Sample records for gas industry pt

  1. Pengembangan Strategi PT ABC Niaga di Industri Distribusi Gas

    Auguar Auguar


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the development strategy of PT ABC Niaga in gas distribution industry. This study uses IFE and EFE Matrix, analysis SWOT matrix and QSPM. Prior to the analysis of the development of the strategy, first performed project feasibility analysis in the development plans of the city gas network from the aspects of company expenditure using capital budgeting. Then analyzed factors internal and external affecting business performance, SWOT analysis and formulated alternatives for the development of business strategies and their order of priority using QSPM. Analysis of internal and external factors each have a score of 2,541 and 3,261. QSPM matrix analysis shows that the strategy of "aggressive market penetration by expanding city gas area into potential region with high commercial activities" has the highest TAS value 10.943.Keywords: gas distribution industry, IFE, EFE, SWOT, QSPMAbstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengembangan strategi PT ABC Niaga di industri distribusi gas. Penelitian ini menggunakan Matriks IFE dan EFE, analisis SWOT, dan QSPM. Sebelum dilakukan analisis pengembangan strategi, terlebih dahulu dilakukan analisis kelayakan proyek dalam rencana pengembangan jaringan gas kota dari aspek pembelanjaan perusahaan dengan menggunakan metode capital budgeting. Selanjutnya dianalisis faktor-faktor internal dan eksternal yang memengaruhi kinerja bisnis dengan analisis SWOT dan dirumuskan alternatif-alternatif strategi untuk pengembangan bisnis beserta urutan prioritasnya dengan menggunakan metode QSPM. Analisis faktor internal dan eksternal masing-masing memiliki skor 2,541 dan 3,261. Analisis matriks QSPM menunjukkan bahwa strategi "penetrasi pasar secara agresif dengan memperluas area gas kota di wilayah yang potensial dengan aktivitas komersial yang tinggi" memiliki nilai TAS tertinggi 10.943.Kata kunci: industri distribusi gas, IFE, EFE, SWOT, QSPM

  2. Porter Five Forces Model Pada PT. Ruci Gas

    Riky, Alfonsus


    Penelitian ini akan membahas mengenai analisis lima model utama kekuatan Porter pada Perusahaan keluarga PT.Ruci Gas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini penulis ingin menganalis tentang struktur industri PT. Ruci Gas yang dikaitkan dengan teori lima model kekuatan utama yang dikembangkan oleh Porter. Selain itu penulis ingin menganalisis mengenai tingkat atraktif investasi gas di Indonesia. Jenis dari penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif.Dengan pengumpulan data dengan metode wawancara dan obse...

  3. The Spanish gas industry



    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  4. The Russian gas industry


    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  5. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G


    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  6. Natural gas industry regulations

    Clo, A.


    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  7. The gas industry in Spain

    Jego, H.


    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  8. Desain Pabrik Synthetic Gas (Syngas dari Gasifikasi Batu Bara Kualitas Rendah sebagai Pasokan Gas PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja

    Toto Iswanto


    Full Text Available Menurut data dari Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM tahun 2013, cadangan gas bumi Indonesia saat ini sebesar 170 TSCF dan akan habis dalam kurun waktu 59 tahun, dengan estimasi tidak ada peningkatan atau penurunan produksi. Di lain pihak, industri-industri kimia di Indonesia, semisal industri pupuk, sangat mengandalkan pasokan gas alam sebagai bahan baku pupuk maupun sumber energi. Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi industri pupuk dewasa ini adalah kurangnya pasokan gas alam untuk proses produksi. Di PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja misalnya, kebutuhan gas alam rata-rata untuk proses produksi amonia dan urea mencapai 225 MMSCFD. Namun, pasokan gas dari Pertamina selalu kurang dari jumlah tersebut. Karena selalu berulang, maka hal ini akan mengganggu kinerja PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja sebagai garda terdepan pertahanan pangan nasional bersama petani. Salah satu jenis sumber daya alam yang potensial mengganti dan atau mensubtitusi pemakaian gas alam adalah Synthetic Gas (Syngas. Syngas merupakan gas campuran yang komponen utamanya adalah gas karbon monoksida (CO dan hidrogen (H2 yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan juga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam proses pembuatan zat kimia baru seperti metana, amonia, dan urea. Syngas dapat diperoleh dari proses gasifikasi batu bara dimana batu bara diubah dari bentuk padat menjadi gas. Batu bara yang merupakan bahan baku pembuatan syngas jumlahnya sangat melimpah di Indonesia. Menurut data dari Kementrian ESDM tahun 2011, total sumber daya batu bara di Indonesia diperkirakan 119,4 miliar ton, dimana 48%-nya terletak di Sumatera Selatan dan 70% deposit batu bara di Sumatera Selatan tersebut adalah batu bara muda berkualitas rendah. Deposit batu bara terbesar di Sumatera Selatan terletak di Kab. Muara Enim yang letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dengan PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja. Ditambah lagi dengan adanya PT Bukit Asam sebagai produsen terbesar batu bara di Kab. Muara Enim tentu akan mempermudah pasokan batu bara

  9. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes


    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed...... that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    Mashkin, L.


    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. French natural gas industry statistics


    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  12. World electricity and gas industries

    Kahane, A.


    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets


    Yakub Yakub


    Full Text Available PT Indo Taichen Textile Industry is a company in the textile industry producing cloth. Activities and operations personnel administration, payroll systems, purchasing systems, and inventory systems are conducted manually. Problems begin to become fairly complex on the company’s purchasing system so that a software application is required. Purchasing system is made by Data Flow Diagram (DFD as a model of the process or system and Entity Relation Diagram (ERD as a data model. The purchasing application is programmed using the programming language Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server database.Keywords: data base, purchasing, system, information system

  14. Superior Gas Sensing Properties of Monolayer PtSe2

    Sajjad, Muhammad


    First-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of monolayer 1T-PtSe2 with adsorbed (a) NO2, (b) NO, (c) NH3, (d) H2O, (e) CO2, and (f) CO molecules are discussed. The results point to great potential of the material in gas sensor applications. Superior sensitivity is demonstrated by transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method.

  15. The French natural gas industry


    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  16. Australia's oil and gas industry



    Reasons for underperformance in the Australian oil and gas industry are explored in this paper including lower than expected oil prices following major capital investment, management strategies, taxation changes and access problems. Over the last two decades, the return offered to providers of equity capital has been adequate but lower than the industry expected. Corporate planning techniques need to be reexamined in the light of past performance, and realistic goals set. (UK)

  17. The gas industry in Japan

    Jego, H.


    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  18. Reformulation of Business Strategies for Increasing Sales of TIN Product Stabilizer at PT Timah Industri

    Sundoyo, Hadi; Hamsal, Mohammad


    PT. Timah Industri (PT TI) is a subsidiary of PT. Timah (Persero) Tbk which exploit comparative advantage of its parent company as the second largest tin producer in the world. With these advantages PT TI entered the downstream PVC stabilizer tin base. Starting from the difficulty of selling their products and then raised the question in inventory management. PT TI should immediately take strategic steps to save the tin chemical business continues to lose money from time to time. From the res...

  19. Gas industry development in Egypt

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.


    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  20. Natural gas industry competitiveness study


    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements


    Triwulandari S. Dewayana


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi resiko ergonomi pada pekerja di PT. Asaba Industry yang bergerak di bidang pembuatan sendok dimana sebagian besar proses produksi dilakukan secara manual. Penelitian dilakukan melalui tahapan sebagai berikut : 1 mengidentifikasi stasiun kerja yang paling bermasalah menggunakan survey QEC; 2 mencari faktor penyebab ketidaknyamanan kerja; 3 mengidentifikasi area tubuh yang dikeluhkan sakit oleh pekerja menggunakan kuesioner Nordic Body Map; 4 melakukan pengukuran denyut jantung pekerja untuk menghitung konsumsi energi dan konsumsi oksigen; dan 5 mengidentifikasi aktivitas pada stasiun kerja yang paling bermasalah menggunakan tool pada ERGOWEBâ JET dan RULA. Hasil perhitungan berdasarkan survey QEC menunjukkan bahwa stasiun kerja yang terdapat pada PT. Asaba Industry rata – rata mempunyai nilai Percent Exposure Level yang tinggi (96,09%. Selanjutnya, dengan menggunakan diagram Ishikawa, dapat diketahui bahwa pada bagian gerinda operator bekerja dengan kurang nyaman. Adapun penyebab utama timbulnya ketidaknyamanan bersumber pada posisi kerja operator yang kurang nyaman, peralatan/fasilitas kerja yang kurang memadai dan tidak ergonomis, sehingga menimbulkan metode kerja yang kurang baik. Berdasarkan kuesioner Nordic Body Map diketahui bahwa keluhan yang banyak diderita para pekerja adalah pada leher bagian atas, pinggang, dan bokong, dan lutut sebelah kiri. Hasil pengukuran denyut jantung menunjukkan  bahwa ketiga operator memiliki tren denyut jantung yang hampir sama. Pengukuran konsumsi energi menunjukkan rata-rata operator berada pada level heavy work. Stasiun kerja gerinda dengan aktivitas mengangkat pallet  berdasarkan rekomendasi dari NIOSH, diharuskan untuk dilakukan pengawasan secara teknikal. Kata kunci :  resiko ergonomi, Percent Exposure Level, pengawasan secara teknikal     This study aims to identify the ergonomics’ risk in PT. Asaba Industry deals with the production of

  2. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita


    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  3. Vocational High School Cooperation with PT Astra Honda Motor to Prepare Skilled Labor in Industries

    Yoto; Widiyanti


    SMK Nasional as a secondary vocational education institution contribute in creating skilled labor to meet the needs of the industry. Motorcycle Engineering expertise program at the SMK Nasional in improving the graduate's quality carries out industrial class education with PT Astra Honda Motor (PT AHM); it is intended so that there is a link and…

  4. Gas industry directory 1998. 101. ed.



    In the Gas Industry Directory 1988, the following information is available: key information contacts, a buyer's guide, brand and trade names, company data, country index to overseas suppliers, who's who in the gas industry, UK gas suppliers, associations and organisations. (UK)


    Triwulandari S. Dewayana


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang fasilitas kerja berupa  kursi yang dapat diatur ketinggiannya/posisinya sesuai dengan posisi tubuh  pekerja pada stasiun kerja gerinda untuk aktivitas menggerinda di PT Asaba Industry. Perancangan dilakukan melalui 4 tahapan yaitu : 1 identifikasi kebutuhan ; 2 menetapkan target dan spesifikasi; 3 mendesain rancangan kursi;  dan 4 memilih rancangan kursi. Pada tahap desain rancangan kursi diperoleh 64 rancangan, sedangkan hasil dari screening rancangan menunjukkan hanya 10 rancangan yang dapat dipertimbangkan lebih lanjut. Dari 10 rancangan terdapat 3 rancangan kursi yang terpilih melalui scoring sebagai alternatif yaitu rancangan 26,27 dan 28. Dengan menggunakan metode Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP yang melibatkan para expert, yaitu Manejer Perusahaan, Pengawas Lantai Produksi dan pekerja pada bagian stasiun kerja gerinda diperoleh rancangan kursi yang terpilih adalah rancangan 28, yaitu kursi dengan bahan rangka besi, bahan dudukan kursi menggunakan busa, kaki kursi dapat diatur ketinggiannya, lengan kursi tidak ada, letak tempat peralatan kerja menempel pada dudukan kursi, dan memiliki pijakan kaki yang dapat diatur posisinya dengan bobot 48,1495 %. Adapun kriteria yang digunakan dalam pemilihan adalah kemudahan penggunaan, bahan, disain, kenyamanan, keamanan, dan biaya pembuatan. Kata Kunci : screening, scoring,  Fuzzy AHP   This study aims to design facilities of seats that can be set height / position with the position of the body workers working on the station to activity in PT. Industry Asaba. The design is done through 4 stages, namely: 1 Identify the needs: 2 Setting targets and specifications 3 Design chair design: and 4 Selecting a design chair. At the design stage of the design obtained 64 seats design, while the results of the draft bahwahanya 10 shows the design that can be considered further. 10 of the draft there are 3 chair design that was selected through a scoring


    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich


    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  7. Globalization of the natural gas industry

    Deyirmendjan, J.


    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes

  8. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    Friedenberg, B.


    The financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry depends on the outlook for gas prices at Canadian producing basins, the cost of producing in Canada and the volume of production of Canadian natural gas. Price, cost and volume determine the health of the Canadian industry. Industry's costs are the basis of the supply (volume) offered on the market and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. (author)

  9. Oil and Gas Industry In Qatar


    In less than two decades, numerous impressive developments have taken place. These include: the realization of full ownership and complete control by the State over oil and gas operations and related industries, the establishment of Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC), the development of exploration and production activities, the full utilization of natural gas in industry and domestic sectors and the construction of down stream industries in the industrial area (Umm Said) including the refinery, the natural gas liquids plants and the fertilizer and petrochemical complexes. Such important achievements have been crowned with the development of the North Field massive reserves of non associated gas. 4 figs

  10. Highly sensitive room temperature ammonia gas sensor based on Ir-doped Pt porous ceramic electrodes

    Liu, Wenlong [College of pharmacy and biological engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China); Department of chemical and materials engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Yu [Department of chemical and materials engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Do, Jing-Shan, E-mail: [Department of chemical and materials engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: [College of pharmacy and biological engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China)


    Highlights: • Water vapors seem to hugely improve the electrochemical activity of the Pt and Pt-Ir porous ceramic electrodes. • The gas sensors based on the Pt and Pt-Ir alloy electrodes possess good sensing performances. • The reaction path of the ammonia on platinum has been discussed. - Abstract: Room temperature NH{sub 3} gas sensors based on Pt and Pt-Ir (Ir doping Pt) porous ceramic electrodes have been fabricated by both electroplating and sputtering methods. The properties of the gaseous ammonia sensors have been examined by polarization and chronoamperometry techniques. The influence of humidity on the features of the resulting sensors in the system has also been discussed, and the working potential was optimized. Water vapors seem to hugely improve the electrochemical activity of the electrode. With increasing the relative humidity, the response of the Pt-Ir(E)/Pt(S)/PCP sensor to NH{sub 3} gas could be enhanced remarkably, and the sensitivity increases from 1.14 to 12.06 μA ppm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} .Then we have also discussed the sensing mechanism of the Pt-Ir sensor and the result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the electrode surface before and after reaction in the end.

  11. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle


    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  12. Influence of Pt Gate Electrode Thickness on the Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Pt/In2O3/SiC Hetero-Junction Devices

    S. Kandasamy


    Full Text Available Hetero-junction Pt/In2O3/SiC devices with different Pt thickness (30, 50 and 90nm were fabricated and their hydrogen gas sensing characteristics have been studied. Pt and In2O3 thin films were deposited by laser ablation. The hydrogen sensitivity was found to increase with decreasing Pt electrode thickness. For devices with Pt thickness of 30 nm, the sensitivity gradually increased with increasing temperature and reached a maximum of 390 mV for 1% hydrogen in air at 530°C. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis revealed a decrease in Pt grain size and surface roughness for increasing Pt thickness. The relationship between the gas sensing performance and the Pt film thickness and surface morphology is discussed.

  13. Diagnosis and Supervision of Industrial Gas Turbines

    Larsson, Emil


    Monitoring of industrial gas turbines is of vital importance, since it gives valuable information for the customer about maintenance, performance, and process health. The performance of an industrial gas turbine degrades gradually due to factors such as environment air pollution, fuel content, and ageing to mention some of the degradation factors. The compressor in the gas turbine is especially vulnerable against contaminants in the air since these particles are stuck at the rotor and stator ...

  14. The oil and gas industry in 2008


    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  15. Gas processing industrial hygiene needs

    D'Orsie, S.M.


    Handling of gases and natural gas liquids provides many opportunities for workers to be exposed to adverse chemical and physical agents. A brief overview of common hazards found in the processing of gas and natural gas liquids is presented in this paper. Suggestions on how an employer can obtain assistance in evaluating his workplace are also presented.presented

  16. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido


    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from industrial activities

    Kinyanjui, L.N.


    This study considers greenhouse gas emissions stemming from industrial activities such as cement production; limestone use and lime production. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1995a) methodology for industrial sector was applied for the three components selected. Limitations hindering the handling of other industrial process are listed as budgetary and time. Data sources and recommendations are listed


    Achmad Arief Wicaksono


    Full Text Available The magnitude of opportunities and project values of electricity system in Indonesia encourages PT. XYZ to develop its business in electrical sector which requires business development strategies. This study aims to identify company's business model using Business Model Canvas approach, formulate business development strategy alternatives, and determine the prioritized business development strategy which is appropriate to the manufacturing business model for PT. XYZ. This study utilized a descriptive approach and the nine elements of the Business Model Canvas. Alternative formulation and priority determination of the strategies were obtained by using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT analysis and pairwise comparison. The results of this study are the improvement of Business Model Canvas on the elements of key resources, key activities, key partners and customer segment. In terms of SWOT analysis on the nine elements of the Business Model Canvas for the first business development, the results show an expansion on the power plant construction project as the main contractor, an increase in sales in its core business in supporting equipment industry of oil and gas,  a development in the second business i.e. an investment in the electricity sector as an independent renewable emery-based power producer. On its first business development, PT. XYZ selected three Business Model Canvas elements which become the priorities of the company i.e. key resources weighing 0.252, key activities weighing 0.240, and key partners weighing 0.231. On its second business development, the company selected three elements to become their the priorities i.e. key partners weighing 0.225, customer segments weighing 0.217, and key resources weighing 0.215.Keywords: business model canvas, SWOT, pairwise comparison, business model

  19. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    Kimber, M.J.


    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  20. Developing the east coast gas industry

    Stedman, C.


    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory



    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  2. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Omidvar, Hedayat


    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  3. Natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects

    Chabrelie, M.F.


    Natural gas was for a long time reserved to the most noble uses in the industry. However, natural gas, which get a priori no captive market, has progressively imposed itself in all possible energy uses. The gas resources and abundant enough to represent the main contribution of the energy industry of the 21 century. With intrinsic qualities which make it an energy less polluting than the other fossil fuels, natural gas is the commercial energy source with the highest potential growth in the energy status of the future. (J.S.)

  4. Progress in industrial utilization of natural gas

    Boschetto, F.


    For many years, due to its intrinsic qualities, flexibility, cleanness, etc., natural gas has been one of the major energy sources used in industry. This paper examines gas appliances of a new conception which use ceramic products in order to reach temperatures of about 1400 degrees C: jet gas burners, counter-rotation burners, integrated preheating burners, high speed burners, double recuperation burners and regenerative ones. Furthermore, the paper deals with these burners applied to industrial furnaces, radiant panels, liquid heating systems and to thermal treatment and crucible furnaces. Particular reference to made to the steam pump, which permits reaching the highest efficiency, and to the gas combustion regulator. With the increased marketing of these new appliances, natural gas ill certainly consolidate its leading position in the industrial and energy fields

  5. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    Mohasseb, S.


    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  6. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    Simpson, B.


    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft 3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  7. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    Appert, O.


    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries [it

  8. Strategic alliances in oil and gas industry

    Crump, J.G.


    A competitor today is an ally tomorrow. A strategic partner in one market is an adversary in another. In this radically new way of doing business, the oil and gas industry seems quite at home. The trend to mergers is not unique to the oil industry, what is unique is the knack of petroleum companies to form strategic alliances [it

  9. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle


    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gasrelated firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  10. The gas industry in the year 2020

    Chabrelie, M.F.


    Having been reserved for decades primarily for the more noble uses of industry, natural gas, which basically has no captive market, is now the energy of choice in a multitude of applications. Although gas resources are limited in the very long term, they are yet sufficiently abundant to make a major contribution to the energy industry of the 21. century. Endowed with intrinsic qualities that make it less pollutant than its competitors, natural gas is the commercial energy harboring the strongest growth potential in the future energy balance. (author)

  11. The gas industry in the year 2020

    Chabrelie, M.F


    Having been reserved for decades primarily for the more noble uses of industry, natural gas, which basically has no captive market, is now the energy of choice in a multitude of applications. Although gas resources are limited in the very long term, they are yet sufficiently abundant to make a major contribution to the energy industry of the 21. century. Endowed with intrinsic qualities that make it less pollutant than its competitors, natural gas is the commercial energy harboring the strongest growth potential in the future energy balance. (author)

  12. The oil and gas industry


    This comprehensive report presents alphabetically company profiles giving details of profit and loss, the balance sheet, performance analyses, as well as addresses, and names of directors, auditors, bankers and subsidiaries. Performance league tables, industry profiles and analysis notes are included. (UK)

  13. Onsite gas storage for industrial customers

    Shikari, Y.A.


    The changing pattern of industrial gas marketing in the United States and other countries has placed new pressures on industrial users to assume responsibility for assuring their own supply. Technological changes in manufacturing processes have placed greater emphasis on assuring fuel quality and many processes can no longer tolerate near-substitutes such as distillate fuel oil and LPG. One way to take advantage of lower cost interruptible gas service contracts is to provide stand-by sources of gas onsite which can be used when the primary supply is curtailed. This paper describes the methods which an industrial gas consumer could use to store gas onsite (or close by an industrial factory) and their technical and economic advantages or limitations. The regulatory factors such as environmental and safety issues are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are described. The application of emerging technologies such as storing natural gas on adsorbents at low pressure and solid absorption in LPG are reviewed and the research needed to make them acceptable is discussed. The potential applications in the marketplace are also discussed and the economics of onsite storage of natural gas is compared to other alternatives. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. The natural gas industry and interest rates

    Yoon, Y.J.


    In discussing the impact of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, the latest rule on the restructuring and deregulation of the US natural gas industry, the effect of interest rates on the success of the FERC policy is often overlooked. The thesis of this paper is that interest rates play an important role in integrating seasonal gas markets and in stimulating investment in storage infrastructure. We propose a model to analyse the equilibrium condition for an efficient gas market. Also analysed are the implications of pipeline rate design of FERC 636 for gas despatch decisions. (author)

  15. Tolley's industrial and commercial gas installation practice

    Hazlehurst, John


    This is the third of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. Covering both Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the many illustrations and worked examples include

  16. Deposition and characterization of Pt nanocluster films by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail:; Prokeš, Jan; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Čechvala, Juraj; Kousal, Jaroslav; Pešička, Josef; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek


    In this study we report on the deposition of Pt nanocluster films prepared by gas aggregation source that was operated with argon as working gas. The aim of this study was optimization of deposition process as well as determination of properties of deposited nanocluster films and their temporal stability. It was found that the production of Pt nanoclusters reached maximum value for pressure of 100 Pa and increases monotonously with magnetron current. The deposition rate at optimized deposition conditions was 0.7 nm of the Pt nanocluster film per second. Deposited films were porous and composed of 4 nm Pt nanoclusters. The nanoclusters were metallic and no sights of their oxidation were observed after 1 year on open air as witnessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Regarding the electrical properties, a dramatic decrease of the resistivity was observed with increasing amount of deposited nanoclusters. This decrease saturated for the films approximately 50 nm thick. Such behavior indicates transition between different mechanisms of electrical conductivity: charge hopping for thin discontinuous films and current conduction through conducting path formed when higher amount of nanoclusters is deposited. Different mechanisms of electrical conduction for thin and thick layers of Pt were confirmed by subsequent investigation of temperature dependence of resistivity. In addition, no changes in resistivity were observed after one year on open air that confirms stability of produced Pt nanocluster films. - Highlights: • Pt nanocluster films were deposited by gas aggregation nanocluster source. • Conditions leading to effective deposition of Pt nanocluster films were found. • Deposited nanocluster films have good temporal stability. • Electrical properties of Pt films were found to depend on their thickness.

  17. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    Quarles, W.R.


    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  18. The gas industry as a field for investment

    Burkhardt, D.A.; Mosbacher, M.L.


    This article addresses the attractiveness of the gas industry as a field for investment. A favorable view is given. Topics addressed are the industry in general, gas supply, gas prices, residential markets, commercial and industrial markets, and includes an overview of the position of the gas industry as it enters a new decade. Key ratios of various industries are given for comparison to the yield and growth of the natural gas industry

  19. Strategi Bersaing PT. Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero Tbk SBU Distribusi Wilayah I

    Jomaren Tuah Saragih


    Full Text Available The purpose of thi s research is to analyze competitive strategy implemented by PT Perusahaan Gas Negara(Perser o  Tbk SBU  Dist ribusi  Wilayah I  to  face competit ion  in downstr eam  natural  gas industry.   Descript ivequalitat ive analysis method  is used by carrying  out SWOT  and V alue  Chain Analysis.   SWOT analysis  is usedto  ident ify  and evaluate st r ength, weakness,  opportunity, and threat  of the company,  whereas  the importantfactors  and  their  r elevance  to  the  futur e  ar e  ident ified  by  V alue  Chain Analysi s.The  r esults  show  that  SBUWilayah  I  uses  best  price  strategy  and  gives  value  added  cutomer  service  by  maximizing  the  use  of  technologyto  create  sustainable  competitive  advantage.

  20. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    Czernie, W.


    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  1. Bright outlook for the gas industry

    Gray, E


    The oil export picture may be cloudy, but the opposite is the case for gas, as consumption should boost gas sales some 60% over the next 4 yr. Beyond this, sales will be limited only by the growth of reserves. Indicative of the future is the projection of $1,000,000,000 in sales by 1975 with by-products holding up well despite weakening sulfur prices. Gas supplies in the U.S. are declining at a rapid rate and as a result that country's suppliers are looking to Alberta and the north to bridge the gap. While industry expects that tremendous gas reserves will be developed on the North Slope of Alaska, this does not pose as great a threat to Canadian producers as the North Slope oil reserves because of the relatively much higher cost of transporting natural gas, and the closer proximity to markets of Canadian gas. Whether ultimately transported in liquefied form by tanker, or by pipeline, gas from the North Slope will be high cost gas by the time it reaches U.S. Markets. Indicative of the U.S. hunger for more gas is the determined bid by Northern Natural Gas of Omaha, Neb. to obtain a major Canadian supply, which it has sought unsuccessfully to obtain for nearly 20 yr.

  2. A simple operational gas release and swelling model. Pt. 1

    Wood, M.H.; Matthews, J.R.


    A new and simple model of fission gas release and swelling has been developed for oxide nuclear fuel under operational conditions. The model, which is to be incorporated into a fuel element behaviour code, is physically based and applicable to fuel at both thermal and fast reactor ratings. In this paper we present that part of the model describing the behaviour of intragranular gas: a future paper will detail the treatment of the grain boundary gas. The results of model calculations are compared with recent experimental observations of intragranular bubble concentrations and sizes, and gas release from fuel irradiated under isothermal conditions. Good agreement is found between experiment and theory. (orig.)

  3. Natural gas industry and global warming

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.


    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  4. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.


    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  5. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.


    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author) [es

  6. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    Friedenberg, B.


    The financial outlook for the Canadian natural gas industry is discussed in terms of the price of Canadian gas and its production and transportation costs. Demand growth for natural gas is fairly steady, reflecting economic growth and technological advances. Supply growth is more volatile, overshooting demand growth in an up market and undershooting in a down market. In the past year and a half, gas prices have improved as the supply deliverability surplus has eroded. It is predicted that supply will again exceed demand and prices will decline, the length of this price cycle being a few years. Production costs for western Canadian gas had been declining during the mid-1980s to 1991, and current replacement costs average ca $1.87/GJ. It is doubtful that fieldgate costs will increase to overtake fieldgate market prices and the Canadian gas industry will remain in a healthy state. The availability and cost of gas transport, however, is critically important. The major costs of pipeline transport are fixed demand charges and the value of transport services out of western Canada is determined by the demand and the supply (the location and size of the pipeline infrastructure, which is essentially fixed over short to medium time frames). This value can vary significantly as the demand for pipeline space varies both daily and seasonally. Excess pipeline capacity is generally good for the Canadian producing industry since it lowers transport costs, but excess capacity also plays a role in linking producing-basin and market area prices to one another. This is illustrated for the case of Alberta and Texas gas prices, which show higher correlation with falling load factors on ex-Alberta pipeline capacity. 5 figs


    Nuur Wachid Abdulmajid


    Full Text Available This research aims to know: patterns of supervision conducted by the supervisor of PI in the workplace. This research took place at PT. Jaringan Multimedia Indonesia (PT. JMI as place for Industrial Practice Program. The key informants in this research were the industrial mentorsand students who participated in the industrial practice program. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, and documentation. The technical analysis of the data refered to the analysis of Miles & Huberman interactive model, including data collection, data condensation, data display, and drawing and verifying conclusions. The result shows that methods of supervision to students through mentoring that is focused on the handling of the case or case studies. So students are asked directly involved in work in the industry.

  8. Chemically designed Pt/PPy nano-composite for effective LPG gas sensor.

    Gaikwad, Namrata; Bhanoth, Sreenu; More, Priyesh V; Jain, G H; Khanna, P K


    Simultaneous in situ reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid by the amine group in the pyrrole monomer and oxidation of pyrrole to form polypyrrole (PPy) was examined. The reactions were performed at various temperatures to understand the degree of reduction of platinum precursor as well as doping of polypyrrole with Pt(II) chloro-complex. Spectroscopic images revealed different morphologies for the Pt/PPy nano-composite prepared at various temperatures. The as-prepared Pt/PPy nano-composite samples were tested for their ability to sense liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) which resulted in excellent sensing at relatively low temperature. The porous nature and ohmic contact between the PPy and platinum nanoparticles makes the as-prepared Pt/PPy nano-composite highly useful for sensors as well as electronic applications.

  9. Catalysts synthesized by selective deposition of Fe onto Pt for the water-gas shift reaction

    Aragao, Isaias Barbosa; Ro, Insoo; Liu, Yifei; Ball, Madelyn; Huber, George W.; Zanchet, Daniela; Dumesic, James A.


    FePt bimetallic catalysts with intimate contact between the two metals were synthesized by controlled surface reactions (CSR) of (cyclohexadiene)iron tricarbonyl with hydrogen-treated supported Pt nanoparticles. Adsorption of the iron precursor on a Pt/SiO2 catalyst was studied, showing that the Fe loading could be increased by performing multiple CSR cycles, and the efficiency of this process was linked to the renewal of adsorption sites by a reducing pretreatment. The catalytic activity of these bimetallic catalysts for the water gas shift reaction was improved due to promotion by iron, likely linked to H2O activation on FeOx species at or near the Pt surface, mostly in the (II) oxidation state.

  10. What's ahead for the gas industry?

    Rogers, B.


    The issue of what is in store for the North American electricity and gas markets was discussed. The electric power and gas industry are moving towards competition which will benefit the majority of market participants and will create a more level playing field. Deregulation in the U.S. natural gas industry is also building momentum. The steps that companies wishing to be successful must take before they can take full advantage of new and emerging opportunities are to: (1) know their business, and recognize that they are in the energy business, not only in the natural gas or electricity business, (2) organize for success by planning for mergers, acquisitions and alliances, (3) manage for change, and (4) know their markets and customers. Deregulation and converging energies were seen as the two major issues that the energy sector in Canada will be facing in the near future. Natural gas and electric utilities will survive beyond the year 2000 if they are flexible, provide a wide range of services, and offer new rates. Ontario Hydro's move to diversify their existing power generation and to burn natural gas for power generation to meet energy demand was considered to be a good example of how to manage for change. tabs., figs

  11. Ceramics technology for advanced industrial gas turbines

    Anson, D.; Sheppard, W.J.; DeCorso, M.; Parks, W.J. Jr.


