbl/d by 2000; demand growth in traditional markets such as heating and cooking is expected to be marginal, and the petrochemical sector is expected to show the largest growth in propane demand. The use of butane for producing methyl tertiary butyl ether is expected to increase butane demand for the rest of the decade. Exports of NGL to the USA are largely via the Cochin pipeline system. Modest increases in NGL exports are expected. A number of gas pipeline projects are at various stages of planning, and completion of these projects would enable an increase in Canadian exports. 8 figs

  4. Gas-liquid interface of room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cherry S; Baldelli, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The organization of ions at the interface of ionic liquids and the vacuum is an ideal system to test new ideas and concepts on the interfacial chemistry of electrolyte systems in the limit of no solvent medium. Whilst electrolyte systems have numerous theoretical and experimental methods used to investigate their properties, the ionic liquids are relatively new and our understanding of the interfacial properties is just beginning to be explored. In this critical review, the gas-liquid interface is reviewed, as this interface does not depend on the preparation of another medium and thus produces a natural interface. The interface has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ultra-high vacuum techniques. The results provide a detailed molecular-level view of the surface composition and structure. These have been complemented by theoretical studies. The combinations of treatments on this interface are starting to provide a somewhat convergent description of how the ions are organized at this neat interface (108 references).

  5. The outlook for natural gas liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The future development of the NGL industry in Canada was outlined. NGLs are a by-product or co-product of gas production. NGL recovery from Canadian gas production is expected to increase due to upcoming expansion in gas production and gas pipeline capacity. The NGL market development depends on efficient and cost effective transportation systems as well as on the expansion of export market for Canadian NGL. To show the trends in the expansion of existing and new pipeline systems (crucial to the good health of the NGL industry) various ongoing and planned projects are reviewed, among them (1) the pipeline extension to the Taylor area of northeastern BC, (2) the development of a new ethane plus fractionator at Redwater, (3) the expansion of Alberta ethane gathering system and ethylene capacity in Alberta, (4) the prospects for the Sarnia system, (5) the adequacy of the Cochin capacity, and (6) Sable Island NGL supply. An extensive review is provided of the disposition of Sable Island propane and butane, the Alliance/Aux Sable Project for a straddle plant with NGL recovery and fractionation facilities near Morris, Illinois. NGL market developments in the US Midwest, and the impact of expanded NGL supply in the US on Canadian NGL suppliers are also evaluated. 15 figs

  6. Boiling, condensation, and gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena involving boiling and condensation are an important aspect of engineering in the power and process industries. This book, aimed at advanced first-degree and graduate students in mechanical and chemical engineering, deals with these phenomena in detail. The first part of the book describes gas-liquid two-phase flow, as a necessary preliminary to the later discussion of heat transfer and change of phase. A detailed section on calculation methods shows how theory can be put to practical use, and there are also descriptions of some of the equipment and plant used in the process and power industries

  7. Liquid entrainment through orifices by sparging gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.M.; Malara, M.; Amblard, M.; Seiler, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Corium Coolability by water flood during an MCCI (Molten Corium Concrete Interaction) is still an open problem. Several physical mechanisms have been identified which may reduce significantly and finally stop the ablation of concrete. Among these mechanisms, corium ejection by sparging gas into the overlying water may represent an important contribution. This mechanism was at the origin of a large and coolable debris bed and volcano formation in the MACE M3B test. This mechanism has also been observed in simulant material tests performed at UCSB and at FZK. The objective of the work, which is described in the present paper, is to model this mechanism and to quantify the liquid entrainment rate by sparging gas. (author)

  8. Abnormal liquid loading in gas wells of the Samandepe Gasfield in Turkmenistan and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With complicated formation mechanisms, liquid loading in gas wells during gasfield development may significantly affect the productivity of gas wells and the ultimate recovery rate. Dynamic monitoring data of the Samandepe Gasfield in Turkmenistan shows that liquid loading can be found extensively in gas wells. Their formation mechanisms and negative impacts on gasfield development severely restrict the productivity enhancement of this gasfield. With their origins taken into consideration, liquid loads in gas wells were classified into three types: formation water, condensed liquid, and external liquid. By using the hydrostatic pressure gradient method and through PLT monitoring, properties of liquid loads in the Samandepe Gasfield were determined. In addition, formation mechanisms related to liquid loading in gas wells were obtained through analyses of critical fluid-carrying capacities and by using gas-reservoir production data. The following findings were obtained. Liquid loading was commonly found in this gas well with majority of reservoir formations in lower well intervals flooded. However, the formation mechanisms for these liquid loads are different from those of other gasfields. Due to long-term shut-down of gas wells, killing fluids precipitated and pores in lower reservoir formations were plugged. As a result, natural gas had no access to boreholes, killing fluids were impossibly carried out of the borehole. Instead, the killing fluid was detained at the bottomhole to generate liquid load and eliminate the possibility of formation water coning. Moreover, since the gasfield was dominated by block reservoirs with favorable physical properties and connectivity, impacts of liquid load on gasfield development were insignificant. Thus, to enhance the recovery rate of the Samandepe Gasfield significantly, it is necessary to expand the gasfield development scale and strengthen the development of marginal gas reservoirs.

  9. A study of stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, George W.

    2005-07-01

    This work includes both theoretical modelling and experimental observations which are relevant to the design of gas condensate transport lines. Multicomponent hydrocarbon gas mixtures are transported in pipes over long distances and at various inclinations. Under certain circumstances, the heavier hydrocarbon components and/or water vapour condense to form one or more liquid phases. Near the desired capacity, the liquid condensate and water is efficiently transported in the form of a stratified flow with a droplet field. During operating conditions however, the flow rate may be reduced allowing liquid accumulation which can create serious operational problems due to large amounts of excess liquid being expelled into the receiving facilities during production ramp-up or even in steady production in severe cases. In particular, liquid tends to accumulate in upward inclined sections due to insufficient drag on the liquid from the gas. To optimize the transport of gas condensates, a pipe diameters should be carefully chosen to account for varying flow rates and pressure levels which are determined through the knowledge of the multiphase flow present. It is desirable to have a reliable numerical simulation tool to predict liquid accumulation for various flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure levels which is not presently accounted for by industrial flow codes. A critical feature of the simulation code would include the ability to predict the transition from small liquid accumulation at high flow rates to large liquid accumulation at low flow rates. A semi-intermittent flow regime of roll waves alternating with a partly backward flowing liquid film has been observed experimentally to occur for a range of gas flow rates. Most of the liquid is transported in the roll waves. The roll wave regime is not well understood and requires fundamental modelling and experimental research. The lack of reliable models for this regime leads to inaccurate prediction of the onset of

  10. Metal powder production by gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

  11. Taylor flow hydrodynamics in gas-liquid-solid micro reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical reactions in which a gas phase component reacts with a liquid phase omponent at the surface of a solid catalyst are often encountered in chemical industry. The rate of such a gas-liquid-solid reaction is often limited by the mass transfer rate of the gas phase component, which depends on

  12. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  13. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  14. Nonuniform distribution of gas-liquid system in gas-distributing collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimov, R.Sh.; Abdullayev, E.A.; Eyubov, A.A.; Khudobakhshiyev, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    In the example of studying GS-1 of the field Shatlyk, the effect of nonuniform distribution of the liquid phase is examined (hydrocarbon condensate, water) on production lines of the unit of low temperature separation on the process of field preparation of gas. In particular, the unequal efficiency of single-type equipment operating under comparable conditions is noted: differences in the magnitude of under recuperation of coal of the recuperation heat exchangers, in the values of the integrated effect of Joule-Thomson, the coefficients of removal of low-temperature separators, etc. A consequence of this situation is deterioration in the quality of gas fed to the main pipe line. It is suggested that efforts be concentrated on developing technical designs which guarantee uniform supply of liquid from the field collector to the production lines of the unit for low temperature separation.

  15. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  16. Scenarios for remote gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Molnvik, Mona J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of natural gas resources accessible via proven production technology and existing infrastructure is declining. Therefore, smaller and less accessible gas fields are considered for commercial exploitation. The research project Enabling production of remote gas builds knowledge and technology aiming at developing competitive remote gas production based on floating LNG and chemical gas conversion. In this project, scenarios are used as basis for directing research related to topics that affect the overall design and operation of such plants. Selected research areas are safety, environment, power supply, operability and control. The paper summarises the scenario building process as a common effort among research institutes and industry. Further, it documents four scenarios for production of remote gas and outlines how the scenarios are applied to establish research strategies and adequate plans in a multidisciplinary project. To ensure relevance of the scenarios, it is important to adapt the building process to the current problem and the scenarios should be developed with extensive participation of key personnel.

  17. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal transistor utilizing gas-liquid transition

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2011-01-25

    We propose a simple thermal transistor, a device to control heat current. In order to effectively change the current, we utilize the gas-liquid transition of the heat-conducting medium (fluid) because the gas region can act as a good thermal insulator. The three terminals of the transistor are located at both ends and the center of the system, and are put into contact with distinct heat baths. The key idea is a special arrangement of the three terminals. The temperature at one end (the gate temperature) is used as an input signal to control the heat current between the center (source, hot) and another end (drain, cold). Simulating the nanoscale systems of this transistor, control of heat current is demonstrated. The heat current is effectively cut off when the gate temperature is cold and it flows normally when it is hot. By using an extended version of this transistor, we also simulate a primitive application for an inverter. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Natural gas as a means of heating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronovost, M.

    1996-01-01

    Liquids can now be heated at low temperature directly at the point of end use, thanks to flexible and customized natural gas technologies. For customers these advances eliminate the need for poorly-performing central boilers, while investors can look forward to a reduction in the period of time needed to recover investments. Decentralization of the production offers many challenges to industries that have to produce vast quantities of hot water, among them increased efficiency, direct and speedy response to demands for energy, and reduced maintenance expenses. Consumers can also look forward to reduced need for energy, hence better control of the energy dollar. 2 figs

  20. Strategic implications of gas to liquids technology for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A new and economical gas to liquids (GTL) technology is described that promises to substantially increase industry's ability to exploit many trillions of cubic feet of largely unmarketable reserves of natural gas. The technology turns the gas into a form that overcomes prohibitive transportation costs, avoids long-term, high-risk, take-or-pay contracts, and helps satisfy the demand for cleaner liquid products. Widespread application of GTL technology is credited with having the power to ease the burden on every segment of the petroleum industry, from exploration through petrochemicals, and into allied industries such as electric power generation. It is claimed that in situations where GTL is the only economic option, it will create an entirely new set of opportunities. Among these are the monetization of known stranded gas and the early development of remote gas discoveries or of oil discoveries associated with gas. It will cause a re-evaluation of exploration strategies by upgrading gas prospects in remote locations and new investment options to countries with shut-in gas or heavy oil or tar sand reserves. The monetization of associated gas when reinjection is no longer needed or desired could occur. Extensive applications offshore and adjacent to coastal reserves and multiple options for refiners facing heavier, higher-sulfur crude slates are possible. The outlook for Syntroleum's version of the GTL process, and the 'grant-back' provisions of Syntroleum's license agreements with companies such as Texaco, ARCO, Marathon, Criterion Catalyst, Catalytica, and ABB, giving each licensee access to the improvements of the other licencees, and the joint development agreements with these companies, were also discussed. 6 refs

  1. Gas-liquid flow filed in agitated vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormazi, F.; Alaie, M.; Dabir, B.; Ashjaie, M.

    2001-01-01

    Agitated vessels in form of sti reed tank reactors and mixed ferment ors are being used in large numbers of industry. It is more important to develop good, and theoretically sound models for scaling up and design of agitated vessels. In this article, two phase flow (gas-liquid) in a agitated vessel has been investigated numerically. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, is used to predict the gas-liquid flow. The effects of gas phase, varying gas flow rates and variation of bubbles shape on flow filed of liquid phase are investigated. The numerical results are verified against the experimental data

  2. Gas to liquids. Fischer Tropsch: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The process concerning the chemical transformation of natural gas into oil-based products (a so-called 'clean' diesel) known under the term GTL FT (Gas To Liquids - Fischer Tropsch) will turn a new page in its history with the start-up of a major unit in Qatar in 2006 Up until now only two GTL units were deployed, in the early 1990's (Moss as and Shell) without however resulting in the widespread expansion of this process. The technological breakthroughs achieved around the year 2000 combined with a favourable background context (concerning geopolitical tension, ears of oil production peaks, significant increases in the price of crude) now account for much of the interest shown in this solution. Consequently, outside Qatar, projects are also being looked at in various natural gas producing countries such as Nigeria or Algeria. It would be justified however to think that a new wave of natural gas recycling will gradually emerge as part of the global energy market. (author)

  3. Hydrogen production from glucose in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenbaum, D.W.; Taccardi, N.; Berger, M.E.M.; Boesmann, A.; Enzenberger, F.; Woelfel, R.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Depletion of oil and gas reserves and growing global warming concerns have created a world-wide interest in new concepts for future sustainable energy supplies. The development of effective ways to produce hydrogen from biomass is expected to be one important contribution to such a goal [1]. Nowadays, three main processes are considered for future industrial application, namely: gasification of biomass [2], reforming in supercritical water [3] and aqueous phase reforming [4,5]. Other technologies such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars or steam reforming of bio-oils suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements and can probably not be considered for industrial applications in the closer future [6,7]. On the other hand, either the gasification of biomass, which is typically carried out at temperatures above 800 C using Ni or Fe catalysts [8,9,10,11], or the reforming in supercritical water, which is typically carried out in presence of Ru catalyst at pressures of 300bar and temperatures ranging from 500 to 700 C [12], suffer of poor energetic efficiency as a lot of energy is required to run the reactions. More recently, an alternative to the two aforementioned high temperature processes has been proposed as ''aqueous phase reforming'' (APR) by Dumesic and coworkers [13,14,15,16,17]. They achieved the reforming of polyols (such as ethylene glycol, glycerol and sorbitol) using heterogeneous catalysts at temperatures between 200 and 250 C and pressure typically between 15-50bar.The temperature level of the reaction allows generating hydrogen with low amounts of CO in a single reactor. The process typically forms 35 % of hydrogen, 40 % of CO2 and 25 % of combined alkanes. The high amount of formed alkanes originates eventually from CO hydrogenation and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction [18,19,20,21], those are thermodynamically favored in the above mentioned conditions. However, heterogeneously catalyzed APR

  4. Film behaviour of vertical gas-liquid flow in a large diameter pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Zangana, Mohammed Haseeb Sedeeq

    2011-01-01

    Gas-liquid flow commonly occurs in oil and gas production and processing system. Large diameter vertical pipes can reduce pressure drops and so minimize operating costs. However, there is a need for research on two-phase flow in large diameter pipes to provide confidence to designers of equipments such as deep water risers. In this study a number of experimental campaigns were carried out to measure pressure drop, liquid film thickness and wall shear in 127mm vertical pipe. Total pressur...

  5. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 8. Cold utilization and rural service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the investigation presents a summary of material relating to: (1) actual or potential applications for the very large refrigeration effects inherent in the vaporization of liquid natural gas; and (2) rural service gas supplies adjacent to the route of a trunk liquid natural gas line. A variety of concepts for cold utilization are discussed. The Canadian prospects for cold utilization include: electric power generation; oxygen production for integration with a coal gasification project; and the use of refrigeration stages in the petrochemical processing of natural gas, for example, ethane separation and processing to produce ethylene and ammonia.

  6. Application of Ionic Liquids in Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębicki, Jacek; Kloskowski, Adam; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Stepnowski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of available literature data on metrological parameters of the amperometric gas sensors containing ionic liquids as an electrolyte. Four mechanism types of signal generation in amperometric sensors with ionic liquid are described. Moreover, this article describes the influence of selected physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquids on the metrological parameters of these sensors. Some metrological parameters are also compared for amperometric sensors with GDE and SPE electrodes and with ionic liquids for selected analytes.

  7. Gas to liquid to solid transition in halogen hot atom chemistry. 6. Product formation routes and chemical selectivity of high energy iodine reactions with butyne isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmestani, S.K.; Firouzbakht, M.L.; Rack, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Reactions of recoil produced iodine-128 with isomers of butyne were studied in gaseous, high pressure, and condensed phase conditions, with rare gas additives and in the presence and absence of radical scavengers (I 2 and O 2 ). It was found that recoil iodine-128 reactions were initiated by thermal electronically excited I + species for both 1-butyne and 2-butyne systems. While the diverse and complex nature of the reactions cannot be explained by simple chemical parameters, comparisons among the alkyne systems demonstrate preferential attack of iodine at the triple bond resulting, mainly, in electronically excited intermediates. A comparison of the various product formation routes results in the characterization of general traits common to the alkynes. 6 figures, 4 tables

  8. An analysis of the falling film gas-liquid reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, E.J.; Ouwerkerk-Dijkers, van M.P.; Venkatesh, S.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of the falling film reactor is developed to predict the conversion and temperature distribution in the reactor as a function of the gas and liquid flow rates, physical properties, the feed composition of the reactive gas and carrier gas and other parameters of the system.

  9. Transport evaluation of a gas-liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodner, A.J.; Bistline, J.E.; Weber, S.E.

    1982-10-01

    The hydraulics and the mass-transfer behavior of a five-tray, single-bubble-cap, single-downcomer, gas-liquid contactor were studied for use as a gas scrubber. Flooding was not observed at the maximum available liquid and gas flow rates of 0.32 and 464 L/min, respectively. The maximum liquid entrainment was 33% at a gross liquid flow rate of 0.05 L/min. The Murphree-tray efficiencies for absorption of CO 2 (5000 ppM in air) into demineralized water ranged from 0.14 to 0.74 for volumetric liquid-to-gas ratios of 4 x 10 -4 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively, for k/sub L/a values ranging from 0.088 to 0.36 min -1 . 12 figures, 10 tables

  10. Forecasting production in Liquid Rich Shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarman, Hanieh

    Production from Liquid Rich Shale (LRS) reservoirs is taking center stage in the exploration and production of unconventional reservoirs. Production from the low and ultra-low permeability LRS plays is possible only through multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW's). There is no existing workflow that is applicable to forecasting multi-phase production from MFHW's in LRS plays. This project presents a practical and rigorous workflow for forecasting multiphase production from MFHW's in LRS reservoirs. There has been much effort in developing workflows and methodology for forecasting in tight/shale plays in recent years. The existing workflows, however, are applicable only to single phase flow, and are primarily used in shale gas plays. These methodologies do not apply to the multi-phase flow that is inevitable in LRS plays. To account for complexities of multiphase flow in MFHW's the only available technique is dynamic modeling in compositional numerical simulators. These are time consuming and not practical when it comes to forecasting production and estimating reserves for a large number of producers. A workflow was developed, and validated by compositional numerical simulation. The workflow honors physics of flow, and is sufficiently accurate while practical so that an analyst can readily apply it to forecast production and estimate reserves in a large number of producers in a short period of time. To simplify the complex multiphase flow in MFHW, the workflow divides production periods into an initial period where large production and pressure declines are expected, and the subsequent period where production decline may converge into a common trend for a number of producers across an area of interest in the field. Initial period assumes the production is dominated by single-phase flow of oil and uses the tri-linear flow model of Erdal Ozkan to estimate the production history. Commercial software readily available can simulate flow and forecast production in this

  11. Gas/liquid separator for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Naoshi; Akimoto, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Iwao.

    1993-01-01

    A two phase gas/liquid flow generated at a heating portion of a nuclear reactor is swirled by inlet vanes. The phase gas/liquid flow uprises as a vortex flow in a vortex cylinder, and a liquid phase of a high density gathers at the outer circumference of the vortex cylinder. The liquid phase gathered at the outer circumference is collected at the inlet of a discharge flow channel which protrude into the vortex cylinder and in a three-step structure, and introduced into a recycling liquid phase passing through the discharge flow channel for liquid phase. There is provided a structure that separated liquid collected at the lowermost state in the inlet of the three-step discharge flow channel inlet descends in the discharge flow channel, then uprises in an uprising flow channel and is introduced into the recycling liquid phase by way of a discharge flow channel exit. The height of the discharge flow channel exit is determined equal to that of a liquid level of the recycling liquid phase during rated operation of the reactor. Accordingly, even in a case where the liquid level in the recycling liquid phase is lowered, the liquid level of the uprising flow channel is kept equal to that during rated operation. (I.N.)

  12. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  13. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  14. Outlook for natural gas liquids sales in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The outlook for natural gas liquids (NGL) markets in North America is forecast, with a focus on NGL sourced from Canada. The supply of NGL from Canada is first discussed, showing that Canadian NGL production is typically a function of natural gas production. Over the period ending in the year 2001, Canadian propane and butanes production is expected to peak at ca 275,000 bbl/d and ethane at ca 175,000 bbl/d. The processing, transport, and storage infrastructure for NGL in Canada has been regarded as being matured. A historical overview of the NGL market has shown large swings in demand, linked to such factors as crude oil prices and the drop in butanes demand caused by changes in gasoline specifications in the USA. On the other hand, oxygenates required for reformulated gasolines need butanes as a raw material for their manufacture, signifying a new market for butanes when such gasolines are mandated in clean air programs. Prospects for propane are good in the transportation market because of its clean burning properties. Prospects for expanding ethylene production are favorable to NGL producers; major Canadian petrochemical producers are located close to the source of ethane and petrochemical demand for ethane is forecast to increase by 40,000 bbl/d due to a new plant coming on line and to larger exports to the USA. Results of some forecasts of Canadian propane, butane, and ethane supply and demand are included. 8 figs

  15. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  16. Potential of the technology gas to liquids -GTL in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Angulo, Julio Cesar; Cabarcas Simancas, Manuel E; Archila Castro, Jesus; Tobias, Yamil Yubran

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has a great potential because of the large reserves that currently exist at a worldwide level and because it is a cleaner source of energy than petroleum, but having the disadvantage of requiring high costs for its transportation. For this reason many alternatives have loomed for the development of reserves. Among these is the conversion of natural gas into synthetic ultra-clean fuels, called GTL, or gas-to-liquids. Through this process, Fischer-Tropsch for the production of diesel, naphtha and specialized products, which are used not only to effectively utilize natural gas reserves, but also, to cover at the need of more environmentally friendly fuels. This article will shed light on GTL technologies, presenting on a first instance an analysis of the different stages of the Fischer-Tropsch process, then the current status of this technology, afterwards the costs of investment and the necessary conditions for a project of this kind to be carried out and finally, and analysis of the applicability or projection for this technology in Colombia. Based on recent studies, it has been observed that is technology has surpassed its demonstrations stage and it is now at a maximum point of interest where companies like Sasol (the largest worldwide company in the area of synthetic carbon-based fuels), Chevron Texaco, Syntroleum, Exxon Mobil, Conoco Phillips, BP Rentech and shell. These companies have performed successful studies for the applicability of the Fischer-Tropsch technology at a large scale, and they will begin to build a number of large plants within the next few years, principally motivated by the low costs of gas and high prices of crude oil

  17. Optimal design issues of a gas-to-liquid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Interests in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is increasing rapidly due to the recent improvements of the technology, clean-burning fuels (low sulphur, low aromatics) derived from the FT process and the realization that the process can be used to monetize stranded natural gas resources. The economy of GTL plants depends very much on the natural gas price and there is a strong incentive to reduce the investment cost and in addition there is a need to improve energy efficiency and carbon efficiency. A model is constructed based on the available information in open literature. This model is used to simulate the GTL process with UNISIM DESIGN process simulator. In the FT reactor with cobalt based catalyst, Co2 is inert and will accumulate in the system. Five placements of Co2 removal unit in the GTL process are evaluated from an economical point of view. For each alternative, the process is optimized with respect to steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to syngas and FT units, reactor volume, and Co2 recovery. The results show that carbon and energy efficiencies and the annual net cash flow of the process with or without Co2 removal unit are not significantly different and there is not much to gain by removing Co2 from the process. It is optimal to recycle about 97 % of the light ends to the process (mainly to the FT unit) to obtain higher conversion of CO and H2 in the reactor. Different syngas configurations in a gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant are studied including auto-thermal reformer (ATR), combined reformer, and series arrangement of Gas Heated Reformer (GHR) and ATR. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor is based on cobalt catalyst and the degrees of freedom are; steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to synthesis gas (syngas) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis units, and reactor volume. The production rate of liquid hydrocarbons is maximized for each syngas configuration. Installing a steam

  18. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  19. A weakly compressible formulation for modelling liquid-gas sloshing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and extension of free-surface modelling techniques with the purpose of improving the modelling accuracy for liquid-gas sloshing. Considering high density ratio fluids under low Mach number conditions...