    Recent developments in the fabrication of high strength ceramic materials and in their application to automotive and aerospace gas turbine engines may lead also to significant improvements in the performance of industrial gas turbines. This paper presents a brief review of the improvements projected in a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The future costs of power generated by small gas turbines (up to 25 MW) are predicted, as well as the potential for fuel savings. Gas turbines in this size range are used extensively for gas compression and for cogeneration, as well as in a variety of more diverse applications. This paper includes results of analyses of the ways in which changes in gas turbine cost and performance are likely to affect market penetration. These results lead to predictions of future savings in U.S. fuel consumption in the industrial sector that would result. The paper also presents a brief overview of the scope of a suggested R and D program, with an appropriate schedule, which would provide a technical basis for achieving the projected results. Important parts of this program would cover ceramic design and fabrication technology, engine development and demonstration, and combustion technology

  12. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)


    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  13. Perencanaan Sistem Persediaan Bahan Baku Industri Garmen di PT. DM

    Nunung Nurhasanah; Syarif Hidayat; Ajeng Putri Listianingsih; Devi Utami Agustini; Faikar Zakky Haidar; Nida'ul Hasanati


    One of the effort to presence with global competition in the era of the Asean Economic Community (AEC) in 2015, making it the various parties, both government, private, and Small and Medium Industries (SMEs) to compete with products made in ASEAN countries. One of the things that can be done is to make the efficiency of the production costs. For that, we need a production planning and control are very closely related to the raw material. The presence of raw materials becomes important because...

  14. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 1. Wholesale markets

    Donath, R.


    The article investigates gas pricing in the European procurement market and the wholesale markets of the most important EU consumer markets. It demonstrates that value-oriented pricing principles override cost-oriented pricing principles. For one thing, and independently of pricing principles, two- or three-part demand price systems or basic price systems are common. For another, the frequently encountered opportunities for the differentiation of prices show that as long as there is merely substitution competition instead of direct competition, gas suppliers have a certain degree of freedom in fixing their prices. By contrast, the introduction of direct competition in Great Britain has reduced suppliers' individual price fixing margins, because short-term supply and demand variations in the now created spot market are decisive for gas pricing. (orig.) [de

  15. Controversies about gas industry deregulation in Europe

    Percebois, J.


    The E.E.C. Commission wishes to introduce more competition into the European gas industry; abolish import public monopolies, resort to competitive bidding for distribution concessions, and to the common carrier system in the transport field. This deregulation policy may induce adverse effects in the long run. This may compromise supply security, and delay the development of new gas fields. This may particularly induce subsidies among users and lead to a reinforcement of regulation if we want the Third Party Access system to respect equality conditions for all users. This paper analyzes arguments for and against this common carrier system. 15 refs., 2 figs


    Rudy Rudy


    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies always strives to improve performance, namely in production of goods in time, management of material supply to prevent out of stock by exchanging information with suppliers, and on time delivery of goods to distributors to meet customer satisfaction on manufactured products. The purpose of this study is to analyse the supply chain management and to design the electronic supply chain management (e-SCM on Superpoly Industry Company so it able to give accurate and reliable information also support the better supply chain acitivity for the company. The used research methods are preliminary steps (energize the organization, enterprise vision, supply chain value assessment, opportunity identification, and strategy decision for the analysis and for the design consist of supply chain management strategic, customer and service management, manufacturing and supply chain planning, supplier relationship management, logistics resource management, and architecting. The conclusion is the e-SCM application will make it easier for the distributor to order merchandise from the company because information channel is open, which is website and information flow between supplier, company, and distribution is getting better.Keywords: supply chain management, electronic supply chain management, company

  17. Decision year for gas industry. [Canada

    Rowland, L; Rankin, A


    This year should be one of decision as far as the Canadian natural gas industry is concerned. There is urgent need to avoid the energy shortage now being experienced in the U.S., inasmuch as this year appears to mark the beginning of increasingly short supplies of gas in many parts of Canada. Increased gas plant construction and rising sulfur sales this year are 2 highlights of this annual natural gas report. A comprehensive listing of natural gas processing plants in Canada is given. Natural gas sales climbed by only 46 billion cu ft to an estimated 2,289 billion cu ft for a growth of 2% from 1973. The decline in exports will accelerate this year and as a result the overall gain this year is expected to be held to a modest 1% with an increase of 71 billion cu ft in the domestic sector and a drop of 58 billion cu ft in exports. Tabular data provide more complete details.

  18. The French gas industry in the world

    Le Gourrierec, Meline


    After a first article which briefly outlines the importance of the gas world market (in a context of increase of energy demand and of necessity of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), and indicates the important roles played by French companies who intervene on the whole supply chain (Total, GDF Suez, EDF) or as engineering companies Technip, Gaztransport Technigaz or GTT (the last one is specialized in marine engineering and intervenes in the LNG sector), an interview of the State Secretary in charge of Foreign Trade is proposed. It addresses the presence and intervention of French companies as natural gas tends to become the first fuel in the energy mix for OECD countries, the present and future role of the French gas industry and the importance for France of this international profile, the French policy to support the development of this industry, how the French gas industry may intervene in international diplomatic relationships, and how France and its industry have contributed to an access for all to energy at the international level. The next article describes the development of GDF Suez activities in Latin America (in Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Argentina, Costa Rica and Peru). The activities of the EDF group in the gas sector are then presented: development of infrastructures (notably the methane harbour of Dunkerque). In an interview, the manager of the LNG market strategy for Total presents and comments the LNG's role in Total's strategy, the perspectives of the LNG market and the influence of a low oil price, the Total's position with respect to shale gas exploitation, the planned developments and investments for the LNG sector, the use of LNG in the transport sector, the impact of the Yamat LNG project in the Arctic region. Then, an interview of the GTT chairman is proposed; it addresses the fact that Total sold its shares to a Singapore investment company, the activities and clients, the issue of international regulations, and the objectives of this

  19. Malaysian industry enters the gas era

    Buckman, David.


    Malaysia's petroleum industry is looking forward to an expansionary period until the end of the century, with the role of gas being greatly enhanced. The state oil firm Petronas sees increasing oil and gas reserves, making fuller use of abundant gas reserves, an exploration thrust into deepwater areas and the intensification of environmental protection as some of the points of emphasis in its current programme. The state firm president Tan Sri Datuk Azizan Zainul Abidin says that in the past few years a national economic growth rate of 8 percent has resulted in rising energy demand. Economic growth is projected to continue, so that an increase in power demand can be expected for the next few years. 'Fortunately, we are experiencing the same bullish trend in oil exploration and development,' he says. (author)

  20. Introducing new technology in the gas industry

    Szilard, S.; Powrie, D.


    The approach taken by Consumer's Gas in the introduction of new products was described. The company's role in technology development in the last decade was summarized in the context of other industries' practices. New product experiences and the key factors for success were also revealed. A professionally managed New Product Introduction (NPI) process launched by Consumer Gas in 1994 was outlined. Its objectives were stated as (1) providing strong leadership; (2) a widely held sense of urgency; (3) customer orientation; (4) doing the 'up front homework'; (5) the importance of teamwork; (6) a formal new product process; and (7) a simple management structure. The need for keeping up with technological changes and customer trends, while inspiring others in the gas distribution business to act similarly, was emphasized

  1. Low resistivity Pt interconnects developed by electron beam assisted deposition using novel gas injector system

    Dias, R J; Romano-Rodriguez, A; O'Regan, C; Holmes, J D; Petkov, N; Thrompenaars, P; Mulder, J J L


    Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a direct write process where an electron beam locally decomposes a precursor gas leaving behind non-volatile deposits. It is a fast and relatively in-expensive method designed to develop conductive (metal) or isolating (oxide) nanostructures. Unfortunately the EBID process results in deposition of metal nanostructures with relatively high resistivity because the gas precursors employed are hydrocarbon based. We have developed deposition protocols using novel gas-injector system (GIS) with a carbon free Pt precursor. Interconnect type structures were deposited on preformed metal architectures. The obtained structures were analysed by cross-sectional TEM and their electrical properties were analysed ex-situ using four point probe electrical tests. The results suggest that both the structural and electrical characteristics differ significantly from those of Pt interconnects deposited by conventional hydrocarbon based precursors, and show great promise for the development of low resistivity electrical contacts.

  2. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.


    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nuclear industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  3. Kompetisi Industri Transportasi: Tinjauan Komunikasi Pemasaran Jasa PT Kereta Api Indonesia

    Prima Mulyasari Agustini


    Full Text Available The development of transportation industry has removed the train business from its monopolistic business. Sooner or later, the government will open up opportunity for private parties to participate in the train business. In order to successfully anticipate this future, PT Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI needs to change its communication strategy. Integrated Service Marketing Communication (ISMC was recommended as a strategic approach covering management of service promise, management of customer expectation, customer education improvement, and management of internal marketing communication.


    Kimberly Febrina Kodrat


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan utama penelitian adalah menganalisis kinerja pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan. Cakupan aspek penelitian disinkronkan dengan konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan sekaligus dijadikan sebagai batasan kajian, yakni mempersekutukan aspek ekonomi, ekologi dan sosial. Data diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode survei melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam, dan pendapat pakar. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan metode survei dengan menggunakan perpaduan antara hard system (analisis sistem dinamis dan soft system (analisis prospektif. Dari hasil uji statistik chi square (α = 0,01 diperoleh bahwa kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di dalam PT. KIM mempunyai hubungan yang sangat signifikan dengan kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di luat PT. KIM terhadap tingkat pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan dan faktor usia. Berdasarkan hasil analisis kualitas limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM terdapat 5 parameter yang masih berada diatas nilai baku mutu KepMenLHNo.51/1997, yaitu: BOD, COD, TSS, klorida dan amoniak. Tingkat efisiensi pengolahan limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM rata-rata 53,07%. Hasil analisis ketergantungan antar faktor dengan menggunakan Analisis Prospektif diperoleh sebanyak 5 faktor strategis masa depan yang mempengaruhi pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan, yaitu: jumlah industri, permintaan lahan, kebijakan pemerintah, model pengembangan, dan iklim investasi yang kondusif. Pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan dapat dilakukan dengan strategi moderat dengan kebijakan mencakup jumlah industri bertambah secara bertahap dengan meningkatnya permintaan lahan serta kebijakan pemerintah yang memfasilitasi peningkatan modal pengembangan dan didukung oleh iklim investasi yang kondusif. ABSTRACT The main purpose of the research is to study environmental aspect of industrial estate development. The scope of the research aspects is synchronized with sustainable development concepts, namely

  5. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.


    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  6. Islands of steel rise over North Sea gas. Pt. 1

    Hind, J A


    Nowhere is the offshore oil and gas prospecting boom more enthusiastic, urgent, and crowded than in the North Sea. The type of rig required for this type of offshore drilling mainly depends upon how far offshore drilling is to take place. The fixed jack-up type is most suitable where depth of water is not excessive and for actual drilling operations were the drill is most easily held steady over the hole. This type of rig presents a stability problem under tow from location to location with a shallow depth of hull. Depth of water limits the operational mobility of the submerged-type rig and it is the most prone to scouring effects. Fully floating and ship-mounted rigs solve the depth of water problem and many others associated with ocean transportation. However, this is at the expense of more difficult drilling operations and complexity of equipment. Semi-submersibles are a popular compromise between fixed sit-on-bottom rigs and fully floating types. From a naval architectural point of view they have much to recommend them as all- round units. Typical North Sea drill rigs are described and a table is given for complete details.

  7. French energy policy and gas industry

    Mandil, C.


    The 111th annual conference of the French gas association was held in Paris from the 20 to 23 September 1994. This year's conference was very well attended, beating even the record attendance levels of 1993, both at the technical sessions and the accompanying international exhibition. As tradition dictates, this November issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui is entirely given over to a comprehensive report on the conference. The speeches made by top gas industry executives have been fully transcribed along with the discussions which took place following these speeches. This issue also includes a report on the workshop and marketing sessions at the conference while a list of the winners of the Innovation competition, which takes place every two years when the exhibition is in Paris, provides a rundown of the competing products. (author)

  8. Optimization of a water-gas shift reactor over a Pt/ceria/alumina monolith

    Quiney, A.S.; Germani, G.; Schuurman, Y. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse-CNRS, 2 Avenue A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne (France)


    The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is an important step in the purification of hydrogen for fuel cells. It lowers the carbon monoxide content and produces extra hydrogen. The constraints of automotive applications render the commercial WGS catalysts unsuitable. Pt/ceria catalysts are cited as promising catalysts for onboard applications as they are highly active and non-pyrophoric. This paper reports on a power law rate expression for a Pt/CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. This rate equation is used to compare different reactor configurations for an onboard water-gas shift reactor. A one-dimensional heterogeneous model that accounts for the interfacial and intraparticle gradients has been used to optimize a dual stage adiabatic monolith reactor. (author)


    Hari Suryo Utomo


    Full Text Available Factors Related to Contact Dermatitis on Workers at PT Inti Pantja Press Industri. PT Inti Pantja Press Industri (IPPI is an automotive manufacturing industry for car pressing body and car chassis. In the manufacturing process, its uses a variety of chemicals which may cause contact dermatitis for workers. There are other factors which may cause the contact dermatitis to workers worsen including indirect causes. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to contact dermatitis in workers at PT IPPI. Research is conducted using a cross sectional design with quantitative approach which describe factors affecting the development of workers contact dermatitis. Research subjects are all the worker who uses chemicals during the work process (80 workers consists from 4 (four different sections: production (handwork, maintenance (plant service and die shop, quality control, and inventory finish part. Methodology used for data collection was using a questionnaire in which respondents were asked to fullfill a self-completion questionnaire. Results suggested that workers at PT IPPI experienced contact dermatitis are 39 workers (48,8%. There are 4 (four factors were investigated using chi-square test (95% level of confidence which are significantly related to contact dermatitis, including: type of work {p value 0,02, odds ratio 3,4 (1,305-8,641}; age {p value 0,042, odds ratio 2,8 (1,136-7,019}; working period {p value 0,014, odds ratio 3,5 (1,383-9,008}; history of dermatitis at previous workplace {p value 0,042, odds ratio 5,9 (1,176-29,103}. Factors which are not related to contact dermatitis are history of allergy, personal hygiene, and the use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment.

  10. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    Ozcan, Ahmet S., E-mail: [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Lavoie, Christian; Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Alptekin, Emre; Zhu, Frank [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States); Leith, Allen; Pfeifer, Brian D.; LaRose, J. D.; Russell, N. M. [TEL Epion Inc., 900 Middlesex Turnpike, Bldg. 6, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)


    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  11. The new economics of the electric power industry and some implication for the natural gas industry

    Hall, G.R.


    The current restructuring of the natural gas industry and its regulation have important implications for the natural gas industry. Some of these implications are positive, some negative. As in all situations of change and uncertainty, look before you leap, is good advice to those in the natural gas industry seeking to take advantage of the opportunities created by the startling changes that are occurring

  12. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    Kvisle, Steinar


    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  13. Nanocrystalline SnO2-Pt Thick Film Gas Sensor for Air Pollution Applications

    M. H. Shahrokh Abadi


    Full Text Available A series of xSnO2(1-xPt nanopowder (x = 1, 0.995, 0.99, 0.985, 0.98 was calcinated at 950 °C, mixed with an organic vehicle, printed on premade silver electrodes, and fired at 650 °C. Microstructural, morphological, and elemental properties of the mixed powders and films were determined by using XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDX. Samples were exposed to ethyl alcohol, xylene, methanol, isopropanol, acetone, isobutane, and truck exhaust fumes, at wide range of operating temperature, and sensitivity as well as response time of the samples were measured and compared with Taguchi Gas Sensors of TGS2602 (air contaminants, TGS3870 (CO, and TGS4160 (CO2. It was discovered that crystallite sizes of SnO2 powder and response times of samples are decreased with increasing Pt contents, whilst sensitivity is increased. Measurements are shown that 1 wt.% Pt loaded sensor, operating at 300 °C, can detect exhaust gas with high differentiating between the applied gases.

  14. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.


    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  15. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  16. Statistics 2004 of the gas industry in France


    This document provides a analysis and statistical data on the natural gas consumption and supplies in France, the market organization, the employment of the natural gas industry, the transport, production and storage. (A.L.B.)

  17. Pt-modified carbon nanotube networked layers for enhanced gas microsensors

    Penza, M.; Rossi, R.; Alvisi, M.; Suriano, D.; Serra, E.


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) networked films have been grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology onto miniaturized low-cost alumina substrates, coated by nanosized Co-catalyst for growing CNTs, to perform chemical detection of toxic gasses (NO 2 and NH 3 ), greenhouse gasses (CO 2 and CH 4 ) and domestic safety gasses (CO and C 2 H 5 OH) at an operating sensor temperature of 120 °C. The morphology and structure of the CNTs networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A dense network of bundles of multiple tubes consisting of multi-walled carbon nanostructures appears with a maximum length of 1–5 μm and single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5–40 nm. Surface modifications of the CNTs networks with sputtered Platinum (Pt) nanoclusters, at tuned loading of 8, 15 and 30 nm, provide higher sensitivity for significantly enhanced gas detection compared to un-decorated CNTs. This could be caused by a spillover of the targeted gas molecules onto Pt-catalyst surface with a chemical gating into CNTs layers. The measured electrical conductance of the functionalized CNTs upon exposures of a given oxidizing and reducing gas is modulated by a charge transfer model with p-type semiconducting characteristics. The effect of activated carbons as chemical filters to reduce the influence of the domestic interfering alcohols on CO gas detection has been studied. Functionalized CNT gas sensors exhibited better performances compared to unmodified CNTs, making them highly promising candidates for functional applications of gas control and alarms.

  18. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 2. End-use consumption markets

    Donath, R.


    In the end-use consumption markets, gas is supplied to households, small consumers and industrial customers of retail distributors. As regards the delimitation of industrial customers receiving gas from retail distributors, there are great differences from one country to another, similarly to the market segmentation of wholesale markets.- First of all, the article points out structures and regulations in the investigated end-use consumption markets. The second part investigates cost-oriented and value-oriented pricing principles, followed by a comparison of price structures based on the Eurostat gas purchasing criteria for households and small consumers in the third part. A fourth part summarizes the results. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Guide to the economic regulation of the gas industry


    The guide provides: concise information on the institutional structure, legislation and licensing of the gas industry; a history of regulatory and commercial development in the industry; an examination of the current regulatory issues. (Author)

  20. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995


    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.)

  1. The Spanish experience - future developments in the gas industry

    Moraleda, P.


    Spanish experience is presented concerned it may be useful at the time of setting up a natural gas industry. The Spanish natural gas industry is of recent creation. Developing infrastructure and securing gas supplies have been major challenges. Challenges which, are also common for majority of the countries. The presentation is split into two blocks: the first one is on our experience in the establishment and consolidation of the market for natural gas in Spain. The second block deals with future developments aiming to strengthen the security of supply; and with the opportunities and threats the gas industry will face

  2. The rebirth of natural gas industry in North America

    Ridgley, R.


    In seventies years united states of america made a strict regulation of gas prices; as a matter of results, producers were discouraged and did not engaged themselves in gad prospecting and production. In eighties years began the deregulation and that what gave to producers the stimulation to prospect and produce. It is necessary to increase the efficiency of gas and then the gas industry will develop more and more. An other point made to favour gas industry is the performance from an ecological point of view. It is easy to understand why gas industry has a development three times more important than others energy sources

  3. Raman Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Investigations of Pt Electrocatalyst Supported on Carbon Prepared through Plasma Pyrolysis of Natural Gas

    Tereza Cristina Santos Evangelista


    Full Text Available Physicochemical and electrochemical characterisations of Pt-based electrocatalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan carbon, C1, and carbon produced by plasma pyrolysis of natural gas, C2 toward ethanol electrooxidation were investigated. The Pt20/C180 and Pt20/C280 electrocatalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors at 350°C. The electrochemical and physicochemical characterisations of the electrocatalysts were performed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, Raman scattering, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry tests. The XRD results show that the Pt-based electrocatalysts present platinum metallic which is face-centered cubic structure. The results indicate that the Pt20/C180 electrocatalyst has a smaller particle size (10.1–6.9 nm compared with the Pt20/C280 electrocatalyst; however, the Pt20/C280 particle sizes are similar (12.8–10.4 nm and almost independent of the reflection planes, which suggests that the Pt crystallites grow with a radial shape. Raman results reveal that both Vulcan carbon and plasma carbon are graphite-like materials consisting mostly of sp2 carbon. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry data obtained in this study indicate that the deposition of Pt on plasma carbon increases its electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation reaction.

  4. Modulating magnetic characteristics of Pt embedded graphene by gas adsorption (N2, O2, NO2, SO2)

    Lee, Youngbin; Lee, Sangho; Hwang, Yubin; Chung, Yong-Chae


    The effect of gas adsorption on the change in magnetic properties of platinum doped graphene (Pt-graphene) system was investigated using first-principles density-functional theory (DFT). Four chemisorbed gas molecules (N 2 , O 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 ) on Pt-graphene each induced a different type of magnetic properties. For N 2 adsorption, there was no spin polarization. However, for the other cases, magnetic properties were altered by occurring spin polarization. O 2 adsorption led to local polarization on the gas molecule, and two types of complete polarization were introduced on Pt-graphene by NO 2 and SO 2 adsorption. Also, in the latter two cases, an interesting difference was found in the spin direction of gas and Pt-graphene. NO 2 adsorption induced the same spin direction on the adsorbate and substrate, while SO 2 adsorption introduced the opposite spin directions. Thus, these differences in magnetic properties of the Pt-graphene according to the type of adsorbed gas molecules are expected to play a vital role in application as gas sensor or spintronic devices.

  5. Preparation of a Pd-Pt alloy on alumina and its application for a gas chromatography

    Lee, Minsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Paek, Seungwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Rag [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung-Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study we attempted to obtain a Pd-Pt alloy on alumina (PPA) by using an impregnation and alcohol reduction method for the purpose of a hydrogen isotopes separation, in which {alpha}-alumina powder was impregnated into an ethanol water (1/1, w/w) solution containing PdCl{sub 2}, PtCl{sub 2}, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, MW = 10,000). The sample was dried, reduced by hydrogen, and thermally treated at 1073 K. Thus, two kinds of PPA (Pd content 17 and 29 wt%) were achieved. The produced PPA showed a good crystallinity from the XRD analysis and it exhibited an adequate hydrogen desorption isotherm as a packing material for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. GC columns packed with PPA and Cu powder were used for the separation of a 29.2% D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture at 303 and 343 K. The experimental result showed a good separation efficiency of the hydrogen isotopes for the GC process. Consequently, the suggested technique for the production of a Pd-Pt alloy on alumina was proven to be successful.

  6. Panorama 2010: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, A.


    After a period of strong expansion that lasted for most of 2008, the gas industry was hard hit by the impact of the economic recession. Although the competitiveness of the gas price was often an advantage in 2009, the natural gas market saw a net decline in consumption that led to a historic decrease in world production and international trade. In addition, the subsequent collapse of market prices gave LNG a competitive edge in the Atlantic Basin, where surplus gas continued to accumulate, heralding a long 'gas bubble' period that the industry will have to adjust to permit harmonious, long-term development of the gas markets. (author)

  7. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia


    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. NO{sub 2} gas sensing of flame-made Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} thick films

    Samerjai, Thanittha [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Tamaekong, Nittaya [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Liewhiran, Chaikarn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wisitsoraat, Anurat [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon, E-mail: [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)


    Unloaded WO{sub 3} and 0.25–1.0 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BET surface area (SSA{sub BET}) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the sensors based on unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated. The results showed that the gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. Especially, 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} than the others at low operating temperature of 150 °C. - Graphical abstract: The response of 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO3 sensor was 637 towards NO{sub 2} concentration of 10 ppm at 150 °C. - Highlights: • Unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). • Gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. • 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} at low operating temperature of 150 °C.

  9. Rising natural gas prices : impacts on U.S. industries

    Henry, D.


    The impact of rising natural gas prices on the United States economy and domestic industries was examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Industry comments were solicited on the effects of natural gas prices on their business performance from 2000 to 2004 in order to collect data, and macroeconomic impacts were determined through the use of an inter-industry model. Results of the survey and subsequent model suggested that in 2000 and 2001, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was depressed by 0.2 per cent because of higher natural gas prices. Between 2000 and 2004, the civilian workforce was lower by 489,000 jobs. It was determined that nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturing was the most gas intensive industry. The results indicated that higher natural gas prices were an additional burden on manufacturing industries, and that the economic performance of natural gas intensive industries was poor between 2000-2004. However, it was just as poor between 1997-2000, when gas prices were relatively low and stable. Natural gas intensive industries passed along price increases in their products to their downstream consumers. Despite job losses, wages in natural gas intensive industries were higher and grew faster than in the rest of the manufacturing industry in the 2000-2004 period. Although capital expenditures declined between 2000 to 2004, they declined more rapidly in the 1997-2000 period. There has been no evidence of a decline in international competitiveness of natural gas intensive industries. It was concluded that rising natural gas prices have had a significant impact on the growth of the economy and workforce. tabs., figs

  10. Sputter deposition on gas diffusion electrodes of Pt-Au nanoclusters for methanol oxidation

    Giorgi, L.; Giorgi, R.; Gagliardi, S.; Serra, E. [ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Rome (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials; Alvisi, M.; Signore, M.A. [ENEA Brindisi Research Center, Brindisi (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials


    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are suited for use in commercial electrical vehicle and electric power applications. The gas diffusion electrodes of PEFCs are catalyzed by the deposition of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on carbon powder. The particles must be localized on the electrode surface in order to achieve high electrocatalyst utilization. This study discussed a method of preparing PEFC electrodes using sputter deposition of a Pt-gold (Au) alloy nanoparticles on carbon powders. The method was designed to improve electrode performance and catalyst utilization. The nano-sized alloy clusters were deposited on a gas diffusion electrode at room temperature. The deposits were then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to examine the effect of the deposition technique on the nano-morphology and electrocatalytic performance of the electrode. Results of the study showed that the technique can be used in the large-scale manufacture of fuel cell electrodes. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  11. CO Sensing Performance of a Micro Thermoelectric Gas Sensor with AuPtPd/SnO₂ Catalyst and Effects of a Double Catalyst Structure with Pt/α-Al₂O₃.

    Goto, Tomoyo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck


    The CO sensing properties of a micro thermoelectric gas sensor (micro-TGS) with a double AuPtPd/SnO₂ and Pt/α-Al₂O₃ catalyst were investigated. While several nanometer sized Pt and Pd particles were uniformly dispersed on SnO₂, the Au particles were aggregated as particles measuring >10 nm in diameter. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis of the catalyst showed a CO adsorption peak on Pt and Pd, but no clear peak corresponding to the interaction between CO and Au was detected. Up to 200 °C, CO combustion was more temperature dependent than that of H₂, while H₂ combustion was activated by repeated exposure to H₂ gas during the periodic gas test. Selective CO sensing of the micro-TGS against H₂ was attempted using a double catalyst structure with 0.3-30 wt% Pt/α-Al₂O₃ as a counterpart combustion catalyst. The sensor output of the micro-TGS decreased with increasing Pt content in the Pt/α-Al₂O₃ catalyst, by cancelling out the combustion heat from the AuPtPd/SnO₂ catalyst. In addition, the AuPtPd/SnO₂ and 0.3 wt% Pt/α-Al₂O₃ double catalyst sensor showed good and selective CO detection. We therefore demonstrated that our micro-TGS with double catalyst structure is useful for controlling the gas selectivity of CO against H₂.

  12. Natural gas industry R and D

    Pavan, S.


    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  13. Globalization of the Natural Gas Industry

    Burns, RJ.


    This document deals with the foreseeable evolution of natural gas demand in the next 15 years. Natural gas consumption is growing faster than any other fossil fuel and, according to ENRON, the natural consumption growth will continue. The environmental aspect of natural gas use for power generation is presented, showing that gas use reduces pollution emissions (when compared with coal). On top of that, it appears that the conversion efficiency of gas is much higher than the conversion efficiency of coal steam. Eventually, natural gas resources should meet energy demand for decades. (TEC)

  14. BC's oil and gas industry : opportunities and challenges

    Alvarez, P.


    An update of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry was presented with reference to activity trends and major issues. The presentation also described opportunities and challenges facing the industry in British Columbia and reviewed the impact of federal policies on BC. In recent years the industry has moved to oil sands and unconventional gas, offshore sites, and coalbed methane development. Other changes are a result of technology which makes it possible to drill deeper and faster while having less environmental impact. Government issues have become increasingly complex, however. Industry capital spending from 2000 to 2003 was presented for Northern Canada, the east coast offshore, Alberta, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, oil sand deposits, and international activities. The presentation included several graphs depicting: the changing natural gas production mix; North American natural gas demand; wells drilled by province; natural gas resources in BC; upstream capital spending in BC; wells drilled by type and depth in BC; top natural gas wells in 2000 and 2002; natural gas production in BC; finding and development costs for Canadian natural gas; and, the widening gap of the federal income tax rate between oil and natural gas and other industries. British Columbia is in the strategic position of having significant untapped gas potential in the northeastern part of the province. For now, there is sufficient pipeline capacity to bring the gas to markets in the United States where there is a strong demand for electric power generation. 16 figs

  15. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    Hawkins, D.J.


    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  16. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995


    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  17. German natural gas market and the international supply situation. Pt. 1. Supply market for natural gas

    Dolinski, U [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Bergbau und Energie


    Since the oil crisis the buyers's market started to change to a seller's market as a result of the worldwide rising demand for natural gas. This development will be amplified with the increasing significance and volume of LNG trade. This depends upon the availability of handling and tanker capacities. It is considered that technical solutions are available. The internationalisation of the world natural gas market imposes changes in terms of trade for the Federal Republic of Germany. In the sixties, terms of trade made under sales considerations presented no problems. But gas buyers today are forced to accept sellers' terms looking for the buyer offering the highest prices and other sales advantages. The world gas market has assumed the features of a polypolistic market. The security of supply is not a matter of adequate reserves, but almost entirely that of terms of contract on which the natural gas supply can be ensured. It is thereby decisive, whether it will be possible in future to procure the required amount of gas at such terms that it can be sold on the German energy market at competetive rates.

  18. French natural gas industry. Key-data 2000



    The year 2000 is the year of deregulation of the European gas market. This short article reports on some significant economical data taken from a brochure edited by the French gas association: transport of natural gas (main suppliers), network (pipelines, distribution system), consumption (industry, residential and tertiary sectors), uses (vehicles, cogeneration units), liquefied petroleum gases (consumption in residential-tertiary, industry, agriculture and automotive applications). (J.S.)

  19. The gas industry at the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Williot, J.P.


    The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)

  20. Developments in the US gas industry - no model for Europe

    Maier, F H


    The deregulation measures in the USA have led to increased regulation in the gas industry. There is no reason why these measures should be adopted in Europe. After a few remarks on the beginning of state regulation in the USA gas industry, the article goes on to consider the consequences of this policy (supply bottlenecks as a result of cost-oriented regulation of gas prices, surplus supply as a result of regulation-induced price increases).

  1. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries



    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  2. Key numbered-data of the French natural gas industry


    The third edition of this folder contains the numbered data relative to the activity of the French natural gas industry in 1998 according to the information available in June 15, 1999. Consumption, sales and supplies data are presented for both natural gas and LPG fuel together with a map of the French natural gas transportation network. (J.S.)

  3. Globalization of the natural gas industry; La mondialisation de l`industrie du gaz naturel

    Deyirmendjan, J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes.


    Okiy Hartato


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are to: 1 Test empirically influence of working motivation on performance employee, 2 Test empirically influence of working ability on performance employee, 3 Test empirically influence of working discipline on performance employee, 4 Test empirically influence of working motivation, ability, discipline on performance employee. This study used multiple regression analysis. The research was conducted in Sales and Marketing Department of PT Pionirbeton Industry with population of 43 workers, while the data collecting technique used questionnaire and SPSS version 20.0 for data processing. The result show a significant influence of working motivation on performance employee, working ability on performance employee, working discipline on performance employee. Working motivation, working ability, and working discipline on performance employee, The study found that a of the performance employee as dependent variable is influenced by motivation, ability, and discipline.

  5. Videoscope applications in oil and gas industries

    Hashim Bachek


    The need of inspection not only for external condition but for both internal and external. How we are going to check and know the internal condition of a piping as small as 4 inch or tube sheet of 10 mm outside diameter. Due to the nature of its operation which carries high temperature products or water it is very essential to know the internal condition before its too late where this may cause explosion or failure to any part or equipment which will claim lives and causes huge lost to the plant owner. With the aid of video scope inspection service or commonly called CCTV you now can see and inspect the internal condition of a small pipe or tube sheet or any in access item or equipment. Not only you can inspect but with the latest CCTV technologies you also can size the defect length and record the findings in CD-Rom for monitoring purposes. You can observe the growth of a defects and decide whether or not to repair or when to repair. CCTV has many field application beside normal tube inspection?its also can be used for special task such to inspect cause of blockage, to check any left over materials before box-up, to confirm presence or absence, etc. With various camera sizes and with or without control head many inspection task has been successfully completed.Normal defect that can be expected from CCTV inspection are such as erosion, burn trough, blockage, hard sediments, left behind item (before the box beam) pitting, etc. We have experience in inspecting the following items for major oil and gas petrochemical plant as well as special request from various industries sector. (Author)


    Mila Kumala


    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to analyze the internal and external condition of PT Pariwara advertising to formulate an appropriate strategy due to the company’s declining condition. This condition is caused by the implementation of Pergub No.1 tahun 2015 on the banning of cigarette and tobacco product advertisement in outdoor Medias.  The data is analyzed using internal factor evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, grand strategy matrix, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM.  The result of the research shows that the strategy priority during a stagnant condition is applying the concentric diversification strategy which adding new product that has the similar technology, join facilities, or distribution network with the current product.   Keywords: IFE, EFE, SWOT, grand strategy, QSPMAbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kondisi internal dan eksternal PT. Pariwara Advertising untuk merumuskan strategi yang tepat ditengah kondisi perusahaan yang sedang menurun dan kondisi industri media luar ruang DKI Jakarta yang melemah karena diterapkannya Pergub No. 1 Tahun 2015 tentang  Larangan Penyelenggaraan Reklame Rokok dan Produk Tembakau pada Media Luar Ruang. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis internal factor evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, matriks strategi besar, matriks SWOT dan Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan prioritas strategi yang harus dilakukan di tengah kondisi industri yang stagnan adalah dengan strategi diverisifikasi konsentris yaitu strategi penambahan produk baru yang masih ada kaitannya dalam hal kesamaan teknologi, fasilitas bersama, atau jaringan pemasaran yang sama dengan produk yang ada saat ini.Kata kunci:  EFI, EFE, SWOT, strategi besar, QSPM

  7. Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

  8. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  9. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  10. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  11. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Cowgill, R.M.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  12. Assessment and perspectives for the gas industry

    Al-Saffar, Ali; Bouchard, Georges; Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Delamare, Monique; Remont, Sophie; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice


    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed by contributors at the 2015 AFG Convention. These contributions comment the data published in the World Energy Outlook 2014 with a focus on gas (shares, sources of demand, unconventional gas production, share and evolution of LNG, competitiveness versus coal, gas to coal switching in Europe), propose an overview of the world gas market with a focus of European gas demand on the medium term, comment the evolution of the gas market on the short term in a context of oil price decrease (evolution of demand, of storage, of production and of imports in Europe), discuss an outlook for gas demand for power, comment recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (prices, supply/demand balance, influence of price evolution on delivery destinations), propose an assessment of the French gas market (competition in the retail market, world trends, creation of a unique market zone in France, European challenges, regime of access to storage, challenges of energy transition), discuss the role of storage as a tool for supply security, propose an analysis of gas supply safety (its pillars in the perspective of public authorities, associated prospective, aspects related to public service, problems related to storage, safeguard measures, European regulation), propose an overview of the present status and perspectives for the European gas supply, and discuss stress tests and measures on a short term aimed at improving supply security

  13. Request for Correction 12003 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Request for Correction by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for information in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum Gas Industry that regarding methane emissions, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants.

  14. 96/97 statistics of natural gas industry in France


    This documents presents an overview of the gases market in France (natural gas, LPG, methane, etc..). Details about uses, resources, foreign supplies, intervening parties, transportation and storage facilities are given for the natural gas sector. After a presentation of the gas industry conjuncture in 1996 and a general presentation of the French gas industry, the main economical data are presented as tables, diagrams and graphics: combustible gases (resources and uses, domestic production and imports, regional and industrial distribution and consumption..), and gas distribution networks (resources, exchanges, transformations, sectoral and seasonal analysis of sales, installations, industrial consumption by sector and region, pipelines, underground storage facilities, LNG terminal and storage facilities, tanker-ships, personnel). (J.S.)

  15. Gas industry poised for further growth

    Thomas, Victoria


    Despite the current slowdown in the US economy and an expected 4.4% decline in natural gas demand in 2002, the latest long term forecasts from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy are still robust. EIA forecasts energy demand will grow by just under a third by 2020 and gas demand by 50% over the next 20 years together with a slight increase in gas price to $3.26 per thousand ft 3 . (UK)

  16. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009


    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  17. Interfacial-Bonding-Regulated CO Oxidation over Pt Atoms Immobilized on Gas-Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Liu, Xin


    We compared the electronic structure and CO oxidation mechanisms over Pt atoms immobilized by both B-vacancies and N-vacancies on gas-exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride. We showed that chemical bonds are formed between the B atoms associated with dangling bonds around the vacancies and Pt atoms. These bonds not only alter the thermodynamics and kinetics for the aggregation and effectively immobilize Pt atoms, but also significantly change the composition and energetic distribution of the electronic states of the composites to circumvent CO poisoning and to favour coadsorption of CO and O2, which further regulates the reactions to proceed through a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The CO oxidation over Pt atoms immobilized at N-vacancies involves formation of an intermediate with –C(O)-O−O- bonded to Pt, the generation of CO2 by peroxo O−O bond scission and the reduction of the remnant oxygen, and the calculated energy barriers are 0.49, 0.23 and 0.18 eV, respectively. Such small energy barriers are comparable to those over Pt atoms trapped at B-vacancies, showing the effectiveness of Pt/hexagonal boron nitride atomic composites as catalysts for CO oxidation. These findings also suggest the feasibility of regulating the reaction pathways over single atom catalysts via interfacial engineering.

  18. Gas and power industries linking as regulation fades

    Bergstrom, S.W.; Callender, T.


    Although the gas and electricity markets have their organizational and operational idiosyncrasies, the principles of a competitive market apply to both. The gas industry model of functional and services unbundling, and the elimination of the pipeline merchant function should be emulated. This process of one industry learning from another is inevitable as electricity and natural gas come to be traded in a nearly unified energy market. As their markets merge, two once-distinct industries will be come much more alike, each borrowing the best features of the other and leaving less-desirable features behind. Factors are discussed

  19. The natural gas industry getting prepared for the competitive market

    Karbenn, F.; Schenk, S.


    The European Internal Market for natural gas is drawing near, and although the European Directive passed on 11 May 1998 provides for step-wise deregulation, it is expected that in Germany the phase of transition for the gas industry will be as comparatively short as it was for the electric power industry. The contribution here is intended to outline the expected consequences for the gas industry in EC member states and particularly in Germany, and to indicate strategies for managing upcoming risks. The instruments discussed in the article will gain in importance with increasing liberalisation of the markets. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Advances in operations research in the oil and gas industry

    Breton, M.; Zaccour, G.


    Various theories and examples of modelling, forecasting and optimization designing in the different parts of the petroleum and gas industries are presented, stochastic programming for long term planning in the refining industry, stochastic model for gasoline blending, feedstock optimization, location and sizing for offshore platforms, hydrocarbon exploration simulation rapid method, valuation of oil field development leases, economic models for petroleum allocation, models for oil supply market, trade embargo game theory, stochastic programming of gas contract portfolio management, scheduling transportation of oil and gas, strategic planning in an oil pipeline company, simulation of offshore oil terminal systems, hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

  1. A state regulator's perspective on the natural gas industry

    Heintz, F.O.


    This paper reviews the history of the natural gas distribution industry and the role of state regulation in controlling pricing and supply. The paper discusses the results of national policies such as the Fuel Use Act and the subsequent Natural Gas Policy Act. It then discusses the resulting market and prices resulting from both regulation and deregulation of the natural gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the market potential for natural gas and the reliability of this fuel source for future demand

  2. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.


    The paper presents an analysis of tbc effects of tbc European Union (EU) Gas Directive on the EU natural gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the European Committee, Directorate-General 17, in the Shared Analysis Project, 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020' managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report 'Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry', September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.c. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. 21 refs

  3. Pengaruh Pengendalian Intern Terhadap Efektivitas Target Produksi PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry Bandung Jawa Barat

    Bulan Tati Fitria


    Full Text Available The achievement of operational targets is expected by each organization / company. Due to the achievement of the target, it can be judged that the performance of the company very well. Therefore, if it is not achieved it is necessary to study the factors that influence it. For then do repairs on these factors. In the achievement of the target company, it takes a process associated with the target to be achieved. In order to achieve maximum results and effective it is necessary to an adequate internal control structure, which aims to regulate the operational steps the company to run an organized and effective.The study was conducted at PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry, located in Bandung, is to know how the implementation of internal controls and how they affect the effectiveness of the production targets, in particular the production of injection of 1 (one milliliter. This research used descriptive analysis with research techniques such as interviews, observations, questionnaires and literature study. Based on the results of this study concluded that the implementation of internal control at PT. Lucas Djaja is sufficient, this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, which is related to the control environment, risk assessment, information and communication, control activities, and monitoring. Meanwhile that of the effectiveness of the production target is still this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, ranging from productivity, quality, efficiency, flexibility, excellence, development, and satisfaction. And the obtained results of the research stating that the internal control effect on effectiveness production targets with determination coefficient of 56.01% and the remaining 43.99% influenced by other factors.

  4. The gas industry in Britain: future structures

    McKinnon, J.


    This paper is intended to provide a summary of the kind of structural changes to British Gas that can be considered in order to enable effective competition to develop in the gas market. It draws on an extensive analysis undertaken by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS) of recent developments in the gas market, the need to ensure the safety, efficiency and security of gas supplies under different structures and how regulation may change with different structures. Many of these issues covered are complex, and can each be discussed at length, but the intention of this paper is to provide an overview of the key options for a restructured gas market. OFGAS has also examined the regulatory environment within which competitors to British Gas who have emerged or who are likely to emerge in the future may be expected to operate. This paper describes the range of structural options we see. At one end of the spectrum there is the option of continuing with a vertically integrated but more heavily regulated monopoly; at the other end is a fully competitive structure with no or much reduced regulation. In between, there are various combinations between the degree of regulation and the extent of competition that can be considered. In analysing future structural options, we believe it necessary to consider the complete gas supply chain. The analysis therefore considers the offshore production or importation of gas, its purchase at the beach, its reception and processing at terminals, its transportation from terminal meters to customers' meters, its storage and sale to final customers. (author)

  5. Revolution in the natural gas industry?

    Thomas, V.


    The demand for cleaner automotive fuels has created an opening for converting natural gas to liquid transport fuels and blending agents using Fischer-Tropsch technology. While the technology is well established, it is not yet clear whether the conversion can compete with crude oil refining or with pipelines and liquefied natural gas. Although all the oil giants are interested in the technology, the only commercial-sized plant in the world was the Shell plant in Malaya which had capacity of 12,000 bpd, but the profitability of the plant came from the wax by-products. The plant has been closed since a fire and explosion in 1997. The process chain is described. The gas-to-liquid activities and achievements of Saol, Exxon and Texaco are reported. It was concluded that although there are still some problems to be ironed-out, there is a promising future for gas-to-liquid conversion. (UK)



    protection technique as a method of controlling corrosion in oil and gas pipelines is effective and efficient when compared to ... In the field of crude oil production and associated engineering .... Industrial/Mechanical Systems, Joen Printing and.

  7. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)


    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  8. Interfacial-Bonding-Regulated CO Oxidation over Pt Atoms Immobilized on Gas-Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Liu, Xin; Zhu, Hongdan; Linguerri, Roberto; Han, Yu; Chambaud, Gilberte; Meng, Changgong


    We compared the electronic structure and CO oxidation mechanisms over Pt atoms immobilized by both B-vacancies and N-vacancies on gas-exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride. We showed that chemical bonds are formed between the B atoms associated


    Eko Muh Widodo


    Full Text Available Dalam sebuah industri, informasi mengambil peran penting dalam setiap aspek yang melibatkan manajemen industri. Informasi yang tidak akurat akan asupan produksi perlambatan dan pengaturan couse tidak sempurna. Supply chain adalah rantai baik secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang dapat diterima formulir hulu hingga hilir dan itu adalah bentuk terbesar informasi. Penelitian dilakukan pada indikator kinerja supply chain, adalah produk tingkat persediaan dan order backlog. Dalam analisa indikator, ada beberapa langkah asupan di PT industri kulit. Lembah Tidar Jaya Magelang yang Beam House asupan, Retainning asupan dan Finishing asupan. Indikator pengukuran untuk langkah tiga menggunakan aplikasi simulasi sistem dinamik dengan menggunakan Berbasis Model Berbagi Informasi dan Berbagi Informasi Model demmand. Output implikasi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui perilaku persediaan dan pesanan backlog houbig PT. Lembah Tidar Jaya Magelang. Penerapan simulasi di tingkat persediaan produk dan backlog indikator agar memberi hasil perilaku persediaan kenaikan atau penurunan antara Berdasarkan Model dan demmand Berbagi Model. Order backlog penurunan juga invluenced dengan persediaan, untuk Permintaan Berbagi cenderung stabil, dan dapat menurunkan tingkat backlog order yang menunjukkan besar dalam asupan industri kulit di PT. Lembah Tidar Jaya Magelang. Kata kunci: Supply Chain, Dinamic Sistem, Produk Level Inventory, Order Backlog In an industrial, information takes important role in every aspect involving industrial management. Inaccurate information will slowdown production procces and couse imperfect arrangement. Supply chain is a good chain quantitatively and qualitatively which can be accepted form upstream to downstream and it is the biggest form of information. The research done on performance indicator of supply chain, it is product inventory level and order backlog. In analizing the indicator, there are some procces step in leather industri PT. Lembah

  10. New structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.


    The basic stags of structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management are considered. It is shown, that in new economic situation the traditional branch scheme of management became out date and does not meet demands up the times. The spent structural changes in petroleum and gas industry management will promote to strengthening of strategic role of hydrocarbon raw material production and processing in prospect. (author)

  11. Electronic data interchange in the Canadian natural gas industry

    Sheinfield, J.


    The concept of electronic data interchange (EDI) in the gas industry was discussed. EDI as a champion of costumer service and as a powerful management tool was defined, and the process of electronic information transfer was explained. EDI was then placed in the context of the business process, and its benefits in providing efficient service and product improvement were enumerated. North American Gas EDI standards, and industry initiatives were explored in detail

  12. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010


    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  13. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009


    This report proposes an overview of facts, events and data concerning the world oil and gas markets, the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, the challenges of gas European supplies, the exploration and production in France, the oil and oil-related industry, hydrocarbons imports, the refining activity in France, fuel quality, alternative fuels, the domestic transportation of oil products, gas infrastructures, the storage of oil products, the consumption of oil and gas products, taxes on hydrocarbons, prices for the final consumer, and the prices of oil products

  14. Panorama 2014 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, Armelle


    Due to sustained competition between energy sources and an economic and geopolitical climate that is still unstable, gas growth has slowed. The year 2013 looks very mixed for the gas industry, particularly on the upstream side. Constraints on the supply of gas and the increased dependence on imports in consumer markets increase the vulnerability of the gas markets to the vagaries of geopolitical risks and result in tensions on the international market. In an environment full of uncertainties about future prices and contractual terms, investors are slow to initiate the projects necessary for a global gas balance in this decade. (author)


    Bambang Suroto


    Full Text Available Abstrak: Banyaknya perusahaan atau operator yang melayani jaringan internet secara otomatis akan timbul suatu proses yang dinamakan pemasaran. Di dalam dunia usaha, pemasaran merupakan salah satu fungsi penting didalam suatu perusahaan, karena dalam pemasaran mencakup beberapa hal kegiatan penting yang kita kenal dengan marketing mix yang diantaranya adalah perencanaan produk (product, penetapan harga (price, program promosi (promotion, sangat penting dalam keberhasilan suatu perusahaan namun ada satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan dan perlu dianalisis apabila perusahaan menginginkan atau mempunyai daur hidup atau life cycle produk yang lebih lama, maka perusahaan harus melakukan analisis perilaku pelanggan. Selain kegiatan pemasaran yang sangat penting perusahaan juga tidak boleh mengabaikan apa yang dibutuhkan oleh seorang konsumen, faktor apa saja yang dapat merangsang pelanggan untuk melakukan pembelian suatu barang, serta mengapa konsumen mempunyai banyak kebutuhan dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dan tentunya hal itu semua menggambarkan arti penting sebuah kegiatan analisis perilaku konsumen. Keluhan yang dirasakan konsumen atau pelanggan adalah promosi yang diberikan atau ditawarkan terkadang sering tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan yang ada di lapangan, seperti akses internet yang lama, dan jaringan yang sering terputus karena adanya gangguan dan sistem perbaikan jaringan. Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah faktor-faktor apakah yang menyebabkan tidak tercapainya target pemasaran pemasangan jaringan internet speedy pada PT.Kaisar Motorindo Industri Pekanbaru. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan metode deskriptif, yaitu menggunakan analisis data kualitatif serta analisis data dengan menghubungkan antara teori dan permasalahan yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian diperoleh variabel produk, dalam hal ini merupakan kombinasi barang dan jasa yang ditawarkan oleh perusahaan kepada pasar sasaran terhadap pemasaran jaringan


    Bambang Ernanto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the corporate culture application effect on work motivation, and employee performance at PT. Rekayasa Industri. The sampling was collected using purposive sampling technique. Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFAwas  used in the research as culture corporate variables test and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA  for each variable validation indicators. The test of hypotheses corporate culture that influence on work motivation and employee performance is done by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of this research shows a significant effect on work motivation, performance and motivation on performance of corporate culture. There is still a difference between the important value in the field, corporate culture that should sipposed to be professional, innovation and team work and the most real implement is concern  for people, professional and focus on customer. Based on the average value of the score and a load factor of  SEM motivation variable, the   intrinsic motivation should be prioritized, but in fact extrinsic motivation and performance factors should prioritize conceptual abilities, but in reality the best  implementation is technical ability. This study is also to conduct explanatory to 6 core value of the company culture that has been formulated, in order to know whether the determination of the six core values are in accordance with the rules of statistics that can be used further for scientific research. Keywords: corporate culture, employee performance, motivation, CFA, SEMABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh penerapan budaya perusahan terhadap motivasi kerja, dan kinerja karyawan di PT. Rekayasa Industri. Teknik pengambilan contoh yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling. Pengujian variabel budaya perusahan menggunakan Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, sedangkan untuk melihat validitas indikator dari masing-masing variabel menggunakan Confirmatory Factor

  17. The changing face of the Canadian gas industry

    Doucet, G.


    As in all industrialized countries, in order to keep abreast of the increasing demand for energy and environmental protection requirements, the Canadian gas industry must take up the challenge of the next century and ensure a sustainable economic development in which gas will play an important role. What share of the energy mix for the years to come should be allocated to gas? How should demand be met? What changes should take place in order to be able to offer consumers an energy which is plentiful, safe and cost-effective? How should gas companies organize themselves in market which is becoming more and more de-regulated? Such the themes tackled by Mr Gerard Doucet, President of the Canadian Gas Association, during a presentation which took place at the French Gas Association's executive committee meeting. (author)

  18. Tasks and goals of the gas industry in Turkmenistan

    Berdiev, N.


    There are two key gas producing regions in central Asia: Amudarinskyi and Murgabskiy. Gas resources in Turkmenistan are light and contain mostly methane. The majority of gas fields are complex: 45 of them contain condensate, 14 helium and ethane, propane and butane. Sulphur dioxide with the total of 893 billion cubic metres is found in 18 gas fields. Within the complex political and economic situation, Turkmen Ministry of Oil and Gas undertook the following measures: technical rehabilitation and refurbishment of the gas industry and research on the gas export pipelines projects. The accounts show that the Turkmen natural gas will find customers in Turkey and other European countries at the prices which will prevail at the time the pipeline is finished. The project costs are 9 billion US dollars and it cannot be finalized without international support

  19. Ziff Energy Group's 3. annual 2001+ gas industry outlook


    A survey was conducted in April 2001 regarding industry expectations of gas prices, supply, markets, and transportation. The survey involved 97 participants ranging from gas producers, end-users, marketers, pipeline and local distribution companies in North America. The results of the survey can be summarized as follows: Natural gas prices are expected to grow and remain above oil prices through at least 2002. There will continue to be strong growth prospects for North American gas supply, but North American gas storage will be tight for the winter of 2001. North American gas demand is expected to continue to grow. Participants in the survey remained confident that gas demand would continue to grow, despite higher gas prices. Competition from alternative fuels in electricity generation did not appear to be an area of concern for the participants of the survey. 30 figs

  20. The economics of Australia's oil and gas industry

    McDonald, Rob


    This article evaluates the performance of the Australian oil and gas industry, focusing on the listed companies. A large part of the Australian oil and gas industry-(as much as 60 per cent)-is held by unlisted companies or by major international groups not listed in Australia. Nevertheless, it was considered that the sample of companies reviewed gives a reasonable guide to overall industry performance. Also, as part of this relative analysis, the Australian oil and gas industry will be compared to other investments that shareholders could have enjoyed. As well, its performance will be compared with the much larger industry in the United States. It is shown that over the past 10 to 20 years, the rate of return that the Australian oil and gas industry has offered to providers of equity capital has been less than industry expectations. While it was a better performer than the smaller US companies, it lagged substantially behind the major three sectors of the US index, which are international integrated gas distribution and domestic. 10 figs

  1. Canada's gas industry forges ahead in growth, demand, improved prices

    Rowland, L; Rankin, A


    This annual natural gas report takes an in-depth look at industry performance during 1973 and prospects for this year, in terms of production, markets, and plant construction. A detailed listing of gas processing plants is included. Planned projects also are listed.

  2. Natural gas industry in European Community and european single market

    Cadoret, I.


    Common Market of natural gas is dominated by some companies. In several Member Countries, one company only manages the whole industry. European Economic Community thinks this type of structure induce hindrances to free circulation of natural gas in Europe. 10 refs

  3. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, Armelle


    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  4. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, Armelle


    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  5. The future of the oil and gas industry


    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs

  6. Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with linear ethanol sensing at room temperature.

    Zhao, Yayu; Lai, Xuan; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu


    A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room temperature has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room temperature. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500 ppm ethanol at room temperature, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419 V, respectively. Moreover, a linear dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a linear ethanol sensing at room temperature can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-temperature gas sensing.

  7. Gas industry in Russia. Gazprom supplement 1994



    These four papers by senior executives of RAO Gazprom, the Russian state owned but self-financing gas company, highlight the company's key achievements and discuss current priorities. The close involvement between Gazprom and various research organizations through which equipment and technology have been developed is discussed. Details are given of the processing facilities for gas and condensates at four major installations together with their production histories and output projections into the next century. The development of the vast gas reserves on the Yamal peninsular is described. It is planned to link the new fields by pipeline to Europe. Ways in which to operate Gazprom's extensive pipeline network most efficiently are being sought and the findings and recommendations of the ''High Reliability Pipeline Transport'' programme are considered. A comprehensive table of Gazprom's output, exports, processing and development activity for 1994, in which planned levels are compared with currently predicted levels, is appended to the papers. (5 tables) (UK)

  8. Statistics 2007 of the natural gas industry in France


    This document provides statistical data and an economic analysis of the natural gas industry activity in 2007. It is presented around six main poles: the production, the transport, the methane terminals, the storage, the distribution and the commercialization. The main events of the year 2007 are the importance of Norway in the gas supplying, the decrease of the gas sales and the market opening. (A.L.B.)

  9. Statistics 2005 of the natural gas industry in France


    This document provides and analyses statistical data of the natural gas industry for the year 2005. After a presentation of the consumption and the supplying, it deals with the gas market organization (production, transport, storage, supply and distribution), the information sources and the methods of the analysis and the main data (transport, production, storage, employment, uses). The last part takes stock of the energy in 2005 and the main transport axis of the natural gas in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    Chabrelie, M.F.


    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  11. Entrepreneurial Leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

    Kalu, Mona Ukpai


    The study examined Entrepreneurial leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas industry and its ability to accelerate innovative energy technology development. The declining deliverability from existing reservoirs and ever increasing demand for energy to fuel growth in many parts of the world is driving oil and gas exploration into more difficult to access reservoirs like bituminous sands and shale gas. Accelerating new innovative technology development to access these new streams of profitable oil an...

  12. Gas processing in the nuclear industry

    Kovach, J.L.


    This article is a brief overview of code requirements in the nuclear air cleaning arena. NRC standards, which employ the various ASME codes, are noted. It is also noted that DOE facilities do not fall under the purview of the NRC and that DOE facilities (especially fuel cycle facilities) typically have broader gas processing activities than for power reactors. The typical differences between DOE facilities` and power reactor facilities` gas processing needs are listed, as are DOE facility components not covered by the ASME AG-1 code.

  13. Transportation charges in the gas industry

    Price, C.


    British Gas was privatized in 1986, a monopoly with no direct competition and only very light regulation of the tariff market. The regulator had an obligation to enable competition to develop in the unregulated, large-quantity, contract market. Competitors required access to the BG-owned transportation network. The government has recently rejected the recommendation of divestiture of the supply business, but has accelerated the advent of competition to the domestic market. This paper considers the role of BG's transport charges in these developments, using its past behaviour as a guide, and identifying the issues for future regulation and development of the gas market. (Author)

  14. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry


    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  15. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M


    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  17. Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry | Shammar | Journal ...

    Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry. ... is the key factor for considering AR as an effective tool to be used in maintenance work. Works related to applications of VR for energy exploration and safety training for petroleum industry is ...

  18. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii

    Municipal waste flue gas was previously found to deactivate the Pt-based CO oxidation catalyst severely. In the specific case studied, siloxanes were found to cause the deactivation. An on-site method for complete regeneration of the catalyst activity was found without shutdown of the flue gas...... stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest here, is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the deNOx + SCR catalytic process...


    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ


    Full Text Available Biological filtration systems is one of the current alternatives to remove residual volatile components of the air through biological means, without affecting the natural environment. Biofilters have a technology that uses microorganisms (bacteria to treat emissions, in a secure economic and environmental quality. Biofilters consist of porous filters, which is distributed flue gas stream

  20. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    Kheloufi, S.


    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  1. Analysis of the industrial treatment of gas

    Shirkovskiy, A.I.; Belaya, N.N.; Nad, Z.


    Mathematical models, algorithms and programs are developed for calculation of the thermodynamic conditions of the operation of installations for low temperature separation, which made it possible, in an example of the gas condensate deposit of western Shatlyk, to predict the operation of low temperature separation installations to 1984.

  2. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    Sagers, M.J.


    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  3. Pengendalian Kualitas Produk Lembaran Serat Semen Rata di Pt Bakrie Building Industries Dengan Metode DMAIC

    Ho Hwi Chie


    Full Text Available Producing quality products to match customer expectations is an important thing that needs to be done by every company that produces any product, to gain public appreciation and sell their products on the market. Therefore companies need to have a strong commitment in improving and maintaining product quality. The study related to product quality of flat sheets of fiber cement or more commonly known as versaboard produced by PT. Bakrie Building Industries show that there are 9 (nine types of defects that can degrade the quality of production. Most dominant defects occured on 3 (three versaboard products, the crack (2.03%, broken end (0.80% and side trim (0.35% during observation. Sigma level of products is obtained at 4:16 at a cost saving of due to defects of Rp.14.645.600, 00. Defects that occur tend to be caused by methods, people, machines, and materials used. Efforts to reduce the level of defects are done by making the SOP of the break-up method, and manufacture of cutter flow diagram. REBA score calculation results (Rapid Entire Body Assessment in the removal and break-up reduction is obtained at 8 with a high level of risk should lead to improving the position of the operator using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (Reba so that operators can work more carefully and responsibly.. 

  4. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications


    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region's resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region's supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry's potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord's equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region's ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D)

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles from the gas phase; Strukturelle und magnetische Eigenschaften von FePt-Nanopartikeln aus der Gasphase

    Dmitrieva, O.