  20. Gas Separation Ability of the Liquid Bubble Film.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Petričkovič, Roman; Vejražka, Jiří; Setničková, Kateřina; Uchytil, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, JUN 22 (2016), s. 26-33 ISSN 1383-5866 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : liquid film membrane * bubble * gas separation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  1. Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Karasek, Lubomir; Rosen, Johan; Hellenaes, Karl-Erik; Crews, Colin; Castle, Laurence; Anklam, Elke

    2006-11-03

    A European inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate two analytical procedures for the determination of acrylamide in bakery ware (crispbreads, biscuits) and potato products (chips), within a concentration range from about 20 microg/kg to about 9000 microgg/kg. The methods are based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the derivatised analyte and on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of native acrylamide. Isotope dilution with isotopically labelled acrylamide was an integral part of both methods. The study was evaluated according to internationally accepted guidelines. The performance of the HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be superior to that of the GC-MS method and to be fit-for-the-purpose.

  2. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gas separation by ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising new research field with several potential applications of industrial interest. Thus cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ILs and Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ILs...

  3. Natural gas purification using supported ionic liquid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Overbeek, J.P.; Wees, H.J.; Zubeir, L.F.; Haije, W.G.; Berrouk, A.S.; Peters, C.J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of the application of a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) for natural gas purification. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]) was impregnated successfully in the ¿-alumina layer of a tubular

  4. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  5. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Hou Jianping; Yang Guangling; Zeng Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method has been carried out in own liquid lithium-lead bubbler (LLLB). Experimental results show that, He is more suitable than Ar as carrier gas in the filler tower. The higher temperature the tower is, the greater hydrogen content the tower exports. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on the hydrogen content in the export is jagged, no obvious rule. Although the difference between experimental results and literature data, but it is feasible that hydrogen isotopes extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead by gas-liquid contact method, and the higher extraction efficiency increases with the growth of the residence time of the alloy in tower. (authors)

  6. Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)

  7. State-of-the-art review of liquid loading in gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE; Barbosa, J.R. Jr. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-08-01

    Gas wells suffering from liquid loading are incapable of removing the liquid associated with produced gas from the wellbore. This phenomenon is initiated when the upward gas velocity in the well falls below a critical value at which point the liquid that was initially flowing upwards, begins to fall back. This liquid accumulates downhole, where it increases the hydrostatic back-pressure on the reservoir, destabilises the multiphase flow in the well (following flow regime changes), decreases production rate and, in severe cases, kills the well. The typical liquid loading sequence begins with a gas flow rate that is high enough to transport all liquids to surface and there is no liquid fall-back in the well. However, as the gas velocity slows or the liquid content in the well rises, there is insufficient energy in the well to carry all liquids to surface and some begins to flow backwards. As the hydrostatic head downhole increases, the liquid column that has accumulated in the well can re-enter the near-wellbore region of the reservoir. This results in the well becoming 'unloaded' so that it can flow once more, with the gas carrying all liquids to surface. However, the reinjection of liquids into the reservoir may cause formation damage, which will impair the well productivity. This cycle continues, providing the typical intermittent response of liquid-loaded gas wells, until the reservoir potential starts to fall or the liquid yield rises. Diagnosing liquid loading is often difficult as the affected well(s) may continue production without any substantial performance impairment for a long period of time. Typical symptoms of liquid loading include sharp drops in the cumulative production decline curve, the onset of liquid slugs in the surface facilities, abrupt changes in the flowing pressure gradient, low temperature spikes at the wellhead and declining water production or condensate-gas-ratio. Many remedial lifting options have been developed for use in

  8. Analysis of a gas-liquid film plasma reactor for organic compound oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kevin [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Wang, Huijuan [School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Locke, Bruce R., E-mail: blocke@fsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Non-homogeneous filamentary plasma discharge formed along gas-liquid interface. • Hydrogen peroxide formed near interface favored over organic oxidation from liquid. • Post-plasma Fenton reactions lead to complete utilization of hydrogen peroxide. - Abstract: A pulsed electrical discharge plasma formed in a tubular reactor with flowing argon carrier gas and a liquid water film was analyzed using methylene blue as a liquid phase hydroxyl radical scavenger and simultaneous measurements of hydrogen peroxide formation. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid conductivity, concentration of dye, and the addition of ferrous ion on dye decoloration and degradation were determined. Higher liquid flow rates and concentrations of dye resulted in less decoloration percentages and hydrogen peroxide formation due to initial liquid conductivity effects and lower residence times in the reactor. The highest decoloration energy yield of dye found in these studies was 5.2 g/kWh when using the higher liquid flow rate and adding the catalyst. The non-homogeneous nature of the plasma discharge favors the production of hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-liquid interface over the chemical oxidation of the organic in the bulk liquid phase and post-plasma reactions with the Fenton catalyst lead to complete utilization of the plasma-formed hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Study on gas-liquid loop reactors with annular bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Wu, X.Q.; Lu, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Bubbling column with draft tube is one of nearly developed reactor. On the background of hydrocarbon oxidations and biochemical engineerings, it has been widely used in chemical industry due to the well characteristics of mass and heat transfer. In this paper, the characteristics of fluid flow, such as gas hold-up, backmixing and mass transfer referred to the liquid volume were measured in a gas-liquid loop reactor with annular bubbling. Different materials - water, alcohol and oi l- were used in the study in measuring the gas hold-up in the annular of the reactor

  10. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  11. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  12. Analysis of spatial and temporal spectra of liquid film surface in annular gas-liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Heinz, Oksana; Kharlamov, Sergey; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2013-09-01

    Wavy structure of liquid film in annular gas-liquid flow without liquid entrainment consists of fast long-living primary waves and slow short-living secondary waves. In present paper, results of spectral analysis of this wavy structure are presented. Application of high-speed LIF technique allowed us to perform such analysis in both spatial and temporal domains. Power spectra in both domains are characterized by one-humped shape with long exponential tail. Influence of gas velocity, liquid Reynolds number, liquid viscosity and pipe diameter on frequency of the waves is investigated. When gravity effect is much lesser than the shear stress, similarity of power spectra at different gas velocities is observed. Using combination of spectral analysis and identification of characteristic lines of primary waves, frequency of generation of secondary waves by primary waves is measured.

  13. Liquid dispersion in trickle-bed reactors with gas-liquid cocurrent downflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.F.; Ng, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The flow pattern can deviate from ideal plug flow in both trickling and pulsing flows. The liquid dispersion in those flow regimes are investigated separately, as the mechanisms causing the deviation of flow pattern from plug flow are different. In trickling flow, the dispersion of the liquid phase occurs in the flow path which is determined with computer-generated packed column. Dispersion in pulsing flow is studied with a combination of the method of characteristics and analysis of liquid dispersion in the liquid slug and gas pulse. The axial dispersion coefficients are then determined based on Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, liquid dispersion in trickle beds containing porous packings is also discussed

  14. Long liquid slugs in stratified gas/liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadri, U.

    2009-01-01

    Long liquid slugs reaching several hundreds pipe diameter may appear when transporting gas and liquid in horizontal and near horizontal pipes. The long slugs cause system vibration and separation difficulties that may lead to operational failures. Identifying and predicting the time and length

  15. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  16. POTENTIAL FOR LIQUID BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... production from agro-industrial waste in South Africa. Gikuru Mwithiga ... are produced in. South Africa, as well as the immediately economic effect is also discussed. ... Also, the average cost ... production industry that produces some if not all liquid ... capable of producing alcohol in the fermentation process.

  17. Natural gas liquids markets in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in natural gas liquids (NGL) markets in the USA, brought about primarily by environmental issues and actions, are reviewed. Three aspects of the Clean Air Act amendments are exerting a powerful influence on NGL product demands. Regulatory limits on Reed vapor pressure (RVP) reduce the amount of evaporative hydrocarbon emissions, and lower-RVP gasoline is leaner in the more volatile hydrocarbons. This means primarily a lower n-butane content, and during the 1990-91 summer blending season it is estimated that half of total U.S. gas plant production of n-butane was being eliminated from the traditional refinery blending market. N-butane prices fell, making n-butane attractive as a petrochemical feedstock. Regulatory requirements for reformulated and oxygenated gasolines, for which methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) will be the largest single source of oxygenate, have increased demand for NGL butanes used as the basic raw material in MBTE manufacture. This demand should increase enough to absorb all the n-butane dislodged from the gasoline blending market. The amendments also specify that in selected metropolitan areas having severe air quality problems, an alternative fuels program must be established. In the alternative fuels market, propane is already well-established due to favorable economics and proven performance, and significant new demand for propane in metropolitan markets is expected. Ethylene, the basic raw material for plastics manufacture, is mainly derived from NGLs and the continued strong demand for plastics will have a positive effect on the NGL market. NGL product demand profiles and projections are presented in graph form for ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes plus. 4 figs

  18. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  19. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhongwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhou, Qulan; Hui, Shi'en

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO 2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO 2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  20. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  1. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  2. Liquid biofuels in the aeroderivative gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCampli, James; Schornick, Joe; Farr, Rachel

    2010-09-15

    While there are regional economic and political incentives for using liquid biofuels for renewable power generation, several challenges must be addressed. Given the fuel volumes required, base-load operation with renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol are not likely sustainable with today's infrastructure. However, blending of biofuels with fossil fuels is a more economic option to provide renewable power. In turn, this lays the foundation to increase to more power generation in the future as new generation biofuels come on line. And, much like the automotive industry, the power industry will need to institute design changes to accommodate these fuels.

  3. Analysis of low-molecular weight radiolysis products in extracts of gamma-irradiated polymers by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, Rainer; Begley, Timothy H.; Morehouse, Kim M.

    2002-01-01

    Estimating exposure to radiolysis products of polymers is an important part of the regulatory evaluation of packaging materials for use in food irradiation. However, as Koni Grob recently put it, the comprehensive analysis of migrants is a challenge. This paper discusses some of the analytical difficulties and presents results obtained with extracts of irradiated polystyrene and polyamide-6. The results indicate that headspace or thermal desorption techniques may, in some instances, lead to an overestimation of radiolysis product concentrations. It is concluded that validated analytical methods and a better understanding of the underlying radiation chemistry would greatly facilitate the safety assessment of irradiated packaging materials

  4. Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birvalski, M.

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and

  5. Process for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-03-14

    The process comprises continually passing a current of carbonaceous material, finely divided in a vertical zone of reaction, finely divided carbonaceous material raised to a fluidized state dispersed in gas flowing from the bottom to the top carrying into the zone of reaction an oxidizing gas in sufficient quantity to supply the heat for combustion by burning part of the carbonaceous material withdrawing from the zone of reaction the products of the combustible fluids, withdrawing from the zone the solid carbonaceous products of the reaction and reacting a part of the lesser products left in a second zone of reaction by means of steam to produce oxides of carbon and hydrogen.

  6. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leinweber, G.

    1986-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and various gas flow rates. The results of this study clearly show that the rate of gas injection is not the only parameter controlling the mixing of the liquid-liquid system. The effect of non-uniform gas injection is important at high gas flow rates. Within the present experimental conditions, the reduction in the overall mixing rate can be as large as a factor of three

  7. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-01-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer

  8. New perspective on gas-well liquid loading and unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, C.A.M.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the multiphase flow mechanism responsible for gas-well liquid loading. It shows that the conventional idea of droplet flow reversal (Turner et al. (1969)) does not capture reality and that actual observations are better described by film flow reversal. This paper subsequently

  9. Wetting in a Colloidal Liquid-Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, W. K.; Besseling, N. A.; Stuart, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  10. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    OpenAIRE

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  11. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of

  12. X-ray scattering on liquid-gas interfaces; Roentgenstreuung an Fluessigkeits-Gas Grenzflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis two different theme-fields were studied with dhe methods of the elastic, surface sensitive X-ray scattering. In the first part of the thesis the liquid-gas interfaces water-propane and glycerol-isobutane were studied concerning the structure formation on these interfaces. The system water-propane served for the study of the gas hydrate formation on the water-gas interface. Studies on this interface could give no hints on the formation of propane hydrates or propane-hydrate fragments. However the adsorption of molecularly thin propane films on the water surface was observed. The adsorption behaviour of gases on liquid surfaces was studied by further experiments on the glycerol-isobutane interface. In the second part of the thesis the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions and water were studied. The lateralstructure of these liquid-gas interfaces was studied by the method of the diffuse X-ray scattering.

  13. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  14. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Leinweber, G.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and for various gas flow rates

  15. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  16. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  17. Molten salt hazardous waste disposal process utilizing gas/liquid contact for salt recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The products of a molten salt combustion of hazardous wastes are converted into a cooled gas, which can be filtered to remove hazardous particulate material, and a dry flowable mixture of salts, which can be recycled for use in the molten salt combustion, by means of gas/liquid contact between the gaseous products of combustion of the hazardous waste and a solution produced by quenching the spent melt from such molten salt combustion. The process results in maximizing the proportion of useful materials recovered from the molten salt combustion and minimizing the volume of material which must be discarded. In a preferred embodiment a spray dryer treatment is used to achieve the desired gas/liquid contact

  18. Liquid scintillation for NORM in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, Siegurd; Moebius, Rolf; Bartenbach, Martin; Ramamonjisoa, Tiana

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides of Radium, Lead and Polonium are trapped along with crude oil and gas and accumulate as scale deposits on equipment in the oil industries. Problems arise by residues and sludge where such Norm often becomes concentrated during the process of extraction, transport, and storage of crude oil. Additionally, Radon is accumulated in natural gas or is co extracted into oil as organic phase where it equilibrates with its Progenies. Thus Norm creates a possible hazard to workers both by external radiation exposure and internal due to incorporation during intervention work, and to the environment due to waste disposal. The determination of 222 Rn, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po in the various production stages is a precondition for an efficient Radiation Protection Management. We have studied the applicability of Liquid Scintillation L S for the measurement of NORM in the oil and gas industry. Our investigations show that 226 Ra may be quantified by L S in solid scale deposits as carbonate and sulphate after grinding and as carbonate additionally after dissolution. Then, an organic L S scintillation cocktail like Betaplate Scint is added and the sample stored for Rn equilibration. While 222 Rn is quantitatively extracted from the solution, only 20 to 30% are emanated as free Rn from the powder into the organic phase. Emanation yield versus grain size and sample amount has been studied using synthetic Ra/Ca-carbonate powder and grinded Pitchblende ore samples. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in carbonate may be determined by α/β-discriminating L S after dissolution, mutual separation on Radium Rad Disk filters and final elution with DHC and EDTA. From these results the isotopic ratio of Radium isotopes in the different scale fractions may be determined. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in production and waste waters may be quantified accordingly. Radon in oil fractions has been measured as 0.1 to 2% solution in Betaplate Scint with sensitivity down to 5 Bq/l. From

  19. Modelling of gas-liquid reactors - stability and dynamic behaviour of gas-liquid mass transfer accompanied by irreversible reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, E.P. van; Borman, P.C.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour and stability of single-phase reacting systems has been investigated thoroughly in the past and design rules for stable operation are available from literature. The dynamic behaviour of gas-liquid processes is considerably more complex and has received relatively little

  20. A mechanistic model of heat transfer for gas-liquid flow in vertical wellbore annuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bang-Tang; Li, Xiang-Fang; Liu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The most prominent aspect of multiphase flow is the variation in the physical distribution of the phases in the flow conduit known as the flow pattern. Several different flow patterns can exist under different flow conditions which have significant effects on liquid holdup, pressure gradient and heat transfer. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in an annulus can be found in a variety of practical situations. In high rate oil and gas production, it may be beneficial to flow fluids vertically through the annulus configuration between well tubing and casing. The flow patterns in annuli are different from pipe flow. There are both casing and tubing liquid films in slug flow and annular flow in the annulus. Multiphase heat transfer depends on the hydrodynamic behavior of the flow. There are very limited research results that can be found in the open literature for multiphase heat transfer in wellbore annuli. A mechanistic model of multiphase heat transfer is developed for different flow patterns of upward gas-liquid flow in vertical annuli. The required local flow parameters are predicted by use of the hydraulic model of steady-state multiphase flow in wellbore annuli recently developed by Yin et al. The modified heat-transfer model for single gas or liquid flow is verified by comparison with Manabe's experimental results. For different flow patterns, it is compared with modified unified Zhang et al. model based on representative diameters.

  1. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  2. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments have been performed with non-reactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies have been performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non-entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model. However heat transfer data for fluid pairs which are found to entrain (water-oil), believed to be characteristic of molten reactor core-concrete conditions, were measured to be up to two orders of magnitude greater than surface renewal predictions and are calculated by a simple entrainment heat transfer model

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, 510 x 3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen using cold and warm noncondensible (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0 to 90 K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate a degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over noncondensible pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  5. Liquid-metal-gas heat exchanger for HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a liquid metal heat exchanger (HE) for a helium-cooled high temperature reactor. A tube-type heat exchanger is considered as well as two direct exchangers: a bubble-type heat exchanger and a heat exchanger according to the spray principle. Experiments are made in order to determine the gas content of bubble-type heat exchangers, the dependence of the droplet diameter on the nozzle diameter, the falling speed of the droplets, the velocity of the liquid jet, and the temperature variation of liquid jets. The computer codes developed for HE calculation are structured so that they may be used for gas/liquid HE, too. Each type of HE that is dealt with is designed by accousting for a technical and an economic assessment. The liquid-lead jet spray is preferred to all other types because of its small space occupied and its simple design. It shall be used in near future in the HTR by the name of lead/helium HE. (GL) [de

  6. Local studies in horizontal gas-liquid slug flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Lewis, S.; Kojasoy, G.

    1998-01-01

    The local axial velocity profile development in a horizontal air-water slug flow-pattern was experimentally investigated by simultaneously using two hot-film anemometers. One of the probes was exclusively used as phase identifier while the other probe was traversed for local velocity measurements. It was shown that the velocity rapidly develops into asymmetric but nearly fully-developed profiles within the liquid slugs whereas the velocity never develops into quasi-fully-developed profiles within the liquid layer underneath passing gas slugs. Transient nature of velocity at a given location was demonstrated. (author)

  7. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, J.P.; Eperonnat, P.; Lions, N.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [fr

  8. Overview of U.S. DOE's Natural Gas-to-Liquids RD and D program and commercialization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, V.K.; Guthrie, H.D.; Avellanet, R.A.; Driscoll, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas, which is comprised mostly of methane, is one of our most abundant natural resources, both in the U.S. and world wide. In the United States alone, recoverable natural gas resources are several times its current estimate of reserves, 166 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Unfortunately, many of these resources are located offshore or in remote areas. High transportation costs, or complete lack of any transportation mechanism, prohibits extensive use of this 'stranded' natural resource. To overcome this limitation, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a highly diversified gas-to-liquids research program to evaluate, promote and develop processes that convert natural gas into higher value products (i.e., liquid fuels) which will offset the high transportation costs and allow use of this untapped, environmentally friendly resource. By advancing technologies to convert unmarketable gas resources into valuable products, cooperative efforts between DOE and industry could yield the following benefits by 20 10: (1) Our shortfall in domestic production of oil will be reduced by 200,000 to 500,000 barrels per day of high quality transportation fuel made from Alaska's North Slope gas resources; (2) Advanced gas-to-liquids conversion technology that yields ultra clean burning diesel fuels that meet the most stringent emissions requirements, at costs competitive with those of comparable fuels made from crude oils, will be utilized; and (3) Small-scale gas-to-liquids technology for both natural gas liquefaction and chemical conversion to higher hydrocarbon liquids will provide an economic and environmentally sound option for utilization of the associated gas of remote offshore oil reservoirs, and also for onshore gas reservoirs without pipeline access. In summary, development of efficient gas conversion technologies will enhance U.S. energy security, reduce dependence on oil imports and strengthen the economic

  9. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  10. Multiscale Simulation of Gas Film Lubrication During Liquid Droplet Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Khare, Prashant; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2012-02-01

    Droplet collision plays an elementary role in dense spray combustion process. When two droplets approach each other, a gas film forms in between. The pressure generated within the film prevents motion of approaching droplets. This fluid mechanics is fluid film lubrication that occurs when opposing bearing surfaces are completely separated by fluid film. The lubrication flow in gas film decides the collision outcome, coalescence or bouncing. Present study focuses on gas film drainage process over a wide range of Weber numbers during equal- and unequal-sized droplet collision. The formulation is based on complete set of conservation equations for both liquid and surrounding gas phases. An improved volume-of-fluid technique, augmented by an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm, is used to track liquid/gas interfaces. A unique thickness-based refinement algorithm based on topology of interfacial flow is developed and implemented to efficiently resolve the multiscale problem. The grid size on interface is up O(10-4) of droplet size with a max resolution of 0.015 μm. An advanced visualization technique using the Ray-tracing methodology is used to gain direct insights to detailed physics. Theories are established by analyzing the characteristics of shape changing and flow evolution.

  11. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  12. Characterizations of gas purge valves for liquid alignment and gas removal in a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thakur, Raviraj; Wereley, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    Two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gas purge valves for excessive gas removal in general lab-on-a-chip applications are presented in this paper. Both valves are devised based on a three-layer configuration comprising a top layer for liquid channels, a membrane and a bottom layer for gas channels. The pneumatic valves work as a normal gateway for fluids when the membrane is bulged down (open state) by vacuum or pushed up (closed state) by pressure. In the closed state, the air in front of a liquid can be removed through a small notch or a permeable PDMS membrane by compressing the liquid. The purge valve with a small notch across its valve seat, termed surface-tension (ST) valve, can be operated with pressure under 11.5 kPa. The liquid is mainly retained by the surface tension resulting from the hydrophobic channel walls. In contrast, the purge valve with vacuum-filled grooves adjacent to a liquid channel, termed gas-permeation (GP) valve, can be operated at pressure above 5.5 kPa. Based on the principle of gas permeation, the excessive air can be slowly removed through the vent grooves. Detailed evaluations of both valves in a pneumatically driven microfluidic chip were conducted. Specifically, the purge valves enable users to remove gas and passively align liquids at desired locations without using sensing devices or feedback circuits. Finally, a rapid mixing reaction was successfully performed with the GP valves, showing their practicability as incorporated in a microfluidic chip. (paper)

  13. Price dynamics in the market for Liquid Petroleum Gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adland, Roar; Jia Haiying; Lu Jing

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of the spot freight rate in the Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) shipping market. The spot freight rate process is nonparametrically specified so that the model allows for maximal flexibility in fitting the data. The model is estimated using data for the Very Large Gas Carrier (VLGC) sector and the estimation results are compared to those of crude oil tankers available in the literature. The empirical results suggest that the LPG spot freight rate can be appropriately described by a simple linear stochastic model and does not exhibit the non-linearity found in other bulk shipping sectors

  14. The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, A.; Gogas, P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the authors test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, they use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey. They conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process in all five natural gas liquids markets.

  15. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  16. Numerical simulation of the gas-liquid interaction of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peibo; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Hongbo

    2017-05-01

    The gas-liquid interaction process of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow with a Mach number of 1.94 was investigated numerically using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) breakup model was used to calculate the droplet stripping process, and the secondary breakup process was simulated by the competition of RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) breakup model and TAB (Taylor Analogy Breakup) model. A correction of drag coefficient was proposed by considering the compressible effects and the deformation of droplets. The location and velocity models of child droplets after breakup were improved according to droplet deformation. It was found that the calculated spray features, including spray penetration, droplet size distribution and droplet velocity profile agree reasonably well with the experiment. Numerical results revealed that the streamlines of air flow could intersect with the trajectory of droplets and are deflected towards the near-wall region after they enter into spray zone around the central plane. The analysis of gas-liquid relative velocity and droplet deformation suggested that the breakup of droplets mainly occurs around the front region of the spray where gathered a large number of droplets with different sizes. The liquid trailing phenomenon of jet spray which has been discovered by the previous experiment was successfully captured, and a reasonable explanation was given based on the analysis of gas-liquid interaction process.