    In this work, we present the structural and magnetic characterization of FePt nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with mean size of about 6 nm were prepared by sputtering in the gas and subsequent inert gas condensation. The particles are annealed in the furnace during their flight prior to deposition on a substrate. The aim of this work is to prepare magnetically hard FePt nanoparticles in the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. The structure of the particles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the investigations were supported by contrast simulations. The morphology of the particles varies with the sputter-gas pressure and with the annealing temperature. At a pressure of 0.5 mbar, the FePt-nanoparticles are multiply-twinned with an icosahedral structure and exhibit no formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. At a higher pressure of 1 mbar and an annealing temperature of 1000 C, the particles are partially single-crystalline. About 36 % of the particles are found to be in the L1{sub 0}-ordered state as was estimated by statistical counting supported by simulations. In order to activate the volume diffusion in the particles and to stabilize the formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered state, the addition of nitrogen was used during the sputtering phase. In this phase, atomic nitrogen is incorporated interstitially into the structure of the primary particles. After annealing nitrogen effuses out of the particles and, thereby, increases the volume diffusion of the Fe and Pt atoms. The incorporation of nitrogen atoms during nucleation and their effusion at an annealing temperature of 1000 C was verified by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Structural investigations on particles prepared in the presence of nitrogen shows that most of the particles are single-crystalline and about 70 % of them are L1{sub 0}-ordered. Detailed structural analysis of the nanoparticles was done by the exit wave

  6. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Jian Chai


    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  7. Towards the future french organization of the natural gas industry


    In the framework of the new directive on the internal gas market of 1998, the government proposed a discussion by the presentation of this white book, providing information and questions. This book proposes seven main chapters: the gas industry activity and the directive on the internal gas market; the gas actors, the key numbers and the juridical context in France; define and strengthen the natural gas public utility; useful actions for each gas facilities (transport, distribution, storage and retailers); the realization of progresses for the consumer; the operating of an efficiency control; actions to develop the gas operators in the world. The text of the 98/30/CE directive is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Gas Industry in China: a New Resource for Development

    Sergey Petrovich Popov


    Full Text Available Development of the gas industry in China since 1986 is considered by regions, by various consumer groups, gaseous fuels consumption pattern change with the development of gas transportation transmission and distribution systems. Current production of gaseous fuels, import infrastructure and natural gas prices in China are summarized. Implications on gas consumption growth in terms of customers and their geographical origin are provided. Competitive price stimations of the Russian natural gas for Chinese and other major gas importers in Eastern Asia are presented. Conclusion is made about Chinese monopsony on export gas pipelines from Siberia. The measures for elimination and/or reduction of such monopsony at the Asia-Pacific regional markets are offered

  9. 2003 statistics of the natural gas industry in France


    This document synthesizes the main annual results for the French natural gas industry in 2003: 1 - introduction: consumption and supplies; 2 - methodology: production, transport, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, reference documents, energy correspondences; 3 - Main data summarized in maps, graphics and tables: transport networks, storage, compression and production facilities; resources and employment; employment per sector of use; national production and imports; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel of the gas industry; sectoral distribution of gas supply networks; gas cogeneration: consumption, plants; monthly variation of imports and stocks; monthly variation of consumptions and stocks; regional supplies; regional and sectoral supplies; regional use of the national production; main 2003 status of the gas market; 2003 comparison between the inquiry and the provisional status; 2003 energy status. (J.S.)

  10. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996


    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  11. CO Sensing Performance of a Micro Thermoelectric Gas Sensor with AuPtPd/SnO2 Catalyst and Effects of a Double Catalyst Structure with Pt/α-Al2O3

    Goto, Tomoyo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck


    The CO sensing properties of a micro thermoelectric gas sensor (micro-TGS) with a double AuPtPd/SnO2 and Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated. While several nanometer sized Pt and Pd particles were uniformly dispersed on SnO2, the Au particles were aggregated as particles measuring >10 nm in diameter. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis of the catalyst showed a CO adsorption peak on Pt and Pd, but no clear peak corresponding to the interaction between CO and Au was detected. Up to 200 °C, CO combustion was more temperature dependent than that of H2, while H2 combustion was activated by repeated exposure to H2 gas during the periodic gas test. Selective CO sensing of the micro-TGS against H2 was attempted using a double catalyst structure with 0.3–30 wt% Pt/α-Al2O3 as a counterpart combustion catalyst. The sensor output of the micro-TGS decreased with increasing Pt content in the Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst, by cancelling out the combustion heat from the AuPtPd/SnO2 catalyst. In addition, the AuPtPd/SnO2 and 0.3 wt% Pt/α-Al2O3 double catalyst sensor showed good and selective CO detection. We therefore demonstrated that our micro-TGS with double catalyst structure is useful for controlling the gas selectivity of CO against H2. PMID:26694397

  12. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Tapper, R.C.


    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  13. Natural gas industry and its effects on the environment

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Kejeijan, B.


    The discoveries of natural gas have increased during the last ten years in Syria, These increases lead to the necessity of knowing the effects of this industry on the environment. Syrian Arabic Republic has been planning to convert most of the current electric of plants to natural gas in addition to future plans to export natural gas to the surrounding countries. In addition, the government is working on the use of LPG gas in automobiles. However, environmentally, the importance of natural gas is due to the followings: 1- Natural gas, when burned, emits lower quantities of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants per unit of energy produced than to other fossil fuels. This occurs in part because natural gas is more fully combusted, and in part because natural gas contains fewer impurities than any other fossil fuel. 2-The amount of carbon dioxide produced from the combustion of natural gas is less than the amount produced from the combustion of other fossil fuels to produce the same amount of heat. One of the important uses of natural gas is in the transportation since natural gas does not produce during combustion toxic compounds which are usually produced during the combustion of diesel and benzene. therefore natural gas is seen and considered as an important fuel to address environmental concerns. (author)

  14. Alberta oil and gas industry annual statistics for 1999


    A compilation of statistical data from Alberta's oil and gas industry was presented to provide energy analysts and economists a single source of consistent energy-related data. Alberta is Canada's largest crude oil and natural gas producer. This report provides current monthly and historical annual energy data covering the last decade. Data is organized by energy type including butane, ethane, natural gas, natural gas liquids, oil, propane and sulphur. This CD-Rom also included statistical data on energy supply, energy production, disposition, and prices. tabs

  15. World Gas Conference 1997. Sub-committee G 2. International classification for the gas industry


    This international Gas Union classification is a documentary tool for the transfer of information relative to the gas industry. It is written in English and in French, official languages of the IGU. In a resource centre, the classification can be used to set up a manual index file of documentary references selected for subsequent information retrieval. In the case of computer file, the classification can be used for automatic classification of document references selected by field. The IGU classification is divided into ten chapters: O - Arts, science and technologies. A - Manufacture and treatment of gases. B - Gas supply. C - Gas utilizations. D - By-products of manufactures and natural gas. E - Personnel of the gas industry. F - Hygiene and safety in the gas industry. G - Administration and organization of the gas industry. H - Commercial questions of the gas industry. L - Geographical classification. Each chapter is subdivided into subjects, and each subject is further divided according to a hierarchical set of classification codes which correspond to a more detailed approach to the subject concerned. (EG)

  16. Atlantic Canada's gas industry overview

    Gill, G. [Emera Energy Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)


    Emera Energy is a vertically integrated energy company with 4 billion dollars in assets, and one billion dollars in revenue. The ownership structure of Emera Energy was reviewed. The major issues facing Emera Energy all imply a balancing act, between end users and producers, government and industry, infrastructure owners and customers, and Canada versus exports. A brief overview of the regulatory environment in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia was presented. Some of the other issues addressed in this presentation were: project Think, Maritime fragmentation and parochialism, federal/provincial equalization payments, fishing/petroleum industry clash, sovereign risk higher than need be, immature energy industry in Atlantic Canada, and offshore exploration and production industry different than that of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). National Energy Board (NEB) gas export hearing into the appropriateness of the market oriented export liberalization rules implemented in 1987 for exports of Atlantic Canada gas production is being challenged by the government of New Brunswick. Figures depicting the Canadian gas resource and Nova Scotia offshore gas development were presented, followed by a table providing East Coast offshore costs. The Sable Offshore Energy Project was described, as well as the Deep Panuke gas field. An update on offshore exploration was provided, including comments on onshore activity concerning coal bed methane. A status report of the natural gas supply contracts was discussed. Conventional gas was the next topic discussed, beginning with an overview of onshore activity. The midstream sector was reviewed, with a brief discussion about the existing pipeline system. The mainline expansion plans were reviewed. Some of the gas transmission issues facing the industry in Atlantic Canada are high transport rates, postage stamp toll that is anti-Canadian, gate keeper role for producers, and onerous rules and poor customer service. The Cartier pipeline

  17. Overview of the U.S. gas industry

    Ramsey, J.


    Natural gas supply and demand is first reviewed in a discussion of the current state of the gas industry in the USA. The deliverability surplus is declining due to factors including a decline in drilling and workover rig activity and a continuing growth in demand at least partly caused by new markets for gas such as gas-fired power generation. The environmental movement, influencing laws favoring clean-burning fuels such as gas, is an additional influence on future demand. A key factor in the gas industry's ability to keep demand growing is how safely and successfully it can implement many aspects of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636 regarding pipeline restructuring. It is expected that this restructuring will see changes in gas transport and marketing, including an increasing role for supply aggregators and capacity brokers and an abandonment of the merchant function by some pipeline companies. A significant change in the last year or so is that US producers are willing and able to enter into long term supply contracts. Finally, gas production from the Gulf of Mexico basin is expected to continue to produce 2-2.5 trillion ft 3 /y for years to come, despite being a mature area for gas production

  18. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre


    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  19. Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China

    Shi Guohua; Jing Youyin; Wang Songling; Zhang Xutao


    With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As the liquid form of natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has also been paid more attention in the country. This paper explores main motives for the fast development of China's LNG industry. An overview of the industry is also described, covering LNG receiving terminals, plants and transportation. Despite a relatively short development history of LNG industry in China, there are many remarkable successes. City-gas supply by LNG is widely applied in many small to medium cities, and LNG vehicles and cold energy utilization are growing rapidly with governmental supports. At the end, the developmental trends of China's LNG industry are introduced. All the discussions show that LNG is strategically important in China's future energy infrastructure. - Research highlights: →Explore main momentums for the fast development of China's LNG industry→Analyze detailedly current states and future prospects of LNG infrastructure in China→Introduce and analyze the wide application of LNG-based gas supply mode in China→Discuss new developmental trends in China's LNG industry

  20. Estimation of cost function in the natural gas industry

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    The natural gas industry in Korea has characteristics of a dual industrial structure with wholesale and retail and a regional monopoly of city gas company. Recently there have been discussions on the restructuring of gas industry and the problems arising from such industrial organization. At this point, the labor and capital cost of KOGAS were analyzed to find out efficiency of KOGAS, the wholesaler and the cost function focusing on distribution was estimated to find out effect of scale of city gas company, the retailer. As a result, in the case of KOGAS, it is prove that enhancing competitive power is needed by improving labor productivity through stabilization of labor structure and by maximizing value-added through stability of capital combination. From the estimation of cost function of city gas companies, the existing regional monopoly of city gas company have effects on its scale only when the area of operation and end users used the same amount per end user are increased. (author). 31 refs., 10 figs., 43 tabs.

  1. Postannealing Effect at Various Gas Ambients on Ohmic Contacts of Pt/ZnO Nanobilayers toward Ultraviolet Photodetectors

    Chung-Hua Chao


    Full Text Available This paper describes a fabrication and characterization of ultraviolet (UV photodetectors based on Ohmic contacts using Pt electrode onto the epitaxial ZnO (0002 thin film. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system was employed to deposit ZnO (0002 thin films onto silicon substrates, and radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit Pt top electrode onto the ZnO thin films. The as-deposited Pt/ZnO nanobilayer samples were then annealed at 450∘C in two different ambients (argon and nitrogen to obtain optimal Ohmic contacts. The crystal structure, surface morphology, optical properties, and wettability of ZnO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, photoluminescence (PL, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, the photoconductivity of the Pt/ZnO nanobilayers was also investigated for UV photodetector application. The above results showed that the optimum ZnO sample was synthesized with gas flow rate ratio of 1 : 3 diethylzinc [DEZn, Zn(C2H52] to carbon dioxide (CO2 and then combined with Pt electrode annealed at 450∘C in argon ambient, exhibiting good crystallinity as well as UV photo responsibility.

  2. Competition on the British natural gas market - development and mechanisms, and effects on the British gas industry

    Millgramm, C.


    The development of the British gas industry shows that structural changes at one industrial stage may have effects on the other stages and that competition at one stage (commercial stage) may be limited by the way the other stages are structured. The conditions of regulation in the gas industry, the development at its different stages, and its present structure are described. The effects of commercial restructuring on gas exploration and gas lifting, gas transport and gas storage are analyzed. (orig./UA) [de

  3. The natural gas industry in Russia: reforms in debate

    Locatelli, Catherine


    Due to the emergence of shale gas in the USA, Russia has become the second world producer of natural gas but this industry remains one of the most important sectors of the Russian economy as natural gas exports are an essential component or the Russian economic policy. Addressing this industry, the author first comments the evolutions of gas production since 1960 and its perspectives by 2020 and 2030. He also outlines the importance of the cost issue associated with the choice between mega projects and smaller ones. In a second part, the author comments and discusses the evolutions of gas exports towards Europe and of the export strategy. He evokes the possibility of arbitration between price and quantity in Gazprom's strategy, the possibility of a strategy of downstream integration on European gas markets, the possibility of a diversification of export markets (notably LNG markets as several LNG projects are planned). In the third part, the author describes the Gazprom model, comments the recurring debate on a reform of this holding, and discusses its quantity-based management and the issue of Gazprom's efficiency. He briefly evokes the issue of reform of the Russian gas industry, the progressive emergence of new actors

  4. Inventory of methane losses from the natural gas industry

    Burklin, C.E.; Campbell, L.M.; Campbell, M.V.


    Natural gas is being considered as an important transition fuel in an integrated national strategy to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States due to its lower carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission per unit of energy produced. However, the contribution of atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) from the production and handling of natural gas must also be considered. Radian Corporation has been working with the Gas Research Institute and the US Environmental Protection Agency to detail the sources of methane from the natural gas industry in the United States. All aspects of natural gas production, processing, transmission, storage and distribution are being examined. Preliminary results of preliminary testing for the below-ground gas distribution industry segment are presented. The emission rate (scf/hr) is the product of the leak rate per unit length of underground pipe and the total length of US distribution system pipelines. Preliminary estimates for the below-ground distribution segment are nearly 9 billion scf/yr. This total likely underestimates below-ground methane emissions for several reasons. These preliminary analyses suggest that significant uncertainty surround current methane emission estimates from below-ground distribution systems. Emission estimates from all segments of the US Natural Gas Industry, broken down by fugitive sources and non-fugitive sources, are also presented. The specific test methods being implemented to quantify emissions from each segment are described

  5. Making channeling visible: keV noble gas ion trails on Pt(111)

    Redinger, A; Standop, S; Michely, T [II Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Y; Urbassek, H M, E-mail: [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)


    The impact of argon and xenon noble gas ions on Pt(111) in grazing incidence geometry are studied through direct comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulations. The energy range investigated is 1-15 keV and the angles of incidence with respect to the surface normal are between 78.5{sup 0} and 88{sup 0}. The focus of the paper is on events where ions gently enter the crystal at steps and are guided in channels between the top most layers of the crystal. The trajectories of the subsurface channeled ions are visible as trails of surface damage. The mechanism of trail formation is analyzed using simulations and analytical theory. Significant differences between Xe{sup +} and Ar{sup +} projectiles in damage, in the onset energy of subsurface channeling as well as in ion energy dependence of trail length and appearance are traced back to the projectile and ion energy dependence of the stopping force. The asymmetry of damage production with respect to the ion trajectory direction is explained through the details of the channel shape and subchannel structure as calculated from the continuum approximation of the channel potential. Measured and simulated channel switching in directions normal and parallel to the surface as well as an increase of ions entering into channels from the perfect surface with increasing angles of incidence are discussed.

  6. The Ralph review - tax reform and the Australian gas industry

    Horden, P.; Kellock, I.


    The impact of the Federal Government's tax reform package on the Australian gas industry will be generally negative, particularly in terms of infrastructure investment, according to Pricewaterhouse Coopers' Peter Hordern and Ian Kellock. This article examines the critical aspects of the package. Overall, the impact of the tax reform package (consisting of the Ralph committee's report and the Government's initial response) on the Australian gas industry would appear to be negative. The removal of accelerated depreciation and the potential for severe limitations on leasing arrangements is particularly bad news. While the proposed reduction in the company tax rate may appear positive, this is unlikely to provide significant benefit to the industry. The reality is existing gas infrastructure investors are generally in tax losses and will derive no immediate benefit from the rate change. For new investors, the reduction in rate will not offset the loss of accelerated depreciation deductions

  7. Opportunities in the United States' gas processing industry

    Meyer, H.S.; Leppin, D.


    To keep up with the increasing amount of natural gas that will be required by the market and with the decreasing quality of the gas at the well-head, the gas processing industry must look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GR); is managing a research, development, design and deployment program that is projected to save the industry US dollar 230 million/year in operating and capital costs from gas processing related activities in NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. Multivariable Control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at fourteen facilities treating a combined total of over 30x10 9 normal cubic meter per year (BN m 3 /y) [1.1x10 12 standard cubic feet per year (Tcf/y)]. Simple pay backs are typically under 6 months. A new acid gas removal process based on n-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40-50% savings in operating costs and 15-30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. The GRI-MemCalc TM Computer Program for Membrane Separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBase TM Computer Program for Scavenging Technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas. (au) 19 refs

  8. Toward 2000 - potential changes facing the North American gas industry

    Baron, R.L.; Godec, M.L.


    Rapid changes in U.S. gas market developments and key factors that are likely to change future market outlook were reviewed. Currently, the biggest challenges facing the North American gas industry are deregulation in the electric power industry, technological advances, Canadian exports, environmental considerations, and new sources of natural gas from Mexico and Sable Island. Forces driving the natural gas demand include technological advances, growth in gas demand by electric utilities, and expansion of pipeline capacity. Uncertainties and threats to natural gas use include the rising cost of environmental compliance, the continued use of coal for power generation, and the Alliance Pipeline development. Technological advances such as 3-D seismic, horizontal drilling, improved completion techniques, longer-life bits, improved control systems, and reduced project cycle time, have been credited for producers now finding more gas reserves per well drilled than a decade ago. Present estimates of technically recoverable gas resources in North America run to about 2,500 trillion cubic feet

  9. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, A.


    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  10. Stability investigation of a high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 single-atom catalyst under different gas environments by HAADF-STEM

    Duan, Sibin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Jingyue


    Catalysis by supported single metal atoms has demonstrated tremendous potential for practical applications due to their unique catalytic properties. Unless they are strongly anchored to the support surfaces, supported single atoms, however, are thermodynamically unstable, which poses a major obstacle for broad applications of single-atom catalysts (SACs). In order to develop strategies to improve the stability of SACs, we need to understand the intrinsic nature of the sintering processes of supported single metal atoms, especially under various gas environments that are relevant to important catalytic reactions. We report on the synthesis of high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 SACs using a facial strong adsorption method and the study of the mobility of these supported Pt single atoms at 250 °C under various gas environments that are relevant to CO oxidation, water–gas shift, and hydrogenation reactions. Under the oxidative gas environment, Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms are stable even at high temperatures. The presence of either CO or H2 molecules in the gas environment, however, facilitates the movement of the Pt atoms. The strong interaction between CO and Pt weakens the binding between the Pt atoms and the support, facilitating the movement of the Pt single atoms. The dissociation of H2 molecules on the Pt atoms and their subsequent interaction with the oxygen species of the support surfaces dislodge the surface oxygen anchored Pt atoms, resulting in the formation of Pt clusters. The addition of H2O molecules to the CO or H2 significantly accelerates the sintering of the Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms. An anchoring-site determined sintering mechanism is further proposed, which is related to the metal–support interaction.


    Bhiaztika Ristyanadi


    Full Text Available Good manufacturing practice is the first step implementation of food safety regulation. PT. Kelola Mina Laut is one of chilled sea crab producers in Madura. It has four branches in Madura,those are in Tanjung Bumi, Noreh, Sampang, and Lobuk. The objective of this research is to assess the effectiveness GMP in four branches of PT. Kelola Mina Laut. The research  uses field observation, data analysis and GMP development as the method. Based on GMP analysis, four branches of PT. Kelola Mina Laut appear to have a cummulative score between 337-369, in which Lobuk has the highest score. Therefore, it can be concluded that PT. Kelola Mina Laut has applied most of GMP elements


    Fenny Anggraini


    Full Text Available Kemacetan yang terjadi selama perjalanan sering mengganggu kegiatan sehari-hari. Setiap manusia ingin sampai ke tujuan dengan tepat waktu. Tetapi sering kali kemacetan menyebabkan keinginan manusia terhambat. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan suatu cara untuk menanggulangi masalah tersebut yaitu dengan mengetahui jarak tempuh minimum untuk mencapai suatu tempat. Persoalan lintasan terpendek yaitu menemukan lintasan terpendek antara dua atau beberapa simpul lebih yang berhubungan. Tujuannya memberikan informasi pencarian perusahaan di Kawasan Industri Pulogadung untuk memudahkan para pencari posisi perseroan terbatas menemukan letak perseroan terbatas yang dituju. Algoritma Bellman – Ford menghitung jarak terpendek (dari satu sumber pada sebuah graph berbobot, dimana dari satu sumber menghitung semua jarak terpendek yang berawal dari satu titik node. OpenStreetMap adalah sebuah proyek berbasis web untuk membuat peta seluruh dunia yang gratis dan terbuka, dibangun sepenuhnya oleh sukarelawan dengan melakukan survey menggunakan GPS, mendigitasi citra satelit, dan mengumpulan serta membebaskan data geografis yang tersedia di publik. Open Source Routing Machine atau OSRM adalah C ++ pelaksanaan mesin routing kinerja tinggi untuk jalur terpendek di jaringan jalan. Output berupa jarak terpendek dari titik awal pengguna berada sampai ke titik tujuan pengguna.

  13. Gas cluster ion beam equipments for industrial applications

    Matsuo, J.; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, I.


    30 keV and 200 keV gas cluster ion beam equipments have been developed for industrial applications. A gas cluster source with a non-cooled nozzle was used for both the equipments. Sufficient monomer ion suppression was achieved by using an ExB filter and chromatic lenses mass filter with low extraction voltage. These equipments are suitable to be used for low-damage surface treatment of metals, insulators and semiconductors without heavy metal contamination. (orig.)

  14. Misplaced generosity: extraordinary profits in Alberta's oil and gas industry

    Boychuk, R.


    This document gives a picture extended over a decade of the revenues, investment levels and profits of the Alberta's oil and gas industry. It also investigates on the distribution of those revenues and profits that were accrued to the provincial government through royalties and land sales. This document, tries to fill the information gaps left by the current government's achievement as Albertans' oil and gas trustee, pointing out the ongoing lack of responsibility in this province's most important economic sector.

  15. Mergers and acquisitions in the natural gas industry

    Burkhardt, D.A.; Brown, M.L.


    Three examples of natural gas distribution companies involved in merger activity illustrate how the distribution as well as the transmission side of the industry may be attractive to potential acquiring companies seeking diversification. Although the mergers are a new phenonmenon, the acquiring firms are attracted by the overlapping service areas and the operating efficiency of the regulated distributors. They also see a possible outlet for surplus natural gas. 1 table.

  16. Investing in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Mulder, H.


    This presentation explains what are the most common bottlenecks for foreign investments in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe. Taking into account the investment needs arising in economies in transition, from investor's point of view the issue of great importance is the risk when prices are not yet at market equivalent levels. Changes in the policy (regulatory, legal, financial) environment should stimulate investments. Privatization and liberalization are also driven by lack of public capital. Foreign investment would need a predictable investment environment. The investment needs of the gas industry would compete with other investments that might be more attractive

  17. Manual on oil-gas industry waste utilization radioecological safety

    Kudryashev, V.A.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Marabaev, Zh.N.; Pasysaev, V.A.; Kayukov, P.G.; Kozhakhmetov, N.B.; Shevtsov, S.P.


    The development of a new document - 'Manual on radio-ecologically safe utilization of waste from oil-and-gas production' is carried out. This document regulates the whole cycle of environment protection measures at waste utilization for the named industry in Kazakhstan and is aimed on lowering the radiation risks and assurance of radioecological safety both at present and for the future. The document presents a set regulations necessary for radioactive wastes handling in the oil-gas industry. The normative document was agreed in both the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and Ministry of Environment Protection of RK

  18. Investment and uncertainty in the international oil and gas industry

    Mohn, Klaus; Misund, Baard


    The standard theory of irreversible investments and real options suggests a negative relation between investment and uncertainty. Richer models with compound option structures open for a positive relationship. This paper presents a micro-econometric study of corporate investment and uncertainty in a period of market turbulence and restructuring in the international oil and gas industry. Based on data for 115 companies over the period 1992-2005, we estimate four different specifications of the q model of investment, with robust results for the uncertainty variables. The estimated models suggest that macroeconomic uncertainty creates a bottleneck for oil and gas investment and production, whereas industry-specific uncertainty has a stimulating effect. (author)

  19. Gas industries in Europe and America and trends of deregulation; Obei no gas jigyo to kisei kanwa no doko

    Santo, Y [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of natural gas industries in Europe and America, introduction of competition to gas industry in the USA, introduction of competition to gas industry in the UK, and gas industries in the continental Europe. For the new gas distribution system in the USA, pipeline enterprises are permitted to do only transportation services. Sale of gas is based on the direct contract between producers and distributors. In the UK, the British Gas Corporation (BGC) was converted into the private British Gas plc (BG) in 1986. With introducing the competition conditions, the BG has drastically modified its organization, to divide it into the domestic gas division, overseas gas division and the division of development and production of gas. As a consequence of the introduction of competition conditions, the market share of BG has drastically decreased. Moreover, gas industries in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Austria and the Netherlands are briefly described. 4 figs.

  20. French natural gas industry statistics; Statistiques de l'industrie gaziere en France



    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  1. Surface reactions during atomic layer deposition of Pt derived from gas phase infrared spectroscopy

    Kessels, W.M.M.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Dielissen, S.A.F.; Mackus, A.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.


    Infrared spectroscopy was used to obtain absolute number information on the reaction products during atomic layer deposition of Pt from (methylcyclopentadienyl)trimethylplatinum [(MeCp)PtMe3] and O2. From the detection of CO2 and H2O it was established that the precursor ligands are oxidatively

  2. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries

    Corlay, C.; Huby, D.


    This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries, and lists the most important mergers in terms of transaction value for the period 1981-1997, and plots oil and gas mergers and acquisitions activity by sector and by major region. The mean operation indicator in 1998 in terms of reserves, production and refining capacity of the major companies are tabulated. The impact of the mergers on the oil and gas markets are examined, and issues concerning these mergers and acquisitions are explored. (UK)

  3. Panorama 2015 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    Le Carpentier, Armelle


    For the third consecutive year, growth in gas demand is slowing down. The year of 2014 is marked by lower activity in the global gas industry at all stages in the chain. This can be explained by increased competition between energies (coal, renewables), the economic slowdown and the mild weather conditions which have put a brake on expansion of the gas demand (Europe, Asia) and led to high stock levels. These developments have pushed market prices downwards and modified inter-regional balancing flows. (author)

  4. Companies: oil and gas industry on the up

    Burk, V.A.


    The results of a 1993 survey of the oil and gas industries in the USA are reported. Exploration and development spending and production replacement rates increased for the first time since 1990 while reserve replacement costs were at their lowest for five years. Data demonstrating these improvements are included. The information is drawn from 250 publicly owned oil and gas companies, 28 of which have headquarters outside the USA. A ranked list of the ''Top 100'' companies is presented, detailing: oil and gas reserves and production revenues; results of operations from producing activities; acquisition, exploration and development expenditures; reserve and production replacement costs. (UK)

  5. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries

    Corlay, C.; Huby, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries, and lists the most important mergers in terms of transaction value for the period 1981-1997, and plots oil and gas mergers and acquisitions activity by sector and by major region. The mean operation indicator in 1998 in terms of reserves, production and refining capacity of the major companies are tabulated. The impact of the mergers on the oil and gas markets are examined, and issues concerning these mergers and acquisitions are explored. (UK)

  6. Commission ushers in new era in Mexican gas industry

    Monteforte, R.


    Transportation and distribution of natural gas in Mexico are undergoing fundamental changes as a result of the 1995 passage by the Congress of Mexico of the law that created the Energy Regulatory Commission (Comision Reguladora de Energia--CRE). The law mandates that the commission must achieve a competitive, efficient, safe, and sustainable gas industry, allowing the country to make the difficult energy transition to open gas and electricity markets relying on cleaner fuels. The paper discusses the situation before CRE, the regulatory framework, market development, and the North American market

  7. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    Chabrelie, M.F.


    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  8. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Adhi Cahyono


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict. Keywords: Conflict approaches, effective project manager, EPC contractors, upstream sector of oil and gas industry /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  9. 1997-98 statistical data of the natural gas industry in France


    This document summarizes the main economical results of the natural gas industry sector in France for 1997 and 1998. An overview of the gas market is also given (natural gas, LPG, fire damp gas, etc..). Several statements are provided for the natural gas: sectoral analysis of consumptions, number of consumers and amount of supplies, personnel status of the natural gas industry, consumptions in the industry, share of natural gas in the French energy balance sheet.. (J.S.)

  10. Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry

    literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. All that microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) influence the corrosion process of a given material. In this chapter, an overview of the common MIC mechanisms encountered in the oil and gas industry is presented.

  11. Short-term trends in the gas industry - Panorama 2008


    In a context of high investment costs and rising energy prices, and recurring unseasonably warm temperatures in recent years, the growth of natural gas demand is slowing. On the supply side, and on the demand side too, new trends are emerging, with potentially powerful impact on the short-and long-term development of the industry

  12. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica



    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  13. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami


    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  14. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    Xinmin, J.


    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  15. The future of the oil and gas industry

    Morrison, G.


    A review of the state of the Canadian oil and gas industry for 1997 was presented. In 1997, capital investment levels were at $19 billion with oil, gas and gas by-products production valued at $31 billion. Exports were strong and set to grow further. As far as the Yukon is concerned, the availability of increased incentives and the announcement of a common royalty regime for the Territory have helped to increase interest by outside capital. Ongoing efforts are being made to include First Nations communities in the public consultation processes, and to ensure significant benefits to First Nation people from any development. The industry's initiatives and approaches to exploration, development and production were outlined. Environmental initiatives to protect the wilderness, and the existing ecosystem were described with examples from Alberta (Special Places 2000) and from British Columbia (BC Northern Rockies (Muskwa-Kechika; marine protected areas). 1 fig


    V. Y. Lobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the work is to substantiate the issue of effective use of kinetic energy of gas-air flows used by the technological installation for generating electric power, which will allow developing a new control algorithm and creating new software for controlling the gas-air power plant. To test the adequacy of the developed control algorithms and software, to develop a laboratory gas-air power plant. Methodology. To investigate the distribution of air-gas mass in process plants used industrial plant simulation method performed in software SolidWorks Flow Simulation. The method of simulation allowed to develop a new control algorithm and create new software taking into account the basic technical requirements for the management of the gas-air power plant. To test the efficiency of the developed algorithms and control software for the gas-air power plant, a physical modeling method was used on a developed laboratory installation connected via a USB interface with a computer and has a virtual model of the SCADA system presented in the LabVIEW environment. Findings. Based on the modeling of gas-air flows on the developed mathematical model, the optimal ratios of pipeline sizes are rationally determined, the gas-air mixture costs necessary for the most efficient operation of the gas-air power plant, that is, in the working zone of the gas-air path, the generator screw contacts the most significant flows, providing the maximum effect rotation. The obtained results of research of gas-air flows of technological installations of an industrial enterprise in the software environment of SolidWorks Flow Simulation and on their basis the basic technical requirements for the management of a gas-air power plant are developed. An optimal control algorithm has been developed that enabled it to be introduced into the control scheme of a gas-air power plant with a microprocessor or a specialized microcontroller. Originality. New possibilities for


    Leonardus Hardjo


    Full Text Available IT Department in PT MCM has to carry out the duties and functions of developing solution to support the business unit in their operation and gain some benefits which should be obtained by using IT in manufacturing such as increasing efficiency, improving the effectivity in making decision and helping to promote the products. This study aims to design information technology strategic planning in accordance with the strategic plan. The research method is using the IT Strategic Planning framework of Alex Cullen and Marc Cecere. This study uses SWOT and IT Balanced Scorecard to analyze the needs of IT at PT MCM. The results of this study are recommended strategic steps to optimize the implementation of IT in the company to improve the performance from IT division to obtain the benefits by implementing IT in manufacturing and to form IT Blueprint, which is part of the information technology strategic plan in PT MCM.

  18. The potential for Internet commerce in the gas industry

    MacLellan, I.


    The potential for Internet commerce in natural gas is examined from the point of view of residential and commercial consumers, government agencies and industry associations, energy marketers and utilities. The overall conclusion of the inquiry is that there are many advantages for everyone concerned, but the few disadvantages that do exist, will delay implementation for a while. Impediments from the consumer's point of view are the natural desire to 'touch and feel' the product purchased, and the reluctance to put a credit card number on the web. The supplier's major reluctance may be that Internet commerce makes product differentiation difficult. The author provides a number of reasons why i nternetting' of the energy industry will eventually become inevitable, as well as tips on how perceived difficulties either do not apply to the gas industry, or can be overcome with only minor changes in attitudes on the part of consumers, and relatively painless adjustments in the way of doing business by suppliers and marketers

  19. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    Isreb, M.


    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs

  20. The development of the UK landfill gas industry: an overview

    Moss, H.


    The UK's landfill gas research started in 1978 and led to the first commercial scheme in 1981 where the gas was used to fire a brick kiln. Electricity generation followed in 1984. Although by 1990 there were nearly two dozen operational schemes, the real impetus to usage was given by the NFFO. Here all electricity generated could be sold irrespective of the demand. Although the Department of Energy - and latterly the Department of Trade and Industry - invested substantial monies in the early research and development, the greatest factor in the success of the industry has been willingness to take its own risks. The industry must now learn to live with lower revenues and heightened environmental requirements. (Author)

  1. Deregulation, market structure and gas prices in the Canadian Natural Gas Industry

    Uhler, R.S.


    During the course of the development of the natural gas industry in Canada, gas purchase and sales markets have evolved from being relatively free of regulation to being highly regulated and back again. Though pipeline transport charges were regulated, the pipeline companies, or their subsidiaries, owned the gas that they transported and price and other provisions of purchase and sales contracts were freely negotiated with the producers at one end and distributing utilities or industrial users at the other end. The Western Accord of 1985 set the process of deregulation of the Canadian natural gas industry in motion. On November 1, 1986, natural gas prices in interprovincial trade were deregulated in that domestic natural gas prices were to be freely negotiated. Although not stated explicitly, government policy is to permit export prices to be freely negotiated so long as they do not fall below domestic prices. The deregulation process has dramatically changed the relationship between buyers and sellers. Of particular importance is that deregulation has permitted companies to negotiate gas purchase contracts directly with producers with the pipeline company acting solely as a gas transporter. The purpose of this paper is to examine the forces that have led to shorter term contracts and to examine the likely effect of these contract terms on reservoir development investment incentives. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. On the Electrooxidation and Amperometric Detection of NO Gas at the Pt/Nafion® Electrode

    Jin-Cherng Yang


    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nitric oxide (NO gas at the Pt/Nafion® electrode has been studied at a concentration of 500 ppm. The electrooxidation of NO taking place over a wide potential range can be described by a transcendental equation, from which the half-wave potential of the reaction can be determined. For NO oxidation with appreciable overpotentials but negligible mass-transfer effects, the Tafel kinetics applies. The obtained charge transfer coefficient (a and the exchange current density (io are 0.77 and 14 mA/cm2, respectively. An amperometric NO gas sensor based on the Pt/Nafion® electrode has been fabricated and tested over the NO concentration range from 0 to 500 ppm. The Pt/Nafion® electrode was used as an anode at a fixed potential, preferably 1.15 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/sat. KCl, which assures current limitation by diffusion only. The sensitivity of the electrochemical sensor was found to be 1.86 mA/ppm/cm2. The potential interference by other gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO, was also studied in the range 0-500 ppm. Both sensitivity for NO and selectivity of NO over NO2/CO show significant enhancement upon using a cyclic voltammetric (CV activation, or cleaning procedure.

  3. Human and Organisational Safety Barriers in the Oil & Gas Industry

    Nystad, E.; Szőke, I.


    The oil & gas industry is a safety-critical industry where errors or accidents may potentially have severe consequences. Offshore oil & gas installations are complex technical systems constructed to pump hydrocarbons from below the seabed, process them and pipe them to onshore refineries. Hydrocarbon leaks may lead to major accidents or have negative environmental impacts. The industry must therefore have a strong focus on safety. Safety barriers are devices put into place to prevent or reduce the effects of unwanted incidents. Technical barriers are one type of safety barrier, e.g., blow-out preventers to prevent uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from a well. Human operators may also have an important function in maintaining safety. These human operators are part of a larger organisation consisting of different roles and responsibilities and with different mechanisms for ensuring safety. This paper will present two research projects from the Norwegian oil & gas industry that look at the role of humans and organisations as safety barriers. The first project used questionnaire data to investigate the use of mindful safety practices (safety-promoting work practices intended to prevent or interrupt unwanted events) and what contextual factors may affect employees’ willingness to use these safety practices. Among the findings was that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices was affected more by factors on a group level than factors at an individual or organisational level, and that the factors may differ depending on what is the object of a practice—the employee or other persons. It was also suggested that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices could be an indicator used in the assessment of the safety level on oil & gas installations. The second project is related to organisational safety barriers against major accidents. This project was based on a review of recent incidents in the Norwegian oil & gas industry, as well as

  4. An Analysis of Policy Issues in Natural Gas Industry Restructuring

    Seo, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    This report explores controversial issues and problems that could emerge in the process of implementing the government's restructuring plan for natural gas industry and aims to suggest policy directions regarding the restructuring. To begin with, it examines current conditions surrounding natural gas industry including domestic demand and supply conditions, world LNG market trend, structural changes of the industry in OECD countries, possibilities of introducing effective competition and assignment of existing import contracts. In doing so, we probe whether the direction of the natural gas industry restructuring is proper and suggest that the results be reflected when a more detailed restructuring implementation plan is formulated. Also, this report suggests possible schemes related to major institutional changes expected by the basic restructuring plan and the detailed restructuring implementation plan announced by the government. First, it presents several alternative ways to properly divide up the import/wholesales section of Korea Gas Corporation. Second, it examines critical issues such as the method of using gas supply facilities and gas balancing mechanism, and presents adoptable alternatives for each issue. These issues constitute the core of network and market operation rules which need to be in place when adopting an open access system, which in turn is a prerequisite for sales competition. Third, the report examines price systems, including gas commodity pricing and rate-making design for transportation service, by first anticipating the direction of changes in gas rate regulation. Specifically, it presents possible ways to design the service rate for each function of pipeline network and import terminals, and discusses controversial issues in determining total cost-of-service and allocating the cost-of-service to each functional service offered such as distance-related rates, interruptible service rate. Lastly, in relation to the opening of retail

  5. Formulasi Strategi Bersaing PT. Imago Kreasi Komunika di Industri Jasa Periklanan

    Teti Filantri Siregar


    Full Text Available After its establishment, PT. Imago Kreasi Komunika had experienced highly rapid growth from year to year; however, in 2013 the company suffered its losses. This condition was successfully overcome by the company by gaining its profit in 2014. Due to this condition, the company has been worried so that it decided to formulate of appropriate strategies to be able to grow and compete with other advertising companies. This study aimed to evaluate the vision and mission and analyze the internal and external factors of the company to formulate an appropriate strategy formulation for PT. Imago Kreasi Komunika. The research was conducted by case study approach the company. The method of analysis used was to evaluate the company's vision and mission and stakeholder expectations. To analyze the internal factors, the Internal Factor Analysis Summary (IFAS matrix, External Factor Analysis Summary (EFAS, and Strategy Factor Analysis Summary (SFAS were used. The research was conducted through non-probability sampling approach with purposive sampling technique by selecting respondents consisting of seven internal experts and three external experts. The results showed that PT. Imago Kreasi Komunika has a Unique Selling Point which is not owned by other advertising companies that is final artwork packaging design. This Unique Selling Point can be the key to develop the company and compete with other advertising companies in Indonesia.Keywords: strategy formulation, advertising company, EFAS, IFAS, SFASABSTRAKSejak berdiri PT.Imago Kreasi Komunika mengalami perkembangan sangat pesat dari tahun ke tahun, namun ditahun 2013 perusahaan mengalami kerugian. Kondisi ini berhasil diatasi oleh perusahaan dengan kembali mendapatkan profit di tahun 2014. Keadaan seperti ini mengkhawatirkan perusahaan sehingga perusahaan memutuskan perlunya sebuah formulasi strategi yang tepat untuk dapat berkembang dan bersaing dengan perusahaan iklan lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan


    Widi Winarso


    Full Text Available Abstract - PT INTI (Persero is one of state company (BUMN in communication sector continuously try to becomeworld class communication facility provider. This research purposes to know the influence about operational costs against profitability (ROA on PT INTI (Persero. Thetendency of the operational costs increase while the profitability fluctuates every year. This research uses descriptive method with quantitative approach. To know the influence of operational cost to profitability (ROA used testing of statistics. Testing statistics that used is normality test, linear regression, correlation coefficient, coefficient determination, test t- and also use the application of Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 20.0 for windows. The calculation result of linear regression and correlation coefficient is the relation between operational cost and profitability is not direction, and tending to direct so that the rate influences operational cost to profitability in PT INTI (Persero 13.26 % and the rest 86,4 %  are influenced by other factors that not explored. The test results obtained t0 ≥ ta, therefor the operational cost influence to profitability (ROA.   Keyword : Net-Operating Costs, Profitability (ROA   Abstrak - PT INTI (Persero yaitu salah satu perusahaan BUMN dibidang komunikasi yang senantiasa berupaya untuk menjadi penyedia sarana komunikasi kelas dunia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh biaya operasional terhadap profitabilitas (ROA pada PT INTI (Persero. Dimana kecenderungan biaya operasional mengalami peningkatan sedangkan profitabilitas pada PT INTI (Persero mengalami fluktuatif setiap tahunnya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif.  Untuk mengetahui pengaruh biaya operasional terhadap profitabilitas (ROA digunakan pengujian statistik. Pengujian statistik yang digunakan adalah uji normalitas, penggunaan regresi, koefisien korelasi, koefisien determinasi, uji t dan

  7. The domestic natural gas industry in developing countries

    Klass, D.L.; Khan, R.A.; Khwaja, S.


    The domestic natural gas industry has generally exhibited slow growth in most developing countries that are fortunate enough to have sufficient proved gas reserves to meet energy needs. But supportive government policies that promote the use of indigenous reserves are now beginning to have a positive impact in many parts of the world. Supply and distribution infrastructures are being built or modernized. And natural gas is now or will be available at prices that encourage the displacement of competitive fuels in the larger, energy-intensive industrial and power-generation markets of these countries. It is expected that the domestic gas industry in many developing countries will expand at higher rates than in the past. In the next few decades, the resulting benefits will include reductions in oil consumption per capita, improvements in the balance of payments for oil-importing and exporting developing countries, greater efficiency of energy usage and lower energy consumption per output unit, and improved environmental quality. The national economies and living standards will also undergo significant advancement

  8. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: Gaps and recommendations

    Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick


    The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.

  9. Radiation protection programme in the oil and gas industry

    Essien, E. C.


    The oil and gas industry uses many radiation sources in various radiation based technologies which are of great benefit to the industry, this includes nucleonic gauges, multiphase flow meters, well logging etc. Inappropriate use of these equipment and installations and uncontrolled activities associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) can contaminate the environment resulting in occupational and public exposures. The objective of this work is to develop a Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) for the oil and gas industry which when implemented by the operating organisation will keep doses to the workers and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), maximize the benefits while minimizing the hazards associated with the use of radiation based technologies. In order to achieve the aim of this work, review of previous works on radiation sources in nucleonic gauges, well logging and waste management processes of NORMs was carried out. Some recommendations were stated, which if strictly implemented would improve the scope of radiation protection in the oil and gas industries. (au)

  10. Perspektif Six Sigma dalam Analisis Manajemen Kualitas Kasus Produksi Fish Fillet di PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry, Jakarta

    Farmayanti, Narni; ., Dinarwan; S, I I Fithri Yunindari


    Fish fillet is a superior commodity for the company of PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry (DSFI), and having the highest production and demand. The product of fish fillet giving a big opportunity for defect level of fish fillet and it´s caused from some mistakes that happen in process production. Hence, the optimalization of input process of fish fillet production is related with six sigma methods application which try to eliminate or minimize mistakes and wastes of time and money. It is hope...

  11. Natural gas industry faces more uncertainty in the upcoming decade

    Steffes, D.W.


    The monumental discontinuity of the past decade in the natural gas industry was the change of the interstate gas pipeline industry from serving as a merchant function to a common carrier function. The main reason this change could come about was a past strategic error on the part of the interstate pipeline companies. In the early 1980s, they misread the gas supply signals and entered into uneconomical take or pay contracts at unreasonably high prices. This strategic mistake essentially bankrupted all of the pipeline companies. Their submittal to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) forced them to allow open access on their pipelines. The FERC then allowed them to buy their way out of their bad take or pay contracts. The method of pricing natural gas at the wellhead was the other big change. Instead of the major interstate pipeline continuing with a form of mandating area rates, each producer can now deal directly with anyone wanting to purchase the gas. The transportation is available due to these pipelines becoming common carriers. These two discontinuities allowed new paper interstate pipelines to come into existence

  12. Quality Tools and TRIZ Based Quality Improvement Case Study at PT ‘X’ A Plastic Moulding Manufacturing Industry

    Wirawan, Christina; Chandra, Fory


    Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a creative encouraging problem solving method. TRIZ is prepared by Altshuller for product design. Altshuller prepared contradiction matrix and suggestion to solve contradictions usually occur in product design. This paper try to combine TRIZ with quality tools such as Pareto and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to solve contradiction in quality improvement problem, neither than product design problem. Pareto used to identify defect priority, FTA used to analysis and identify root cause of defect. When there is contradiction in solving defect causes, TRIZ used to find creative problem solving. As a case study, PT ’X’, a plastic molding manufacturing industry was taken. PT ‘X’ using traditional press machine to produce plastic thread cone. There are 5 defect types that might occur in plastic thread cone production, incomplete form, dirty, mottle, excessive form, rugged. Research about quality improvement effort using DMAIC at PT ‘X’ have been done by Fory Candra. From this research, defect types, priority, root cause from FTA, recommendation from FMEA. In this research, from FTA reviewed, contradictions found among causes troublesome quality improvement efforts. TRIZ used to solve the contradictions and quality improvement effort can be made effectively.

  13. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    Tanega, J.


    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  14. Considerations on possible consequences of the E.U. gas directive for the italian gas industry

    De Paoli, L.


    The approval by the E.U. Energy Council of the text of the Gas directive and its likely next approval by the European Parliament, have led the author to make an analysis of the main issues of the directive as regards the Italian gas industry. The comments are inherent to the market liberalisation according to principles of graduality and of subsidiarity, the bipolar conception of this industrial sector with a subdivision of the activities in 'competitive' and in potentially m onopolistic , the free access to the networks, the un bundling of the integrated activities of the companies. Comments relevant to the definition of 'eligible customers' are of particular interest for the Italian gas industry as well as the operational conditions to be assured to the companies to which public service tasks are entrusted [it

  15. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell


    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  16. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Rickard


    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious corrosion threat that impacts the operating integrity and reliability of assets in the oil and gas, maritime, power generation, and other industries. Yet MIC is also commonly misunderstood, leading to ineffective mitigation programs, wasted...... and implement improved mitigation strategies and thereby reduce operating risk. Our experts provide guidance in applying the latest state-of-the-art molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and industry standards to properly diagnose MIC in operating assets and on failed components. With this understanding, MIC...... can be effectively addressed as part of the overall Corrosion Management System (CMS)....

  17. The effect of contraceptive use on labor Woman Productivity at PT Bomar Makassar Industrial Area

    Masni; Isnawati, Andi; Darmawansyah


    ABSTRACT Work productivity is potential on the survival of a company. The use of contraceptives can affect the physiology of each woman, so it can affect daily activitiesand resulted in labor productivity. The aim of this study was todetermine the effect of contraceptive use on labor woman productivity.Study with cross sectional design involves 71 women workersof PT. Bomar Makassar who had got married. Data were found by interview using questionnaire and then analyze using univariate, b...

  18. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    Bott, R.


    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  19. Structural change in European power and gas industries


    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  20. Who's who in the LP-Gas industry



    All pertinent information about the most important North American companies in the LP-Gas industry are listed alphabetically in an easy-to-use directory. A total of 395 listings are included. Besides company names and addresses, other information such as key personnel and products produced and marketed to affiliated companies, and a list of other services offered by each company are also provided

  1. Environmental monitoring in the gas industry of Russia

    Sedykh, A.D.; Dinkov, V.A.; Gritsenko, A.I.; Bosnyatsky, G.P.; Maksimov, V.M.


    The paper describes the basic principles and targets of production pollution monitoring (PPM) along with the analysis of structure, content and main functions of PPM relative to the experience of EEC and existing legislative and normative basis. The comparison, quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollutant emission at the Russian gas industry enterprises is given. Promising scientific and research targets the solution of which will promote improvement of ecological situation and will allow to meet international environmental agreements have been formulated. (au)

  2. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    Gregory D. Gillispie


    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not

  3. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Kah Sing Ho


    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI:] | View in  |

  4. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    Steingraber, W.A.


    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  5. Atmospheric emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry

    Taylor, B.G.S.


    The results are presented of a study set up to determine the nature and levels of atmospheric emissions resulting from United Kingdom oil and gas exploration and production activities. The study was commissioned by the UK Offshore Operators Association. Emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry of common pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide, and ozone depletion chemicals were shown in each case to be less than 1% of total UK emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the industry arise mainly from production operations with a small but significant contribution from onshore activities. Carbon dioxide is the major component followed in descending order by nitrogen oxides, methane and volatile organic compounds. In 1991, these emissions formed 3.2%, 4.6%, 2.9% and 2.8% of the UK totals respectively; overall this represented only about 3% of UK global warming emissions. The evidence of this study illustrates that the industry, which produces 67% of the UK's primary energy, is successfully managing its operations in an environmentally responsible way. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  6. Strategic implications of gas to liquids technology for the natural gas industry

    Russell, B. J.


    A new and economical gas to liquids (GTL) technology is described that promises to substantially increase industry's ability to exploit many trillions of cubic feet of largely unmarketable reserves of natural gas. The technology turns the gas into a form that overcomes prohibitive transportation costs, avoids long-term, high-risk, take-or-pay contracts, and helps satisfy the demand for cleaner liquid products. Widespread application of GTL technology is credited with having the power to ease the burden on every segment of the petroleum industry, from exploration through petrochemicals, and into allied industries such as electric power generation. It is claimed that in situations where GTL is the only economic option, it will create an entirely new set of opportunities. Among these are the monetization of known stranded gas and the early development of remote gas discoveries or of oil discoveries associated with gas. It will cause a re-evaluation of exploration strategies by upgrading gas prospects in remote locations and new investment options to countries with shut-in gas or heavy oil or tar sand reserves. The monetization of associated gas when reinjection is no longer needed or desired could occur. Extensive applications offshore and adjacent to coastal reserves and multiple options for refiners facing heavier, higher-sulfur crude slates are possible. The outlook for Syntroleum's version of the GTL process, and the 'grant-back' provisions of Syntroleum's license agreements with companies such as Texaco, ARCO, Marathon, Criterion Catalyst, Catalytica, and ABB, giving each licensee access to the improvements of the other licencees, and the joint development agreements with these companies, were also discussed. 6 refs

  7. The investment challenges facing the oil and gas industry

    Suellentrop, Steve


    In considering the potential of the United Kingdom for investment in the oil and gas industry, four factors are discussed. They are: the importance of certainty in identifying markets; the importance of infrastructure in assisting follow-on developments in mature oil and gas fields; the UK's competitive position in the world investment market; fiscal terms in the UK as compared with those offered by other countries. The conclusion drawn is that the UK needs to be responsive to its status as a mature oil and gas area and have the flexibility to stimulate investment in frontier areas. Stability in both the fiscal regime and also handling issues like market access is important. There is a need to capitalise on the many advantages conferred by the existing infrastructure in mature areas. (UK)

  8. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu


    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  9. New models for success emerge for US natural gas industry

    Addy, W.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.


    Very few companies in the US natural gas industry are confident in their ability to compete effectively in the brave new world of deregulation. Boston Consulting Group recently conducted an internal study to help the industry think about its future and identify models for success in this new environment. The authors examined the historical performance of 800 companies using several shareholder-value indicators, including cash-flow returns on investment, a measure of cash returns on cash invested that correlates closely to share price. Based on that review and discussions with investment managers and industry analysts, the authors were able to focus on a handful of companies that actually have thrived and created value against the difficult landscape of the past decade. Interviews with their senior executives provided important strategic and operational insights

  10. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)


    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe


    Lidya Susanti


    Full Text Available Inventory of raw materials in the company is very important, so it has to be controlled. A good inventory control of raw materials should be supported with cost efficiency. This study was to analyze factors that cause the base material inventories excess at PT. XYZ and analyze the purpose of the base material inventories to be controlled. The reseacrh was using a fish bone method and continue with using pairwise comparison method assisted with the expert choice 2000 software. The classification result based on ABC analysis, the selected item that was going to be analyzed was the A category items.The items that are included in the A category are clay ex belitung jw, clay ja 1/ja b and sodium feldspar. The EOQ equations model was used to answer the purpose of the base material inventories control. Based from the EOQ model, the needed quantity, order quantity, order frequency, reorder point (ROP, total order cost (TOC, total carrying cost (TCC, and total inventory cost (TIC could be obtained. The comparison of the total cost of inventory among the EOQ model and company policies showed that the EOQ model in seven months can save up to Rp311.612.769. PT. XYZ could minimize the base material inventory costs by calculating the costs incurred. The EOQ model could be implemented if all of the departments involved are well cooperated. PT. XYZ should also be able to make inventory control standards which are quantity order, order frequency, and reorder point. Keywords: Cost, EOQ, frequency, inventory, ROPABSTRAKPersediaan bahan baku pada perusahaan sangatlah penting, sehingga harus dapat dikendalikan. Pengendalian persediaan bahan baku yang baik harus didukung dengan efisiensi biaya. Penelitian ini untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kondisi persediaan bahan baku base material berlebih di PT. XYZ dan menganalisis persediaan bahan baku base material agar dapat dikendalikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode fish bone dilanjutkan dengan metode


    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  13. Statistics 2004 of the gas industry in France; Statistiques 2004 de l'industrie gaziere en France



    This document provides a analysis and statistical data on the natural gas consumption and supplies in France, the market organization, the employment of the natural gas industry, the transport, production and storage. (A.L.B.)

  14. The impact of electricity restructuring on the natural gas industry

    Given, G.


    The main objective of the study is to quantify the impact of electrical restructuring on the natural gas industry, in particular the expected rise in natural gas consumption for electricity generation in Canada from 2000 to 2020. To this end, the study estimates how large the demand potential is and where it is likely to materialize, with the timing of these events also considered. Chapter two discusses the study methodology, which is that of a quantitative forecast. Before an analytical model was chosen, a careful review of potential candidates, a literature review, and an analysis of important issues were undertaken. Chapter three provides requisite background information of electricity restructuring issues. U.K. experiences are highlighted, and common issues and differences among states and provinces are discussed also. Chapter four provides some necessary historical background and puts into perspective the importance of gas consumption for electric generation. Also treated are relevant Canadian and U.S. generation and capacity, and forecasts of restructuring impacts from other organizations. Whether a consensus forecast for gas demand exists is examined, as well as a number of critical factors examined in various studies. Chapter five describes the development of individual study scenarios and key assumptions contained in each scenario. Also described are some of the selected model's capabilities. Retail and generation company strategy parameters are highlighted to provide a better understanding of those capabilities. The competition parameters chosen for generators and retail companies in the model are described. Chapter six reports all key forecast variables in a discussion which compares relevant scenario and sensitivity forecast results. Detailed forecast results for two scenarios are provided in appendices. Chapter seven discusses new investment and business opportunities and challenges in light of the forecast results. These are reviewed for a number of

  15. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An


    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  16. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    Poitzsch, Martin


    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  17. Policy subjects of the LP gas industry; LP gas sangyo no seisaku kadai

    Murata, K. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper commented on current environmental changes in the LP gas industry and the measures for reinforcement of the physical constitution. When correction of the high cost structure in Japan is now the problem, waves of deregulation and rationalization reach to not only to LP gas but energy competitive with LP gas such as petroleum, electric power and town gas. With this, it is expected that LP gas will be faced with severe competition with other energy media. In the LP gas industry, business becomes more and more in number and smaller and smaller in scale as it extends downstream. Therefore, the resulting complicatedness in the distribution sector is the problem. It is necessary to realize scale profit in each distribution stage and to heighten productivity by expanding the scale in the retailing stage, especially. It is also important to tackle scale merit, improvement of productivity, and cost reduction by concentrating functions on either of wholesalers or retailers in every function of delivery, safety, free from each distribution stage.

  18. Business Model Canvas and Strategies to Develop Biodiesel Industry of PT. XYZ in Order to Implement CPO Supporting Fund Policy

    Aman Mustika


    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered as one of the alternative eco-friendly fuels. Besides, the government also issued policy related to biodiesel that is CPO Supporting Fund (CSF Policy. The aim of the research is to identify Business model canvas (BMC biodiesel industry in PT XYZ and to know the strategies to develop business from biodiesel industry in line with the CPO supporting fund policy. The analysis tool used in this research is BMC, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM. The research results in identifying BMC of PT XYZ is customer segment that the company serves in the form of domestic as well international customers. The value the company offers is biodiesel quality that is in accordance with SNI standard and the distribution is at the company’s cost; the relationship built with the customers is by communities and co-creation; the marketing network through stock exchanges and commodity exchanges; the revenue obtained from selling biodiesel and the price difference between biodiesel and solar from BPDPKS; the company’s resources are human resource, raw material resource, and financial resource; the main activities carried out by the company is CPO process to become biodiesel and sale; the company’s partners are GAPKI, BPDPKS and APROBI; the cost structure is operational cost, workers’ salary, and CPO levy fund. Furthermore, the strategy to develop biodiesel industry in line with the rapid increase of competitiveness is to increase the biodiesel production capacity and communication improvement and CRM to improve customers’ service.Keywords: biodiesel, CPO supporting fund (CSF, levy fund, vegetable oil (BBN, business model canvas (BMC

  19. NORM management in the oil and gas industry

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat


    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, general public and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management which aim towards enhancing: NORM monitoring; Control of NORM contaminated equipment; Control over NORM waste handling and disposal; Workers protection, awareness, and training. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice and, experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. (author)

  20. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)


    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at

  1. Spin-polarized, orbital-selected hole gas at the EuO/Pt interface

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; Demkov, Alexander A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    Using density functional theory, we explore the magnetic behavior of a EuO/Pt heterostructure. The calculations suggest that the heterostructure could be used as a spin filter, as the Schottky barriers in the spin-up and spin-down channels are calculated to be 1.42 and 2.18 eV, respectively. We discover that the interfacial and second layer of EuO, both have a reduced magnetic moment, while the remainder of the oxide maintains bulk magnetization. These first two layers support a localized mid-gap electronic state that protects the remainder of EuO from losing charge into the large work function Pt, which in turn results in the magnetic moment reduction. Our calculations are consistent with recent experimental results of Barbagallo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 84, 075219 (2011)].

  2. Mercury in the natural gas industry in Canada

    Wren, C.D.; Farrell, C.W.


    There are an estimated 1,500 natural gas facilities across Canada, most of which used mercury (Hg) in metering equipment at one time or another. Although the use of mercury has ceased, many gas industry buildings still contain detectable levels of Hg in air. Air Hg levels are generally low but indoor remediation is suggested. Worker exposure to the air Hg levels is not considered a significant hazard. Very high soil Hg levels have been observed at numerous sites. Soil Hg levels do not pose an immediate human hazard but are sufficient to be hazardous to ecological receptors. The area of soil contamination is generally within the buildings or within a few metres of the nearest door. Downward movement of the Hg does not generally extent more than one metre. Remediation of contaminated soil with on-site thermal desorption is recommended as the appropriate soil clean-up technology. 2 refs., 1 tab

  3. Financial outlook for the North American gas industry

    Cohen, H.A.


    An investor's viewpoint of the natural gas business in both the commodity and equity markets is presented. It is clear that the supply surplus is gone, and that the principle source of production gains, the reduction of reserve/production ratios, can no longer provide volume growth. The industry has reacted to the deregulated environment by aggressive marketing, to such an extent that producers are caught in a classic short squeeze. In order to meet contractual obligations, an aggressive drilling program is essential. While strong cash flow growth is expected over the next three years, substantial external capital will be required to fund expenditures. Financing opportunities should be utilized when they are available. More selective investment in equities is necessary, however it is proposed that the market is not overvalued, and a return of ca 50% in the oil and gas index over the next 2 years is targetted. 16 figs

  4. Gas cooled fast reactor background, facilities, industries and programmes

    Dalle Donne, M.


    This report was prepared at the request of the OECD-NEA Coordinating Group on Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Development and it represents a contribution (Vol.II) to the jointly sponsored Vol.I (GCFR Status Report). After a chapter on background with a brief description of the early studies and the activities in the various countries involved in the collaborative programme (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States), the report describes the facilities available in those countries and at the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and the industrial capabilities relevant to the GCFR. Finally the programmes are described briefly with programme charts, conclusions and recommendations are given. (orig.) [de

  5. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)


    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  6. Market opportunities in the oil and gas industry in China

    Shih, T.


    China is an emerging marketplace, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ranked fourth, after the United States, the European Union and Japan. Imports to China have risen from 21 per cent in 2002 to 40 per cent in 2003, with over 54 billion dollars in direct foreign investment in 2003 alone. Private car ownership is also increasing. This paper provides a market overview of China, with specific reference to increases in energy demand fuelled by the rise of energy intensive industries such as steel, aluminum, chemicals and construction. It was noted that resource-based inputs are in need, as well as high tech goods and services. Canada has committed to doubling its trade with China by 2010. Current Canadian exports to China were overviewed. The current situation in the oil and gas sector in China were outlined, as well as a forecast of expected trends. It was suggested that a rise in domestic energy demand and instability in the Middle East was causing China to seek alternative, more secure sources of oil. Major players in the oil and gas industry in China were profiled, with an overview of domestic business, as well as potential future competitors in the sector. It was concluded that opportunities for onshore and offshore exploration and pre-drilling services were a viable option for Canadian investors. Technology and consulting services were also considered to be possible areas for trade development. A list of future projects in the Chinese oil and gas sector was provided, as well as details of necessary steps for entry into the industry and advice concerning intellectual property and legal protection. tabs., figs

  7. New lidar challenges for gas hazard management in industrial environments

    Cézard, Nicolas; Liméry, Anasthase; Bertrand, Johan; Le Méhauté, Simon; Benoit, Philippe; Fleury, Didier; Goular, Didier; Planchat, Christophe; Valla, Matthieu; Augère, Béatrice; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès.