  17. Characterisation of Liquid Slugs in Gas-Liquid Taylor Flow in Microchannels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záloha, Petr; Křišťál, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Völkel, N.; Xuereb, C.; Aubin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2012), s. 640-649 ISSN 0009-2509 Grant - others:IMPULSE(XE) NMP2-CT-2005-011816 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gas-liquid * micro-piv * microreactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2012

  18. Liquid-liquid mixing by gas injection in a pool configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the mixing process of two immiscible liquids, in a pool configuration, by bottom gas injection. The apparatus consisted of a vertical pyrex conduit of 15.2 centimeters of internal diameter. To the lower part of the conduit was attached a porous plate through which the gas was injected. The experiments were photographically recorded. The pictures were digitized and a method was developed to quantify the mixing region thickness. This method requires knowledge of the void fraction, for each liquid, as a function of the superficial gas velocity. Because of this, void fraction was measured for the bubbly and churn flow regimes, in a pool configuration for every liquid. A new correlation, based on the drift flux model, is proposed for void fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity. It has been observed that mixing can start either in bubbly or churn flow regimes, depending on the liquid pair properties. Three mechanistic models were derived to aid in correlating the data, two for bubbly flow and one for churn flow. A transition region between these two flow regimes, was deduced, but not directly measured. A set of correlations was developed from the models and it is proposed to be implemented in current codes that model Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI). The implications that the present work has on MCCI have been described. It can be deduced that mixing between the oxidic and the metallic phases will occur during the interaction

  19. Ultrasonic Tomography Imaging for Liquid-Gas Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jaysuman PUSPPANATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to measure two-phase liquidgas flow regime by using a dual functionality ultrasonic transducer. Comparing to the common separated transmitter–receiver ultrasonic pairs transducer, the dual functionality ultrasonic transceiver is capable to produce the same measurable results hence further improvises and contributes to the hardware design improvement and system accuracy. Due to the disadvantages and the limitations of the separated ultrasonic transmitter–receiver pair, this paper presents a non-invasive ultrasonic tomography system using ultrasonic transceivers as an alternative approach. Implementation of ultrasonic transceivers, electronic measurement circuits, data acquisition system and suitable image reconstruction algorithms, the measurement of a liquid/gas flow was realized.

  20. Preconcentration in gas or liquid phases using adsorbent thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pereira Nascimento Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of preconcentration on microchannels for organic compounds in gas or liquid phases was evaluated. Microstructures with different geometries were mechanically machined using poly(methyl methacrylate - PMMA as substrates and some cavities were covered with cellulose. The surfaces of the microchannels were modified by plasma deposition of hydrophilic or hydrophobic films using 2-propanol and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, respectively. Double layers of HMDS + 2-propanol were also used. Adsorption characterization was made by Quartz Crystal Measurements (QCM technique using reactants in a large polarity range that showed the adsorption ability of the structures depends more on the films used than on the capillary phenomena. Cellulose modified by double layer film showed a high retention capacity for all gaseous compounds tested. However, structures without plasma deposition showed low retention capacity. Microchannels modified with double layers or 2-propanol plasma films showed higher retention than non-modified ones on gas or liquid phase.

  1. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CADDET UK National Team.

    1997-01-01

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  2. Description of the Gas Transport through Dynamic Liquid Membrane.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchytil, Petr; Setničková, Kateřina; Tseng, H.-H.; Šíma, Vladimír; Petričkovič, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 184, AUG 31 (2017), s. 152-157 ISSN 1383-5866 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MOST-16-04 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gas separation * liquid membrane * solurion-diffusion model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  3. Liquid water transport mechanism in the gas diffusion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Wu, C.W. [State Key Laboratory of Structure Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-01

    We developed an equivalent capillary model of a microscale fiber-fence structure to study the microscale evolution and transport of liquid in a porous media and to reveal the basic principles of water transport in gas diffusion layer (GDL). Analytical solutions using the model show that a positive hydraulic pressure is needed to drive the liquid water to penetrate through the porous GDL even consisting of the hydrophilic fibers. Several possible contributions for the water configuration, such as capillary pressure, gravity, vapor condensation, wettability and microstructures of the GDL, are discussed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that the distribution manners of the fibers and the spatial mixed-wettability in the GDL also play an important role in the transport of liquid water. (author)

  4. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (ne) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d104d1 2D3/2-3d104p1 2P3/2 at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (Te) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ˜590 nm.

  5. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Farrell, Helen [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Howard, James [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Raterman, Kevin [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Silpngarmlert, Suntichai [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Martin, Kenneth [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Bruce [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Perry [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  6. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Gmehling, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarani, Babak [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gmehling, Juergen, E-mail: gmehling@tech.chem.uni-oldenburg.d [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  9. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  10. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  11. Prediction of vapour-liquid equilibria for the kinetic study of processes based on synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Serio, M.; Tesser, R.; Cozzolino, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    Syngas is normally used in the production of a broad range of chemicals and fuels. In many of these processes multiphase reactors, gas-liquid or gas-liquid-solid are used. Kinetic studies in multiphase systems are often complicated by the non-ideal behaviour of reagents and/or products that are consistently partitioned between the liquid and the vapour phase. Moreover, as often kinetic data are collected in batch conditions for the liquid phase, activity coefficients of the partitioned components can consistently change during the time as a consequence of changing the composition of the reaction mixture. Therefore, it is necessary, in these cases, to known the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) in order to collect and to interpret correctly the kinetic data. The description of phase equilibria, at high pressures, is usually performed by means of an EOS (Equation of State) allowing the calculation of fugacity coefficients, for each component, in both phases and determining the partition coefficients but the EOS approach involves the experimental determination of the interaction parameters for all the possible binary system of the mixture. For multicomponent mixtures a complete experimental determination of vapourliquid equilibria is very hard, also considering the high pressure and temperatures used. Some predictive group contribution methods have been recently developed. In this paper, we will describe in detail the application of these methods to the methanol homologation, as an example, with the scope of determining more reliable kinetic parameters for this reaction. (orig.)

  12. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  13. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera Frank Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  14. Miniaturized Planar Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrochemical Gas Sensor for Rapid Multiple Gas Pollutants Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Yin, Heyu; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    The growing impact of airborne pollutants and explosive gases on human health and occupational safety has escalated the demand of sensors to monitor hazardous gases. This paper presents a new miniaturized planar electrochemical gas sensor for rapid measurement of multiple gaseous hazards. The gas sensor features a porous polytetrafluoroethylene substrate that enables fast gas diffusion and room temperature ionic liquid as the electrolyte. Metal sputtering was utilized for platinum electrodes fabrication to enhance adhesion between the electrodes and the substrate. Together with carefully selected electrochemical methods, the miniaturized gas sensor is capable of measuring multiple gases including oxygen, methane, ozone and sulfur dioxide that are important to human health and safety. Compared to its manually-assembled Clark-cell predecessor, this sensor provides better sensitivity, linearity and repeatability, as validated for oxygen monitoring. With solid performance, fast response and miniaturized size, this sensor is promising for deployment in wearable devices for real-time point-of-exposure gas pollutant monitoring.

  15. Layerless fabrication with continuous liquid interface production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusziewicz, Rima; Tumbleston, John R; Quintanilla, Adam L; Mecham, Sue J; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-10-18

    Despite the increasing popularity of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), the technique has not developed beyond the realm of rapid prototyping. This confinement of the field can be attributed to the inherent flaws of layer-by-layer printing and, in particular, anisotropic mechanical properties that depend on print direction, visible by the staircasing surface finish effect. Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is an alternative approach to AM that capitalizes on the fundamental principle of oxygen-inhibited photopolymerization to generate a continual liquid interface of uncured resin between the growing part and the exposure window. This interface eliminates the necessity of an iterative layer-by-layer process, allowing for continuous production. Herein we report the advantages of continuous production, specifically the fabrication of layerless parts. These advantages enable the fabrication of large overhangs without the use of supports, reduction of the staircasing effect without compromising fabrication time, and isotropic mechanical properties. Combined, these advantages result in multiple indicators of layerless and monolithic fabrication using CLIP technology.

  16. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chen; Zhihui Yan; Yang Yang; Hongli Gao; Shunhua Yang; Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA), the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD), axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization eff...

  17. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  18. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (approx.750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases (G) at ambient pressure and room temperature were: GN 2 (1), LN 2 (18), GHe(1), and LHe(172). The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  19. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (about 750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases at ambient pressure and room temperature are presented. The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  20. Industrial aspects of gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture begins by reviewing the various types of plant in which two phase flow occurs. Specifically, boiling plant, condensing plant and pipelines are reviewed, and the various two phase flow problems occurring in them are described. Of course, many other kinds of chemical engineering plant involve two phase flow, but are somewhat outside the scope of this lecture. This would include distillation columns, vapor-liquid separators, absorption towers etc. Other areas of industrial two phase flow which have been omitted for space reasons from this lecture are those concerned with gas/solids, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid flows. There then follows a description of some of the two phase flow processes which are relevant in industrial equipment and where special problems occur. The topics chosen are as follows: (1) pressure drop; (2) horizontal tubes - separation effects non-uniformites in heat transfer coefficient, effect of bends on dryout; (3) multicomponent mixtures - effects in pool boiling, mass transfer effects in condensation and Marangoni effects; (4) flow distribution - manifold problems in single phase flow, separation effects at a single T-junction in two phase flow and distribution in manifolds in two phase flow; (5) instability - oscillatory instability, special forms of instability in cryogenic systems; (6) nucleate boiling - effect of variability of surface, unresolved problems in forced convective nucleate boiling; and (7) shell side flows - flow patterns, cross flow boiling, condensation in cross flow

  1. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  2. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  3. Gas--liquid equilibria in mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Lin, H M; Chao, K C

    1978-12-01

    Gas--liquid equilibrium conditions in binary mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene were experimentally determined at temperature of 190 to 430/sup 0/C and pressures to 250 atm in a flow apparatus. The same apparatus was also employed to measure the vapor pressure of thianaphthene. Comparisons of the new mixture data with Chao--Seader and Grayson--Streed correlations show that both correlations predict the thianaphthene equilibrium ratios well but are in error by up to about 45 and 35% respectively for K-values of hydrogen. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  5. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph

    2001-07-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  6. Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)

  7. About the statistical description of gas-liquid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, D.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Carrica, P. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Elements of the probabilistic geometry are used to derive the bubble coalescence term of the statistical description of gas liquid flows. It is shown that the Boltzmann`s hypothesis, that leads to the kinetic theory of dilute gases, is not appropriate for this kind of flows. The resulting integro-differential transport equation is numerically integrated to study the flow development in slender bubble columns. The solution remarkably predicts the transition from bubbly to slug flow pattern. Moreover, a bubbly bimodal size distribution is predicted, which has already been observed experimentally.

  8. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  9. Furfural production using ionic liquids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Rivas, Sandra; Alonso, José Luis; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Furfural, a platform chemical with a bright future, is commercially obtained by acidic processing of xylan-containing biomass in aqueous media. Ionic liquids (ILs) can be employed in processed for furfural manufacture as additives, as catalysts and/or as reaction media. Depending on the IL utilized, externally added catalysts (usually, Lewis acids, Brönsted acids and/or solid acid catalysts) can be necessary to achieve high reaction yields. Oppositely, acidic ionic liquids (AILs) can perform as both solvents and catalysts, enabling the direct conversion of suitable substrates (pentoses, pentosans or xylan-containing biomass) into furfural. Operating in IL-containing media, the furfural yields can be improved when the product is continuously removed along the reaction (for example, by stripping or extraction), to avoid unwanted side-reactions leading to furfural consumption. These topics are reviewed, as well as the major challenges involved in the large scale utilization of ILs for furfural production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zpif's law in the liquid gas phase transition of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.

    1999-01-01

    Zpif's law in the field of linguistics is tested in the nuclear disassembly within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list shows exactly inversely to its rank, i.e., there exists Zpif's law, at the phase transition temperature. This novel criterion shall be helpful to search the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the finite size scaling of the effective phase transition temperature at which the Zpif's law appears is studied for several systems with different mass and the critical exponents of ν and β are tentatively extracted. (orig.)

  11. Response of small pitot tubes in gas-liquid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure rise experienced by a pitot tube immersed in a bubbly gas-liquid mixture flow exceeds that predicted by homogeneous flow analysis under conditions where the pitot is smaller than the mean bubble size. A systematic dependence of the deviation from homogeneous flow analysis exists, depending upon the mixture void fraction. A maximum effect is observed at a void fraction of 0.60, where the pressure rise was found to be 1.73 times the predicted stagnation pressure rise or 0.87 of the mixture momentum flux density. The magnitude of these effects is comparable with similar effects reported elsewhere for gas/solid mixture flow due to relative motion between phases in the vicinity of the sensing probe tip. (orig.)

  12. Saturation characteristics of liquid rare gas ionization chambers and recombination luminescence in liquid rare gas scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tan; Konno, Satoshi; Kubota, Shinzo; Nakamoto, Jun; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro.

    1978-01-01

    From the saturation characteristics of liquid rare gases (Ar and Xe), the mean distance between electrons and ions. W-value, and the ratio of freely diffusion electrons were determined on the basis of the theory of Onsager. Their relationships with the scintillation due to recombination are also discussed. In the first part of this report, an analytic equation for the probability that an electron escapes from preferential recombination under the existence of an electric field is derived. The equation was then numerically solved with a computer code developed by Freeman. The adjusted parameters and the results of calculations for both Xe and Ar are presented together with the experimental results. Some discrepancy appeared between the analytical and the experimental results when the electric field was weak, and it is ascribable to the existence of the columnar (cluster) recombination and the effect of attachment due to the pulse method employed in the experiments. In the second part, the effect of electric field on the scintillation of liquid rare gases is considered, based on the theory of Onsager. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  14. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  15. An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

    2007-08-01

    The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

  16. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  17. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  18. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  19. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  20. Hydrodynamics in a pressurized cocurrent gas-liquid trickle bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, Wino J.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of gas density on total external liquid hold-up, pressure drop and gas-liquid interfacial area, under trickle-flow conditions, and the transition to pulse flow have been investigated with nitrogen or helium as the gas phase up to 7.5 MPa. It is concluded that the hydrodynamics depends

  1. Parallelization of simulation code for liquid-gas model of lattice-gas fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Wataru; Ebihara, Kenichi; Kume, Etsuo; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2000-03-01

    A simulation code for hydrodynamical phenomena which is based on the liquid-gas model of lattice-gas fluid is parallelized by using MPI (Message Passing Interface) library. The parallelized code can be applied to the larger size of the simulations than the non-parallelized code. The calculation times of the parallelized code on VPP500 (Vector-Parallel super computer with dispersed memory units), AP3000 (Scalar-parallel server with dispersed memory units), and a workstation cluster decreased in inverse proportion to the number of processors. (author)

  2. Gas-liquid two-phase flows in double inlet cyclones for natural gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Shuli; Wen, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow within a double inlet cyclone for natural gasseparation was numerically simulated using the discrete phase model. The numericalapproach was validated with the experimental data, and the comparison resultsagreed well with each other. The simulation results showed...... that the strong swirlingflow produced a high centrifugal force to remove the particles from the gas mixture.The larger particles moved downward on the internal surface and were removeddue to the outer vortex near the wall. Most of the tiny particles went into the innervortex zones and escaped from the up...

  3. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  4. Liquid metal-to-gas leak-detection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlin, E.; Witherspoon, J.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is desirable for liquid-metal-cooled reactors that small liquid metal-to-gas leaks be reliably detected. Testing has been performed on a number of detection systems to evaluate their sensitivity, response time, and performance characteristics. This testing has been scheduled in three phases. The first phase was aimed at screening out the least suitable detectors and optimizing the performance of the most promising. In the second phase, candidates were tested in a 1500 ft 3 walk-in type enclosure in which leaks were simulated on 24-in. and 3-in. piping. In the third phase of testing, selected type detectors were tested in the 1500-ft 3 enclosure with Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) pipe insulation configurations and detector tubing configuration with cell gas recirculation simulated. Endurance testing of detection equipment was also performed as part of this effort. Test results have been shown that aerosol-type detectors will reliably detect leaks as small as a few grams per hour when sampling pipe insulation annuli

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  6. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from pyrolysis of Bangladeshi bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Rofiqul; Tushar, M.S.H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Tire wastes in the form of used bicycle/rickshaw tires available in Bangladesh were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields and liquid product composition. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtain liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly. (author)

  7. Gas holdup in a reciprocating plate bioreactor: Non-Newtonian - liquid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseva Olivera S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas holdup was studied in non-newtonian liquids in a gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reciprocating plate bioreactor. Aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC; Lucel, Lučane, Yugoslavia of different degrees of polymerization (PP 200 and PP 1000 and concentration (0,5 and 1%, polypropylene spheres (diameter 8.3 mm; fraction of spheres: 3.8 and 6.6% by volume and air were used as the liquid, solid and gas phase. The gas holdup was found to be dependent on the vibration rate, the superficial gas velocity, volume fraction of solid particles and Theological properties of the liquid ohase. Both in the gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems studied, the gas holdup increased with increasing vibration rate and gas flow rate. The gas holdup was higher in three-phase systems than in two-phase ones under otter operating conditions being the same. Generally the gas holdup increased with increasing the volume fraction of solid particles, due to the dispersion action of the solid particles, and decreased with increasing non-Newtonian behaviour (decreasing flow index i.e. with increasing degree of polymerization and solution concentration of CMC applied, as a result of gas bubble coalescence.

  8. The effect of the gas-liquid density ratio on the liquid film thickness in vertical upward annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    2010-01-01

    Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provide the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρ L /ρ G =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it was found that liquid film thickness characteristics including the effect of liquid/gas density ratios were well correlated with a gas Weber number and the liquid Reynolds number in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρ L /ρ G : 31-763, We: 10-1800, Re L : 500-2200). (author)

  9. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (n{sub e}) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d{sup 10}4d{sup 1} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3d{sup 10}4p{sup 1} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ∼590 nm.

  10. Analyses of liquid-gas two-phase flow in fermentation tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Takashi; Serizawa, Akimi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawara, Zensaku; Gofuku, Akio; Kataoka, Isao.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of two-phase flow is one of the important problems for both design and safety analyses of various engineering systems. For example, the flow conditions in beer fermentation tanks have an influence on the quality of production and productivity of tank. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical calculation code based on the one-pressure two-fluid model is developed to understand the circulation structure of low quality liquid-gas two-phase flows induced by bubble plume in a tank. (author)

  11. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  12. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  13. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  14. Hydrogen gettering the overpressure gas from highly radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; Schicker, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    Remediation of current inventories of high-activity radioactive liquid waste (HALW) requires transportation of Type-B quantities of radioactive material, possibly up to several hundred liters. However, the only currently certified packaging is limited to quantities of 50 ml (0.01 gal) quantities of Type-B radioactive liquid. Efforts are under way to recertify the existing packaging to allow the shipment of up to 4 L (1.1 gal) of Type-B quantities of HALW, but significantly larger packaging could be needed in the future. Scoping studies and preliminary designs have identified the feasibility of retrofitting an insert into existing casks, allowing the transport of up to 380 L (100 gal) of HALW. However, the insert design and ultimate certification strategy depend heavily on the gas-generating attributes of the HALW. A non-vented containment vessel filled with HALW, in the absence of any gas-mitigation technologies, poses a deflagration threat and, therefore, gas generation, specifically hydrogen generation, must be reliably controlled during all phases of transportation. Two techniques are available to mitigate hydrogen accumulation: recombiners and getters. Getters have an advantage over recombiners in that oxides are not required to react with the hydrogen. A test plan was developed to evaluate three forms of getter material in the presence of both simulated HALW and the gases that are produced by the HALW. These tests demonstrated that getters can react with hydrogen in the presence of simulated waste and in the presence of several other gases generated by the HALW, such as nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Although the use of such a gettering system has been shown to be technically feasible, only a preliminary design for its use has been completed. No further development is planned until the requirement for bulk transport of Type-B quantities of HALW is more thoroughly defined

  15. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  16. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA, the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD, axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization effect of gas-liquid is enhanced with the increasing of the gas pressure drop. Under the constant gas pressure drop, the injector has an optimal liquid pressure drop under which the atomization performance is best.

  17. Gas liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Test procedures for the gas/liquid sampler. Characterization of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF, sealed in canisters at KW-Basin is needed to determine the state of storing SNF wet. Samples of the liquid and the gas in the closed canisters will be taken to gain characterization information. Sampling equipment has been designed to retrieve gas and liquid from the closed canisters in KW basin. This plan is written to outline the test requirements for this developmental sampling equipment

  18. Study of the rise of gas bubbles in a viscous liquid. Stability and speed. Bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Gilbert

    1969-01-01

    This short thesis reports a bibliographical study on the movement of gas bubbles in viscous liquids. The author addresses the formation of gas bubbles in liquids of different viscosity (devices used for the formation of bubbles in viscous liquids, formation of bubbles at a hole), and the behaviour of bubbles rising in viscous liquids and more particularly the speed and shape of these bubbles [fr

  19. Study of radiolysis products of natural organic materials by means of gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogocki, D.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical methods based on gas chromatography for identification determination of products arising during food irradiation have been presented. Behind the classics version of the methods one has shown also combined methods being the on-line connection of gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy as well as gas chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The applicability as well as weakness and advantages of each version have been discussed on the context of food irradiation. 11 refs, 7 figs

  20. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  1. Price impact on Russian gas production and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examines the prospects for Russian gas output and export under different price development. Growth of gas production and transportation costs, following an increase of gas export and production, is estimated. An attempt is made to determine the relation of efficient (from the point of view of gas companies) gas export volumes to prices on external energy markets. The paper presents a quantitative estimate of the possible impact of domestic gas price policy on gas output in Western Siberia. (author)

  2. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospore production using liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... using liquid culture in a bioreactor ... less time required, in comparison to fermentation on solid substratum. ... blastospores in liquid medium, the present study evalua- ... liquid-culture studies, conidia were produced by inoculating Sabou- .... a 250 ml baffled shaker flask containing 50 ml of Sabouraud.

  3. Porous Metal Filters for Gas and Liquid Applications in the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth, Rubow

    2009-01-01

    Sintered metal media are ideally suited for use in the most demanding industrial applications where long life is required and often other media are not cost-effective solution. As examples, filtration technology utilizing sintered metal media provides excellent performance in numerous liquid/solids and gas/solid separation applications found in the handling and processing of fluids containing radioactive materials. Many types of filter media, ranging from single use (disposable) to semi-permanent, are utilized today for separation of particulate matter. However, semi-permanent media are usually cleanable, either on or off-line, and are intended for sustainable, often multi-year, operating life in harsh environments. These harsh environments, which may involve corrosive fluids, high temperatures, high pressures or pressure spikes, often requiring continuous filtration service, are ideally suited for all-metal filtration systems employing semi-permanent sintered metal media. Sintered metal media, usually fabricated into tubular metal elements, have proven high particle removal efficiency and demonstrated reliability that uniquely afford excellent performance for demanding liquid/solids and gas/solids separation processes. The filter element and, in certain cases, the entire filter are weldable; therefore, the inherent sealing eliminates the need for potentially problematic seals. These media provide a positive barrier to ensure particulate removal to protect downstream equipment, for product separation, and/or to meet health, safety and environmental regulations. Typical applications for sintered metal media include: 1) gas and liquid filter systems used in various nuclear and radioactive waste processing applications, 2) an all-metal High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter developed under Department of Energy (DOE) funding as an alternative to traditional HEPA filters fabricated with conventional glass fibers used on High Level Waste (HLW) tank ventilation

  4. Liquid fuel production from hemicellulose. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    Hemicellulose was derived from a variety of pretreated wood substrates. A variety of different fungi was screened for the ability of their culture filtrates to hydrolyse hemicellulose to its composite sugars. Three strains of Clostridia were screened to see which could produce higher amounts of solvents from those sugars. C. acetobutylicum proved to produce highest amounts of butanol and conditions for maximum solvent production by this anaerobe were defined. Six strains of facultative anaerobes were screened for their ability to produce power solvents from hemicellulose derived sugars. Klebsiella pneumoniae could efficiently utilize all the major sugars present in wood hemicellulose with 2,3-butanediol being the major end product. The conditions for maximum diol production by K. pneumoniae grown on sugars normally found in hemicellulose hydrolysates were defined. The utilization of wood hemicellulose hydrolyzates by microorganisms for the production of liquid fuels was investigated. Pretreatment of aspen wood by steam-explosion was optimized with respect to maximizing the pentosan yields in the water-soluble fractions of steam-treated substrates. These fractions were then hydrolyzed by dilute sulphuric acid or by the xylanase enzyme(s) present in the culture filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum. The relative efficiencies of hydrolysis were compared with respect to the release of reducing sugars and monosaccharides. The hemicellulose hydrolyzates were then used as substrates for fermentation. Butanediol yields of 0.4-0.5 g per g of sugar consumed were achieved using K. pneumoniae up to 0.16 g butanol could be attained per g of hemicellulose sugar utilized. 102 refs., 50 figs., 169 tabs.