    The capability of Lidars to perform range-resolved gas profiles makes them an appealing choice for many applications. In order to address new remote sensing challenges, arising from industrial contexts, Onera currently develops two lidar systems, one Raman and one DIAL. On the Raman side, a high spatial-resolution multi-channel Raman Lidar is developed in partnership with the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra). This development aims at enabling future monitoring of hydrogen gas and water vapor profiles inside disposal cells containing radioactive wastes. We report on the development and first tests of a three-channel Raman Lidar (H2, H2O, N2) designed to address this issue. Simultaneous hydrogen and water vapor profiles have been successfully performed along a 5m-long gas cell with 1m resolution at a distance of 85 m. On the DIAL side, a new instrumental concept is being explored and developed in partnership with Total E and P. The objective is to perform methane plume monitoring and flux assessment in the vicinity of industrials plants or platforms. For flux assessment, both gas concentration and air speed must be profiled by lidar. Therefore, we started developing a bi-function, all-fiber, coherent DIAL/Doppler Lidar. The first challenge was to design and build an appropriate fiber laser source. The achieved demonstrator delivers 200 W peak power, polarized, spectrally narrow (<15 MHz), 110 ns pulses of light out of a monomode fiber at 1645 nm. It fulfills the requirements for a future implementation in a bi-function Dial/Doppler lidar with km-range expectation. We report on the laser and lidar architecture, and on first lidar tests at 1645 nm.

  8. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.


    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  9. Preliminary exploitation of industrial facility for flue gas treatment

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.


    Full text: High emission of SO 2 and NO x in the process of fossil fuel combustion creates a major world environmental problem. Poland which uses for energy production mainly pit and brown coal produces these pollutants as well. The certain amount of SO 2 and slightly less NO x pollutants is introduced into the atmosphere. 1/2 of SO 2 and 1/3 NO x pollution is contributed by heat and electricity generating boilers. The biggest sources of pollution are located in south west side of Poland and are connected with industrial centers but over 45% of the total 802 and 69% of NO x pollutants distributed over polish territory come from external sources. The laboratory facility for flue gas treatment radiation technology was organized in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology at Warsaw at the end of 80s. Soon after the pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam has been installed at Power Plant Kaweczyn near Warsaw. The flow capacity trough those installations was respectively 400 and 20000 Nm /h. Three new elements have been introduced to the construction of the radiation chamber in Polish pilot installation. Those are: cascade double stage irradiation, longitudinal irradiation, (beam scanned along the chamber axis) and the air blow under the chamber window with the purpose to create air curtain separating the window from the flue gases causing corrosion. Three different system for filtration aid has been constructed and tested: bag filter, gravel bead filter and electrostatic precipitator. The pilot plant installation was used to establish the optimal parameters of industrial facility: optimizing of the process parameters leading to reduction of energy with high efficiency of SO 2 and NO x removal; selecting and testing filter devices and filtration process; developing of the monitoring and control systems at industrial plant for flue gas cleaning, preparation of the design for industrial scale facility. The positive results of the tests performed on

  10. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.


    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  11. Panorama 2018 - Digital transformation in the oil and gas industry

    Martinez-Mere, Adrien; Castagna, Franck


    The arrival of digital and related technologies has impacted a number of industries during the past decade. By investing in them one by one, key players in the on-line and digital sectors - led by Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon - have raised awareness among historical players of potential growth tied to the digital transformation of their activities, along with the risk that their core businesses will face threats. The energy sector is no exception to this trend. Following an earlier note which discussed the involvement of key players in the on-line and digital industry in the energy sector, this second note focuses on the action - and reaction - to digital technology by players within the energy sector, particularly oil and gas companies. (authors)

  12. Panorama 2017 - Digital transformation in the oil and gas industry

    Martinez-Mere, Adrien; Castagna, Franck


    The arrival of digital and related technologies has impacted a number of industries during the past decade. By investing in them one by one, key players in the on-line and digital sectors - led by Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon - have raised awareness among historical players of potential growth tied to the digital transformation of their activities, along with the risk that their core businesses will face threats. The energy sector is no exception to this trend. Following an earlier note which discussed the involvement of key players in the on-line and digital industry in the energy sector, this second note focuses on the action - and reaction - to digital technology by players within the energy sector, particularly oil and gas companies

  13. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas


    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  14. Gas pollutants from detonation and combustion of industrial explosives

    Campos, J.; Pines, A.; Gois, J.C.; Portugal, A. (University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)


    The potential hazards of fumes, from blasting operations in underground mines, have long been recognised. Beyond this normal use of explosives, there are also large amounts of energy substances which cannot be used because their life time is outdated or they are not within the minimal quality requirements. There is a lack of information concerning tests, procedures and theoretical predictions of pollutant concentrations in fumes from detonation and combustion operations with industrial explosives. The most common industrial explosives in Portugal are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil compositions (anfo), and dynamite. Recently, ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are more and more used in industrial applications. This paper presents the structure and fundamental thermodynamic equations of THOR computer code to calculate the combustion and detonation products (CO[sub 2], CO, H[sub 2]O, N[sub 2], O[sub 2], H[sub 2], OH, NO, H, N, O, HCN, NH[sub 3], NO[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, CH[sub 4] gases and two kinds of solid carbon - graphite and diamond) for the minimum value of Gibbs free energy, using three well known equations of state - BKW, H9 and H12. Detonation experiments are described and gas analysis discussed. Measured pollutants concentrations (CO, CO[sub 2], NO and NO[sub 2]), as a function of volume of explosion chamber, prove the dependence of expansion mechanisms on CO and NO formation and recombination and validate theoretical predictions. Incineration of explosives in a fluidised bed is described. Products composition from isobare adiabatic combustion of selected explosives has been calculated and correlated with previous calculations for a detonation regime. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of predicting gas composition of detonation and combustion products of industrial explosives. 22 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    Pendergast, D.R.; Duffey, R.B.; Tregunno, D.


    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO 2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  16. Nuclear technology in the measurement and control of industrial processes: Pt. 1

    De Jesus, A.S.M.


    The industrial sector was amongst the first to exploit the use of radioisotopes as production and research tools when they became available in significant quantities for industrial use during the early fifties. The following three decades have seen, throughout the world and in South Africa as well, a large and continuing growth in the application of radioisotopes and related technology. In parallel with their nuclear energy research program, the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa (AEC), have laid heavy emphasis on developing a considerable pool of expertise specifically oriented to satisfying South African industrial needs. In this article some of the investigations conducted for industry are briefly described: assessment of gold purity, boron distribution in steel, casting-powder inclusions in steel, behaviour of potassium in a blast furnace and fast determination of fluorspar in tailings

  17. Negotiation model in gas industry; Modelos de negociacao na industria de gas



    It is presented two negotiation models (Bilateral and Poolco) that are being used by natural gas industry at the present time. The main differences are characterized between these models. Basically, these differences can be found in the nature of the transactions and in the way as they are coordinated by the gas market and also by the transport market. The Bilateral model is based on decentralized bilateral transactions, by other hand in the Poolco model the transactions are coordinated by just one entity. So, in this model all transactions are centralized.


    Rahman Saeni, Mohamad Thahir Haning, Andi Subhan Amir


    - "Impact of Development" is a concomitant change meaning if there is a change in the industrial/technological field, change will also occur simultaneously for both social-cultural and political fields. The result of this change is the relationship of people's behavior with the industrial environment which consequently change the attitude and the livelihood of the surrounding community. The research aims to describe how socio-cultural may impact on the attitude of the surrounding commun...


    Muhammad Desryadi Ilyas


    Full Text Available PT. Molindo Raya Industrial merupakan perusahaan penghasil pupuk organik P-126 yang berlokasi di Lawang, Kabupaten Malang dengan kapasitas produksi lebih dari 10.000 ton per tahun. Untuk memenangkan persaingan di bidang produksi pupuk organik, perusahaan dituntut untuk melakukan peningkatan kualitas proses produksi secara berkelanjutan dengan mereduksi waste yang ada. Meskipun produksi pupuk organik P-126 di PT. Molindo Raya Industrial mengalami peningkatan, namun masih terdapat beberapa waste, diantaranya waiting yang disebabkan oleh breakdown mesin produksi yang mengakibatkan kerugian perusahaan lebih dari Rp. 500.000.000 per tahun. Waste kedua ialah defect berupa granul yang tidak memenuhi spesfikasi diameter, material hasil cleaning dan karung finished good yang sobek dan waste ketiga ialah over production yang mengakibatkan kerugian perusahaan lebih dari Rp. 400.000.000 per tahun. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut dilakukan perbaikan dengan menggunakan metode lean manufacturing yang fokus dalam mereduksi waste dan non value added activity. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan framework DMIC six sigma, tahapan pertama ialah tahap define untuk mengidentifikasi permasalahan dengan menggunakan tools Big Picture Mapping, Activity Classification dan identifikasi waste berdasarkan E-DOWNTIME. Tahapan kedua ialah measure yang digunakan untuk mengukur kerugian perusahaan yang diakibatkan adanya waste. Selanjutnya adalah tahap analyze menggunakan tools 5 Why’s dan FMEA untuk mengetahui root cause adanya waste, kemudian tahap terakhir ialah tahap improve, pada tahap improve dilakukan penyusunan dan pemilihan alternatif usulan perbaikan dengan mengunakan pendekatan value engineering. Usulan perbaikan terpilih dalam upaya meningkatkan proses produksi pupuk organik P-126 diantaranya mengevaluasi penjadwalan preventif maintenance mesin produksi, menyusun penjadwalan mesin produksi yang kritis, evaluasi SOP dan penerapan SOP, melaksanakan pelatihan untuk

  20. Impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets: a power marketer's perspective

    Jahns, F.H.


    The impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets was examined. The presentation included industry comparisons of 1994 gas total revenues versus electricity total revenues for residential, commercial, and industrial use. A chart forecasting the outlook for gas-fired generation of electric power indicated that the use of natural gas as feedstock for power generation will increase from 12% to 37% during the period 1994 to 2003. 16 figs

  1. The North Sea oil and gas industry and the environment

    Kingston, P.F.


    The North Sea environment is described. Inputs into this environment from oil and gas installations are relatively modest compared with the pollution from effluent discharged or directly dumped into the sea by its highly populated and industrialized enclosing nations. Hydrocarbon discharges provide the greatest input from the oil and gas industry and make a substantial contribution to the total hydrocarbon input. The sources from offshore installations are analysed. Accidental spills, flaring, atmospheric emissions and other inputs are discussed. Biological and chemical monitoring over many year has shown that the most common environmental effect is a marked fall in the number of species of marine fauna and an increase in the number of individuals. These effects appear within 1000 metres of the installation. The spread of contaminants may be more widespread than the biological response indicates, though. The cost of environmental protection is briefly considered. A need to determined the wider impact of low levels of contamination detected at greater distances from platform activities and the development of effective environmental management plans are identified as two objectives for the future. (UK)

  2. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    McGowan, F.


    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  3. Cost function for the natural gas transmission, industry: further considerations

    Massol, Olivier


    This article studies the cost function for the natural gas transmission industry. 60 years ago, Hollis B. Chenery published an important contribution that demonstrated how, in that particular industry, the production function of micro-economic theory can be rewritten with engineering variables (Chenery, 1949). In 2008, an article published in The Engineering Economist (Yepez, 2008) provided a refreshing revival on Chenery's seminal thoughts. In addition to a tribute to the late H.B. Chenery, this document offers some further comments and extensions on Yepez (2008). It provides a statistically estimated characterisation of the long-run scale economies and a discussion on the short-run economics of the duplication of existing equipments. As a first extension, we study the optimal design for infrastructure that is planned to transport a seasonally-varying flow of natural gas. The second extension analyzes the optimal degree of excess capacity to be built into a new infrastructure by a firm that expects a random rise in its output during the infrastructure's lifetime. (author)




    Full Text Available This article shows that since 1949 the extractive industry has undergone a strong process of restructuring when enterprises were nationalized and a strict control over all components of the economy was established. The new leadership of the country had the intention of developing the industrial sector as well, basically laying the foundations of the new Romanian economy where the industrial sector economy would bring considerable income. This program will lead to the development of the energy sector in Romania also, thus contributing to a great extent to the development and consolidation of coal and gas extraction. Despite of all the economic and social development achieved during the period 1950-1989, at the end of it, Romania ranked a marginal position in the European countries hierarchy since between its level of development and the market economy developed countries large gaps in respect to the main economic and social indicators occurred.

  5. Role of technology in the U. K. gas industry. past, present, future

    Evans, J W


    A discussion covers the beginning of public gas supply in the U.K.; the production of gas during coal combustion and the oil era; the development of LNG transport technology; the development of the Dent processes for producing gases from hydrocarbon feedstocks including the Catalytic Rich Gas and the Gas Recycle Hydrogenation processes; the growth of the natural gas transmission and distribution industry; the organization and functions of the British Gas Corp. Research and Development Division and Scientific Services; the various technological innovations being used in the transmission, distribution, domestic and industrial utilization sectors of the gas industry; the various efforts leading to the development of a commercial SNG process, based on the Lurgi coal gasifier operated under slagging conditions, that can handle a wide range of coals; and the outlook for future gas supply and demand, a hydrogen economy-based gas industry, and new developments affecting gas transmission and distribution, conservation and utilization.

  6. Behavior in exploitation of gas-lift installations with differential valves. Pt. 2

    Bodea, I; Truica, V


    In this second installment, charts of casing and tubing pressure are shown to illustrate how they can be used as diagnostic tools, both for continuous and intermittent gas-lift installations. The desirable conditions for continuous gas lift are constant casing and tubing pressures; for intermittent gas lift, cycles of equal length and intensity. After discussion of the possible flow regimes in the production tubing, it is shown that pressure gradient and temperature measurements can also be used as diagnostic tools. The basic rules for designing a continuous flow gas-lift installation by multipoint injection are given. Application of these principles in several wells has resulted in an increase in the oil production rate, a decrease in the gas requirement, and a reduction in the frequency of well pulling jobs. A well-designed installation can be expected to function trouble- free for 2 to 4 yr.

  7. Natural gas - too expensive alternative for the Finnish industry

    Lyytinen, A.-M.


    National Climate Strategy estimates that the annual GNP would be reduced by about 0.2 - 0.6 % (2 - 6 billion FIM/a). One should notice that this is the reduction of one year only, so the cumulative sum for ten years is 10 - 30 billion FIM. The natural gas alternative of the strategy means shutting down of coal-based energy production by the enforcement of legislation. It has been estimated that the state has to pay indemnities of about 1.0 billion FIM to power companies. Energy producers have estimated the sum to be at least ten times that presented in the strategy. The price of natural gas has also been estimated to be significantly lower than it is. The present price is about 20% higher than the one used in the analyses. In the strategy the economic growth rate was estimated to be relatively low, especially in energy intensive industry. However, at present it has been necessary to increase the growth rates significantly. If Finland ends up meeting the emissions reductions, agreed in Kyoto, with natural gas, in 2010 nearly all the CO 2 emissions of energy production are caused by natural gas combustion. If the requirements are then tightened this means that Finland has to start shutting down natural gas plants as well. Half of the emission reductions presented in the strategy are planned to be achieved by approved energy conservation programs and promotion programs for using of renewable energy sources. Finnish industry is willing to make voluntary agreements with the condition that no further tax increments or any emission quota are set. New taxes have been taken into use in many European countries so it was estimated that Finland would no longer be the country of high-energy taxation. However, it has appeared that there are used different kinds of refunding and emergency provisions so the situation has not changed. Despite of the climatic attitudes in the USA the climatic issue has been taken seriously in the EU, and several measures and acts are justified by

  8. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.


    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  9. Effects of Contraceptive Use on Productivity of Women Labor at PT. Bomar Makassar Industrial Area

    Masni Mappajanci


    Produktivitas kerja potensial pada kelangsungan hidup perusahaan. Penggunaan kontrasepsi dapat memengaruhi fisiologi setiap perempuan, sehingga dapat memengaruhi aktivitas sehari-hari dan akan berdampak terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan alat kontrasepsi terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja perempuan dengan mengontrol usia, pendidikan dan motivasi kerja. Penelitian dengan rancangan potong lintang melibatkan 71 pekerja perempuan PT Bomar Makassar yang telah menikah. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner pada bulan Mei sampai Juni 2015, kemudian dianalisis secara univariat, bivariat, dan multivariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh penggunaan alat kontrasepsi terhadap produktivitas kerja setelah dikontrol dengan variabel usia (nilai p = 0,011, pendidikan (nilai p = 0,022 dan motivasi kerja (nilai p = 0,028. Tanpa dikontrol dengan variabel tersebut, juga terdapat hasil yang signifikan yang menunjukkan dampak penggunaan alat kontrasepsi terhadap produktivitas kerja(nilai p < 0,05. Hasil analisis multivariat menunjukkan bahwa terdapat dua variabel yang konsisten memberikan pengaruh terhadap produktivitas kerja yaitu motivasi kerja (nilai p = 0,010 dan penggunaan alat kontrasepsi (nilai p = 0,010. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh penggunaan alat kontrasepsi terhadap produktivitas kerja.

  10. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  11. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.


    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  12. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail:, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  13. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Bottrill, C; Liverman, D; Boykoff, M


    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO 2 e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO 2 e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO 2 e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  14. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    David, L.


    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  15. Is inexpensive natural gas hindering the grid energy storage industry?

    Hittinger, Eric; Lueken, Roger


    Grid energy storage is a maturing technology and forecasts of the industry's growth have been promising. However, recent years have realized little growth in actual deployments of grid-level storage and several high-profile storage companies and projects have failed. We hypothesize that falling natural gas prices have significantly reduced the potential profit from many U.S. energy storage projects since 2009 and quantify that effect. We use engineering–economic models to calculate the monthly revenue to energy storage devices providing frequency regulation and energy arbitrage in several electricity markets and compare that revenue to prevailing natural gas prices. We find that flywheel devices providing frequency regulation were profitable in months when natural gas prices were above $7/mcf, but face difficulties at current prices (around $4/mcf). For energy arbitrage alone, we find that the breakeven capital cost for large-scale storage was around $300/kWh in several key locations in 2004–2008, but is around $100/kWh in the same locations today. Though cost and performance improvements have been continually decreasing the effective cost of energy services from storage, fundamental market signals indicating the need for energy storage are at or near 10-year lows for both energy arbitrage and frequency regulation. - Highlights: • We use engineering–economic models to determine breakeven capital cost of storage. • Two applications are examined: frequency regulation and energy arbitrage. • For both services, potential revenue has decreased significantly since 2008. • We show a high correlation of revenue with natural gas price. • We demonstrate a causal relationship using the PHORUM grid modeling software.

  16. Pengaruh Kompetensi, Kompensasi, Dan Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Melalui Motivasi Kerja Sebagai Variabel Intervening (Studi Kasus Pada Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT. Sai Apparel Industries Semarang)

    Mudayana, Fansyuri Ilham; Suryoko, Sri


    Every company always requires its employees to provide the best contribution in the form of performance enhancement. However, the require is not enough if it is not supported by a performance boosters that provided by the company and employees themselves. The boosters are laborer competence, compensation, and good workplace which all of them will increase work motivation. Therefore, PT Sai Apparel Industries as one of the players in national textile industries, can use the result of this rese...

  17. Innovation and greenhouse gas reductions in the Canadian energy industry

    Potter, I.J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stewart, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre


    Canada's hydrocarbon industry must address the challenges presented by the Kyoto Protocol in order to thrive. This paper argued that technological innovations are the primary means of creating long-term options to provide clean hydrocarbon energy. Both federal and provincial governments have developed energy policies to ensure environmental stewardship, promote economic growth, and create a diversified energy sector. While the Canadian energy industry funds and undertakes a significant amount of research and development, government programs must continue to show leadership in research and development activities. In order to ensure Canada's future prosperity, research and innovation programs must expand. Adequate commercialization processes must be in place. Industry and government programs must also link market needs with research directions. Enhanced research coordination is needed between government agencies, research agencies, and educational facilities. Future research and development agendas must be designed to focus on energy technology developments that offer Canada a competitive advantage. The Cleaner Hydrocardon Technology Futures (CHTF) Group has recently focused on 5 key areas in which Canada's energy industry can contribute to a clean hydrocarbon future: (1) clean coal; (2) oil sands and heavy oil; (3) conventional and unconventional oil and gas; (4) carbon capture, use and storage; and (5) hydrocarbon to hydrogen bridging technologies. Investments in research and development in all 5 areas are expected to create a suite of new transformational technologies that will sever the relationship between GHG emissions and the continued production of hydrocarbons. A systems approach was recommended to encourage the creation of new networks and increase Canada's capacity to nurture science and technology innovation. Directions advocated by the EnergyINet have also been embraced by universities and research organizations in western Canada. It


    Poppy Noviana


    Full Text Available PT.Panarub Industry merupakan sebuah perusahaan manufaktur yang bergerak dalam bidang industri sepatu khususnya sepatu olahraga yang memiliki tujuan memperoleh keberhasilan perusahaan, salah satu cara yaitu dengan memenuhi ekspektasi konsumen dalam studi kasus ini adalah Adidas. Standar Adidas Lean Fulfillment merupakan acuan perusahaan atas tujuan yang akan dicapai. Focus Group Discussion dilakukann untuk mendeteksi kelemahan hingga dirumuskan gap yang sebenarnya terjadi yaitu perampingan data, konsumsi kertas, integrasi data, budaya usang dalam perbaikan, fungsi level manajemen atas yang belum optimal dan rendahnya motivasi karyawan. Kebutuhan terhadap isu – isu tersebut membuat perlunya suatu instrumen pendukung yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan perusahaan untuk seluruh departemen sesuai dengan bisnis proses masing-masing secara end to end. Pendekatan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Ultimate Six Sigma karena mampu mengarahkan kerangka pikir penyusunan sistem audit berupa model aliran proses standar dan checklist audit internal yang akan mampu membantu pertimbangan dari banyak aspek bidang manufaktur secara end to end. Penyusunan checklist diukur sesuai dengan ketepatan area yang di cek sampai dengan cara penilaian assessment.

  19. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.


    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  20. Profitability of an Co 60 semi-industrial irradiator type Gamma Beam 651 Pt

    Cruz Z, E.


    It is described the capacity in volume of processed material by irradiation interesting interesting for the industry and how many laboratory samples can be processed. It is showed the costs of the annual processing, that is, the relation between the volume of sterilized material and his cost, this give us an idea about the profits for this type of gamma irradiators designed for low capacity, where is necessary to define the effective area of sterilization using high dose dosimetry. Also have been compared the maintenance costs, operation and salaries including monetary devaluation in function of the real production of the irradiation processing. Finally, it is remarked the objectives and essential characteristics of this semi-industrial irradiator. (Author)


    Kanya Lakshmi Sidarta


    Full Text Available The distribution of market share of Indonesia's processed food industry is dominated by only a few companies, i.e. one company representing 20% of market share, three companies representing 10% of market share, and 124 companies representing 35% of shares (2013, LEK insights. This condition is also shown by there are only 15 companies which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI as sub-sectors of food and beverages. CV 'ABCD', known as the 'ABCD', is one of the companies listed on the BEI on the sub-sectors of food and beverages. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the factors influencing the competition in the processed food industry in Indonesia, to analyze the competitiveness of 'ABCD' among other competing companies listed on BEI, and to propose alternative strategies to improve the competitiveness of 'ABCD' within the developing and challenging market. The analytical tools used in the study were Porter's Diamond Model, Firm Value Creation and AHP. The results showed that the factors affecting the competitiveness of the processed food industry in Indonesia, in reference to Porter's Diamond Model, is the availability of products (good quality & innovative, the number of requests, the decision-making process with a clear purpose, value creation, and good internal and external relations. The alternative strategy proposed in enhancing the competitiveness of 'ABCD' is improving quality standards in an integrated system by the CEO (owner and Director of Marketing as the main actors in the clear decision process.Keywords: AHP, competitiveness, diamond porter, processed food industry, BEI

  2. Pengaruh Citra Perusahaan terhadap Minat Konsumen Industri Perawatan Kulit PT. Natasha Skin Care Cabang Pekanbaru

    Ibrahim, Mariaty; ", Muhardi


    This research was conducted in Natasha Skin Care Pekanbaru, the setting of the problem is how to influence the image of the skin care industry consumer interest. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on the companys image indusrtri consumer interest Natasha Skin Care skin care Pekanbaru branch. The author uses descriptive quantitative analysis method and some theories about the companys image and interests. Indicators used in the independent variable is the personality, reputa...

  3. The emerging role of natural gas on the African economy : the case study of the Nigerian gas industry

    Ndubuisi, E.N.; Amanetu, M.C.


    This paper presents a general overview of the African gas market, gas development, distribution, and utilization in Africa with particular emphasis on investment opportunities in Nigeria. Africa's non-renewable energy sources include fossil fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These fuels can be used to generate electricity. Their abundance is required for economic development and their efficient exploitation results in expansion of markets and industrialization, both of which are essential for Africa's social and economic progress. Natural gas is a premium fuel in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors because of its unique characteristics. In Nigeria, the gas market is relatively untapped in the domestic sector, but much progress has been made in the past decade to develop and use natural gas as an energy feedstock for the cement and fertilizer industries. Some major gas transmission systems have been developed along with export oriented projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry: Pt. 8


    This code has been prepared for use on a worldwide basis as a guide to safe practice for those concerned with drilling and production operations for oil and gas in offshore areas. It is intended to provide information and guidance on those offshore drilling, production and support activities which have an impact on safety and therefore require detailed care and attention. Each chapter of the Code covers an important drilling, production or support activity and has an introduction which describes the part each activity plays in the overall offshore operation. (author).

  5. Gas industry and environmental reports: the SNAM case

    Riva, A.; Andreetto, B.; Trebeschi, C.


    The so-called 'Environmental Report' is a document containing data and information on the environmental impact of a company; it is being voluntary adopted by a growing number of companies as a tool for environmental management and as a transparent communication protocol between companies and customers. Methodologies and contents of environmental reports are shown, as well as the relevant advantages for companies. Although its activities have a low environmental impact, the gas industry is engaged in further reducing such an impact, by taking voluntary actions such as the adoption of codes of practice and the issue of environmental reports. The contents of SNAM's 1995 Environmental Report are presented, along with the activities carried out, the environmental data and the initiatives adopted for environmental protection

  6. Gas turbines for the rubber industry: Retrofit feasibility

    Demaria, F.; Pautasso, F.


    Cogeneration is becoming industry's choice to satisfy process requirements characterized by high energy demand and fairly steady thermal and electrical loads. This paper illustrated the suitability of cogeneration for the production of rubber and PVC floor tiles. The example studied here consists of a gas fuelled turboalternator set capable of producing 1,050 kW of electric power. The energy plant is equipped with a heat recovery system and a post-combustor for the production of a diathermic fluid used by the process equipment. The paper points out how engineers overcame the installation problems due to the presence of existing process equipment and the necessity for continuous plant operation during retrofitting. Attention is given to the energy and cost feasibility aspects of this intervention

  7. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Love, P.


    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves

  8. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)


    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  9. Analisis Faktor Risiko Paparan Debu Kayu Terhadap Gangguan Fungsi Paru Pada Pekerja Industri Pengolahan Kayu PT. Surya Sindoro Sumbing Wood Industry Wonosobo

    Meta Suryani


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Background: One of the negative impacts of wood processing industry is air pollution caused by wood ash that occurred during the process or as the output of the industry. The wood ash will contaminate the industry area as well as the environment so not only the workers, but also the people living around the factory will be exposed to ash from raw material, added material, and the output, thus causing lung function disturbance.  The aim of this research is to measure the risk of factors that causes lung function disturbance to the workers in wood processing industry at PT Surya Sindoro Sumbing Wood Industry Wonosobo. Method : This is an observational research using cross-sectional design. The samples are workers that fulfill the criteria inclusively and exclusively as many as 70 persons. This research was done in February 2005 and the data collection was done using wood ash content measurement in Furniture Component (FC and Wood Working Area (WWA sections, lung function capacity measurement, body height and body weight measurements, as well as interview with the respondents. Result : This research showed that the amount of the wood ash in WWA and FC of 6.1452mg/m3 and 4.0101mg/m3 respectively; and the average of lung function capacity on the workers is 92.04% FEV1/FVC with standard deviation of 6.68 with the lowest and the highest rate of 66% FEV1/FVC and 100% FEV1/FVC respectively. The data analysis in this research used chi-square test, Independent   t Test,while the multivariat analysis used logistic regression test with enter method. The statistics test showed that there was a relationship between the working period and the smoking habit with lung function capacity (p0.05. Conclusions : The working period and the smoking habit at the same time can become the risk factor of the lung function disturbance. As such, smoking prohibition during working hours in the wood processing industry should be applied in order to avoid lung

  10. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009; Rapport sur l'industrie petroliere et gaziere en 2009



    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  11. Royalty financing for the oil and gas industry

    Read, F. M. D.


    Key concepts in royalty financing for the oil and gas industry are described. The basic significance of royalty financing for a public company is that financing is 'off balance sheet', and can be used to achieve objectives that neither debt, equity, nor outright sale of assets or farm-outs can accomplish. Royalty financing can provide increased available capital or debt reduction while maintaining the full gross share of reserve and production volumes on the books. This paper provides an overview of the field of royalty financing, with an appreciation of the benefits, reviews each of the financial alternatives (debt, equity, farmout and or sale of assets to reduce capital requirements), and provides examples of specific application of royalty financing. It is claimed that this type of financing, which has been available to the mining sector for some time, is a useful alternative to other financing instruments to acquire new oil and gas assets, to develop new areas, to implement enhanced recovery projects or to carry out mergers and acquisitions. Used judiciously, royalty financing can provide significant benefits to both the working interest owner and his shareholders, as well as the royalty company

  12. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.


    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  13. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.


    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  14. Industrial aspects of gas-liquid two-phase flow

    Hewitt, G.F.


    The lecture begins by reviewing the various types of plant in which two phase flow occurs. Specifically, boiling plant, condensing plant and pipelines are reviewed, and the various two phase flow problems occurring in them are described. Of course, many other kinds of chemical engineering plant involve two phase flow, but are somewhat outside the scope of this lecture. This would include distillation columns, vapor-liquid separators, absorption towers etc. Other areas of industrial two phase flow which have been omitted for space reasons from this lecture are those concerned with gas/solids, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid flows. There then follows a description of some of the two phase flow processes which are relevant in industrial equipment and where special problems occur. The topics chosen are as follows: (1) pressure drop; (2) horizontal tubes - separation effects non-uniformites in heat transfer coefficient, effect of bends on dryout; (3) multicomponent mixtures - effects in pool boiling, mass transfer effects in condensation and Marangoni effects; (4) flow distribution - manifold problems in single phase flow, separation effects at a single T-junction in two phase flow and distribution in manifolds in two phase flow; (5) instability - oscillatory instability, special forms of instability in cryogenic systems; (6) nucleate boiling - effect of variability of surface, unresolved problems in forced convective nucleate boiling; and (7) shell side flows - flow patterns, cross flow boiling, condensation in cross flow

  15. Maturity of natural gas industry and viability of competitive regime

    Finon, D.