  5. Foam films as thin liquid gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Müller, Hans Joachim; Möhwald, Helmuth; Krastev, Rumen

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we testify the feasibility of using freestanding foam films as a thin liquid gas separation membrane. Diminishing bubble method was used as a tool to measure the permeability of pure gases like argon, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to atmospheric air. All components of the foam film including the nature of the tail (fluorocarbon vs hydrocarbon), charge on the headgroup (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) and the thickness of the water core (Newton black film vs Common black film) were systematically varied to understand the permeation phenomena of pure gases. Overall results indicate that the permeability values for different gases are in accordance with magnitude of their molecular diameter. A smaller gaseous molecule permeates faster than the larger ones, indicating a new realm of application for foam films as size selective separation membranes.

  6. U.S. natural gas liquids supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    United States supply and demand situation for natural gas liquids (NGL) was reviewed. The presentation was in four parts: (1) key assumptions for U.S. NGL supply and demand, (2) specific balances for ethane, propane, and butane, (3) some of the key changes now occurring at the customer level, and how these might affect NGLs, and (4) a suggestion of where the future might deviate from projections so severely that projections could be fundamentally wrong. Despite such 'exogenous variables' higher demand projections downstream in the chemical industry were said to be appearing, albeit in scattered fashion. It was estimated that even fractionally higher economic growth could add 3.5 billion pounds to ethylene demand in the USA in the year 2005. 15 figs

  7. Qualification of a novel deepwater gas / liquid separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    The implementation of subsea boosting and processing systems is becoming a common development scheme for the development of deep and ultra-deep water fields. Those subsea processing systems shall address the mechanical and functional constraints that are imposed by the deepwater installation and operation along with the obvious reliability requirements. Saipem has developed a deepwater gas separation and liquid boosting system that encompasses a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and unsteady multiphase input streams and a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The system is composed of an array of vertical pipes that contributes in providing the required separation and liquid hold up volumes. The reduced diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes, as compared with the equivalent single separation vessel, is particularly suited in deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure services. Furthermore, the system relies on the gravity separation whose efficiency is ensured by its ability to accommodate large variety of input flowrate and un-steady regimes. In the continuous effort of providing reliable and proven process solutions to the market, Saipem has undertaken a qualification program focused to characterise and demonstrate the system versatility and separation performances, that will involve model testing in multiphase conditions. (Author)

  8. Optics of Confined Liquid Crystals for Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, William; Carrozzi, Daniel; Vigilia, Lee Anne; Wang, Xiaoyurui; Guzman, Violet; Shibayev, Petr; Fordham University Students of Undergraduate Physics Team

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) of a wide range of viscosities were studied experimentally in relation to their use as gas sensors and sensors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), specifically ethanol, cyclohexane, toluene, acetic acid, and pyridine. CLCs were obtained by mixing low molar mass liquid crystals (MBBA and cholesterol derivatives with siloxane based oligomers). The droplets of CLCs were placed in containers with controlled atmospheres. The shift of the selective reflection band, predominantly from shorter to longer wavelengths, and the color changes were observed in the CLC illuminated by light coming from the various directions. Visible optical changes were observed in droplets with viscosities of CLCs ranging from c.a. 4 Pa*s to 105 Pa*s. The most responsive droplets in which the shift of the selective reflection band occurs at lower concentrations of VOCs were prepared from CLC mixtures with the lowest viscosities. Higher viscosities of CLCs lead to a slower response to VOCs, but the rate of response is different for each pair of VOC and CLC with a certain viscosity. This finding opens a possibility for selective detection of VOCs by CLCs with different viscosities. The mechanism of VOCs diffusion, interaction with CLC matrix and optical changes is discusse

  9. Estimation of gas wall shear stress in horizontal stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.H.; Behnia, M.

    1996-01-01

    Two-phase pipe flows occur in many industrial applications, such as condensers and evaporators, chemical processing equipment, nuclear reactors, and oil pipelines. A variety of basic mechanistic flow models for predicting the pressure gradient and liquid loading characteristics of these types of flows to assist in design calculations has emerged over the past two decades, especially for the stratified and slug flow regimes. These models generally rely on a number of basic assumptions and empirical closure equations. Possibly the most notable of these relates to the evaluation of interfacial shear stresses. However, one of the most important yet least discussed assumptions used in most of these models is that the phase wall shear stresses can be accurately estimated from correlations developed for single-phase pipe flows. The object of this article is to present measurements of gas wall shear up to locations in close proximity to the gas-liquid interface for a variety of interface conditions in developed flow, and to determine the effects of the interface on average gas wall friction factors. In this context the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy

  10. Degradation of gas-liquid gliding arc discharge on Acid Orange II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.H.; Liu, Y.N.; Bo, Zh.; Li, X.D.; Cen, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH value, initial concentration of dye solution and temperature on the degradation efficiency of Acid Orange II (AO7) using gas-liquid gliding arc discharge were investigated. The influences of pH value and temperature on degradation efficiency were not apparent. Increasing initial solution concentration caused the decrease of degradation rate and the increase of absolute degradation quantity. Considering energy efficiency and absolute degradation quantity, the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge is fit for treating high concentration organic wastewater. A possible mineralization pathway was proposed through the analysis of intermediate products detected by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Hydroxyl radicals reacted with the azo linkage-bearing carbon of a hydroxy-substituted ring, leading to the cleavage of -C-N- and degradation of AO7. The solution biodegradability was significantly improved (BOD 5 /COD from 0.02 to 0.43). The toxicity of intermediate products was lower than that of the initial Acid Orange II

  11. Direct numerical simulation of stratified gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, P.; De Angelis, V.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-01-01

    Interactions through an interface between two turbulent flows play an important role in many environmental and industrial problems, e.g. in determining the coupling fluxes of heat mass and momentum, between the ocean and atmosphere, and in the design of gas-liquid contractors for the chemical industry, as well as in determining interactions between phases in nuclear transients that are accompanied by system voiding e.g. LOCAs. Here, the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the interaction of two turbulent fluids through a flat interface has been simulated. The flow and the temperature fields are computed using a pseudospectral method. This study shows that shear stress at the interface correlates well with the heat flux. Extensive analysis of the near interface turbulence structure has been performed using quadrant analysis. From this it is clear that gas-side sweeps dominate over the high shear stress regions. This suggests that simple parameterizations based on sweep frequency may be adequate for predictions of scalar transport rates

  12. Cooling of a microchannel with thin evaporating liquid film sheared by dry gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabova, Yu O.; Kuznetsov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A joint motion of thin liquid film and dry gas in a microchannel is investigated numerically at different values of initial concentration of the liquid vapor in the gas phase, taking into account the evaporation process. Major factors affecting the temperature distribution in the liquid and the gas phases are as follows: transfer of heat by liquid and gas flows, heat loses due to evaporation, diffusion heat exchange. Comparisons of the numerical results for the case of the dry gas and for the case of equilibrium concentration of vapor in the gas have been carried out. It is shown that use of dry gas enhances the heat dissipation from the heater. It is found out that not only intense evaporation occurs near the heating areas, but also in both cases vapor condensation takes place below the heater in streamwise direction.

  13. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  14. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  15. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  16. potential for liquid biofuel production in the southern african region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... There has been a sustained and growing interest in the production of liquid fuel from biomass in recent years. ... This work looks at the energy situation in South Africa and especially the liquid fuel sector and explores the ...... alcohol production.http://www.lowcvp.org.uk/assets/reports/HGCA%20RR61.

  17. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  18. Characteristics of Gas-liquid Mass Transfer and Interfacial Area in a Bubble Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dae Ho; Yoo, Dong Jun; Kang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of gas-liquid mass transfer and interfacial area were investigated in a bubble column of diameter and height of 0.102 m and 2.5 m, respectively. Effects of gas and liquid velocities on the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k L a), interfacial area (a) and liquid side true mass transfer coefficient (k L ) were examined. The interfacial area and volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient were determined directly by adopting the simultaneous physical desorption of O 2 and chemical absorption of CO 2 in the column. The values of k L a and a increased with increasing gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid velocity in the bubble column which was operated in the churn turbulent flow regime. The value of k L increased with increasing gas velocity but did not change considerably with increasing liquid velocity. The liquid side mass transfer was found to be related closely to the liquid circulation as well as the effective contacting frequency between the bubbles and liquid phases

  19. Characteristics of Gas-liquid Mass Transfer and Interfacial Area in a Bubble Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dae Ho; Yoo, Dong Jun; Kang, Yong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Characteristics of gas-liquid mass transfer and interfacial area were investigated in a bubble column of diameter and height of 0.102 m and 2.5 m, respectively. Effects of gas and liquid velocities on the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k{sub L}a), interfacial area (a) and liquid side true mass transfer coefficient (k{sub L}) were examined. The interfacial area and volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient were determined directly by adopting the simultaneous physical desorption of O{sub 2} and chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} in the column. The values of k{sub L}a and a increased with increasing gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid velocity in the bubble column which was operated in the churn turbulent flow regime. The value of k{sub L} increased with increasing gas velocity but did not change considerably with increasing liquid velocity. The liquid side mass transfer was found to be related closely to the liquid circulation as well as the effective contacting frequency between the bubbles and liquid phases.

  20. Comparative determination of phenytoin by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, enzyme immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.; Ibanez, J.; DiCesare, J.L.; Adams, R.F.; Malkus, H.

    1978-01-01

    Sera from patients being treated with phenytoin were analyzed for the drug by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, radioimmunoasay, enzyme immunoassay, and liquid chromatography. The assay values obtained were intercompared statistically. Enzyme immunoassay and liquid chromatography appear to be attractive alternatives to the more traditional methods of spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. Our radioimmunoassay data correlated poorly with results by the four other methods

  1. Gas–liquid flow in stirred reactors: Trailing vortices and gas accumulation behind impeller blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranade, V.; Deshpande, Vaibhav R.

    1999-01-01

    In a gas–liquid stirred reactor, gas tends to accumulate in low-pressure regions behind the impeller blades. Such gas accumulation significantly alters impeller performance characteristics. We have computationally investigated gas–liquid flow generated by a Rushton (disc) turbine. Rotating Rushton

  2. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  3. Diffusivity measurements in some organic solvents by a gas-liquid diaphragm cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases In liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process Is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  4. Diffusivity Measurements in Some Organic Solvents by a Gas-Liquid Diaphragm Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases in liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  5. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas....../liquid streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  6. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Li, He-Ping, E-mail: liheping@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nie, Qiu-Yue [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A–X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  7. Use of membrane separation processes for the separation of radionuclides from liquid and gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladisavljevic, G.T.; Rajkovic, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Use of membranes for the separation and recovery of radionuclides from contaminated liquid and gas streams has been discussed in this paper. The special attention has been paid to the use of ion-exchange membranes for electrodialysis and Donnan dialysis, as well as the use of facilitated liquid membranes for liquid pertraction. (author)

  8. Composite hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors for olefin/paraffin separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Visser, Tymen; Assen, R.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Gas¿liquid membrane contactors frequently suffer from undesired wetting of the microporous membrane by the absorption liquid. Stabilization layers at the liquid-side of the microporous membrane potentially prevent this wetting. We apply such stabilized membranes in a membrane contactor using AgNO3

  9. Control of ROS and RNS productions in liquid in atmospheric pressure plasma-jet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Ito, Taiki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Ikeda, Junichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma jets are of current interest in biomedical applications such as wound disinfection and even treatment of cancer tumors. Beneficial therapeutic effects in medical applications are attributed to excited species of oxygen and nitrogen from air. However, to control the production of these species in the plasma jet is difficult because their production is strongly dependent on concentration of nitrogen and oxygen from ambient air into the plasma jet. In this study, we analyze the discharge characteristics and the ROS and RNS productions in liquid in low- and high-frequency plasma-jet systems. Our experiments demonstrated the marked effects of surrounding gas near the plasma jet on ROS and RNS productions in liquid. By controlling the surround gas, the O2 and N2 main plasma jets are selectively produced even in open air. We also show that the concentration ratio of NO2- to H2O2 in liquid is precisely tuned from 0 to 0.18 in deionized water by changing N2 gas ratio (N2 / (N2 +O2)) in the main discharge gas, where high NO2- ratio is obtained at N2 gas ratio at N2 / (N2 +O2) = 0 . 8 . The low-frequency plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas is an effective plasma source for ROS and RNS productions in liquid, and can be a useful tool for biomedical applications. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  10. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Data acquisition and quantitative analysis of stable hydrogen isotope in liquid and gas in the liquid phase catalytic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, K. R.; Cheong, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    A pilot plant for the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange process was built and has been operating to test the hydrophobic catalyst developed to remove the tritium generated at the CANDU nuclear power plants. The methods of quantitative analysis of hydrogen stable isotope were compared. Infrared spectroscopy was used for the liquid samples, and gas chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas showed the best result for gas samples. Also, a data acquisition system was developed to record the operation parameters. This record was very useful to investigate the causes of the system trip

  12. Convection Study by PIV Method Within Horizontal Liquid Layer Evaporating Into Inert Gas Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreta Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the experimental study of convection in a horizontal evaporating liquid layer (ethanol of limited size under the action of gas flow (air. The two-dimensional velocity field in the liquid layer is obtained using the PIV method. The existence of a vortex convective flow within a liquid layer directed towards the gas flow has been revealed.

  13. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  14. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  15. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  16. HTGR-Integrated Coal To Liquids Production Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Wood, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to 'shift' the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700 C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: (1) 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66

  17. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-01-01

    to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down the production decline curve

  18. Coupling of a two phase gas liquid 3D Darcy flow in fractured porous media with a 1D free gas flow

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner , Konstantin; Masson , Roland; Trenty , Laurent; Zhang , Yumeng

    2015-01-01

    A model coupling a three dimensional gas liquid compositional Darcy flow in a frac-tured porous medium, and a one dimensional compositional free gas flow is presented. The coupling conditions at the interface between the gallery and the porous medium account for the molar normal fluxes continuity for each component, the gas liquid thermody-namical equilibrium, the gas pressure continuity and the gas and liquid molar fractions continuity. The fractures are represented as interfaces of codimens...

  19. Characterization of the liquid products obtained in tyre pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laresgoiti, M.F.; Caballero, B.M.; De Marco, I.; Torres, A.; Cabrero, M.A.; Chomon, M.J. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros de Bilbao, Alda. Urquijo s/n, Bilbao 48013 (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    Cross-section samples (2-3cm wide), representative of a whole car tyre, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm{sup 3} autoclave at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700C. Over 500C there is no effect of temperature on gases and liquids yields ({approx}17 and 38%, respectively). Tyre pyrolysis liquids have been characterized, including elemental analysis, gross calorific value (GCV), gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and distillation. Tyre derived liquids are a complex mixture of C{sub 6}-C{sub 24} organic compounds, with a lot of aromatics (53.4-74.8%), some nitrogenated (2.47-3.5%) and some oxygenated compounds (2.29-4.85%). They have GCV (42MJkg{sup -1}) even higher than those specified for commercial heating oils, but sulphur contents (1-1.4%) near or slightly over the law limit value. Significant quantities of valuable light hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene, limonene, etc. were obtained. The concentration of these compounds increase with temperature up to 500C and then decrease. There are an important proportion of polycyclic aromatics such as naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, fluorenes, diphenlys, etc.; their concentration as well as that of total aromatics increases significantly with temperature. Distillation data of the 500C oils showed that {approx}20% have the boiling range of light naphtha (<160C), {approx}10% of heavy naphtha (160-204C) and {approx}35% of middle distillate (204-350C). As far as distillation data are concerned, the tyre oil fractions with the same boiling range as commercial automotive diesel oils and heating diesel oils fulfil the present specifications of such commercial products.

  20. Crystal-liquid-gas phase transitions and thermodynamic similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Skripov, Vladimir P; Schmelzer, Jurn W P

    2006-01-01

    Professor Skripov obtained worldwide recognition with his monograph ""Metastable liquids"", published in English by Wiley & Sons. Based upon this work and another monograph published only in Russia, this book investigates the behavior of melting line and the properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phase of simple substances across a wide range of pressures, including metastable states of the coexisting phases. The authors derive new relations for the thermodynamic similarity for liquid-vapour phase transition, as well as describing solid-liquid, liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid phase tra

  1. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  2. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  3. Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

    2014-05-01

    The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  5. Simulation of Water Level Fluctuations in a Hydraulic System Using a Coupled Liquid-Gas Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for simulating vertical water level fluctuations with coupled liquid and gas phases is presented. The Preissmann implicit scheme is used to linearize the governing equations for one-dimensional transient flow for both liquid and gas phases, and the linear system is solved using the chasing method. Some classical cases for single liquid and gas phase transients in pipelines and networks are studied to verify that the proposed methods are accurate and reliable. The implicit scheme is extended using a dynamic mesh to simulate the water level fluctuations in a U-tube and an open surge tank without consideration of the gas phase. Methods of coupling liquid and gas phases are presented and used for studying the transient process and interaction between the phases, for gas phase limited in a chamber and gas phase transported in a pipeline. In particular, two other simplified models, one neglecting the effect of the gas phase on the liquid phase and the other one coupling the liquid and gas phases asynchronously, are proposed. The numerical results indicate that the asynchronous model performs better, and are finally applied to a hydropower station with surge tanks and air shafts to simulate the water level fluctuations and air speed.

  6. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  7. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  8. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  9. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  10. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  11. Cheese whey valorisation: Production of valuable gaseous and liquid chemicals from lactose by aqueous phase reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Ruiz, J.; Oliva, M.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous phase reforming: a promising strategy for cheese whey valorisation. • In-depth understanding of the effect of the operating conditions on the process. • Process optimisation for the selective production of valuable gas and liquid products. • High P, T, lactose concentration and spatial time favour gas production. • High T, low spatial time and the use of diluted solutions maximise liquids production. - Abstract: Cheese effluent management has become an important issue owing to its high biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values. Given this scenario, this work addresses the valorisation of lactose (the largest organic constituent of this waste) by aqueous phase reforming, analysing the influence of the most important operating variables (temperature, pressure, lactose concentration and mass of catalyst/lactose mass flow rate ratio) as well as optimising the process for the production of either gaseous or liquid value-added chemicals. The carbon converted into gas, liquid and solid products varied as follows: 5–41%, 33–97% and 0–59%, respectively. The gas phase was made up of a mixture of H_2 (8–58 vol.%), CO_2 (33–85 vol.%), CO (0–15 vol.%) and CH_4 (0–14 vol.%). The liquid phase consisted of a mixture of aldehydes: 0–11%, carboxylic acids: 0–22%, monohydric alcohols: 0–23%, polyhydric-alcohols: 0–48%, C3-ketones: 4–100%, C4-ketones: 0–18%, cyclic-ketones: 0–15% and furans: 0–85%. H_2 production is favoured at high pressure, elevated temperature, employing a high amount of catalyst and a concentrated lactose solution. Liquid production is preferential using diluted lactose solutions. At high pressure, the production of C3-ketones is preferential using a high temperature and a low amount of catalyst, while a medium temperature and a high amount of catalyst favours the production of furans. The production of alcohols is preferential using medium temperature and pressure and a low amount of

  12. Interfacial instability induced by a shock wave in a gas-liquid horizontal stratified system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Chang, J.S.; Yoshida, H.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments are performed in a rectangular lucite duct equipped with the facility of generating shock waves. Piezo-type pressure transducers are used to monitor the strength and propagation velocity of the shock wave. As the liquid phase has high sound velocity, a prepulse wave system of flow amplitude travels in this phase at a speed faster than the principal shock wave. The magnitude of the transmitted wave in the liquid phase is estimated using a transmission coefficient for gas-liquid system. From the initial pressure ratio of the shock wave, the amplitude of the prepulse as well as the induced interfacial fluid velocity are calculated. The wave length and height of the ripples during the passage of the shock wave are estimated for a specific strength of shock wave moving through the phases. From the high speed photographs, the wave length of the ripples can be assessed. The interfacial friction factor is calculated using colebrook's equation for high speed flow. At least five distinct phenomena are observed to exist during the propagation of a shock wave. These are - (1) the energy carried by the pre-pulse is utilized in perturbing the interface; (2) shock wave induces a mass velocity at the interface; (3) the wavelength of the ripples at the interface is the product of induced interfacial mass velocity and the time period of the prepulse; (4) a portion of the liquid mass of the perturbed interface is entrained in the gas phase may be due to the hydrodynamic lift in that phase; and finally (5) waves with long wavelength are established at the interface

  13. Effect of geometric parameters of liquid-gas separator units on phase separation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Songping; Chen, Xueqing; Chen, Ying [Guangdong University of Technology, Seoul (China); Yang, Zhen [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Five liquid-gas separator units were designed and constructed based on a new concept of a validated high-performance condenser. Each separator unit consists of two united T-junctions and an apertured baffle. The separator units have different header diameters or different baffles with different diameters of the liquid-gas separation hole. The phase separation characteristics of the units were investigated at inlet air superficial velocities from 1.0m/s to 33.0m/s and water superficial velocities from 0.0015 m/s to 0..50 m/s. The experimental results showed that the liquid height, liquid flow rate through the separation hole, and liquid separation efficiency increased with increased header diameter and decreased diameter of the separation hole. The geometric structures of the separator units affected the phase separation characteristics by influencing the liquid height in the header and the liquid flow rate through the separation hole.

  14. Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart-lung machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schöttler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailänder, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic-or liquid repellent-layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24 h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.

  15. production and characterization of liquid detergents from some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    small scale industries and even, some individuals have also embarked on ... reduce cost of alkali production since the cost for the manufacture of potassium ..... Properties and Enzyme Stability in Liquid Detergent. Journal of Surfactant ...

  16. Method of processing liquid waste containing fission product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kawamura, Fumio; Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare solidification products of low surface dose by removing cesium which is main radioactive nuclides from re-processing plants. Method: Liquid wastes containing a great amount of fission products are generated accompanying the reprocessing for spent nuclear fuels. After pH adjustment, the liquid wastes are sent to a concentrator to concentrate the dissolved ingredients. The concentrated liquid wastes are pumped to an adsorption tower in which radioactive cesium contributing much to the surface dose is removed. Then, the liquid wastes are sent by way of a surge tank to a mixing tank, in which they are mixed under stirring with solidifying agents such as cements. Then, the mixture is filled in a drum-can and solidified. According to this invention, since radioactive cesium is removed before solidification, it is possible to prepare solidification products at low surface dose and facilitate the handling of the solidification products. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  18. [Mechanism of the organic pollutant degradation in water by hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-nan; Ma, Jun; Yang, Shi-dong

    2007-09-01

    The method of hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge was investigated for the removal of phenol. The results indicate that this new method can remove phenol in water effectively. The removal rate increases with increasing voltage and air aeration. The production quantity of H2O2 and O3 is measured respectively in the discharge region and the production quantity increases with increasing of voltage and air aeration. The energy consumption analysis indicates that with increasing the voltage, the increase extent of the phenol removal rate is smaller than the energy's, so the increase of energy efficiency is very small. Air aeration increases the energy consumption. At the same time, a considerable part of energy in the overall input energy makes the temperature of the solution increase, and more energy is transformed into heat, which leads to the waste of energy.

  19. Visualization and measurement of liquid velocity field of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yasushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2000-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, a possibility of re-criticality is anticipated in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. One of the mechanisms to suppress the re-criticality is the boiling of steel in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool because of the negative void reactivity effect. To evaluate the reactivity change due to boiling, it is necessary to know the characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. For this purpose, boiling bubbles in a molten fuel-steel mixture pool were simulated by adiabatic gas bubbles in a liquid metal pool to study the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture. Visualization of the two-phase mixture and measurements of liquid phase velocity and void fraction were conducted by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. From these measurements, the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. (author)

  20. Dynamic analysis of a liquid droplet and optimization of helical angles for vortex drainage gas recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Downhole vortex drainage gas recovery is a new gas production technology. So far, however, the forces and motions of liquid phase in the swirling flow field of wellbores during its field application have not been figured out. In this paper, the forces of liquid droplets in the swirling flow field of wellbores were analyzed on the basis of two-phase fluid dynamics theories. Then, the motion equations of fluid droplets along axial and radical directions were established. Magnitude comparison was performed on several typical acting forces, including Basset force, virtual mass force, Magnus force, Saffman force and Stokes force. Besides, the formula for calculating the optimal helical angle of vortex tools was established according to the principle that the vertical resultant force on fluid droplets should be the maximum. And afterwards, each acting force was comprehensively analyzed in terms of its origin, characteristics and direction based on the established force analysis model. Magnitude comparison indicates that the forces with less effect can be neglected, including virtual mass force, Basset force and convection volume force. Moreover, the vertically upward centrifugal force component occurs on the fluid droplets in swirling flow field instead of those in the conventional flow field of wellbores, which is favorable for the fluid droplets to move upward. The reliability of optimal helical angle calculation formula was verified by means of case analysis. It is demonstrated that with the decrease of well depth, the fluid-carrying capability of gas and the optimal helical angle increase. The research results in this paper have a guiding significance to the optimization design of downhole vortex tools and the field application of downhole vortex drainage gas recovery technology.

  1. [Amylase production by Aureobasidium pullulans in liquid and solid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, P B; Forchiassin, F; Segovia de Huergo, M B

    1997-01-01

    Amylase production by a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated in the laboratory was evaluated in liquid media (complex and synthetic) and in solid medium (wheat bran). There was an inhibitory effect in amylase production or amylase secretion by glucose. Asparagine was the best nitrogen source for amylase production (4-6 g/l). Only chlamidospores and melanin but not, amylase activity, were obtained with ammonium sulfate. Amylase production in solid culture was higher than the production obtained in the liquid media assayed. Optimum initial moisture content in solid culture ranged between 57 and 74%. No difference was observed in amylase production between solid media inoculated with cells grown in liquid or solid media.

  2. Influence of Gas-Liquid Interface on Temperature Wave of Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the interface on the amplitude and phase of the temperature wave and the relationship between the attenuation of the temperature wave and the gas-liquid two-phase physical parameters are studied during the operation of the pulsating heat pipe. The numerical simulation shows that the existence of the phase interface changes the direction of the temperature gradient during the propagation of the temperature wave, which increases the additional “thermal resistance.” The relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase thermal conductivity affects the propagation direction of heat flow at phase interface directly. The blockage of the gas plug causes hysteresis in the phase of the temperature wave, the relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase temperature coefficient will gradually increase the phase of the temperature wave, and the time when the heat flow reaches the peak value is also advanced. The attenuation of the temperature wave is almost irrelevant to the absolute value of the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases is related. When the temperature of the heat pipe was changed, the difference of heat storage ability between gas and liquid will lead to the phenomenon of heat reflux and becomes more pronounced with the increases of the temperature wave.

  3. Hydrodynamics in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle bed at elevated pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Wammes, W.J.A.; Middelkamp, J.; Huisman, W.J.; Huisman, W.J.; de Baas, C.M.; de Baas, C.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Data on design and operation of trickle beds at elevated pressures are scarce. In this study the influence of the gas density on the liquid holdup, the pressure drop, and the transition between trickle and pulse flow has been investigated in a tricklebed reactor operating up to 7.5 MPa and with nitrogen or helium as the gas phase. Gas-liquid interfacial areas have been determined up to 5.0 MPa by means of CO2 absorption from CO2/N2 gas mixtures into amine solutions. A comparison of the result...

  4. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  5. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  6. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  7. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  8. Characterising gas behaviour during gas-liquid co-current up-flow in packed beds using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, James HP; Sederman, Andrew John; Gladden, Lynn Faith; Afeworki, Mobae; Kushnerick, J Douglas; Thomann, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques have been used to study gas phase dynamics during co-current up-flow in a column of inner diameter 43 mm, packed with spherical non-porous elements of diameters of 1.8, 3 and 5 mm. MR measurements of gas hold-up, bubble-size distribution, and bubble-rise velocities were made as a function of flow rate and packing size. Gas and liquid flow rates were studied in the range of 20–250 cm3 s−1 and 0–200 cm3 min−1, respectively. The gas hold-up within the b...

  9. Technology and products of gas companies; Gas gaisha no Technology and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-10

    This paper presents the latest technology and products of gas companies. `Newly developed gas table for one-push automatic fish broiling` of Tokyo Gas Co. `Catalytic technology for decomposing dioxin generated by incinerator to make it harmless` of Osaka Gas Co. `Newly developed strong and kindly shower head` of Tokyo Gas Co. By laying fish on a sensor in a grill and appropriately setting upper and lower heating levers, user can skillfully broil fish only by pushing an ignition button. A temperature sensor attached to the center of a grill catches a change in surface temperature of fish, and automatically sets an appropriate broiling time according to the kind and volume of fish. A finish buzzer and automatic extinction mechanism are prepared. The technology decomposes dioxin in exhaust gas of incinerators to make it harmless. The catalyst is prepared by dispersing noble metal or oxide of several angstroms into activated carbon fibers. The shower head can switch hot water power by a control handle

  10. Source modulation-correlation measurement for fissile mass flow in gas or liquid fissile streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.; Abston, R.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of monitoring fissile mass flow on all three legs of a blending point, where the input is high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) and the product is PEU, can yield the fissile stream velocity and, with calibration, the [sup235]U content. The product of velocity and content integrated over the pipe gives the fissile mass flow in each leg. Also, the ratio of fissile contents in each pipe: HEU/LEU, HEU/PEU, and PEU/LEU, are obtained. By modulating the source on the input HEU pipe differently from that on the output pipe, the HEU gas can be tracked through the blend point. This method can be useful for monitoring flow velocity, fissile content, and fissile mass flow in HEU blenddown of UF[sub 6] if the pressures are high enough to contain some of the induced fission products. This method can also be used to monitor transfer of fissile liquids and other gases and liquids that emit radiation delayed from particle capture. These preliminary experiments with the Oak Ridge apparatus show that the method will work and the modeling is adequate

  11. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  12. Gas-phase transport of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.N.; Munkelwitz, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to show the importance of nuclear aerosol formation as a mechanism for semi-volatile fission product transport under certain postulated HTGR accident conditions. Simulated fission product Sr and Ba as oxides are impregnated in H451 graphite and released at elevated temperatures into a dry helium flow. In the presence of graphite, the oxides are quantitatively reduced to metals, which subsequently vaporize at temperatures much lower than required for the oxides alone to vaporize in the absence of graphite. A substantial fraction of the released material is associated with particulate matter, which is collected on filters located downstream at ambient temperatures. Increasing carrier-gas flow rate greatly enhances the extent of particulate transport. The release and transport of simulated fission product Ag as metal are also investigated. Electron microscopic examinations of the collected Sr and Ag aerosols show large agglomerates composed of primary particles roughly 0.06 to 0.08 μm in diameter

  13. Enhanced Membrane System for Recovery of Water from Gas-Liquid Mixtures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas-Liquid separation is an acute microgravity problem. Existing devices use centrifugal motion on microporous membranes to separate the two phases. Centrifugal...

  14. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0156] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  15. Separation of Gas Mixtures by New Type of Membranes – Dynamic Liquid Membranes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Setničková, Kateřina; Šíma, Vladimír; Petričkovič, Roman; Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Uchytil, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, FEB 29 (2016), s. 132-135 ISSN 1383-5866 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gas separation * liquid membrane * methane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  16. Hazard categorization of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the determination that the activities associated with the 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling are classified as Hazard Category Other (consequences are below criteria for Category 3)

  17. Characterisation of uremic "Middle molecular"fractions by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, isotachophoresis, and liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, A.C.; Mikkers, F.E.P.; Claessens, H.A.; Smet, de R.; Landschoot, van N.; Ringoir, S.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Uremic ultrafiltrates (and normal serum, for comparison) were fractionated by means of gel filtration. The collected fractions were further investigated by combined analytical techniques: "high- performance" liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and isotachophoresis.

  18. Purification of gas and liquid media by metal-ceramic SHS-filters

    OpenAIRE

    Geyneman, A. A.; Goncharov, V. D.; Novoselov, A. L.; Shchetinkina, N. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial samples of fine filters of gas and liquid media from mechanical microparticles have been developed. Porous permeable cermets obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis are the basis of filters

  19. Infra-Red Gas Analysers of Liquid Crystal Type for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals an opportunity to use infra-red gas analysers on the basis of the developed dichroic liquid crystal cells for investigation of absorption bands of various gases in the near infrared spectral region.

  20. Lightweight Approaches to Natural Gas Hydrate Exploration & Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lower-cost approaches to drilling and reservoir utilization are made possible by adapting both emerging and new technology to the unique, low risk NGH natural gas resource. We have focused on drilling, wellbore lining technology, and reservoir management with an emphasis on long-term sand control and adaptive mechanical stability during NGH conversion to its constituent gas and water. In addition, we suggest that there are opportunities for management of both the gas and water with respect to maintaining desired thermal conditions. Some of the unique aspects of NGH deposits allow for new, more efficient technology to be applied to development, particularly in drilling. While NGH-bearing sands are in deepwater, they are confined to depths beneath the seafloor of 1.2 kilometers or less. As a result, they will not be significantly above hydrostatic pressure, and temperatures will be less than 30 oC. Drilling will be through semi-consolidated sediment without liquid hydrocarbons. These characteristics mean that high capability drillships are not needed. What is needed is a new perspective about drilling and producing NGH. Drilling from the seafloor will resolve the high-pressure differential between a wellhead on the sea surface in a vessel and reservoir to about the hydrostatic pressure difference between the seafloor and, at most, the base of the GHSZ. Although NGH production will begin using "off-the-shelf" technology, innovation will lead to new technology that will bring down costs and increase efficiency in the same way that led to the shale breakthrough. Commercial success is possible if consideration is given to what is actually needed to produce NGH in a safe and environmentally manner. Max, M.D. 2017. Wellbore Lining for Natural Gas Hydrate. U.S. Patent Application US15644947 Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2017. E&P Cost Reduction Opportunities for Natural Gas Hydrate. OilPro. . Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2016. Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas

  1. Productive Liquid Fertilizer from Liquid Waste Tempe Industry as Revealed by Various EM4 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, S.; Letsoin, F.; Kristijanto, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, using of productive liquid fertilizer assumed as a proper and practical fertilizer for plant productivity purposes. Various ways of enrichment of liquid fertilizer were done to achieve certain quality. The purpose of this research was to determine the proper additional formulation in the process of making productive liquid fertilizer based on the various concentration of EM4 as well as comparated the result with SNI. Liquid tempe waste were collected from some tempe industries at Sidorejo Kidul village, Tingkir district, Salatiga. The concentration of EM4 which were added to the tempe wastewater are 0%; 0.20%; 0.40%; 0.60%; 0.80%; 1.00% respectively. The pH, temperature, C total, N total, C/N ratio, and PO4 3- were measured. Data was analyzed by using Randomize Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Comparison between the average, the Honestly Significance Deference (HSD) 5% was used. The results showed that the addition of EM4 indicated there were a significant progress. Moreover, the most effective formula to increase the quality of productive liquid fertilizer from liquid waste tempe was found in addition of 1.00% EM4 with the gained analysis value for the C total, N total, C/N ratio, and degree of PO4 3- as follows : 4.395 ± 1.034%; 1.470 ± 0.081%; 3.01 ± 0.756; 685.28 ± 70.44 ppm . Associated with the need fulfillment of SNI hence can be concluded that result of Productive Liquid Fertilizer (PLF) from liquid waste tempe successfully fulfill SNI of liquid fertilizer for pH parameter and total N, only.

  2. Ultrasonic measurement process of the ratio volume of gas in an enclosure containing a gas-liquid mixture to the total volume of the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Heinrich, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves with two different frequencies are sent through the fluid in the containment. Time of propagation are measured and the difference is calculated. If propagation times are identical the gas phase forms a layer on the top of the liquid phase and void fraction is determined from propagation speeds in the gas and in the liquid. If propagation times are different, part of the gas forms bubbles and void fraction is the sum of gas on top of the liquid and gas bubbles in the liquid determined separatly. Void fraction coming from the gas over the liquid is determined by waves reflected at the interface gas-liquid. Void fraction coming from the bubbles is determined by relations between the speed of ultrasonic waves and their frequency as a function of pressure and void fraction [fr

  3. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references

  4. Nitrogen oxides in the combustion products of gas cookers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, M.; Zahourek, J.

    1981-07-01

    The combustion of town gas and natural gas in two types of gas ranges manufactured in Czechoslovakia resulted in measurable amounts of NO/sub x/ in both the combustion products and the surrounding air. In all the cases tested, the amounts of NO/sub x/ given off exceeded levels permitted by current Czech standards. These results indicate that before the widespread use of any new gas ranges, their combustion products should be tested for NO/sub x/.

  5. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan; Subha Palanisamy; Senthilkumar Subramanian; Sumathi Selvaraj; Kavitha Rani Mari; Ramalingam Kuppulingam

    2016-01-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. Th...

  6. Void fraction fluctuations in two-phase gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, R.

    1987-01-01

    Designs of the apparatus in which two-phase gas-liquid flow occurs are usually based on the mean value of parameters such as pressure drop and void fraction. The flow of two-phase mixtures generally presents a very complicated flow structure, both in terms of the unsteady formation on the interfacial area and in terms of the fluctuations of the velocity, pressure and other variables within the flow. When the gas void fraction is near 0 or 1 / bubble or dispersed flow regimes / then oscillations of void fraction are very small. The intermittent flow such as plug and slug/ froth is characterized by alternately flow portions of liquid and gas. It influences the change of void fractions in time. The results of experimental research of gas void fraction fluctuations in two-phase adiabatic gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe are presented

  7. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  8. Modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems: Extensions to the volume-of-fluid solver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the extension of the volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam, for improved accuracy and efficiency when modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems. Examples of these include the transportation of liquids, such as in the case of fuel carried...

  9. INTERACTION OF LIQUID FLAT SCREENS WITH GAS FLOW RESTRICTED BY CHANNEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Aksentiev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives description of physical pattern of liquid screen interaction that are injected from the internal walls of a rectangular channel with gas flow. Criterion dependences for determination of intersection coordinates of external boundaries with longitudinal channel axis and factor of liquid screen head resistance.

  10. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  11. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    results in the solidification of the deammoniated product in stainless steel vessels designed for long term storage. The process was developed and commissioned through sequential steps. Initial testing was conducted on natural uranium nitrate based solutions followed by similar solutions with increasing levels of trace activity derived from the stored waste. The process was commissioned on stored liquid waste in 1999 and is now a routine operation. Initial processing through the concentration phase has been successful in removing 82-95% of the original liquor volume at a throughput rate of generally 4-4.5 L/h. The ammonia content in the acid waste had arisen principally from the addition of ammonia bearing condensate from the molybdenum extraction and initial purification process. This practice of combining these two liquid wastes is no longer continued but has resulted in an inventory of historical acid waste containing small concentrations of ammonia. A deammoniation process was developed to treat batches of concentrate before solidification. This processing step has been successful in reducing NH 3 -N to less than 10ppm under controlled conditions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx gasses) are a product of this chemical process and off gas is treated through a catalytic converter. Solidification to date has resulted in a product of 0.6-2.3% of the original liquor volume (or 1.7- 5.7% of the original solution weight). The solidification takes place in thick- walled once-use stainless steel vessels. The vessel is heated in a thermic oil bath with slow continuous feed of deammoniated concentrate and withdrawal of condensate. This phase is slower with throughput rates of around 1L/h decreasing to less than 0.5L/h as processing continues. When the required amount has been added to the vessel it is further heated, resulting in a product which solidifies on cooling. When this process is complete the connections to the vessel are removed and the vessel ports plugged. The vessel is then

  12. Method of calculation of tanks forced ventilation from the remnants of liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. О. Пузік

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of gasoline compared to other petroleum products in terms of feasibility of their research. Calculations of the duration of ventilation and changes in the concentration of vapors of gasoline remains in the gas space of the vertical tank with a capacity of 1000 m3 (RUS-1000. Nomogram constructed for the quantitative forecast available liquid balances petrol A-95 and the time duration ventylyaiyi RUS-1000 from the remnants of the petrol

  13. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  14. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  15. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... operating conditions and installation structures. The most severe slugs are often induced in long vertical risers or production wells, where liquid blocks gas at the riser/well base and correspondingly it causes the pressure to accumulate and hence originates the oscillating performance. There are many...... of these methods can simultaneously reduce the oil & gas production, which is a very big concern as the production rate is the key evaluation parameter for offshore production. We conclude that the slugging flow is a well-defined phenomenon, even though this subject has been extensively investigated in the past...

  16. Started the gas production; Carare - Opon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A deposit with special characteristic and commercial reserves of the order of the 700 jig cubic feet of gas, 100 kilometers of pipe of 16 inches of diameter and a processing plant with capacity of 125 million cubic feet of gas per day, they entered in operation, to unite to the National Plan Massive of Gas; it is the Project Carare - Opon in Colombia

  17. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  18. Visual observations of individual particle behaviour in gas and liquid fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartholt, G.P; Hoffmann, A.C; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The behaviour of the individual particles in dense gas and liquid fluidized beds and the behaviour of the jetsam particles in gas fluidized beds containing binary mixtures of different density group B powders has been observed. These visualizations have been made by means of an optical probe fitted

  19. Dynamic simulation of dispersed gas-liquid two-phase flow using a discrete bubble model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, E.; Lammers, F.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a detailed hydrodynamic model for gas-liquid two-phase flow will be presented. The model is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and describes the time-dependent two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a bubble column operating in the homogeneous regime. The

  20. Isotope Fractionation in Methane Reactions Studied by Gas Chromatography and Liquid Scintillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Bidoglio, G.; Leip, A.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of C-14-marked methane by gas chromatography and liquid scintillation counting is shown to be useful in studies of isotope effects. Data on the specific activity is used to separate the contributions of (CH4)-C-14, and (CH4)-C-12 to the gas-chromatographic peak area. As an application...

  1. Transient effects caused by pulsed gas and liquid injections into low pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, D; Goeckner, M; Overzet, L; Chung, C W

    2010-01-01

    The fast injection of liquid droplets into a glow discharge causes significant time variations in the pressure, the chemical composition of the gas and the phases present (liquid and/or solid along with gas). While the variations can be large and important, very few studies, especially kinetic studies, have been published. In this paper we examine the changes brought about in argon plasma by injecting Ar (gas), N 2 (gas) hexane (gas) and hexane (liquid droplets). The changes in the RF capacitively coupled power (forward and reflected), electron and ion density (n e , n i ), electron temperature (T e ) and optical emissions were monitored during the injections. It was found that the Ar injection (pressure change only) caused expected variations. The electron temperature reduced, the plasma density increased and the optical emission intensity remained nearly constant. The N 2 and hexane gas injections (chemical composition and pressure changes) also followed expected trends. The plasma densities increased and electron temperature decreased while the optical emissions changed from argon to the injected gas. These all serve to highlight the fact that the injection of evaporating hexane droplets in the plasma caused very little change. This is because the number of injected droplets is too small to noticeably affect the plasma, even though the shift in the chemical composition of the gas caused by evaporation from those same droplets can be very significant. The net conclusion is that using liquid droplets to inject precursors for low pressure plasmas is both feasible and controllable.

  2. Liquid-gas phase transition and isospin fractionation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in the heavy ion collisions and nuclear matter has been an important topic and got achievements, such as, based on the studies by H.Q. Song et al the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition enhances with increasing the mass of system and reduces as the increase of the neutron proton ratio of system. As authors know that both the liquid-gas phase transition and the isospin fractionation occur in the spinodal instability region at the nuclear density below the normal nuclear density. In particular, these two dynamical processes lead to the separation of nuclear matter into the liquid phase and gas phase. In this case to compare their dynamical behaviors is interested. The authors investigate the dependence of isospin fractionation degree on the mass and neutron proton ratio of system by using the isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The authors found that the degree of isospin fractionation (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf decreases with increasing the mass of the system. This is just similar to the enhance of the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition T c as the increase of system mass. Because the enhance of T c is not favorable for the liquid-gas transition taking place, which reduces the isospin fractionation process and leads to decrease of (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf . However the degree of isospin fractionation enhances with increasing the neutron proton ratio of the system. It is just corresponding to the reduce of T c of the liquid-gas phase transition as the increase of the isospin fractionation of the system. Because the reduce of T c enhances the liquid-gas phase transition process and also prompts the isospin fractionation process leading the increase of the isospin fractionation degree. To sum up, there are very similar dynamical behaviors for the degree of isospin fractionation and the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition. So dynamical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition can

  3. Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benny, H.L.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ''good'' grout, which will resist liquid release

  4. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm 2 ). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [fr

  5. Magnetic resonance velocity imaging of liquid and gas two-phase flow in packed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, M H; Holland, D J; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F

    2009-02-01

    Single-phase liquid flow in porous media such as bead packs and model fixed bed reactors has been well studied by MRI. To some extent this early work represents the necessary preliminary research to address the more challenging problem of two-phase flow of gas and liquid within these systems. In this paper, we present images of both the gas and liquid velocities during stable liquid-gas flow of water and SF(6) within a packing of 5mm spheres contained within columns of diameter 40 and 27 mm; images being acquired using (1)H and (19)F observation for the water and SF(6), respectively. Liquid and gas flow rates calculated from the velocity images are in agreement with macroscopic flow rate measurements to within 7% and 5%, respectively. In addition to the information obtained directly from these images, the ability to measure liquid and gas flow fields within the same sample environment will enable us to explore the validity of assumptions used in numerical modelling of two-phase flows.

  6. The speed of sound in a gas-vapour bubbly liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2015-10-06

    In addition to the vapour of the liquid, bubbles in cavitating flows usually contain also a certain amount of permanent gas that diffuses out of the liquid as they grow. This paper presents a simplified linear model for the propagation of monochromatic pressure waves in a bubbly liquid with these characteristics. Phase change effects are included in detail, while the gas is assumed to follow a polytropic law. It is shown that even a small amount of permanent gas can have a major effect on the behaviour of the system. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency range, which is of special concern in flow cavitation. Numerical results for water and liquid oxygen illustrate the implications of the model.

  7. Experimental studies on hydrogen isotopic deuterium from gas to liquid phase by catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yangming; Wang Heyi; Liu Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Wang Changbin; Han Jun; Xia Xiulong; Tang Lei

    2005-01-01

    The experimental studies on hydrogen isotopic deuterium from gas to liquid phase were completed by mixed ratio 1:4 of Pt-SDB hydrophobic catalyst and hydrophilic packing. The influencing factors on number of transfer units (NTU) and transformation efficiencies of deuterium were researched. The results show that preferable NTU can be obtained by choosing suitable operational temperature and flux of exchange gas. The transformation rate increases with increasing liquid flux, but it cannot obviously be improved when liquid flux attains some level. The length of catalytic column has an obvious influence on transformation rate and 90% of transformation rate is obtained by 4 m column length at gas flux with 2 m 3 /h, liquid flux with 1-2 kg/h and 45 degree C. (author)

  8. FORTRAN program for calculating liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion column coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program (COLCO) was developed for calculating thermal diffusion column coefficients from theory. The program, which is written in FORTRAN IV, can be used for both liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion columns. Column coefficients for the gas phase can be based on gas properties calculated from kinetic theory using tables of omega integrals or on tables of compiled physical properties as functions of temperature. Column coefficients for the liquid phase can be based on compiled physical property tables. Program listings, test data, sample output, and users manual are supplied for appendices

  9. Numerical simulation study of gas-liquid reactive mass transfer along corrugated sheets with interface tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, Y.

    2008-11-01

    This work is done within the framework of gas treatment and CO 2 capture process development. The main objective of the present work is to fill the gap between classical experiments and industrial conditions by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical problem considered corresponds to the liquid film flow down a corrugate surface under gravity in present of a gas phase. The chemical species in the gas phase absorb in the liquid phase and react. Numerical calculations are carried out in order to determine the impact of physical and geometrical properties on reactive mass transfer in industrial operating conditions. (author)

  10. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...