    The access of natural gas industries to maturity, which is characterized by the high density of the pipeline networks and the relative saturation of needs, would allow the introduction of the competitive regime and the questioning of the common organizational model of vertical quasi-integration and regulated territorial monopoly. In the new model, the industries could be organized around a wholesale market, with direct transactions between producers and distributors or buyers, such as the American experiment of deregulation of the access to the pipelines shows it. But the cost-benefit balance of this experiment is quite mitigated, by referring to efficiency and fiability criteria. Improvements in flexibility and in rationalized behaviour on the short run can be observed. But the agents being faced to the difficulty to appreciate the investment risk, nothing seems to guarantee the adaptation of the supply to the demand on the long run. In Europe, less favorable basic conditions (highly capital intensive supply sources, fewer producers, fragmented political space) in a context of a renewed growth of the market require to identify carefully the acceptable forms of competition. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Liquid scintillation for NORM in the oil and gas industry

    Moebius, Siegurd; Moebius, Rolf; Bartenbach, Martin; Ramamonjisoa, Tiana


    Natural radionuclides of Radium, Lead and Polonium are trapped along with crude oil and gas and accumulate as scale deposits on equipment in the oil industries. Problems arise by residues and sludge where such Norm often becomes concentrated during the process of extraction, transport, and storage of crude oil. Additionally, Radon is accumulated in natural gas or is co extracted into oil as organic phase where it equilibrates with its Progenies. Thus Norm creates a possible hazard to workers both by external radiation exposure and internal due to incorporation during intervention work, and to the environment due to waste disposal. The determination of 222 Rn, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po in the various production stages is a precondition for an efficient Radiation Protection Management. We have studied the applicability of Liquid Scintillation L S for the measurement of NORM in the oil and gas industry. Our investigations show that 226 Ra may be quantified by L S in solid scale deposits as carbonate and sulphate after grinding and as carbonate additionally after dissolution. Then, an organic L S scintillation cocktail like Betaplate Scint is added and the sample stored for Rn equilibration. While 222 Rn is quantitatively extracted from the solution, only 20 to 30% are emanated as free Rn from the powder into the organic phase. Emanation yield versus grain size and sample amount has been studied using synthetic Ra/Ca-carbonate powder and grinded Pitchblende ore samples. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in carbonate may be determined by α/β-discriminating L S after dissolution, mutual separation on Radium Rad Disk filters and final elution with DHC and EDTA. From these results the isotopic ratio of Radium isotopes in the different scale fractions may be determined. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in production and waste waters may be quantified accordingly. Radon in oil fractions has been measured as 0.1 to 2% solution in Betaplate Scint with sensitivity down to 5 Bq/l. From

  17. The state tax regulation in the oil and gas industry

    E. I. Cherkasova


    Full Text Available Russian tax laws in petrochemical complex generally has a fiscal orientation now. The current system of taxation in the oil industry has the biggest tax burden in the world, amount of oil and gas revenues was more then 43-51% of all budget revenues over past decades, remaining its main source. Generally, there were changes in the ratios of incomes in the forms of export customs duty and tax on the extraction of minerals. State policy in the field of resource payments affects the entire industry, influencing the structure of oil and oil supplies on internal and external markets and realization of the programs for modernization and development in priority areas. Changes of structure of national production, increasing the contribution of agriculture, IT sphere and other branches to aggregate national product should be reflected in the revision of the tax burden on the industries, associated with the extraction and processing of minerals. It is necessary to reduce the fiscal direction of tax regulation in petrochemical sector with a simultaneous increasing the role of tools that stimulate modernization and updating of equipment, implementation of new processes and technologies, the maximum use of process-deepening processes as well as the development of deposits with severe production conditions. In the near future, it is planned to introduce new changes in taxation in field of oil production and refining - introduction of benefits for oil production in new fields or fields with difficult production conditions or poor quality of oil and introduction of a tax on additional income..

  18. Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the game industry in South Africa

    Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the game industry in South Africa. ... Previous greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories did not include game as an emissions source. Recently game farming has ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  19. Automatic isotope gas analysis of tritium labelled organic materials Pt. 1

    Gacs, I.; Mlinko, S.


    A new automatic procedure developed to convert tritium in HTO hydrogen for subsequent on-line gas counting is described. The water containing tritium is introduced into a column prepared from molecular sieve-5A and heated to 550 deg C. The tritium is transferred by isotopic exchange into hydrogen flowing through the column. The radioactive gas is led into an internal detector for radioactivity measurement. The procedure is free of memory effects, provides quantitative recovery with analytical reproducibility better than 0.5% rel. at a preset number of counts. The experimental and analytical results indicate that isotopic exchange between HTO and hydrogen over a column prepared from alumina or molecular sieve-5A can be successfully applied for the quantitative transfer of tritium from HTO into hydrogen for on-line gas countinq. This provides an analytical procedure for the automatic determination of tritium in water with an analytical reproducibility better than 0.5% rel. The exchange process will also be suitable for rapid tritium transfer from water formed during the decomposition of tritium-labelled organic compounds or biological materials. The application of the procedure in automatic isotope gas analysis of organic materials labelled with tritium will be described in subsequent papers (Parts II and III). (T.G.)

  20. From geology to commerce. A perspective of the natural gas industry

    Williams, J.R.


    Viewed from different perspectives, the natural gas industry can appear new and expanding or alternatively, mature and run along traditional lines; natural gas industry is a complex interaction between geologists, production and pipelines engineers and in some cases, Lng plants designers and operators, and of course marketers. Host governments, bankers, consumers and increasingly legislators- both national and international- also play a key role in the development of the gas industry

  1. Model of the dose rate for a semi industrial irradiation plant. Pt. 1

    Mangussi, Josefina; Gomez, Enzo


    This paper introduces the first stage of a software for visualization of isodose curves, at the irradiation area of a semi-industrial irradiation plant operating with cobalt-60. The dose rate is calculated in each point of the area as the sum of the contributions of each one of the radioactive sources located in the irradiator. The regions of the space with equal dose rate were solved as lines in the Cartesian planes with a set of programs written in Free Pascal. In this first stage, external programs and utilities were used for the visualization and the validation of simulated and experimental data. In future stages, visualization modules will be integrated into the software to produce graphs from ASCII outputs. (author)

  2. Various types of semiconductor photocatalysts modified by CdTe QDs and Pt NPs for toluene photooxidation in the gas phase under visible light

    Marchelek, M. [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Grabowska, E., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Klimczuk, T. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Lisowski, W. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44-52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Zaleska-Medynska, A. [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)


    Highlights: • Novel semiconductors decorated by CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs were synthesized. • Photodeposition and radiolysis is an effective method to obtaining Pt NPs. • CdTe decorated samples were prepared by absorption of QDs on matrix surface. • KTaO{sub 3}/CdTe-Pt{sub (R)} showed highest photocatalytic performance. • The enhanced performance was associated with electron trap mechanism. - Abstract: A novel synthesis process was used to prepare TiO{sub 2} microspheres, TiO{sub 2} P-25, SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3} decorated by CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs. The effect of semiconductor matrix, presence of CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs on the semiconductor surface as well as deposition technique of Pt NPs (photodeposition or radiolysis) on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and BET surface area analysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in gas phase, activated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the CdTe/Pt nanoparticles-modified TiO{sub 2} microspheres, P25, SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3} semiconductors was investigated under UV–vis and visible irradiation.The results showed that the photoactivity depends on semiconductor matrix. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for KTaO{sub 3}/CdTe-Pt{sub (R)} sample (56% of toluene was decompose after 30 min of irradiation). The efficiency of the most active sample was 3 times higher than result for P25 and two times higher than for unmodified KTaO{sub 3}.

  3. Industrial-energy markets: Implications for natural gas technology R and D

    Samsa, M.E.


    The paper reviews the role and competitive position of natural gas for major industrial functional uses and focuses on the key issues and factors affecting the future of natural gas use in industrial applications. Gas use is discussed within the context of all other major fuel groups used by the industrial sector. The manufacturing and nonmanufacturing segments are isolated and each of the major uses (boilers, cogeneration, process heating, feedstocks, lease and plant, and nonstationary applications) are discussed separately. A discussion is included on the implications of the analysis on GRI's R and D program and on the technical service options that are available to the gas industry

  4. On recent progress using QCLs for molecular trace gas detection - from basic research to industrial applicaitons

    Röpcke, J.; Davies, P.; Hempel, F.; Hübner, M.; Glitsch, S.; Lang, N.; Nägele, M.; Rousseau, A.; Wege, S.; Welzel, S.


    Quantum Cascade Lasers offer attractive options for applications of MIR absorption spectroscopy for basic research and industrial process control. The contribution reviews applications for plasma diagnostics and trace gas monitoring in research and industry.

  5. Room temperature H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) thick films

    More, P.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Raut, R.W. [Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Ghuge, C.S. [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India)


    The study reports H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) films. The porous alumina (PoAl) thick layers were formed in the dark on aluminum substrates using an electrochemical anodization method. Thin semitransparent platinum (Pt) films were deposited on PoAl samples using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The films were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thicknesses of coated and bare films were measured using ellipsometry. The sensing properties such as sensitivity factor (S.F.), response time, recovery time and repeatability were measured using a static gas sensing system for H{sub 2}S gas. The EDAX studies confirmed the purity of Pt–PoAl film and indicated the formation of pure platinum (Pt) phase. The ellipsometry studies revealed the thickness of PoAl layer of about 15–17 μm on aluminum substrates. The SEM studies demonstrated uniform distribution of spherical pores with a size between 0.250 and 0.500 μm for PoAl film and nearly spherical platinum particles with average particle size ∼100 nm for Pt–PoAl film. The gas-sensing properties of these samples were studied in a home-built static gas characterization system. The H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties of Pt–PoAl at 1000 ppm of H{sub 2}S gave maximum sensitivity factor (S.F.) = 1200. The response time and recovery time were found to be 2–3 min and ∼1 min respectively. Further, the measurement of H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties clearly indicated the repeatability of gas sensing response of Pt–PoAl film. The present study indicated the significant potential of Pt coated PoAl films for H{sub 2}S gas sensing applications in diverse areas. - Highlights: • Electrochemical anodization, cheap and effective method for fabrication of PoAl. • Chemical bath deposition, a simple and effective method for deposition of Pt on PoAl. • A nano-composite film sensor with high sensitivity

  6. Uranous nitrate production using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2 gas mixtures

    Rao, K.S.; Shyamlal, R.; Narayanan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansra, V.P.; Balu, K.; Vaidya, V.N.


    The feasibility of producing near 100% uranous nitrate, the partitioning agent used in the spent fuel reprocessing by Purex process, by catalytically reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 and H 2 gas mixtures was extensively studied. As near quantitative reduction of uranyl nitrate could be easily achieved in laboratory scale studies, pilot plant scale reduction of uranyl nitrate was also carried out and five litres of uranyl nitrate of 100 g/1 could be quantitatively reduced in one hour. (author)

  7. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg


    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  8. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.


    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  9. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    Pirovska, M.


    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  10. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010; Rapport sur l'industrie petroliere et gaziere en 2010



    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  11. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady

    The deactivation performance of Pt-catalysts for CO oxidation has been studied in relation to use in sewage sludge municipal waste burners, where HMDS was found to poison the industrial catalyst in a similar way to the model Pt/TiO2 catalyst. A promising regeneration procedure was developed based...... on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  12. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.


    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  13. Statistics 2007 of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2007 de l'industrie gaziere en France



    This document provides statistical data and an economic analysis of the natural gas industry activity in 2007. It is presented around six main poles: the production, the transport, the methane terminals, the storage, the distribution and the commercialization. The main events of the year 2007 are the importance of Norway in the gas supplying, the decrease of the gas sales and the market opening. (A.L.B.)

  14. Statistics 2005 of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2005 de l'industrie gaziere en France



    This document provides and analyses statistical data of the natural gas industry for the year 2005. After a presentation of the consumption and the supplying, it deals with the gas market organization (production, transport, storage, supply and distribution), the information sources and the methods of the analysis and the main data (transport, production, storage, employment, uses). The last part takes stock of the energy in 2005 and the main transport axis of the natural gas in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  15. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry; Statistiques 2006 de l'industrie gaziere en France



    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  16. Cryogenic and Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)

    Rucinski, Russell A.


    This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note

  17. Water-gas shift. An examination of Pt promoted MgO and tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 by in situ drifts

    Chenu, Emilie; Jacobs, Gary; Crawford, Adam C.; Keogh, Robert A.; Patterson, Patricia M.; Sparks, Dennis E.; Davis, Burtron H.


    In situ DRIFTS measurements on unpromoted and Pt promoted MgO and ZrO 2 (both tetragonal and monoclinic) indicate that at high H 2 O/CO ratios, where the reaction rate has been reported to be zero order in H 2 O and first order in CO, the mechanism involved in the catalysis of water-gas shift is likely a surface formate mechanism, in agreement with Shido and Iwasawa. Pt was found to catalyze the removal of surface carbonates and to facilitate the generation of active OH groups relative to the unpromoted catalyst. Comparison with Pt/ceria revealed that the OH groups involved in the catalysis of magnesia and zirconia may be those of the bridging variety which occur at defect sites. That is, water dissociated over vacancies to produce bridging OH groups, as observed by infrared spectroscopy. The existence of such an adsorbed species is implied in the zero reaction order for water, where kinetics suggests that the surface should be saturated by an adsorbed water species. The lower extent of vacancy formation for magnesia and zirconia-based materials in comparison with ceria could explain a lower surface population of active bridging OH groups. CO was used as a probe molecule of the reduced centers, as it reacts with bridging OH groups to generate surface formates, a proposed WGS intermediate, and the decomposition of which is proposed to be the rate-limiting step. The trends in formate intensity by CO adsorption and CO conversion in WGS catalytic testing both followed the order: Pt/ceria>Pt/m-zirconia>Pt/t-zirconia>Pt/magnesia. In all cases, a normal kinetic isotope effect was observed in switching from H 2 O to D 2 O, consistent with a link between the rate-limiting step and the decomposition of surface formates, as noted previously by Shido and Iwasawa for Rh/ceria, MgO, and ZnO

  18. Automatic isotope gas analysis of tritium labelled organic materials Pt. 3

    Gacs, I.; Mlinko, S.; Payer, K.; Otvos, L.; Banfi, D.; Palagyi, T.


    An isotope analytical procedure and an automatic instrument developed for the determination of tritium in organic compounds and biological materials by internal gas counting are described. The sample is burnt in a stream of oxygen and the combustion products including water vapour carrying the tritium are led onto a column of molecular sieve-5A heated to 550 deg C. Tritium is retained temporarily on the column, then transferred into a stream of hydrogen by isotope exchange. After addition of butane, the tritiated hydrogen is led into an internal detector and enclosed there for radioactivity measurement. The procedure, providing quantitative recovery, is completed in five minutes. It is free of memory effect and suitable for the determination of tritium in a wide range of organic compounds and samples of biological origin. (author)

  19. Volatile hexafluoroacetylacetonates for the isolation and gas-chromatographic determination of trace metals. Pt. 1

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Mirzai, H.


    The optimization of the extraction of metal cations [Sc(III), Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Y(III), Ag(I), Cd(II), La(IIII), Ce(III), Eu(III), Yb(III), Hg(II), Pb(II), Th(IV), U(IV, VI) and Am(III)] in the form of mixed-ligand complexes with hexafluoroacetylacetone and neutral donators with nitrogen atoms or P=O-groups is described. The thermal and gas-chromatographic characteristics of the extracted volatile compounds are reported. Optimal results were achieved using tri-n-butyl-phosphine oxide as donator. (orig.) [de

  20. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Chenchen Fang


    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  1. 76 FR 78640 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. PR12-8-000 and PR12-9-000] Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed in PR12-8-000 a Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) with...

  2. 76 FR 20657 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-102-001] Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to comply with a...

  3. 78 FR 21929 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-46-000] Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2013, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed to cancel its Statement of Operating Conditions including its Tariff...

  4. Prospects of and challenges to natural gas industry development in China

    Jia Chengzao


    Full Text Available An unprecedented breakthrough has been made over the past decades in natural gas industry, which helps improve energy mix and promote the low-carbon economy in China. With such abundant hydrocarbon resources, China owns two intensive oil and gas producing blocks in the Ordos Basin and Xinjiang province and two other concentrated gas producing blocks in Sichuan and Western South Sea. In addition, arterial gas lines have been connected as a gas grid all over China and natural gas market has become more and more mature and expanded. Thus, a natural gas industry system has come into being. However, with natural gas unevenly scattering all across China, the remnant resources mainly are distributed in the stratigraphic strata, deep strata in superimposed basins or in mature exploration zones, foreland basin thrust belts, marine gas fields, and so on. In reality, the future gas exploration should focus on such domains as the weathered crust karst reservoirs or carbonate and stratigraphic traps, deep clastic gas layers, and unconventional oil and gas plays. Achievements have been made in marine shale gas exploration, CBM gas steady development, and other unconventional natural gas resources. From the perspective of exploration potential, more giant oil and gas fields will be possibly discovered in deep strata or deep sea water, and stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs and tight oil and gas reservoirs will also be the exploration focus. With the increase of exploration depth and degree, the overall oil and gas exploration cost will be significantly rising in general. New discoveries or reserves increase in natural gas exploration will highly depend upon research theory and technology progress, and such development technologies as 3D seismic survey, horizontal drilling and fracturing treatment will be more highlighted. Through enhancing the cost in natural gas exploration and development and strengthening the research of core technologies, natural gas

  5. Uranous nitrate production for purex process applications using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2-gas mixtures

    Sreenivasa Rao, K.; Shyamali, R.; Narayan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Jambunathan, U.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansara, V.P.


    In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing. the twin objectives- decontamination and partitioning are achieved by extracting uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) together in the solvent 30% TBP-dodecane and then selectively reducing Pu (IV) to Pu (III) in which valency it is least extractable in the solvent. Uranous nitrate stabilized with hydrazine nitrate is the widely employed partitioning agent. The conventional method of producing U(IV) is by the electrolytic reduction of uranyl nitrate with hydrazine nitrate as uranous ion stabilizer. Tre percentage conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) obtained in this method is 50 -60 %. The use of this solution as partitioning agent leads not only to the dilution of the plutonium product but also to increase in uranium processing load by each externally fed uranous nitrate batch. Also the oxide coating of the anode, TSIA (Titanium Substrate Insoluble Anode) wears out after a certain period of operation. This necessitates recoating which is quite cumbersome considering the amount of the decontamination involved. An alternative to the conventional electrolytic method of reduction of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate was explored at FRD laboratory .The studies have revealed that near 100% uranous nitrate can be produced by reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 gas or H 2 (8%)- Ar/N 2 gas mixture in presence of PtO 2 catalyst. This report describes the laboratory scale studies carried out to optimize the various parameters. Based on these studies reduction of uranyl nitrate on a pilot plant scale was carried out. The design and operation of the reductor column and also the various studies carried out in the pilot plant studies are discussed. Near 100% conversion of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate and also the redundancy of supply of electrical energy make this process a viable alternative to the existing electrolytic method. (author)

  6. Overview of Gas Research Institute's industrial utilization research and development program

    Tabb, E S


    A combination of technical, economic, political, and environmental constraints hamper industry's ability to use natural gas efficiently. Although the industrial sector has the best potential to absorb the current surplus of natural gas, many industrial users are disenchanged with the high cost, low efficiency, and environmental problems associated with the existing inventory of gas-fired process systems. Consequently, it is essential for an organization like Gas Research Institute (GRI), which has a national scope and a mandate to generate energy end-use benefits for the industrial gas consumer, to assume a leadership role in the development program aimed, not only at upgrading the energy efficiency of industrial process equipment, but at increasing its production capability while meeting environmental standards.

  7. Background and Effects of Deepening Reform of the Oil and Gas Industry System

    Wang Zhen


    Under the background of a fourth wave of industrial revolution and a period of worldwide energy transformation,deepening the reforms in the oil and gas industry system is of great significance.After reviewing the achievements and summarizing the problems of the oil and gas industry in China,this paper lays emphasis on the key aspects of this new round of deepening reforms,and holds the position that this reform,based on the implementation of the national energy strategy,covers the entire oil and gas industry chain by liberalizing market access,reforming market mechanisms,and strengthening management.The reform will bring far-reaching effects upon the entire chain and the participants of the oil and gas industry.It wilt help to improve the market-oriented allocation of resources,allow enterprises to interact as competitors,and enhance the national oil and gas security.

  8. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry?



    This paper is an interview with an energy representative for a major gas-producing company regarding the impact of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636. This legislation was suppose to streamline the interstate transportation of natural gas unhindered by local distribution company (LCD) interference. Many times these LCD's owned a portion of the necessary pipeline route used to transport natural gas, and as a result, had a priority on purchasing pipeline gas whenever they needed. This could, in turn, result in a depletion of contract gas which was in-route to a specified contract market. Such interferences caused problems with the contract markets, but could boost the net profits to natural gas companies who had excess gas that could be sold in-route to other markets. This paper addresses both the pro's and cons' of this new regulation on both the pipeline and gas producing companies

  9. Panorama 2017 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, Armelle


    The slowing growth in demand observed since 2012 has continued in 2016. Despite weak gas prices, gas growth is limited by the rapid expansion of renewable energy, advances in energy efficiency and the economic downturn in some countries. Excess supply of LNG entering the market favored declining gas prices which benefits emerging countries. These countries appear to be the main driver for future expansion of gas demand

  10. Natural gas in the energy industry of the 21st century

    Cuttica, J.


    This paper provides a gas industry perspective on the impacts of restructuring the natural gas and electric industries. The four main implications discussed are: (1) market trends, (2) strategic positioning, (3) significant market implications, and (4) issues for the future. Market trends discussed include transitioning rate of return to market competition and regulatory impacts. Significant market implications for gas-fired generation identified include limited new generation investment, extension of existing plants, and an opportunity for distributed power generation. 12 tabs

  11. Natural gas industry in USSR and in Central Europe: Domestic market and exports

    Kousnetzoff, N.


    This paper strikes the balance of natural gas industry in USSR and Central Europe and the state of domestic market and exports: natural gas accounting in Eastern Europe before the crisis, production capacity of the former USSR, impacts of crisis on natural gas consumption and long term forecasts are the main subjects described. 2 tab

  12. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1996


    Alberta's 1996 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) natural gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) natural gas liquids, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products and statistical data on drilling activity during 1996 were also included. Tables

  13. 2003 statistics of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2003 de l'industrie gaziere en France



    This document synthesizes the main annual results for the French natural gas industry in 2003: 1 - introduction: consumption and supplies; 2 - methodology: production, transport, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, reference documents, energy correspondences; 3 - Main data summarized in maps, graphics and tables: transport networks, storage, compression and production facilities; resources and employment; employment per sector of use; national production and imports; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel of the gas industry; sectoral distribution of gas supply networks; gas cogeneration: consumption, plants; monthly variation of imports and stocks; monthly variation of consumptions and stocks; regional supplies; regional and sectoral supplies; regional use of the national production; main 2003 status of the gas market; 2003 comparison between the inquiry and the provisional status; 2003 energy status. (J.S.)

  14. Application of radioisotopes in oil, gas and petrochemical industries

    Castagnet, A.C.G.


    The fundaments and the methodology of the principal radioisotope techniques used in the construction and operation of oil-pipes are described. These techniques deal with gamma radiography of weids, scraper tracking, leak localization in underground pipes and interface detection. The practical use of the mathematical formulas deduced during the theoretical treatment of each method is illustrated through several examples of application. A proceeding for the design of an interface detector based on gamma ray attenuation is presented [pt

  15. Corrosion protection by organic coatings in gas and oil industry

    Hussain, A.


    The drive to improve performance of coatings as protection against corrosion for automotive, aerospace and oil and gas industries is a never-ending story. Surface preparation is the most important single factor when a substrate surface e.g. steel is to be protected with a coating. This implies an extremely accurate and reliable characterisation of the substrate-surface prior to coating process and the investigation of polymeric coating materials. In order to have a durable adhesive bonding between the polymeric coating materials and the substrate i.e. to ensure prolonged life time and fewer maintenance intervals of coated products, a pre-treatment of the substrate is required in many cases. Sand blasting, corona /plasma pre.treatment of the substrate and the use of coupling agents like organo silanes are well accepted recent methods. Advanced surface analytical techniques like ESCA and TOFSIMS are proving to be extremely helpful in the chemical characterisation of the substrate surface. Contamination e.g. fat residues, tensides etc. on the substrate is one of the most serious enemies of adhesive bonding and the above mentioned techniques are playing a vital role in combating the enemy. Modern thermal analytical methods have made tremendous contribution to the development and quality control of high-performance polymeric coatings. MDSC, DMA and DETA are proving to be very useful tools for the characterisation of high-performance coating materials. An in-depth understanding of the structure-property relationship of these materials, predominantly epoxy and polyurethane coating systems, is a pre-requisite for their successful application and subsequent Quality Control. (author)

  16. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-464-000] Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on November 8, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C...

  17. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application


    ... Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg... pursuant to sections 7(c) and 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for authorization for Petal to acquire the...

  18. The world economy: Its impact on the gas processing industry

    Teleki, A.


    Gas processors are in the business of extracting C 2-7 hydrocarbons from natural gas streams and converting them to commercial grade gas liquids, valued at or slightly below oil product prices. If the margin of oil prices over gas prices is higher, the gas processing business is more profitable. An approximate index of profitability is the ratio of the price of a bbl of oil divided by the price of a million Btu of gas (the oil-gas ratio). Since the mid-1980s, by which time both the oil and gas markets had been largely deregulated, the oil-gas ratio fluctuated in the 10-12 range then peaked to over 15 in 1990-91. The recent fall in oil prices has driven the ratio to historically low levels of 6-7, which leads to gas processors curtailing ethane recovery. Various aspects of the world economy and the growth of oil consumption are discussed to forecast their effect on gas processors. It is expected that oil demand should grow at least 4% annually over 1994-98, due to factors including world economic growth and low energy prices. Oil prices are forecast to bottom out in late 1995 and rise thereafter to the mid-20 dollar range by the end of the 1990s. A close supply-demand balance could send short-term prices much higher. Some widening of the gas-oil ratio should occur, providing room for domestic natural gas prices to rise, but with a lag. 8 figs

  19. The gas industry in Qatar: strategies and options

    Nasser Jaidah


    Possessing the largest gas field in the world with definitive proven reserves, Qatar started its development of these reserves towards the end of the last decade. The overall situation of the gas market was unfavourable. The prices of energy were declining and the cost for development of both offshore field and transportation was almost prohibitive. Major international gas players were shy and very reluctant to invest or enter the gas market through the Qatar road. Such ventures were considered to be too risky. Since then interest in the development of export and local gas projects has multiplied, with major gas players and premier market buyers willing to participate by investing in further developments. 8 fig

  20. Problems of peak demands in the gas industry

    Haeberlin, A


    After a brief explanation of the demands made on gas supply enterprises, a discussion of the possibilities of optimization for meeting the demand follows. There are in principle two possibilities for this: the interruption of deliveries which should be made legal in a contract and the use of peak supply plants, especially in the form of gas storages. The procedure is chosen according to the special situation of each gas supply enterprise.

  1. Panorama 2016 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    Lecarpentier, Armelle


    In an environment marked by slowing economic growth in emerging markets and developing countries, trends in gas market fundamentals varied widely across the regions during 2015. Structural economic factors stifled growth in natural gas demand, which was unable to take up all the excess supply, leading to imbalance in the global gas market and price weakness which is expected to continue in the short and medium-term. (author)

  2. Panorama 2009 - outlook for the natural gas industry


    World consumption of natural gas continued to climb in 2007, but with significant variations depending on the geographical region. The market is expected to keep growing for years, albeit at a slower rate due to the competition with coal, because of the specific advantages that natural gas brings to the energy mix. Consumption may be inhibited by the global financial and economic crisis. By 2030, gas supply and demand will diverge widely at regional level. Considering the uncertainties associated with key markets like the United States, Europe and Russia, it is imperative to develop appropriate strategies to meet the justifiable need to ensure the security of each link in the gas supply chain

  3. Towards the future organization of the French gas industry

    Batail, J.


    This article recapitulates the content of the directive on the 'internal gas market', recalls the spirit of co-operation established with a view to developing the future gas system in France, and puts forward some to the questions raised within the framework of this co-operation. These include: public utilities, third party access to networks, the definition of future 'eligible consumers', the regulation necessary for the correct operation of the gas market on a competitive basis, and the development of French gas operators throughout the world. (author)

  4. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    Pirovska, M.


    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  5. US Department of Energy investments in natural gas R ampersand D: An analysis of the gas industry proposal

    Sutherland, R.J.


    The natural gas industry has proposed an increase in the DOE gas R ampersand D budget from about $100 million to about $250 million per year for each of the next 10 years. The proposal includes four programs: natural gas supplies, fuel cells, natural gas vehicles and stationary combustion systems. This paper is a qualitative assessment of the gas industry proposal and recommends a natural gas R ampersand D strategy for the DOE. The methodology is a conceptual framework based on an analysis of market failures and the energy policy objectives of the DOE's (1991) National Energy Strategy. This framework would assist the DOE in constructing an R ampersand D portfolio that achieves energy policy objectives. The natural gas supply program is recommended to the extent that it contributes to energy price stability. Stationary combustion programs are supported on grounds of economic efficiency and environmental quality. The fuel cell program is supported on grounds of environmental quality. The natural gas vehicle program may potentially contribute to environmental quality and energy price stability. The R ampersand D programs in natural gas vehicles and in fuel cells should be complemented with policies that encourage the commercialization and use of the technology, not merely its development

  6. Privatisation and regulation - the effect on the U.K. gas industry

    Price, C.


    The U.K. gas industry is a monopolist, privatised in 1986 and subject to partial regulation and general monopoly policy. From April 1992 a new regulatory regime will be applied. This paper explores the impact of privatisation and partial regulation in the gas industry during the first quinquennium and illustrates the issues for regulation and pricing where costs are common to regulated and unregulated sectors. Attributable costs of gas supply are derived and a 'marginal cost' based tariff suggested. This is used as a basis for examining the industry's pricing policy in its several markets, and to analyse its response to privatisation and the regulation it has experienced. (Author)

  7. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill


    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  8. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik


    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  9. The Oscar winners of the natural gas industry

    Burkhardt, D.A.; Krekeler, J.A.