  11. Plasmachemical oxidation processes in a hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, Petr; Locke, Bruce R [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, Florida (United States)

    2005-11-21

    Oxidation processes induced in water by pulsed electrical discharges generated simultaneously in the gas phase in close proximity to the water surface and directly in the liquid were investigated in a hybrid series gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor. The mechanism of phenol degradation was studied through its dependence on the gas phase and liquid phase compositions using pure argon and oxygen atmospheres above the liquid and different initial pH values in the aqueous solution. Phenol degradation was significantly enhanced in the hybrid-series reactor compared with the phenol removal by the single-liquid phase discharge reactor. Under an argon atmosphere the mechanism of phenol degradation was mainly caused by the electrophilic attack of OH{center_dot} radicals produced by the liquid phase discharge directly in water and OH{center_dot} radicals produced by the gas phase discharge at the gas-liquid interface. Under an oxygen atmosphere the formation of gaseous ozone dominated over the formation of OH{center_dot} radicals, and the contribution of the gas phase discharge in this case was determined mainly by the dissolution of gaseous ozone into the water and its subsequent interaction with phenol. At high pH phenol was degraded, in addition to the direct attack by ozone, also through indirect reactions of OH{center_dot} radicals formed via a peroxone process by the decomposition of dissolved ozone by hydrogen peroxide produced by the liquid phase discharge. Such a mechanism was proved by the detection of cis,cis-muconic acid and pH-dependent degradation of phenol, which resulted in significantly higher removal of phenol from alkaline solution observed under oxygen atmosphere than in argon.

  12. Plasmachemical oxidation processes in a hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, Petr; Locke, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation processes induced in water by pulsed electrical discharges generated simultaneously in the gas phase in close proximity to the water surface and directly in the liquid were investigated in a hybrid series gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor. The mechanism of phenol degradation was studied through its dependence on the gas phase and liquid phase compositions using pure argon and oxygen atmospheres above the liquid and different initial pH values in the aqueous solution. Phenol degradation was significantly enhanced in the hybrid-series reactor compared with the phenol removal by the single-liquid phase discharge reactor. Under an argon atmosphere the mechanism of phenol degradation was mainly caused by the electrophilic attack of OH· radicals produced by the liquid phase discharge directly in water and OH· radicals produced by the gas phase discharge at the gas-liquid interface. Under an oxygen atmosphere the formation of gaseous ozone dominated over the formation of OH· radicals, and the contribution of the gas phase discharge in this case was determined mainly by the dissolution of gaseous ozone into the water and its subsequent interaction with phenol. At high pH phenol was degraded, in addition to the direct attack by ozone, also through indirect reactions of OH· radicals formed via a peroxone process by the decomposition of dissolved ozone by hydrogen peroxide produced by the liquid phase discharge. Such a mechanism was proved by the detection of cis,cis-muconic acid and pH-dependent degradation of phenol, which resulted in significantly higher removal of phenol from alkaline solution observed under oxygen atmosphere than in argon

  13. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Hydrate Growth on a Gas-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    We develop a continuum-scale phase-field model to study gas-liquid-hydrate systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We design a Gibbs free energy functional for methane-water mixtures that recovers the isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The proposed free energy is incorporated into a phase-field model to study the dynamics of hydrate formation on a gas-liquid interface. We elucidate the role of initial aqueous concentration in determining the direction of hydrate growth at the interface, in agreement with experimental observations. Our model also reveals two stages of hydrate growth at an interface—controlled by a crossover in how methane is supplied from the gas and liquid phases—which could explain the persistence of gas conduits in hydrate-bearing sediments and other nonequilibrium phenomena commonly observed in natural methane hydrate systems.

  14. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  16. USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol production has drawn much attention in recent years. However, there remain significant technical challenges before such production can be considered as economically feasible at an industrial scale. Among them, the efficient conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is one of the most challenging technical difficulties in cellulosic ethanol production. Use of ionic liquids has opened new avenues to solve this problem by two different pathways. One is pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids to increase its enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. The other is to transform the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic biomass from a heterogeneous reaction system to a homogeneous one by dissolving it into ionic liquids, thus improving its hydrolysis efficiency.

  17. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as

  18. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  19. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2017-12-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  20. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz W

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green's function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  1. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-03-19

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and

  2. Study of deformation of droplet in external force field by using liquid-gas model of lattice-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2000-10-01

    The deformation of the droplet by the external force which is assumed to be gravity is studied by using the liquid-gas model of lattice-gas. Two types of liquid-gas models, one is the minimal model and the other is the maximal model, which are distinguished from each other by the added long-range interactions are used for the simulation of the droplet deformation. The difference of the droplet deformation between the maximal model and the minimal model was observed. While the droplet of the minimal model elongates in the direction of the external force, the droplet of the maximal model elongates in the perpendicular direction to the external force. Therefore the droplet deformation in the external force field of the maximal model is more similar to the droplet deformation which is observed in experiments than that of the minimal model. (author)

  3. Drift-flux parameters for upward gas flow in stagnant liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio

    1987-01-01

    The drift-flux model is widely used for gas-liquid two phase flow analysis, because it is applicable to various flow patterns and a wide range of void fractions. The drift-flux parameters for upward gas flow in stagnant liquid, however, have not been well examined. In this study, the distribution parameter C o and the drift velocity V gj for stagnant liquid were derived from the void fraction correlation and boundary conditions of drift-flux parameters, and then compared with C o and V gj for high liquid velocities. Also using the two region model where a circular flow area was divided into an inner region of cocurrent up-flow and an outer annulus region of liquid down flow, C o and V gj for stagnant liquid and for high liquid velocity were compared. The results showed that C o values for stagnant liquid were larger than values for high liquid velocity, while V gj values were almost the same for both cases. (author)

  4. Nanotechnology for the production of stone material from fiery liquid technogenic waste to produce products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Neviedomskyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research presents the nanotechnology of fire-liquid technogenic waste transferred into rock material and the manufacture of various products and constructions using this material. The crystallization of the fusion at temperatures of maximum pyroxene emission is 1000–900°С, the duration of crystallization and its dependence on the dimensions, thickness of castings for the purpose of excluding the subsequent machining of manufactured products are investigated. The results of experimental investigations on finding physical-mechanical and deformation features of rock materials according to high temperatures within 600–1000°С are given. The results of investigation on the reinforcement of products made of rock material are also presented. On the basis of these investigations, the container technology for the disposal of radioactive waste, pesticides and herbicides, as well as pavement plate, foundation blocks, weighing material for the pipes of oil and gas pipelines has been developed. The problem of energy saving and environmental safety is solved using this nanotechnology and investigation

  5. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  6. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  7. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history

  8. Relationship between gas production and starch degradation in feed samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, W.Z.; Gelder, van A.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was completed of the possibilities to estimate starch fermentation in rumen fluid using the gas production technique by incubating the total sample. Gas production from six starchy feed ingredients and eight maize silage samples were recorded and related to starch degradation

  9. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior

  10. Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Beaujean, H.W.R.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Haas, P.A.; Levins, D.M.; Woods, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO 2 with residual amounts of N 2 , O 2 , and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO 2 ) process employs liquid CO 2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

  11. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  13. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on cocurrent downtake gas-liquid flow in a vertical channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovetskij, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Hydraulic resistance and liquid stall from the film surface at cocurrent film and gas downflow in vertical channel in measurement range of reynolds number from 100 to 1260 for the film and from 1.2x10 4 to 10 5 for gas are studied. For downflow two regimes are characteristic: purely annular, that is separate phase flow regime, and the regime of stall and carrying liquid droplets from the film surface, that is annular dispersed flow regime. The existence boundaries of both regimes are determined and criterial equations for pressure drop calculation are obtained. It is established experimentally that at sufficient range from the liquid input place on the working zone the established two-phase flow takes place. In their nucleus two areas can be singled out, which differ by the flow density values of stalled liquid: central, having the permanent flow density value and area adjacent to the film surface, the liquid in the combs of waves making a significant contribution to the flow density value. At equal flooding density with the relative gas speed increase, the flow density value of stalled liquid in the channel central part increase. A similar result also takes place at flooding density increase at permanent relative speed. Flooding density and relative speed increase leads to levelling stalled liquid distribution about the channel cross section

  15. Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Michael

    2014-10-01

    One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR

  16. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  17. The Experimental Study of Dynamics of Scaled Gas-Filled Bubble Collapse in Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    The article provides results of analyzing special features of the single-bubble sonoluminescence, developing the special apparatus to investigate this phenomenon on a larger-scale basis. Certain very important effects of high energy density physics, i.e. liquid compressibility, shock-wave formation under the collapse of the gas cavity in liquid, shock-wave focusing in the gas-filled cavity, occurrence of hot dense plasma in the focusing area, and high-temperature radiation yield are observed in this phenomenon. Specificity of the process is conditioned by the ``ideal'' preparation and sphericity of the gas-and-liquid contact boundary what makes the collapse process efficient due to the reduced influence of hydrodynamic instabilities. Results of experimental investigations; results of developing the facilities, description of methods used to register parameters of facilities and the system under consideration; analytical estimates how gas-filled bubbles evolve in liquid with the regard for scale effects; results of preliminary 1-D gas dynamic calculations of the gas bubble evolution are presented. The work supported by ISTC Project #2116.

  18. Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Production of Nitric Acid by the Use of Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabljanac, Ž.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the dual-pressure process of nitric acid production. The process of selective catalytic reduction is carried out using the TiO2/WO3 heterogeneous catalyst applied on a ceramic honeycomb structure with a high geometric surface area per volume. The process design parameters for nitric acid production by the dual-pressure procedure in a capacity range from 75 to 100 % in comparison with designed capacity for one production line is shown in the Table 1. Shown is the effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction in the temperature range of the tail gas from 180 to 230 °C with direct application of liquid ammonia, without prior evaporation to gaseous state. The results of inlet and outlet concentrations of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the nitric acid production process are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 shows the temperature dependence of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2in the tail gas of nitric acid production with the application of a constant mass flow of liquid ammonia of 13,0 kg h-1 and average inlet mass concentration of the nitrous oxides expressed as NO2of 800,0 mgm-3 during 100 % production capacity. The specially designed liquid-ammonia direct-dosing system along with the effective homogenization of the tail gas resulted in emission levels of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2 in tail gas ranging from 100,0 to 185,0 mg m-3. The applied low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of the nitrous oxides in the tail gases by direct use of liquid ammonia is shown in Figure 4. It is shown that low-temperature selective catalytic reduction with direct application of liquid ammonia opens a new opportunity in the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions during nitric acid production without the risk of dangerous ammonium nitrate occurring in the process of subsequent energy utilization of

  19. Influence of liquid viscosity and surface tension on the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for solid foam packings in co-current two-phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Bartelds, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient and other hydrodynamic parameters such as liquid holdup and frictional pressure drop are presented for gas and liquid moving in co-current upflow and downflow through solid foam packings of 10 and of 40 pores per linear inch (ppi). The effect of increasing

  20. Liquid natural gas occupies an increasing position in the energy mix of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the profitability of using liquid natural gas (LNG) depends on the fluctuations of the gas price, LNG will play an increasing role in the ''energy mix'' of the USA. The amount of LNG imported by the USA rose by 175% from 1998 to 2001. There are at present four receiving stations for LNG in the USA and they will probably be extended. Plans to build gas-powered power stations in California will increase the demand for natural gas in the coming years. Several companies have announced their desire to build receiving stations for LNG. There is, however, some opposition from environmentalists

  1. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, Petr [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Clupek, Martin [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Babicky, Vaclav [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Janda, Vaclav [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 160 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sunka, Pavel [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2005-02-07

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min{sup -1}), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h{sup -1} for 40% argon content.

  2. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Janda, Vaclav; Sunka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min -1 ), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O 2 mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h -1 for 40% argon content

  3. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  4. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa

    2018-03-06

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

  5. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  6. Statistic characteristics of the gas-liquid flow in a vertical minichannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, I. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.

    2010-03-01

    The gas-liquid upward flow was studied in a rectangular minichannel of 1.75×3.8 mm and length of 0.7 m. The experiments were carried out within the range of the gas superficial velocity from 0.1 to 10 m/s and the liquid superficial velocity from 0.07 to 0.7 m/s for the co-current H2O/CO2 flow under the conditions of saturation. The method for the two-beam laser scanning of structure and determination of statistic characteristics of the two-phase flow was worked through. The slug-bubble, slug, transitional, churn, and annular flows were distinguished. The statistics characteristics of liquid and gas phases motion in a minichannel were obtained for the first time including the velocities of phase motion.

  7. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation for the gas and liquid sampling activities associated with the fuel characterization program at the 100 K West (KW) fuel storage basin. The scope of this safety evaluation is limited to the movement of canisters between the main storage basin, weasel pit, and south loadout pit transfer channel (also known as the decapping station); gas and liquid sampling of fuel canisters in the weasel pit; mobile laboratory preliminary sample analysis in or near the 105 KW basin building; and the placement of sample containers in an approved shipping container. It was concluded that the activities and potential accident consequences associated with the gas and liquid sampling of 100 KW fuel canisters are bounded by the current safety basis documents and do not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question

  8. Gas and liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Work Plan for the design and fabrication of gas/liquid sampler for closed canister sampling in KW Basin. This document defines the tasks associated with the design, fabrication, assembly, and acceptance testing equipment necessary for gas and liquid sampling of the Mark I and Mark II canisters in the K-West basin. The sampling of the gas space and the remaining liquid inside the closed canisters will be used to help understand any changes to the fuel elements and the canisters. Specifically, this work plan will define the scope of work and required task structure, list the technical requirements, describe design configuration control and verification methodologies, detail quality assurance requirements, and present a baseline estimate and schedule

  9. Measurement of pressure fluctuation in gas-liquid two-phase vortex street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiqiang; Sang Wenhui; Zhang Hongjian

    2009-01-01

    The pressure fluctuation in the wake is an important parameter to characterize the shedding process of gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street. This paper investigated such pressure fluctuations in a horizontal pipe using air and water as the tested fluid media. The dynamic signal representing the pressure fluctuation was acquired by the duct-wall differential pressure method. Results show that in the wake of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street, the frequency of the pressure fluctuation is linear with the Reynolds number when the volume void fraction is within the range of 18%. Moreover, the mean amplitude of the pressure fluctuation decreases with the volume void fraction, and the mean amplitude is larger at higher water flowrates under the same volume void fraction. These findings contribute to an in-depth understanding of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Gas-Liquid Flow in a T-Junction Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtruong Pham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-liquid flow in microchannels is widely used in biomedicine, nanotech, sewage treatment, and so forth. Particularly, owing to the high qualities of the microbubbles and spheres produced in microchannels, it has a great potential to be used in ultrasound imaging and controlled drug release areas; therefore, gas-liquid flow in microchannels has been the focus in recent years. In this paper, numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows in a T-junction microchannel was carried out with computational fluid dynamics (CFD software FLUENT and the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF model. The distribution of velocity, pressure, and phase of fluid in the microchannel was obtained, the pressure distribution along the channel walls was analyzed in order to give a better understanding on the formation of microbubbles in the T-junction microchannel.

  11. Analysing Gas-Liquid Flow in PEM Electrolyser Micro-Channels (Poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    One means of increasing the hydrogen yield to cost ratio of a PEM water electrolyser, is to increase the operating current density. However, at high current densities (higher than 1 A/cm2), management of heat and mass transfer in the anode current collector and channel becomes crucial and can lead...... to hot spots. Management of heat and fluid flow through the micro-channels play a great role in the capability of PEM water electrolysis when working at high current densities. Despite, many studies have been done on gas-liquid flows; still there is a lack of research on gas-liquid flows in micro......-sized channels (hydraulic diameter of 1 mm) of PEM water electrolysis. Precisely controlling all the parameters that affect the gas-liquid flow in a PEM water electrolysis cell is quite challenging, hence a simplified setup is constructed consisting of only a transparent channel with a sheet of titanium felt...

  12. Analysing Gas-Liquid Flow in PEM Electrolyser Micro-Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    and are fairly expensive. One means of increasing the hydrogen yield to cost ratio of such systems, is to increase the operating current density. However, at high current densities, management of heat and mass transfer in the anode current collector and channel becomes crucial. This entails that further...... understanding of the gas-liquid flow in both the porous media and the channel is necessary for insuring proper oxygen, water and heat management of the electrolysis cell. In this work, the patterns of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in a 5×1×94 mm micro-channel are experimentally analysed. A sheet of titanium...... felt is used as a permeable wall for permeation of air through a column of water similar to the phenomenon encountered at the anode. The transparent setup is operated ex-situ and the gas-liquid flow regimes are identified using a camera....

  13. The influence of liquid-gas velocity ratio on the noise of the cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Xuanzuo; Chen, Chi; Zhao, Zhouli; Song, Jinchun

    2018-05-01

    The noise from the cooling tower has a great influence on psychological performance of human beings. The cooling tower noise mainly consists of fan noise, falling water noise and mechanical noise. This thesis used DES turbulence model with FH-W model to simulate the flow and sound pressure field in cooling tower based on CFD software FLUENT and analyzed the influence of different kinds noise, which affected by diverse factors, on the cooling tower noise. It can be concluded that the addition of cooling water can reduce the turbulence and vortex noise of the rotor fluid field in the cooling tower at some extent, but increase the impact noise of the liquid-gas two phase. In general, the cooling tower noise decreases with the velocity ratio of liquid to gas increasing, and reaches the lowest when the velocity ratio of liquid to gas is close to l.

  14. The use of a low-cost gas-liquid flow meter to monitor severe slugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreussi, Paolo; Bonizzi, Marco; Ciandri, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    A very simple, low-cost gas-liquid flow meter that only employs conventional field instrumentation has been used to monitor severe slugging occurring at the exit of a vertical pipe. This meter was originally developed for conventional oil field applications [1] and is based on the readings...... method to monitor severe slugging by means of low cost instrumentation, in particular, by replacing a cumbersome instrument such as a gamma-densitometer with a differential pressure transmitter. In field operation, the multiphase orifice used in these experiments can be replaced by a calibrated control...... of a multiphase orifice and the pressure drops of the gas-liquid mixture flowing in a vertical section of the pipe. Liquid and gas flow rates have been determined by means of semi-empirical equations developed for the specific set of flow parameters (geometry, flow rates, physical properties) adopted in a series...

  15. The effect of surfactant on stratified and stratifying gas-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, Baptiste; Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    We consider the dynamics of a stratified/stratifying gas-liquid flow in horizontal tubes. This flow regime is characterised by the thin liquid films that drain under gravity along the pipe interior, forming a pool at the bottom of the tube, and the formation of large-amplitude waves at the gas-liquid interface. This regime is also accompanied by the detachment of droplets from the interface and their entrainment into the gas phase. We carry out an experimental study involving axial- and radial-view photography of the flow, in the presence and absence of surfactant. We show that the effect of surfactant is to reduce significantly the average diameter of the entrained droplets, through a tip-streaming mechanism. We also highlight the influence of surfactant on the characteristics of the interfacial waves, and the pressure gradient that drives the flow. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  16. Phase diagram and universality of the Lennard-Jones gas-liquid system

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The gas-liquid phase transition of the three-dimensional Lennard-Jones particles system is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The gas and liquid densities in the coexisting state are determined with high accuracy. The critical point is determined by the block density analysis of the Binder parameter with the aid of the law of rectilinear diameter. From the critical behavior of the gas-liquid coexisting density, the critical exponent of the order parameter is estimated to be β = 0.3285(7). Surface tension is estimated from interface broadening behavior due to capillary waves. From the critical behavior of the surface tension, the critical exponent of the correlation length is estimated to be ν = 0.63(4). The obtained values of β and ν are consistent with those of the Ising universality class. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Forming of film surface of very viscous liquid flowing with gas in pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernek Krystian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of the values, which are specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas liquid flow in vertical pipes, where a very-high-viscosity liquid forms a falling film in a pipe. The experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values, which characterize the two-phase flow. Attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of flow parameters and properties of the liquid on the gas-liquid interface value, which is decisive for the conditions of heat exchange and mass transfer in falling film equipment. The nature and form of created waves at various velocities were also described.

  18. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  19. Boundary effect on liquid invasion in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid invasion is an important transport phenomenon in many geophysical and environmental applications. A new capillary model considering boundary effect is proposed to reveal its mechanism. The boundary fluid layer not only reduces the effective flow radius, but also changes the viscosity of fluid. Thus the capillary force and viscosity resistance increases, however, the increase of capillary force is faster than that of viscosity resistance, therefore the invasion front arrives at the critical distance earlier.

  20. Coupling compositional liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at porous and free-flow domains interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, R., E-mail: roland.masson@unice.fr [LJAD, University Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 7351 (France); Team COFFEE INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée (France); Trenty, L., E-mail: laurent.trenty@andra.fr [Andra, Chatenay Malabry (France); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yumeng.zhang@unice.fr [LJAD, University Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 7351 (France); Team COFFEE INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée (France)

    2016-09-15

    This paper proposes an efficient splitting algorithm to solve coupled liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at the interface between a porous medium and a free-flow domain. This model is compared to the reduced model introduced in [6] using a 1D approximation of the gas free flow. For that purpose, the gas molar fraction diffusive flux at the interface in the free-flow domain is approximated by a two point flux approximation based on a low-frequency diagonal approximation of a Steklov–Poincaré type operator. The splitting algorithm and the reduced model are applied in particular to the modelling of the mass exchanges at the interface between the storage and the ventilation galleries in radioactive waste deposits.

  1. Study of gas-liquid flow in model porous media for heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Marie; Bodiguel, Hugues; Guillot, Pierre; Laboratory of the Future Team

    2015-11-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis of chemical reactions involving a gas and a liquid phase is usually achieved in fixed bed reactors. Four hydrodynamic regimes have been observed. They depend on the total flow rate and the ratio between liquid and gas flow rate. Flow properties in these regimes influence transfer rates. Rather few attempts to access local characterization have been proposed yet, though these seem to be necessary to better describe the physical mechanisms involved. In this work, we propose to mimic slices of reactor by using two-dimensional porous media. We have developed a two-dimensional system that is transparent to allow the direct observation of the flow and the phase distribution. While varying the total flow rate and the gas/liquid flow rate ratio, we observe two hydrodynamic regimes: at low flow rate, the gaseous phase is continuous (trickle flow), while it is discontinuous at higher flow rate (pulsed flow). Thanks to some image analysis techniques, we are able to quantify the local apparent liquid saturation in the system. Its fluctuations in time are characteristic of the transition between the two regimes: at low liquid flow rates, they are negligible since the liquid/gas interface is fixed, whereas at higher flow rates we observe an alternation between liquid and gas. This transition between trickle to pulsed flow is in relative good agreement with the existing state of art. However, we report in the pulsed regime important flow heterogeneities at the scale of a few pores. These heterogeneities are likely to have a strong influence on mass transfers. We acknowledge the support of Solvay.

  2. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    1979-10-01

    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  3. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physicochemical, thin layer and gas-liquid chromatographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... PEG (3 m × 3 mm I. D.) was used for gas chromatography. Physicochemical analysis ... subjected to thin layer chromatography on plates (20 × 20 cm) having 0.25 mm thick silica gel ..... Headspace solid- phase microextraction ...

  5. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of the Gas- and Particle-Phase Products of VOC Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Arkema, J.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environmental chamber studies are important for determining atmospheric reaction mechanisms and gas and aerosol products formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such information is necessary for developing detailed chemical models for use in predicting the atmospheric fate of VOCs and also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, complete characterization of atmospheric oxidation reactions, including gas- and particle-phase product yields, and reaction branching ratios, are difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the reactions of terminal and internal alkenes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx in an attempt to fully characterize the chemistry of these systems while minimizing and accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with environmental chamber experiments. Gas-phase products (aldehydes formed by alkoxy radical decomposition) and particle-phase products (alkyl nitrates, β-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls, and dihydroxycarbonyls) formed through pathways involving addition of OH to the C=C double bond as well as H-atom abstraction were identified and quantified using a suite of analytical techniques. Particle-phase products were analyzed in real time with a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer; and off-line by collection onto filters, extraction, and subsequent analysis of functional groups by derivatization-spectrophotometric methods developed in our lab. Derivatized products were also separated by liquid chromatography for molecular quantitation by UV absorbance and identification using chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Gas phase aldehydes were analyzed off-line by collection onto Tenax and a 5-channel denuder with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography, or by collection onto DNPH-coated cartridges and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography. The full product identification and quantitation, with careful

  7. Explosively fracturing a productive oil and gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1966-06-23

    In this method of fracturing an oil- or gas-producing strata, a portion of the formation adjacent to, but separated from, the producing strata is fractured. Explosives are then introduced into the fracture in this portion of the formation and thereafter detonated to fracture the productive strata. Also claimed are a method of variably controlling the extent and force of the explosives used, and a method of increasing oil and gas production from a productive strata.

  8. Modelling of gas-liquid reactors - stability and dynamic behaviour of gas-liquid mass transfer accompanied by irreversible reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, van E.P.; Borman, P.C.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour and stability of single-phase reacting systems has been investigated thoroughly in the past and design rules for stable operation are available from literature. The dynamic behaviour of gas–liquid processes is considerably more complex and has received relatively little

  9. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior in terrain-inclined pipelines for gathering transport system of wet natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2018-01-01

    The Volume of Fluid method and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model were employed to predict the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a terrain-inclined pipeline with deposited liquids. The simulation was carried out in a 22.5 m terrain-inclined pipeline with a 150 mm internal diameter...... on the liquid level under the suction force which caused by the negative pressure around the elbow, and then it touched to the top of the pipe. When the liquid blocked the pipe, the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream of the elbow increased with the increase of the gas velocity. At larger gas...

  10. Use of a Nuclear High Temperature Gas Reactor in a Coal-To-Liquids Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard A. Wood

    2006-01-01

    AREVA's High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) can potentially provide nuclear-generated, high-level heat to chemical process applications. The use of nuclear heat to help convert coal to liquid fuels is particularly attractive because of concerns about the future availability of petroleum for vehicle fuels. This report was commissioned to review the technical and economic aspects of how well this integration might actually work. The objective was to review coal liquefaction processes and propose one or more ways that nuclear process heat could be used to improve the overall process economics and performance. Shell's SCGP process was selected as the gasifier for the base case system. It operates in the range of 1250 to 1600 C to minimize the formation of tars, oil, and methane, while also maximizing the conversion of the coal's carbon to gas. Synthesis gas from this system is cooled, cleaned, reacted to produce the proper ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and fed to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction and product upgrading system. The design coal-feed rate of 18,800 ton/day produces 26.000 barrels/day of FT products. Thermal energy at approximately 850 C from a HTGR does not directly integrate into this gasification process efficiently. However, it can be used to electrolyze water to make hydrogen and oxygen, both of which can be beneficially used in the gasification/FT process. These additions then allow carbon-containing streams of carbon dioxide and FT tail-gas to be recycled in the gasifier, greatly improving the overall carbon recovery and thereby producing more FT fuel for the same coal input. The final process configuration, scaled to make the same amount of product as the base case, requires only 5,800 ton/day of coal feed. Because it has a carbon utilization of 96.9%, the process produces almost no carbon dioxide byproduct Because the nuclear-assisted process requires six AREVA reactors to supply the heat, the capital cost is high. The conventional plant is

  11. Influence of dissolved gas and temperature on the light yield of new liquid scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Buontempo, S; Golovkin, S V; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Penso, G; Soloviev, A S; Vasilchenko, V G

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen new liquid scintillators, emitting green light, were studied. They are based on four solvents combined with four dopants. The influence of different gas atmospheres was studied. In particular it was shown that by keeping these liquid scintillators in vacuum or in a neutral gas, the light yield increases up to 32~\\% at 20 $^{\\circ}$C and for the best solvent-dopant combinations. The dependance of the light yield on temperature was also studied for these scintillators. In the 20--60 $^{\\circ}$C interval, some exhibit a light yield variation of $\\sim$ 3 \\% which is smaller than that of the NE 102A plastic scintillator.

  12. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster in gas jet under liquid nitrogen temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jifeng; Yang Chaowen; Miao Jingwei; Fu Pengtao; Luo Xiaobing; Shi Miangong

    2010-01-01

    The generation of hydrogen clusters in gas jet is tested using the Rayleigh scattering method under liquid nitrogen temperature of 79 K. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster is studied and it is found that the cluster formation is greatly affected by the number of expanded molecules. The well designed liquid nitrogen cold trap ensured that the hydrogen cluster would keep maximum size for maximum 15 ms during one gas jet. The scattered light intensity exhibits a power scaling on the backing pressure ranging from 5 to 48 bar with the power value of 4.1.

  13. Understanding the formation process of the liquid slug in a hilly-terrain wet natural gas pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2017-01-01

    condition on the liquid slug formation is discussed including pipe diameter, inclination angle, gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup. The results show that the pipe is blocked by the liquid slug at the moment of slug formed. The pipe pressure suddenly increases, and then decreases gradually...... in the process of liquid slug formation and motion. The pipe pressure drop and liquid holdup decrease along with the increasing inclination angle of ascending pipe. On the contrary, they rise with the increase of the inclination angle of descending pipe. Higher gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup result...

  14. Thermocapillary and shear driven flows in gas/liquid system in annular duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, Yu; Shevtsova, V; Nepomnyashchy, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of numerical study of two-phase flows in annulus for different aspect ratios obtained in the frame of the JEREMI experiment preparation. The geometry of the physical problem is a cylindrical and non-deformable liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel under conditions of zero gravity. Thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection in liquid bridge of Pr = 68 is analyzed in the case when the interface is subjected to an axial gas stream. The gas flow is counter-directed with respect to the Marangoni flow. The inlet gas velocity U 0 g , temperature difference ΔT between end rods of the liquid bridge and aspect ratio are the control parameters of the system. In the case when the gas stream comes from the cold side, it cools down the interface to a temperature lower than that of the liquid beneath, and in a certain region of the parameter space that cooling causes instability due to a temperature difference in the direction, perpendicular to the interface. The present study is focused on the influence of the aspect ratio on the existence and characteristic features of the oscillatory regime.

  15. Maxwell's Law Based Models for Liquid and Gas Phase Diffusivities in Variably-Saturated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2012-01-01

    -s,D-l). Different percolation threshold terms adopted from recent studies for gas (D-s,D-g) and solute (D-s,D-l) diffusion were applied. For gas diffusion, epsilon(th) was a function of bulk density (total porosity), while for solute diffusion theta(th) was best described by volumetric content of finer soil...... particles (clay and organic matter), FINESvol. The resulting LIquid and GAs diffusivity and tortuosity (LIGA) models were tested against D-s,D-g and D-s,D-l data for differently-textured soils and performed well against the measured data across soil types. A sensitivity analysis using the new Maxwell's Law...... based LIGA models implied that the liquid phase but not the gaseous-phase tortuosity was controlled by soil type. The analyses also suggested very different pathways and fluid-phase connectivity for gas and solute diffusion in unsaturated soil...

  16. Production of carbon 14-labeled fumonisin in liquid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, B. A.; Miller, J. D.; Savard, M. E.

    1994-03-15

    Currently, fumonisin B{sub 1} is obtained primarily by using solid culture methods. Although fumonisin B{sub 1} concentrations obtained in solid culture are typically quite high, subsequent extraction and purification present problems. In addition, current methods utilize complex media which makes analysis of biosynthetic pathways and control mechanisms difficult. Liquid culture methods of production could eliminate many problems associated with production in solid culture. However, in the past, concentrations obtained in liquid culture have been relatively low. In this work, factors affecting the production of fumonisin B{sub 1} from a shake flask scale of 100 ml to a fermenter scale of 100 liters were examined. Best results were obtained by using a fed batch method that is nitrogen limited, with pH control. With this method, concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm can be obtained. (author)

  17. Production of carbon 14-labeled fumonisin in liquid culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, B.A.; Miller, J.D.; Savard, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, fumonisin B 1 is obtained primarily by using solid culture methods. Although fumonisin B 1 concentrations obtained in solid culture are typically quite high, subsequent extraction and purification present problems. In addition, current methods utilize complex media which makes analysis of biosynthetic pathways and control mechanisms difficult. Liquid culture methods of production could eliminate many problems associated with production in solid culture. However, in the past, concentrations obtained in liquid culture have been relatively low. In this work, factors affecting the production of fumonisin B 1 from a shake flask scale of 100 ml to a fermenter scale of 100 liters were examined. Best results were obtained by using a fed batch method that is nitrogen limited, with pH control. With this method, concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm can be obtained. (author)

  18. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This document contains phases 7, 8, and 9 of a review on the technology assessment of long distance liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines. Phase 7 contains 6 papers describing novel applications for LNG pipelines. Phase 8 contains a summary of material relating to cold utilization and rural service. Phase 9 presents a listing of materials and equipment used to construct an LNG pipeline. Separate abstracts for each phase of the study have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  19. Acoustic probe for solid-gas-liquid suspensions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The proposed research will develop an acoustic probe for monitoring particle size and volume fraction in slurries in the absence and presence of gas. The goals are to commission and verify the probe components and system operation, develop theory for the forward and inverse problems for acoustic wave propagation through a three phase medium, and experimentally verify the theoretical analysis. The acoustic probe will permit measurement of solid content in gas-liquid-solid waste slurries in tanks across the DOE complex.'

  20. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  1. Research progress of SO2 removal from flue gas by functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle SHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized ionic liquids are receiving increasing attention in the field of flue gas desulfurization due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Research progress on the field of SO2 removal by ionic liquids (ILs including guanidinium-based, amines-based and ether-based ILs is summarized. Industrial application of polymerization ILs and loaded ILs to desulfurization is reviewed. Relevant suggestions on industrial application of ionic liquids based on fundamental research are put forward. The first thing is to develop functional ionic liquid for desulfurization,and thus investigate and propose its desulfurization mechanism and model; the second is to carry out the research work on immobilized ionic liquid, and explore its recycling properties, thus prolonging its service life.

  2. World natural gas supply and demand: Brief pause in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to the 1992 CEDIGAZ (Centre International sur le Gas Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux) report on world natural gas supply and demand, this paper assesses current market and production trends in this industry. The slight drop in production in 1992, the first which has which has occurred after many consecutive years of steady increases, is ascribed to ownership disputes among the former-USSR republics and major changes in the organizational structure of the former-USSR's natural gas industry. Strong increases in demand are forecasted due to expected strong population growth and increased industrialization to take place in China and India. Price trends in natural gas should remain steady as a result of plentiful supplies of this fuel and coal, a major competitor. The use of relatively clean natural gas is suggested as a practical alternative to energy taxes now being proposed as a means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  4. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  5. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  6. Treatment of Dye Wastewater by Using a Hybrid Gas/Liquid Pulsed Discharge Plasma Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Na; Li Jie; Wu Yan; Masayuki, Sato

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid gas/liquid pulsed discharge plasma reactor using a porous ceramic tube is proposed for dye wastewater treatment. High voltage pulsed discharge plasma was generated in the gas phase and simultaneously the plasma channel was permeated through the tiny holes of the ceramic tube into the water phase accompanied by gas bubbles. The porous ceramic tube not only separated the gas phase and liquid phase but also offered an effective plasma spreading channel. The effects of the peak pulse voltage, additive gas varieties, gas bubbling rate, solution conductivity and TiO 2 addition were investigated. The results showed that this reactor was effective for dye wastewater treatment. The decoloration efficiency of Acid Orange II was enhanced with an increase in the power supplied. Under the studied conditions, 97% of Acid Orange II in aqueous solution was effectively decolored with additive oxygen gas, which was 51% higher than that with argon gas, and the increasing O 2 bubbling rate also benefited the decoloration of dye wastewater. Water conductivity had a small effect on the level of decoloration. Catalysis of TiO 2 could be induced by the pulsed discharge plasma and addition of TiO 2 aided the decoloration of Acid Orange II.

  7. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...

  8. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Different Mechanism Effect between Gas-Solid and Liquid-Solid Interface on the Three-Phase Coexistence Hydrate System Dissociation in Seawater: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost 98% of methane hydrate is stored in the seawater environment, the study of microscopic mechanism for methane hydrate dissociation on the sea floor is of great significance to the development of hydrate production, involving a three-phase coexistence system of seawater (3.5% NaCl + hydrate + methane gas. The molecular dynamics method is used to simulate the hydrate dissociation process. The dissociation of hydrate system depends on diffusion of methane molecules from partially open cages and a layer by layer breakdown of the closed cages. The presence of liquid or gas phases adjacent to the hydrate has an effect on the rate of hydrate dissociation. At the beginning of dissociation process, hydrate layers that are in contact with liquid phase dissociated faster than layers adjacent to the gas phase. As the dissociation continues, the thickness of water film near the hydrate-liquid interface became larger than the hydrate-gas interface giving more resistance to the hydrate dissociation. Dissociation rate of hydrate layers adjacent to gas phase gradually exceeds the dissociation rate of layers adjacent to the liquid phase. The difficulty of methane diffusion in the hydrate-liquid side also brings about change in dissociation rate.

  10. Natural Gas Reserves, Development and Production in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abi-Aad.

    1998-01-01

    Qatar entered the club of natural gas exporters in early 1997 when the first shipment of liquefied natural gas left the state for Japan. Qatar was helped by the discovery in 1971 of supergiant North Field gas field, the country's suitable location between the established gas consuming markets in Europe and Southeast Asia, and its proximity to developing markets in the Indian subcontinent and in neighbouring countries. All that have combined to make gas export projects from Qatar economically viable and commercially attractive. In addition to export-oriented development, increased gas production from the North Field is planned for meeting a growing domestic demand for gas as fuel and feedstock for power generation and desalination plants, as well as value-added petrochemical and fertilizer industries

  11. Pore-scale analysis of the minimum liquid film thickness around elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnini, M.; Beisel, A. M.; Ferrari, A.; Thome, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    The fluid mechanics of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows in micro-geometries is important in pore-scale flow processes for enhanced oil recovery and mobilization of colloids in unsaturated soil. The efficiency of such processes is traditionally related to the thickness of the liquid film trapped between the elongated bubble and the pore's wall, which is assumed constant. However, the surface of long bubbles presents undulations in the vicinity of the rear meniscus, which may significantly decrease the local thickness of the liquid film, thus impacting the process of interest. This study presents a systematic analysis of these undulations and the minimum film thickness induced in the range Ca = 0.001- 0.5 and Re = 0.1- 2000 . Pore-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed with a self-improved version of the opensource solver ESI OpenFOAM which is based on a Volume of Fluid method to track the gas-liquid interface. A lubrication model based on the extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory is utilized to better understand the CFD results. The profiles of the rear meniscus of the bubble obtained with the lubrication model agree fairly well with those extracted from the CFD simulations. This study shows that the Weber number of the flow, We = Ca Re , is the parameter that best describes the dynamics of the interfacial waves. When We 0.1, a larger number of wave crests becomes evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. The liquid film thickness at the crests of the undulations thins considerably as the Reynolds number is increased, down to less than 60% of the value measured in the flat film region. This may significantly influence important environmental processes, such as the detachment and mobilization of micron-sized pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms adhering at the pore's wall in unsaturated soil.

  12. Effect of Gas- and Liquid-injection Methods on Formation of Bubble and Liquid Slug at Merging Micro T-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Kyoung [Kyungnam Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chi Young [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present experimental study, the effect of gas- and liquid-injected methods on the formation of bubble and liquid slug at the merging micro T-junction of a square microchannel with dimensions 600 μm × 600 μm was investigated. Nitrogen and water were used as test fluids. The superficial velocities of the liquid and gas were in the range of 0.05 - 1 m/s, and 0.1 - 1 m/s, respectively, where the Taylor flow was observed. The bubble length, liquid slug length, bubble velocity, and bubble generation frequency were measured by analyzing the images captured using a high-speed camera. Under similar inlet superficial velocity conditions, in the case of gas injection to the main channel at the merging T-junction (T{sub g}as-liquid), the lengths of the bubble and liquid slug were longer, and the bubble generation frequency was lower than in the case of liquid injection to the main channel at the merging T-junction (T{sub l}iquid-gas). On the other hand, in both cases, the bubble velocity was almost the same. The previous correlation proposed using experimental data for T{sub l}iquid-gas had predicted the present experimental data of bubble length, bubble velocity, liquid slug length, and bubble generation frequency for T{sub g}as-liquid to be ~24%, ~9%, ~39%, ~55%, respectively.

  13. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1998-01-01

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  14. Methane-Oxidizing Enzymes: An Upstream Problem in Biological Gas-to-Liquids Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Thomas J; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2016-08-03

    Biological conversion of natural gas to liquids (Bio-GTL) represents an immense economic opportunity. In nature, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic archaea are able to selectively oxidize methane using methane monooxygenase (MMO) and methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) enzymes. Although significant progress has been made toward genetically manipulating these organisms for biotechnological applications, the enzymes themselves are slow, complex, and not recombinantly tractable in traditional industrial hosts. With turnover numbers of 0.16-13 s(-1), these enzymes pose a considerable upstream problem in the biological production of fuels or chemicals from methane. Methane oxidation enzymes will need to be engineered to be faster to enable high volumetric productivities; however, efforts to do so and to engineer simpler enzymes have been minimally successful. Moreover, known methane-oxidizing enzymes have different expression levels, carbon and energy efficiencies, require auxiliary systems for biosynthesis and function, and vary considerably in terms of complexity and reductant requirements. The pros and cons of using each methane-oxidizing enzyme for Bio-GTL are considered in detail. The future for these enzymes is bright, but a renewed focus on studying them will be critical to the successful development of biological processes that utilize methane as a feedstock.

  15. Severe slugging in gas-liquid two-phase pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.

    2012-01-01

    transportation facilities. In an offshore oil and gas production facility, pipeline-riser systems are required to transport two-phase hydrocarbons from subsurface oil and gas wells to a central production platform. Severe slugs reaching several thousands pipe diameters may occur when transporting

  16. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  17. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  18. Natural gas for power production in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The third and last part of the Sub-Committee's study on natural gas for power generation is reprinted in this issue. This part addresses gas consumption in electricity production until the year 2010. The first part of the study dealing with combined cycle power plants was published in September and the 2nd part on regulatory and environmental issues in October 1992

  19. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The previous decade has witnessed the expeditious uptake of flow chemistry techniques in modern synthesis laboratories, and flow-based chemistry is poised to significantly impact our approach to chemical preparation. The advantages of moving from classical batch synthesis to flow mode, in order to address the limitations of traditional approaches, particularly within the context of organic synthesis are now well established. Flow chemistry methodology has led to measurable improvements in safety and reduced energy consumption and has enabled the expansion of available reaction conditions. Contributions from our own laboratories have focused on the establishment of flow chemistry methods to address challenges associated with the assembly of complex targets through the development of multistep methods employing supported reagents and in-line monitoring of reaction intermediates to ensure the delivery of high quality target compounds. Recently, flow chemistry approaches have addressed the challenges associated with reactions utilizing reactive gases in classical batch synthesis. The small volumes of microreactors ameliorate the hazards of high-pressure gas reactions and enable improved mixing with the liquid phase. Established strategies for gas-liquid reactions in flow have relied on plug-flow (or segmented flow) regimes in which the gas plugs are introduced to a liquid stream and dissolution of gas relies on interfacial contact of the gas bubble with the liquid phase. This approach confers limited control over gas concentration within the liquid phase and is unsuitable for multistep methods requiring heterogeneous catalysis or solid supported reagents. We have identified the use of a gas-permeable fluoropolymer, Teflon AF-2400, as a simple method of achieving efficient gas-liquid contact to afford homogeneous solutions of reactive gases in flow. The membrane permits the transport of a wide range of gases with significant control of the stoichiometry of

  20. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  1. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... application, manure and soil together define the equilibrium distribution of labile carbon and nitrogen between bulk soil and manure hotspots. This introduces heterogeneity with respect to potential for N2O emissions, which is not represented in existing prediction models. Manure treatment and management...

  3. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  4. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J., E-mail: nana.adoo@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wang, D.F. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Wang, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. System and process for polarity swing assisted regeneration of gas selective capture liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Tegrotenhuis, Ward E.; Freeman, Charles J.; Elliott, Michael L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Humble, Paul H.; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Jian

    2017-07-18

    A polarity swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process is disclosed for improving the efficiency of releasing gases chemically bound to switchable ionic liquids. Regeneration of the SWIL involves addition of a quantity of non-polar organic compound as an anti-solvent to destabilize the SWIL, which aids in release of the chemically bound gas. The PSAR decreases gas loading of a SWIL at a given temperature and increases the rate of gas release compared to heating in the absence of anti-solvent.

  8. Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2013-01-01

    An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, the Boltzmann equation is solved for a self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in the linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of the Knudsen number of the system is calculated. (orig.)

  9. Do medium heavy fragments give evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trockel, R.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Rabe, H.J.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Wada, R.; Brummund, N.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Santo, R.; Pelte, D.; Pochodzalla, J.; Eckert, E.

    1985-09-01

    Light and medium heavy fragments have been measured in light ion induced reactions at intermediate energies. The energy spectra have been parametrized with moving source fits. The resulting temperatures and yields do not confirm the expectations of a liquid-gas phase transition. (orig.)

  10. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  11. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa; Kick, Benjamin; Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Burger, Christian; Karan, Ram; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Eppinger, Jö rg; Arold, Stefan T.

    2018-01-01

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer

  12. Droplets in annular-dispersed gas-liquid pipe-flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Westende, J.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Annular-dispersed gas-liquid pipe-flows are commonly encountered in many industrial applications, and have already been studied for many decades. However, due to the great complexity of this type of flow, there are still many phenomena that are poorly understood. The aim of this thesis is to shed

  13. Hydrodynamics in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle bed at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, W.J.A.; Middelkamp, J.; Huisman, W.J.; Huisman, W.J.; de Baas, C.M.; de Baas, C.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Data on design and operation of trickle beds at elevated pressures are scarce. In this study the influence of the gas density on the liquid holdup, the pressure drop, and the transition between trickle and pulse flow has been investigated in a tricklebed reactor operating up to 7.5 MPa and with

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF GAS-DENSITY AND LIQUID PROPERTIES ON BUBBLE BREAKUP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKINSON, PM; VANSCHAYK, A; SPRONKEN, JPM; VANDIERENDONCK, LL

    On the basis of a literature review of bubble breakup experiments, it is demonstrated that both liquid viscosity and surface tension have an influence on bubble stability and, thus, bubble breakup, for small as well as large bubbles. Possible influences of the gas properties on bubble breakup have

  15. Kinetic energy and added mass of hydrodynamically interacting gas bubbles in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    1988-01-01

    By averaging the basic equations on microscale, expressions are derived for the effective added mass density and the kinetic energy density of a mixture of liquid and gas bubbles. Due to hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles there appears to be a difference between the effective added mass

  16. Numerical simulation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipe networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Kuang Bo; Zhou Guoliang; Xu Jijun

    1998-01-01

    The complex pipe network characters can not directly presented in single phase flow, gas-liquid two phase flow pressure drop and void rate change model. Apply fluid network theory and computer numerical simulation technology to phase flow pipe networks carried out simulate and compute. Simulate result shows that flow resistance distribution is non-linear in two phase pipe network

  17. Continuous gas-phase hydroformylation of 1-butene using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Marco; Dentler, Katharina; Joni, Joni

    2007-01-01

    The concept of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis has been extended to 1-butene hydroformylation. A rhodium-sulfoxantphos complex was dissolved in [BMIM][n-C8H17OSO3] and this solution was highly dispersed on silica. Continuous gas-phase experiments in a fixed-bed reactor revealed...

  18. MEMBRANOUS FLOWS IN GAS-LIQUID COLLECTORS-REGENERATORS OF SOLAR ABSORPTIVE SYSTEMS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko А.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the creation of new generation of solar collectors of the gas-liquid type, intended for use in alternative refrigerating and conditioning systems of drying-evaporating type with direct solar regeneration of absorbent. Special attention is given to the study of membranous flows features on inclined surfaces, including questions of such flows stability.

  19. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  20. MATHEMATIC MODEL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FILTRATION PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGICAL LIQUID AND GAS

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Мouradova

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration as a perspective method of filtration and purification of liquid and gas finds its wide application in oil and chemical industry. However absence of highly-reliable model of calculation that permits unambiguously main operational parameters of electromagnetic filtration and limits its wide application. 

  1. Preliminary report on the economics of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Wilson, S.; Patil, S.; Moridis, G.; Boswell, R.; Koh, C.; Sloan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules reside inside cages that are formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules in a crystal lattice. At particularly low temperatures and high pressures, a guest molecule will combine with water to form gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are found in two different settings in which the temperature and pressure conditions are suitable for their existence, notably in Arctic permafrost regions and below the seafloor. Because of the size of this possible future resource, if any of the gas in hydrates can be proven to be economically recoverable, then production from gas hydrates could become an important portion of the world's energy portfolio as demand for natural gas increases along with the technology to compress and distribute natural gas to distant markets. This paper presented a compilation of economic research that was conducted on the resource potential of gas hydrates. The paper reported a preliminary estimate of the price of natural gas that may lead to economically-viable production from North American Arctic region hydrates. The paper also discussed the implications of a recent study on the production of class 3 marine hydrate deposits from the Gulf of Mexico. The state of the art technologies and methods in hydrate reservoir modeling and hydrate reservoir production and petrophysical testing were also discussed. It was concluded that the somewhat optimistic results presented in this report should be interpreted with caution, however, the economically-viable gas production from hydrates was not an unreasonable scenario. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Perspective: Chemical reactions in ionic liquids monitored through the gas (vacuum)/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, F; Niedermaier, I; Steinrück, H-P

    2017-05-07

    This perspective analyzes the potential of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to follow chemical reactions in ionic liquids in situ. Traditionally, only reactions occurring on solid surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in situ. This was due to the high vapor pressures of common liquids or solvents, which are not compatible with the required UHV conditions. It was only recently realized that the situation is very different when studying reactions in Ionic Liquids (ILs), which have an inherently low vapor pressure, and first studies have been performed within the last years. Compared to classical spectroscopy techniques used to monitor chemical reactions, the advantage of XPS is that through the analysis of their core levels all relevant elements can be quantified and their chemical state can be analyzed under well-defined (ultraclean) conditions. In this perspective, we cover six very different reactions which occur in the IL, with the IL, or at an IL/support interface, demonstrating the outstanding potential of in situ XPS to gain insights into liquid phase reactions in the near-surface region.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the Fermi-liquid parameters in the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.; Ceperley, D.M.; Martin, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Excitations of the two-dimensional electron gas, including many-body effects, are calculated with a variational Monte Carlo method. Correlated sampling is introduced to calculate small energy differences between different excitations. The usual pair-product (Slater-Jastrow) trial wave function is found to lack certain correlations entirely so that backflow correlation is crucial. From the excitation energies calculated here, we determine Fermi-liquid parameters and related physical quantities such as the effective mass and the Lande g factor of the system. Our results for the effective mass are compared with previous analytic calculations

  4. Gas-liquid mass transfer in a cross-flow hollow fiber module : Analytical model and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V. Y.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The cross-flow operation of hollow fiber membrane contactors offers many advantages and is preferred over the parallel-flow contactors for gas-liquid mass transfer operations. However, the analysis of such a cross-flow membrane gas-liquid contactor is complicated due to the change in concentrations

  5. Dynamic simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow : effect of column aspect ratio on the flow structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an Eulerian/Lagrangian model, describing the hydrodynamics of a gas-liquid bubble column, is presented. The model resolves the time dependent, two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a liquid using the equation of motion. The model incorporates all relevant forces

  6. Dynamic simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow: effect of column aspect ratio on the flow structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an Eulerian/Lagrangian model, describing the hydrodynamics of a gas-liquid bubble column, is presented. The model resolves the time dependent, two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a liquid using the equation of motion. The model incorporates all relevant forces

  7. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions for one-component liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal solid substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Chun; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    profiles of liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal, heterogeneous solid substrates is still absent. The purpose of this work is to construct a continuum model for simulating the liquid-gas flows on solid surfaces that are flat and rigid, and may involve

  8. Suitability of gas flare locations for Mini Gas-To-Liquid Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    three can deliver power to the grid via cables and 6 can support local energy and allied industry development. ... impacts of gas flaring e.g. Anikpo et al. (2013). While new ... of the popular ones include cogeneration, GTL and natural gas ...

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)

  10. Numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, E V; Lobanov, P D; Pribaturin, N A; Mosunova, N A; Chuhno, V I; Kutlimetov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper contains results of a numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection in water and liquid metal which have been performed at the Institute of Thermophysics Russian Academy of Science (IT RAS). Obtained experimental data are very important to predict processes that take place in the BREST-type reactor during the hypothetical accident with damage of the steam generator tubes, and may be used as a benchmark to validate thermo-hydraulic codes. Detailed description of models to simulate transport of gas phase in a vertical liquid column is presented in a current paper. Two-fluid model with closing relation for wall friction and interface friction coefficients was used to simulate processes which take place in a liquid during injection of gaseous phase. It has being shown that proposed models allow obtaining a good agreement between experimental data and calculation results. (paper)

  11. Numerical modelling of inert gas bubble rising in liquid metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, Arjun; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B K.

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase flow finds several applications in safe operation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Numerical modelling of bubble rise dynamics in liquid metal pool of SFR is essential for the evaluation of residence time and shape changes, which are of utmost importance for simulating associated heat and mass transfer processes involved in reactor safety. A numerical model has been developed based on OpenFOAM for the evaluation of two-dimensional inert gas bubble rise dynamics in stagnant liquid metal pool. The governing model equations are discretized and solved using the Volume of Fluid based solver available in OpenFOAM with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The model has been validated with available numerical benchmark results for laminar transient two-phase flow. The model has been used to evaluate velocity and rise trajectory of argon gas bubble with different diameters through a pool of liquid sodium. (author)

  12. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  13. Interaction of Liquid Film Flow of Direct Vessel Injection Under the Cross Directional Gas Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness and a hydraulic jump in the film flow and boundaries of the film flow. It was found that CFD analysis results without surface tension model showed some difference with the data in surface tension dominated flow region. For the interaction between a liquid film and gas shear flow, CFD results make a good agreement with the real liquid film dynamics in the case of low film Reynolds number or low Weber number flow. In the 1/20 scaled plate type experiment and simulation, the deformed spreading profile results seem to accord with each other at the relatively low We and Re regime.

  14. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas; Detecteur d'entrainement de liquide dans un gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, J P; Eperonnat, P; Lions, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit un detecteur optique d'entrainement de liquide dans un gaz, sensible a une quantite cumulee de liquide entraine egale a quelques millimetres cubes. L'appareil peut actionner une alarme a distance. Le prototype a ete construit et essaye comme detecteur de fuites d'huile dans l'argon refoule par un compresseur a membranes. Une demande de brevet a ete deposee pour cet appareil sous le numero: P.V.954.703, le 22.11.1963. (auteur)

  15. Integration of power to gas/power to liquid in the ongoing transformation processes; Integration von Power to Gas/Power to Liquid in den laufenden Transformationsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purr, Katja; Osiek, Dirk; Lange, Martin; and others

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this position paper is to assess from the current level of knowledge of the Federal Environment Agency the role and perspective of power to gas / power to Liquid (PtG / PtL) in a fully renewable energy system and in particular to appoint the challenges of integration and further development of this technique in the current transformation process in the next few years. Here also the comparison to other Power to X-options and their greenhouse gas reduction effect is shown. The geographic focus of the considerations is on Germany, knowing that a full renewable energy supply in Germany must be especially for economic reasons embedded in a long term international energy policy. [German] Ziel dieses Positionspapiers ist es, aus dem derzeitigen Kenntnisstand des Umweltbundesamts die Rolle und Perspektive von Power to Gas/Power to Liquid (PtG/PtL) in einem vollstaendig regenerativen Energiesystem einzuschaetzen und insbesondere die Herausforderungen bei der Integration und Weiterentwicklung dieser Technik im laufenden Transformationsprozess in den naechsten Jahren zu benennen. Dabei wird auch der Vergleich zu anderen Power to X-Optionen und deren Treibhausgasminderungswirkung dargestellt. Der geografische Fokus der Betrachtungen liegt dabei auf Deutschland, wohlwissend, dass eine vollstaendige regenerative Energieversorgung Deutschlands insbesondere aus oekonomischen Gruenden langfristig in eine internationale Energiepolitik eingebettet sein muss.

  16. North American natural gas liquids pricing and convergence : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    A background on natural gas liquids (NGL) pricing was presented along with a discussion regarding the impact of energy price convergence. The high energy prices in the fall of 2000 were a result of many factors, including the high price of NGLs. All NGL components such as ethane, propane and butane can be used as petrochemical feedstock. In the winter of 2000/2001 the relationship between liquids and crude oil prices collapsed when high energy prices led to a situation where, for a short while, extraction of liquids from natural gas became uneconomic since producers got more value for NGLs left in the gas stream. As a result, when the supply and demand balances for NGL tightened in many regions of North America, NGL prices were reflecting the unprecedented high natural gas prices. This paper also explained how the four major North American NGL trading hubs in Alberta, Ontario, Kansas and Texas operate. The pricing events of 2000 have impacted on the NGL industry and energy prices remain an issue since both crude oil and natural gas price are forecasted to remain strong in the near future. 5 figs

  17. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  19. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    Gas fermentation is a promising technology which gained increasing attention over the last years. In this process, acetogenic bacteria convert gases rich in H2, CO2, and CO, into compounds of higher value. The gas can derive from industrial off-gas or from waste streams via gasification. In the gas...... fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...... with a review of the feedstock potential for gas fermentation and how thermophilic production strains as well as unconventional fermentation processes such as mixotrophy can help to exploit this potential. I analyzed a process with respect to thermodynamic and economic considerations, in which acetone...

  20. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  1. Planning of optimum production from a natural gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J

    1968-03-01

    The design of an optimum development plan for a natural gas field always depends on the typical characteristics of the producing field, as well as those of the market to be served by this field. Therefore, a good knowledge of the field parameters, such as the total natural gas reserves, the well productivity, and the dependence of production rates on pipeline pressure and depletion of natural gas reserves, is required prior to designing the development scheme of the field, which in fact depends on the gas-sales contract to be concluded in order to commit the natural gas reserves to the market. In this paper these various technical parameters are discussed in some detail, and on this basis a theoretical/economical analysis of natural gas production is given. For this purpose a simplified economical/mathematical model for the field is proposed, from which optimum production rates at various future dates can be calculated. The results of these calculations are represented in a dimensionless diagram which may serve as an aid in designing optimum development plans for a natural gas field. The use of these graphs is illustrated in a few examples.

  2. Britain's North Sea oil and gas production: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The size and longevity of Britain's offshore hydrocarbons resources have been underestimated. Gas reserves were seriously under-exploited for almost 20 years from the late 1960s, given a belief that gas should be used only as a premium fuel and in the context of an uncompetitive market. Oil reserves' development and production has suffered from time to time from inappropriate politico-economic conditions. Nevertheless, offshore oil and gas has come to dominate the UK's energy production over the past 20 years and currently accounts for 85% of the country's total energy output. Fears for resources' exhaustion remain unjustified, as the industry continues to replace oil and gas reserves used each year. The North Sea is still not comprehensively explored: the continuation of the process will enable oil production to remain at high levels and that of gas to expand further. Supplementary output from the new west of Shetland province will become progressively more important after 2000. But continued intensive production overall depends on the maintenance of attractive politico-economic conditions and on present oil prices. It also requires the European gas market to remain firm but, ironically, the planned flow of UK gas to the mainland constitutes a threat to this condition. (Author)

  3. Heat transfer characteristics of liquid-gas Taylor flows incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J A; Walsh, P A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  4. Prediction of thermo-physical properties of liquid formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Conte, Elisa; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview of the models, methods and tools that may be used for the estimation of liquid formulated products. First a classification of the products is given and the thermo-physical properties needed to represent their functions are listed. For each...... property, a collection of the available models are presented according to the property type and the model type. It should be noted, however, that the property models considered or highlighted in this chapter are only examples and are not necessarily the best and most accurate for the corresponding property....

  5. KAJI EKSPERIMENTAL PENGGUNAAN LIQUID GAS FOR VEHICLE (LGV DENGAN PERTAMAX TERHADAP PERFORMA DAN EMISI GAS BUANG MOTOR BENSIN 2000 cc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad As’adi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available APBN 2015 mengisyaratkan bahwa Pemerintah akan mengurangi subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak dari 48 juta kilo liter menjadi 46 juta kilo liter, implikasi dari hal ini jelas akan berdampak pada kebijakan penggunaan BBM dalam rangka untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sektor transportasi dan industri. Salah satu bahan bakar yang cadangannya masih cukup banyak dan pemanfaatannya masih terbatas pada kebutuhan rumah tangga serta usaha sector kuliner adalah Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG. LPG mempunyai produk turunan dengan merk dagang Elpiji dan Liquid Gas for Vehicle (LGV atau sering disebut dengan Vigas. LGV mempunyai RON 98 setara dengan bahan bakar Pertamax dan mudah disimpan dalam tangki portabel karena tekanan nya relative rendah yaitu 8-15 bar, sedangakan tekanan bahan bakar Compressed Natural Gas (CNG yang sering disebut dengan Bahan Bakar Gas (BBG sekitar 200 bar. Perkembangan penggunaan LGV di masyarakat cenderung lambat hal ini disebabkan oleh keterbatasan infrastruktur yang ada dan pemahaman masyarakat tentang penggunaan LGV untuk sektor transportasi masih kurang. Tujuan dan target penelitian ini adalah didapatkannya konstanta performa dari motor bensin yang berbahan bakar LGV dan Pertamax, sehingga dapat memberikan pengetahuan kepada masyarakat bahwa LGV bisa digunakan sebagai bahan bakar pada sector transportasi dan lebih ekonomis. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksprimen dengan mesin uji motor bensin 2000 cc yang berbahan bakar LGV dan Pertamax. Pengujian dilakukan dengan uji static diatas Dyno Test. Luaran data yang dihasilkan berupa performa mesin yang meliputi torsi, daya, konsumsi bahan bakar, selain uji static juga dilakukan uji emisi gas buang. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa enggunaan Liquid Gas For Vehicle (LGV dengan merk dagang Vigas mampu menaikkan Daya mesin maksimum sebesar 20,86% dan daya rata-rata sebesar 14,1%, torsi maksimum yang dihasilkan oleh Motor berbahan bakar Vigas lebih kecil dari motor yang berbahan bakar

  6. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  7. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  8. Relationships between Biomass Composition and Liquid Products Formed via Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Fan; Waters, Christopher L.; Mallinson, Richard G.; Lobban, Lance L.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability – all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models) for biomass components in the formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1) as direct sources, (2) as catalysts, and (3) as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques, this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  9. Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-07-01

    Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but

  10. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  11. Microjets and coated wheels: versatile tools for exploring collisions and reactions at gas-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jennifer A; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2016-07-07

    This tutorial review describes experimental aspects of two techniques for investigating collisions and reactions at the surfaces of liquids in vacuum. These gas-liquid scattering experiments provide insights into the dynamics of interfacial processes while minimizing interference from vapor-phase collisions. We begin with a historical survey and then compare attributes of the microjet and coated-wheel techniques, developed by Manfred Faubel and John Fenn, respectively, for studies of high- and low-vapor pressure liquids in vacuum. Our objective is to highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each technique and summarize lessons we have learned in using them for scattering and evaporation experiments. We conclude by describing recent microjet studies of energy transfer between O2 and liquid hydrocarbons, HCl dissociation in salty water, and super-Maxwellian helium evaporation.

  12. Vibrational relaxation in liquids: Comparisons between gas phase and liquid phase theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    The vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon was studied to understand what processes are important in determining the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation. This examination will be accomplished by taking simple models and comparing the results to both experimental outcomes and the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibration relaxation of iodine is extremely sensitive to the iodine potential. The anharmonicity of iodine causes vibrational relaxation to be much faster at the top of the iodine well compared to the vibrational relaxation at the bottom. A number of models are used in order to test the ability of the Isolated Binary Collision theory's ability to predict the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon. The models tested vary from the simplest incorporating only the fact that the solvent occupies volume to models that incorporate the short range structure of the liquid in the radial distribution function. None of the models tested do a good job of predicting the actual relaxation rate for a given density. This may be due to a possible error in the choice of potentials to model the system

  13. Financing of gas production expansion at Taipo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, R.T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Financing strategies applied to Phase I and Phase II were quite different. In Phase I, the project was more sophisticated and involved investments in different types of assets: Site acquisition; site formation and foundations; gas-making plants and associated equipment; naptha tanks; naptha pipeline; twin submarine gas pipeline connected to the existing distribution network; and workshop and offices. For Phase II, the tenderers demanded payment in foreign currencies because of their international procurement and their concern over Hong Kong currency at the time of submitting the tender. The Phase II financing package consists of: (1) ECGD facilities with a fixed interest rate at 9.15% p.a.--8 years with repayment in 10 semiannual installments over the last 5 years. (2) Fixed rate bank borrowings at 9% p.a. with repayment at the end of 5 years (use of swaps to obtain long-term money at lower interest rate). (3) Foreign currency deposits to cover exposure in two other currencies. (4) Forward contract to cover repayment installments in Sterling in the last 5 years at much lower rates of exchange. In a nutshell, by using a combination of different financing instruments, HKCG was able to eliminate foreign exchange and interest rate risks and reduce the overall capital cost of the plant

  14. High-BTU gas production from tar-bearing hot coke oven gas over iron catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Y. Li; K. Morishita; T. Takarada [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    To utilize the tar-bearing hot coke oven gas (the by-product of coke making process) more effectively, a process was developed by converting the hot coke oven gas into a methane rich high-BTU gas over iron-bearing catalysts. The catalytic behaviour of Indonesian limonite ore was mainly discussed. For a reference, a conventional nickel catalyst (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was employed. Laboratory scale tests were carried out in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor at ambient pressure. A bituminous coal sample was heated at first stage, the volatiles was carried by feed gas and decomposed at second stage. The limonite promoted hydropyrolysis of coal volatiles similar to Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. High yields of total product gas and methane were obtained at 50 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere with a feed gas of 60 ml min{sup -1} hydrogen and 60 ml min{sup -1} nitrogen. After experiments, hydrocarbons heavier than ethane were not observed. Also that, carbon balance was more than 99.8% in coal char, product gases and carbon deposits. It was considered that coal volatiles converted into light gases and carbon almost completely in catalyst bed. Yields of product gas and methane depended upon catalytic temperature. At 923 K, the maximum yield of product gas was achieved at 74.3% for limonite catalyst on carbon balance with methane 83.2 vol.% of the carbonaceous gas products. Comparing with limonite, Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BOF dust samples showed low activities on coal volatiles catalytic decomposition. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Improving productivity in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, F F; Portsmouth, D J

    1982-05-01

    A study course designed to help BGC managers improve employee productivity reflected four main themes: evaluating quality and performance standards, examining new technologies, exploiting manpower resources, and improving usage of equipment and materials. Visiting speakers' contributions included 1) BGC's broad objectives and its methods of deploying financial resources effectively, 2) creativity as it relates to productivity and to the need for forecasts of risk and catastrophes, and 3) the paramount importance of management's commitment to formally stated objectives.

  16. Investigation into the determination of trimethylarsine in natural gas and its partitioning into gas and condensate phases using (cryotrapping)/gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and liquid/solid sorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, E.M.; Johnson, C.; Rechsteiner, C.; Moir, M.; Leong, D.; Feldmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of trialkylated arsenic compunds in natural gas, pressurized and stable condensate samples from the same gas well was performed using (Cryotrapping) Gas Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The major species in all phases investigated was found to be trimethylarsine with a highest concentration of 17.8 ng/L (As) in the gas phase and 33.2 μg/L (As) in the stable condensate phase. The highest amount of trimethylarsine (121 μg/L (As)) was found in the pressurized condensate, along with trace amounts of non-identified higher alkylated arsines. Volatile arsenic species in natural gas and its related products cause concern with regards to environment, safety, occupational health and gas processing. Therefore, interest lies in a fast and simple field method for the determination of volatile arsenicals. Here, we use simple liquid and solid sorption techniques, namely absorption in silver nitrate solution and adsorption on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel tubes followed by total arsenic determination as a promising tool for field monitoring of volatile arsenicals in natural gas and gas condensates. Preliminary results obtained for the sorption-based methods show that around 70% of the arsenic is determined with these methods in comparison to volatile arsenic determination using GC-ICP-MS. Furthermore, an inter-laboratory- and inter-method comparison was performed using silver nitrate impregnated silica tubes on 14 different gas samples with concentrations varying from below 1 to 1000 μg As/m 3 natural gas. The results obtained from the two laboratories differ in a range of 10 to 60%, but agree within the order of magnitude, which is satisfactory for our purposes

  17. Ecoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide à poches et à bouchons en conduites Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Slug Flow in Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferschneider G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les écoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide ont été étudiés afin de contribuer à développer des modèles de calculs prédictifs des pertes de charge dans les conduites de production des bruts pétroliers. Les expériences nécessaires ont été réalisées sur la boucle diphasique de Boussens dans les conditions suivantes représentatives des conditions industrielles : diamètre 6 , longueur 120 m, disposition de la conduite horizontale ou faiblement ascendante, couple de fluide gaz naturel-huile légère. Le gradient de pression, le contenu global, et la distribution locale des phases ont été mesurés. Le traitement des équations de conservation phasique intégrées sur la section par différents types de moyennes a permis de développer un modèle cellulaire qui inclue un nombre limité d'équations constitutives nécessaires à sa fermeture. Ce modèle prédétermine convenablement le gradient de pression, le contenu gaz global et la longueur des poches et des bouchons. Two-phase gas-liquid flows were analyzed so as to develop models for prediction of pressure drops in crude-oil production lines. The experiments were performed on the two-phase loop at Boussens under the following representative industrial conditions: 6 diameter, 120 m length, horizontal or slightly rising pipe, couple of fluids natural gas and light oil. The pressure gradient, average content and local phase distribution were measured. Conservation phase equations integrated along the cross-section were processed by different time-averaged operators so as to develop a cellular model including a limited number of constitutive equations required for its closure. This model suitably predetermines the pressure gradient, the average gas content and the length of gas and liquid slug.

  18. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  19. Behaviour of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Zatsepina, O. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Hong, H. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The possible role of gas hydrates as a potential energy resource was discussed with particular reference to methods for estimating the rate of gas production from hydrate reservoirs under different operating conditions. This paper presented several numerical simulations studies of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs in 1-D and 2-D geometries. Type 3 reservoirs include gas production from hydrate-reservoirs that lie totally within the hydrate stability zone and are sandwiched by impermeable layers on top and bottom. The purpose of this study was to better understand hydrate decomposition by depressurization. The study questioned whether 1-D modeling of type 3 hydrate reservoirs is a reasonable approximation. It also determined whether gas rate increases or decreases with time. The important reservoir characteristics for determining the rate of gas production were identified. Last, the study determined how competition between fluid and heat flow affects hydrate decomposition. This paper also described the relation and interaction between the heat and fluid flow mechanisms in depressurization of type 3 hydrate reservoirs. All results of 1-D and 2-D numerical simulation and analyses were generated using the STARS simulator. It was shown that the rate of gas production depends on the initial pressure/temperature conditions and permeability of the hydrate bearing formation. A high peak rate may be achieved under favourable conditions, but this peak rate is obtained after an initial period where the rate of gas production increases with time. The heat transfer in the direction perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow is significant, requiring 2D modeling. The hydraulic diffusivity is low because of the low permeability of hydrate-bearing formations. This could result in competition between heat and fluid flow, thereby influencing the behaviour of decomposition. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. Fundamental research of two-phase flows with high liquid/gas density ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi; Saito, Yasushi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Tohru

    2000-07-01

    In order to analyze the boiling of a fuel-steel mixture pool formed during the core disruptive accident in a fast breeder reactor, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase pools containing molten reactor materials. Since the liquid/gas density ratio is high, the characteristics of such two-phase flows may differ from those of ordinary flows such as water/air flow. In this study, as a fundamental research of two-phase flows with a high liquid/gas density ratio, the experiments were performed to visualize and measure molten metal (lead-bismuth)/nitrogen gas two-phase flows using a neutron radiography technique. From these experiments, fundamental data such as bubble shapes, void fractions and liquid velocity fields were obtained. In addition, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III, which has been developed by JNC, was assessed and improved using the experimental data. In the visualization by neutron radiography, it was found that deformed ellipsoidal bubbles could be seen with smaller gas flux or lower void fractions, and spherical cap bubbles could be seen with larger gas flux or higher void fractions. In addition, a correlation applicable to SIMMER-III was proposed through a comparison between the experimental data and traditional empirical correlations. Furthermore, a visualization experiment using gold-cadmium tracer particles showed that the image processing technique used in the quantification of void fractions is applicable to the measurement of the liquid velocity fields. On the other hand, in the analysis by SIMMER-III, it was confirmed that the original momentum exchange model was appropriate for ellipsoidal bobby flows and that the accuracy of SIMMER-III for cap bubbly flows was much improved with the proposed correlation. Moreover, a new procedure, in which the appropriate drag coefficient could be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. The SIMMER-III code improved through this study can