    This article reviews the performance of natural gas companies in the past year and recognizes five of them as the Most Profitable, the Most Owners, the Longest Dividend Record, the Most Stock Market Activity, the Coldest, the Best Stock Performance. The reasons for their selection is examined and their performance is compared with other gas utilities

  10. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry


    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  11. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1997


    Alberta's 1997 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) NGL mixes, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products, and a statistical summary of well drilling activities in the province were also provided. tabs

  12. Alberta oil and gas industry: annual statistics for 1995


    Statistical data for 1995 concerning the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent, natural gas, ethane, butanes, natural gas liquids, and sulphur in the Province of Alberta, were provided. A list of new wells drilled during 1995, and an annual well count, were also included

  13. A first-principles study on the interaction of biogas with noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated nitrogen doped graphene as a gas sensor: A DFT study

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Huarui


    Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate the adsorption characteristics of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2) on the surface of pyridine-like nitrogen doped graphene (PNG) as well as noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG to elaborate their potentials as gas sensors. The adsorption intensities of biogas on noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG are in the order of O2> H2S> N2> CH4> CO2> H2, which are corresponded to the order of their sensitivity on surface. Compared with biogas adsorption on pristine PNG, there exist higher adsorption ability, higher charge transfer and higher orbital hybridization upon adsorption on noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG. Consequently, the noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG can transform the existence of CH4, CO2, H2, H2S, N2, and O2 molecules into electrical signal and they could potentially be used as ideal sensors for detection of biogas in ambient situation.

  14. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips


    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  15. East-west cooperation: Market oriented restructuring and the natural gas industry

    Kowalski, G.


    The presentation deals with economic situation in the region og the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and in particular in transition countries. Recent developments and trends in the natural gas industry are stressed upon with a description of the role of the Economic Commission for Europe and that of the ECE gas Centre in the current transition process. The subjects covered were concerned with foreign investment trends in economies in transition, energy situation, natural gas market trends, current state of reforms of gas industry in transition countries and the role of ECE in this process

  16. Upstream oil and gas industry options paper : report of the upstream oil and gas working group of the Industry Issues Table to the National Climate Change Secretariat


    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has coordinated the efforts of the upstream oil and natural gas industry to draft a foundation paper to provide data on industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and actions. This paper is a technical piece targeted at government officials and stakeholders involved in the National Climate Change Secretariat process. The paper also outlines the context for considering policies aimed at reducing oil and gas industry emissions on climate change. The 6 key messages that CAPP wanted to emphasize in this paper were: (1) Canada's situation is very different from that of the U.S. and most other industrial countries, (2) GHG emissions are primarily an end-use consumption issue, (3) the climate change issue and the Kyoto Protocol present a major uncertainty that could undermine Canadian oil and natural gas development opportunities, (4) Canada should not be penalised by its growth of oil and natural gas resources, (5) the ability to reduce emissions by changing production technology is limited because large reductions in Canadian upstream emissions would only mean a shift of production to other countries which would not help to reduce global emissions, and (6) Canada should focus on promoting cost-effective action, research and development and international flexibility, and ensure that recognition is given to those companies that reduce emissions. tabs., figs

  17. Albertans' views of the oil and gas industry: Angus Reid Group poll


    The Angus Reid Group was commissioned to carry out research to determine and evaluate the image of the oil and gas industries in Alberta. The research was conducted using the Angus Reid Group's January Alberta omnibus study. Of 1200 telephone interviews conducted, 800 were completed by the general population of Alberta and 400 were completed by respondents who live in areas where there is a high level of activity by the oil and gas industries. All respondents were asked a series of questions on the image of the oil and gas industries in Alberta, while the oil and gas community respondents were asked a series of additional questions about their relationship to the oil and gas companies in their area. The 400 interviews with oil and gas communities were combined with the 800 general population interviews and the data were statistically weighed to ensure that the sample's age, gender and regional distribution reflects that of the actual adult populations of Alberta according to 1996 census data. The industries are generally seen as credible, and fifty-eight percent of Albertans see the oil and has industries as a good listener, while 38% do not agree. Fifty-three percent of Albertans see that the industries have become more responsible, and 7% disagree. Two thirds of Albertans see that the industries communicate well with the public, but one third does not. The two industries are seen as being on a par with other industries as far as social values are concerned. The main concern of Albertans about the two industries is that of the environment. A large group see that the industries are concerned about the environment, but they differ on whether actions are actually taken in support of the expressed concern. A majority see the relationship between the industries and themselves as good. tabs

  18. Perancangan Promosi Digital PT Campina Di Surabaya

    Wijaya, Fernando; Hartanto, Deddi Duto; Sylvia, Merry


    Perancangan ini dilakukan untuk mempromosikan PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry beserta produknya. PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry diangkat sebagai topic perancangan karena banyak competitor-kompetitor yang bermunculan. Dengan melihat berbagai kelebihan dan kekurangan PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry, promosi dirancang agar dapat menggambarkan kelebihan PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry. Sehingga diharapkan dapat mengingatkan kembali ice cream Campina dalam benak konsumen. Untuk media promosi digital...

  19. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry



    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry



    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  1. Technical potential for developing natural gas use in the Brazilian red ceramic industry

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca; Henriques, Mauricio Jr.; Szklo, Alexandre


    The red ceramic industry in Brazil, consisting of over 7000 companies, requires large amounts of thermal energy, currently being met mainly by native fuelwood, which causes serious deforestation and soil erosion problems. The use of firewood does not allow achieving good energy performance in industrial ceramic kilns, causing high energy losses, low productivity and low quality products (bricks and roof tiles). Thus, to implement higher added value products, besides mitigate environmental problems caused by deforestation, the use of natural gas by the sector seems to be a promising alternative. Brazil's natural gas market has grown at a fast pace in recent years. Its share in the country's primary energy consumption increased from 3.7% to 9.3% between 1998 and 2007, compared to almost 21% in the world. The development of the Brazilian natural gas industry was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with Bolivia from where natural gas is imported, together with fiscal incentives for promoting the demand. This paper estimates that the natural gas market that could be developed in the Brazilian red ceramic industry corresponds to less than 5% of the total industrial natural gas consumption, meaning that a major technological transformation of the country's red ceramic industry will not severely affect the natural gas market equilibrium, contributing to reduce the country's high rates of deforestation. (author)

  2. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    Hoey, P.J. [Anbrer Consulting, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities

  3. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    Hoey, P.J.


    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities in

  4. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2011

    Venturini, Isabelle; Hesske, Philip; Welter-Nicol, Cecile; Korman, Bernard; Wermelinger, Elea; Gouge, Patrick; Balian, Armelle; Guichaoua, Sabine; Levaillant, Elise; Ripaux, Marion; Baumont, Thierry; Fondeville, Louis; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Delvincourt, Thibaud; Pertuiset, Thomas; Quintaine, Thierry; Miraval, Bruno; Cesari, Vartouhie


    Illustrated by several graphs and tables, this report first proposes an overview of international oil and gas markets and supplies: markets, exploration, challenges faced by European supplies, and French hydrocarbon imports. It comments oil exploration and production activities in France, refining activities and activities in the field of substitution fuels. The next part addresses the French oil and gas logistics: domestic transports of oil products, oil product storage infrastructures, strategic storage, and gas infrastructures. The last part addresses the final consumption: consumption, distribution, fuel quality, prices, and tax policy

  5. Shale gas is good for industry: welcome to Gas-land; Dordogne is not masochist; hydraulic fracturing, and then?

    James, Olivier; Chandes, Camille; Dupin, Ludovic


    A first article outlines that the exploitation of shale gases would favour a competitiveness boost for the industry (notably for the electricity sector, the chemical sector and other sectors depending on them), but that environmental drawbacks and European characteristics could also limit this boost. The author evokes activities of shale gas exploitation in the USA and their consequences in terms of gas prices, or for extraction equipment manufacturers or for the chemical industry. The different issues are discussed: environment, global warming, and energy supply. A second article describes the main shale gas sites in Texas notably that of Fort Worth which is within the city itself. A third article reports the struggle of Dordogne local authorities and citizen associations against projects of shale gas exploitation by hydraulic fracturing. As this extraction process is forbidden in France, a last article outlines that the development of another technique would require ten more years. Some perspectives are evoked

  6. Facing-target sputtering deposition of ZnO films with Pt ultra-thin layers for gas-phase photocatalytic application

    Zhang Zhonghai; Hossain, Md. Faruk.; Arakawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Takakazu


    In this paper, various zinc oxide (ZnO) films are deposited by a versatile and effective dc-reactive facing-target sputtering method. The ratios of Ar to O 2 in the mixture gas are varied from 8:2 to 6:4 at a fixed sputtering pressure of 1.0 Pa. X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope are used to study the crystal structure, optical property and surface morphology of the as-deposited films. The Pt ultra-thin layer, ∼2 nm thick, is deposited on the surface of ZnO film by dc diode sputtering with a mesh mask controlling the coated area. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO films and Pt-ZnO films is evaluated by decomposition of methanol under UV-vis light irradiation. The variation of photocatalytic activity depends on the ratios of Ar to O 2 , which is mainly attributed to the different grain size and carrier mobility. Though the pure ZnO film normally shows a low gas-phase photocatalytic activity, its activity is significantly enhanced by depositing Pt ultra-thin layer.

  7. Direct synthesis of Pt-free catalyst on gas diffusion layer of fuel cell and usage of high boiling point fuels for efficient utilization of waste heat

    Nandan, Ravi; Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar


    Graphical abstract: Direct-grown boron-doped carbon nanotubes on gas-diffusion layer as efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for alcohol fuel cells, high boiling point fuels used to obtain hot fuels for the enhancement of cell performance that paves the way for the utilization of waste heat. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •One-step direct synthesis of boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) on gas diffusion layer (GDL). •Home built fuel-cell testing using BCNTs on GDL as Pt-free cathode catalyst. •BCNTs exhibit concentration dependent oxygen reduction reaction and the cell performance. •Effective utilization of waste heat to raise the fuel temperature. •Fuel selectivity to raise the fuel temperature and the overall performance of the fuel cells. -- Abstract: Gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrocatalysts are integral parts of fuel cells. It is, however, a challenging task to grow Pt-free robust electrocatalyst directly on GDL for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – a key reaction in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) grown directly on gas-diffusion layer (which avoid the need of ionomer solution used for catalyst loading) can be used as efficient Pt-free catalyst in alcohol fuel cells. Increase in boron concentration improves the electrochemical ORR activity in terms of onset and ORR peak positions, half-wave potentials and diffusion-limited current density that ensure the optimization of the device performance. The preferential 4e − pathway, excellent cell performance, superior tolerance to fuel crossover and long-term stability makes directly grown BCNTs as an efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for cost-effective fuel cells. The maximum power density of the fuel cell is found to increase monotonically with boron concentration. In addition to the application of BCNTs in fuel cell, we have introduced the concept of hot fuels so that waste heat can effectively be used and external power sources can be avoided. The fuel

  8. Gas industry standards board: Legal considerations in the standard setting process

    Mishkin, M.T.; Adelman, D.I.


    On December 23, 1993, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order 563, a Final Rule adopting the agreements of informal industry-wide working groups to standardize information relating to pipeline capacity release programs mandated under Order 636. Order 563 is noteworthy for its reliance upon the industry to develop consensus standards for Commission adoption. The industry's success in reaching agreements on key communication standards issues spawned recommendations from the working groups to continue the development and maintenance of industry-wide standards through a permanent Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB). This article examines legal issues bearing on GISB's potential role in the regulatory process. Specifically, this article addresses constitutional and statutory considerations relating to the FERC's authority to delegate certain responsibilities to a voluntary, industry sponsored and supported private body such as that taking shape within the gas industry.

  9. NGVS. Challenges for the Japanese gas industry to open the door for their mass introduction

    Akimoto, Minoru; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Eiji


    There have been a number of restraints in Japan delaying the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGVs), which is a new comer in car industry. The Japanese gas industry, with support from government agencies, has conducted feasibility studies and clarified necessary technical and safety standards and regulations. These efforts have contributed to the government's drive for deregulation. Concurrently, the gas industry worked out its own scenarios for the promotion of NGVs in Japan, which helped the government in laying down necessary regulations and establishing clear market objectives for the vehicles as government policies. Such activities have yielded model introduction by the national and local governments and government-sponsored incentives for NGV promotion. For auto manufacturers, the gas industry proposed joint development projects and clarified potential market for NGVs. Consequently, many manufactures are now involved in their own NGV development projects. (au)

  10. Understanding and managing environmental liability in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry

    Andrychuk, L.D.; LeBlanc, L.B.


    An overview of Saskatchewan legislative framework regarding the oil and gas industry was presented. In the oil and gas industry, environmental issues are regulated at the provincial level, but the industry must also be aware of federal environmental law when dealing with federal lands, federal financial assistance, interprovincial or international projects or projects which have transboundary environmental effects. In this context, the provisions of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations (OGCR), the licensing of oil and gas wells, the acquisition and surrender of surface rights, and the procedures involved in environmental assessment approval were outlined. Emission control, air pollution abatement, the storage and disposal of hazardous materials, environmental issues in property transactions, and corporate environmental management are also subject to regulation under OGCA and OGCR. 42 refs


    Yılmaz BAYAR


    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  12. State of development and perspectives of the East German gas industry

    Holst, K.E.


    The East Germany gas industry has been characterised by fundamental changes during the past four years: reorganisation of the structure of the energy supply companies and their privatisation, the enforcement of fair energy prices and tariffs, the preparation and introduction of process of switching from town gas to natural gas and the connection of the East Germany combined network to the West German/West European natural gas system. Until the year 2010, the level of consumption is expected to be three times greater than the amount of natural gas imported in 1989. (orig./BWI) [de

  13. Radiological safety assessment of gas mantle industries in India

    Sadagopan, G.; Venkataraman, G.


    Thorium, a radioactive element of actinide family was discovered by Berzelius in 1828 and named by him in honor of the Scandinavian God open-quote Thor close-quote. Following its discovery the earliest known use of thorium was in the making of gas mantles. The other use as an X-ray contrast medium open-quote Thorotrast close-quote has since long been discontinued, where as even today its use in gas mantles is continued. Gas lights have been used as a source of light since 1800's. In India, although electric bulbs have replaced most of the gas lights, even today in villages and in urban areas where there is no continuous power supply and in outdoor lightings gas lamps are used. The mantle which is used in these lamps is called the Welsbach mantle and is a netted hose that is impregnated with thorium nitrate and other metals. The function of a gas mantle is to produce a bright light during operation of the lighting device (gas or kerosene lamp) in which the mantle is placed. When placed in a lighting device and heated to 1300-1800 degree Celcius thorium in the mantle incandesces and gives off bright light. In India presently there are about 70 manufacturing units handling 150 metric tons of thorium nitrate annually. There are about four hundred persons involved in manufacturing 200 million mantles per year. Thorium is chosen because of its property of incadescence, however since it is radioactive, radiation safety of the workplace, handling personnel and safe environmental condition for members of public have to be maintained

  14. The requirements of the petroleum and natural gas industries; Contraintes de l'industrie petroliere et gaziere

    Le Brun, S.; Gombart, G.


    Never the European petroleum and natural gas industries have had to take up so many challenges: a vital need of new technologies to maintain and increase the reserves, to exploit them, to protect the environment, to save energy, and to apprehend the world geopolitics. (O.M.)

  15. The impact of corrosion on oil and gas industry

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.


    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation and refinery activities

  16. IR and UV gas absorption measurements during NOx reduction on an industrial natural gas fired power plant

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Jørgensen, L.


    NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma-generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments on an industrial power plant running on natural gas. Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx slightly below two. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet absorption...... spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled. Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The operation costs for NOx reduction were estimated...

  17. Sustainability Assessment of the Natural Gas Industry in China Using Principal Component Analysis

    Xiucheng Dong


    Full Text Available Under pressure toward carbon emission reduction and air protection, China has accelerated energy restructuring by greatly improving the supply and consumption of natural gas in recent years. However, several issues with the sustainable development of the natural gas industry in China still need in-depth discussion. Therefore, based on the fundamental ideas of sustainable development, industrial development theories and features of the natural gas industry, a sustainable development theory is proposed in this thesis. The theory consists of five parts: resource, market, enterprise, technology and policy. The five parts, which unite for mutual connection and promotion, push the gas industry’s development forward together. Furthermore, based on the theoretical structure, the Natural Gas Industry Sustainability Index in China is established and evaluated via the Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. Finally, a conclusion is reached: that the sustainability of the natural gas industry in China kept rising from 2008 to 2013, mainly benefiting from increasing supply and demand, the enhancement of enterprise profits, technological innovation, policy support and the optimization and reformation of the gas market.

  18. The natural gas industry - a survey; Erdgaswirtschaft - Eine Branche im Ueberblick



    The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natural gas supply, the environmental impacts, the energy-saving effect of natural gas, natural gas prices, the competitive strength of the German gas industry, and the long-term reliability of natural gas supply. (orig.) [German] Die Situation des Erdgases in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wird beschrieben, wobei die wichtigsten Vorteile und Auswirkungen der Erdgasversorgung besonders hervorgehoben werden. Es geht um die Stellung des Erdgases im Energiemarkt, die Sicherheit der Energieversorgung, Umweltschutz, Energieeinsparung durch Erdgaseinsatz, Erdgaspreise, Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Gaswirtschaft und um die langfristig gesicherte Erdgasversorgung. (orig.)

  19. Fundamentals of the natural gas industry. May 1997; Grundzuege der Erdgaswirtschaft. Mai 1997



    The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natural gas supply, the environmental impacts, the energy-saving effect of natural gas, natural gas prices, the competitive strength of the German gas industry, and the long-term reliability of natural gas supply. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Situation des Erdgases in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wird beschrieben, wobei die wichtigsten Vorteile und Auswirkungen der Erdgasversorgung besonders hervorgehoben werden. Es geht um die Stellung des Erdgases im Energiemarkt, die Sicherheit der Energieversorgung, Umweltschutz, Energieeinsparung durch Erdgaseinsatz, Erdgaspreise, Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Gaswirtschaft und um die langfristig gesicherte Erdgasversorgung. (orig.)

  20. Fundamentals of the natural gas industry. November 1997; Grundzuege der Erdgaswirtschaft. November 1997



    The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natural gas supply, the environmental impacts, the energy-saving effect of natural gas, natural gas prices, the competitive strength of the German gas industry, and the long-term reliability of natural gas supply. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Situation des Erdgases in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wird beschrieben, wobei die wichtigsten Vorteile und Auswirkungen der Erdgasversorgung besonders hervorgehoben werden. Es geht um die Stellung des Erdgases im Energiemarkt, die Sicherheit der Energieversorgung, Umweltschutz, Energieeinsparung durch Erdgaseinsatz, Erdgaspreise, Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Gaswirtschaft und um die langfristig gesicherte Erdgasversorgung. (orig.)


    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  2. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    Hughes, P.J.


    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  3. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Cong, Xiaowei


    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  4. Trace analysis in the food and beverage industry by capillary gas chromatography: system performance and maintenance.

    Hayes, M A


    Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used analytical technique in the food and beverage industry. This paper addresses the problems of sample preparation and system maintenance to ensure the most sensitive, durable, and efficient results for trace analysis by GC in this industry.

  5. Improvement in ferroelectric properties of Pt/PZT/Pt capacitors etched as a function of Ar/O2 gas mixing ratio into Cl2/CF4 plasma

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Seong-Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il


    In this work, to investigate improvement of the damage using oxygen containing plasma, we etched PZT films as a function of Ar (x%)/O 2 (y%) gas mixing ratio in Cl 2 (56%)/CF 4 (14%) plasma (where the sum of x and y is 30). The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 146 nm/min for Ar (30%)/O 2 (0%) added into the Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma. After the etching, the plasma-induced damages were characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, switching polarization and retention capacity as a function of the gas mixing ratio. When the ferroelectric properties of PZT films were etched as a function of O 2 and Ar and the gas mixing ratios were compared, the value of remnant polarization in O 2 (30%) added Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar (30%). The results showed that after the etching the charges accumulated by oxygen vacancies prevented further domain switching at the top electrode-ferroelectric interface and created leakage current because of modification of the interfacial Schottky barrier during the etching process. The physical damage to the near surface and the crystal structure of the etched PZT thin films was evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The remnant polarization, leakage current, retention and fatigue properties are improved with increasing O 2 content. From XRD results, the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors etched in O 2 containing plasma was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and (200) peaks

  6. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    Forbes, A


    Full Text Available to be stable at O2 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse...

  7. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry

    Andreatta, F.


    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts [it

  8. The European gas industry at a corner of its history

    Gadonneix, P.


    The closing session of the 113. gas conference has been delivered by Mr Pierre Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France. This session has been held when the discussion on the European Union gaseous organization begins. This discussion has to determine the environment of Gaz de France for the future years. (O.M.)

  9. The promotion of work safety. A continuous task for the Swiss gas industry

    Luescher, H.J.


    The modern Western European population values the work safety very highly because of ethical and economical reasons. In Switzerland too, safety at work is actively promoted. Based on national legislation and on the SGWA-Association Statutes, the Swiss Gas Industry, with great engagement, promotes the measures for accident prevention. Following a general introduction into the legislative basis, possible ways and means for the promotion of safety at work are described. Subsequently, the concrete activities of the Gas Supply Authorities and the SGWA are pointed out, followed by a description of the future work-safety programmes of the Swiss Gas Industry. (orig.) [de


    Sanjay H. Zala


    Now a days in industry major losses are find out so here we calculate these losses and find out efficiency of boiler. Boiler efficiency and energy losses from boiler are important parameter for any industry using boiler. In this work a detailed analysis was carried out for boiler at Anish Chemicals Bhavnagar. It is a combined water and fire tube boiler using biomass coal as fuel. Boiler efficiency calculated by direct method is in range of (78.5% to 81.6%). Major losses from boiler are heat ...

  11. First-principles study on the gas sensing property of the Ge, As, and Br doped PtSe2

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui; Tian, Junlong; Ma, Dongwei; Wang, Yuanxu


    Based on first-principles calculations, the adsorption behaviors of H2, O2, CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 molecules on the Ge-, As- and Br-doped PtSe2 monolayers are theoretically investigated. The results indicate that it is viable for the dopant atoms to be filled into the Se vacancies under Pt-rich conditions. Ge and As act as p-type dopants, while Br acts as n-type dopant. For the adsorption of molecules, the geometrical structures, adsorption energies, charge transfers and the electronic and magnetic properties of the most stable configurations are presented and discussed. It is found that the Ge-doped PtSe2 monolayers exhibit greatly enhanced sensitivity toward O2, CO, NH3, NO and NO2 molecules and the As-doped PtSe2 monolayers are more sensitive toward O2, NH3, NO and NO2 molecules than the pristine ones. This is evident from large adsorption energies, charge transfers, and obvious changes of the electronic states due to the molecule adsorption. However, Br doping cannot enhance the sensing sensitivity of the PtSe2 monolayer. The possible reason is that when substituting for the Se atom, the doped Br with more 4p electrons and less empty orbitals are already chemically saturated by the two of the three neighboring Pt atoms, and thus lose the ability of charge exchange with the adsorbed molecules. On the contrary, the Ge and As as p-type dopants have sizable empty 4p orbitals near the Fermi level to exchange the electrons with the adsorbed molecules, and thus form strong bonds with them.

  12. Utility industry evaluation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Burstein, S.; Bitel, J.S.; Tramm, T.R.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.


    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant design, a current design created by an industrial team led by General Atomics under Department of Energy sponsorship and with support provided by utilities through Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design should be considered a viable application of an advanced nuclear concept and deserves continuing development. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution toward improving a very promising plant design. 2 refs

  13. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century



    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century



    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Recent rapid increases in the demand for city gas in manufacturing industries and future developments

    Kusano, Shigero


    City gas companies in Japan are experiencing an expansion in demand for gas in all manufacturing industries. The reason for this is, first and foremost, external, in that the first and second oil crises and the recent Gulf War have placed the oil market in a state of flux. That is to say, supply and demand in the oil products market is unstable while the stability of city gas, which is the main raw material for LNG, is being highly appraised. Another external reason is related to a subject much in the news recently the world over - the environment. City gas is highly regarded for its minimum environmental impact. Domestic reasons for the expansion include the fact that with the increase in use of city gas in manufacturing industries, the end user is beginning to recognize the various special qualities that city gas possesses. The expansion is also due in part to the unrelenting efforts in sales by the gas producers themselves. This report focuses on the expansion in demand in city gas over the past ten years from the point of view of Tokyo Gas as a producer that has been party to the increased sales of city gas in manufacturing industries for over 10 years giving views on the reasons for the increase. Graphic reports of the actual situation of the industry at meetings such as these are rare and therefore although this is slightly different from the main theme, I would like to proceed with the debate in the hope that this will be beneficial in the expansion of future gas demand in countries all over the world

  16. Implementation of Value Chain and Management Control in Order to Increase Competitive Advantages (Study at PT Industri Marmer Indonesia Tulungagung)

    Wijaya, Ditto Arief


    The purpose of this study are knowing wheter Company applies the value chain for their business, knowing wheter Company applies the management control for their business, knowing the influence of value chain to competitive advantages, and knowing the influence of management control to competitive advantages. The results of the research showed that there was a double function in the organization structure, campany's mission is the same with PT Gajah Perkasa Indonesia's mission and the company'...

  17. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder


    The technological and economic significance of the Canadian petroleum industry to the national economy and to Canada's standing in the world are reviewed. The six key ways in which the oil and gas industry affects Canada, namely employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and community support are stressed within the context of describing present and future oil and gas resources, Canada's petroleum and natural gas trade balance, and capital spending and product sales. Attention is also drawn to the role of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry as a producer and exporter of world class technology, especially in the areas of high tech exploration methods, cold-climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery techniques, heavy oil production and and processing, mining and upgrading of oil sands bitumen, oil well firefighting, and environmental protection technology. maps, figs

  18. Energy derivatives, experiences in derivative trading from the natural gas industry : back to basics

    Dittmer, G.; Coyle, T.


    Some basic facts regarding derivatives in the electric power industry were discussed based on experiences in the natural gas industry. Derivatives were described as financial instruments that have no value of their own but derive their value from other assets, such as commodities. Futures and Options are the two forms of derivatives. Electricity as a commodity was characterized, and a historical parallel was drawn between deregulation in the natural gas and electric power industry. Short term and long term factors impacting the market and market dynamics impacting derivatives were identified. The latter include: (1) volatility, (2) liquidity, (3) correlations, and (4) price discovery. In contrast to the natural gas market, the electricity market is considered as lacking liquidity and in need of moving farther along the maturity timeline. The question of natural gas/ electricity convergence was also addressed refs., tabs., figs

  19. Commercial-industrial marketing professionals for gas markets

    Vavrik, W.E.


    Today's changing business world exposes two sales/marketing systems. One is indirectly removed from contact with the customers, but still meets their needs. Whereas the sales/marketing system that exercises the skills of Commercial/Industrial Marketing Professionals has direct customer contact that not only meets the customer's needs, but also satisfies them

  20. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995; Statistiques de l`industrie gaziere en France pour l`annee 1995



    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.).

  1. Natural gas consumption prediction in Slovenian industry – a case study

    Kovačič Miha


    Full Text Available In accordance with the regulations of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, each natural gas supplier regulates and determines the charges for the differences between the ordered (predicted and the actually supplied quantities of natural gas. Yearly charges for these differences represent up to 2% of supplied natural gas costs. All the natural gas users, especially industry, have huge problems finding the proper method for efficient natural gas consumption prediction and, consequently, the decreasing of mentioned costs. In this study, prediction of the natural gas consumption in Štore Steel Ltd. (steel plant is presented. On the basis of production data, several models for natural gas consumption have been developed using linear regression, genetic programming and artificial neural network methods. The genetic programming approach outperformed linear regression and artificial neural networks.

  2. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  3. New projects developed by COMOTI in gas industry

    Nitulescu, Marian; Silivestru, Valentin; Toma, Niculae; Slujitoru, Cristian; Petrescu, Valentin; Leahu, Mihai; Oniga, Ciprian; Ulici, Gheorghe


    The paper aims to present two new projects developed by the Romanian Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbines (COMOTI) in partnership with City University of London and GHH-Rand Germany, in the field of screw compressors/expanders. COMOTI passed, in recent years, from being a GHH-Rand licensed manufacturer for a range of oil-injected screw compressors, of CU type, to a new phase of range diversification, approaching screw compressors with a maximum discharge pressure of 45 bara. So, in cooperation with City University and GHH-Rand we design, manufacture and test, with air, in COMOTI test bench the new type of screw compressor named CHP 220. Also, the cooperation with GHH-Rand has resulted in the design, manufacture and air testing on the test bench, and then gas testing - in a gas compression station - for an electric generator driven by a screw expander. This paper presents how the tests were carried out, the experimental data and the interpretation of results

  4. Energy efficiency and fuel switching in Canadian industry under greenhouse gas regulation

    Margolick, M.


    The application of financial instruments to greenhouse gas control, particularly a greenhouse gas tax, is discussed. As of June 1991, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway have imposed taxes on greenhouse gas emissions, while taxes are imminent in Denmark and Germany. A study has been carried out to model the effects of such taxes on greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, using the Intra-Sectoral Technology Use Model (ISTUM) and an end-use energy demand computer model. Only carbon dioxide and methane were considered. The limitations of the ISTUM model are discussed. Industry results are presented by sector, including an overview of greenhouse gas-producing processes, emission reduction measures possible, energy and greenhouse emissions, and results of taxes at varying levels. Different basic physical and chemical processes among industries would cause widely varying responses to a greenhouse gas tax. Issues which bear directly on greenhouse gas emissions include the burning of biomass fuels in the pulp and paper industry, strategic choices between existing and new technologies in the iron and steel sector, the possibility of a nearly greenhouse gas-free aluminum smelting sector, and the advent of reformulated gasoline requirements and declining crude oil quantity in the petroleum refining sector. 15 refs., 6 figs

  5. The oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Sector report: Bahrain


    Oil has played a crucial role in the development of Bahrain. In 1992 revenues from oil and related products accounted for 63% of total Government revenues (ie BD 314 million out of BD 498 million). The income is therefore of critical importance to public spending in Bahrain. This report attempts to outline the structure of the industry and to provide some pointers towards future developments which offer potential opportunities for British exporters. (author)

  6. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured mechanically alloyed Pt-Co catalyst for oxygen gas-diffusion-electrode

    Pharkya, P.; Farhat, Z.; Czech, E.; Hawthorne, H.; Alfantazi, A.


    The use of PEM fuel cells depends largely upon the cost of materials, processing and fabrication. The cost of Pt catalyst is a significant cost of a fuel cell. Alternative low cost catalyst that promotes high rate of oxygen reduction is needed. To achieve this, a mechanochemical technique was employed to refine the catalyst layer structure (i.e. increasing the effective catalyst surface area) and reducing the amount of Pt used, by alloying with a cheaper element. An investigation is carried out to study the relationship between the new catalyst structure refinement, morphology, microstructure and its electrocatalytic behaviour. Nanostructured Pt, Co and Pt 0.2 5 Co 0.75 alloy was fabricated from high purity Pt (99.9%) and Co (99.5%) powders using a Laboratory Planetary Ball Mill 'Pulverisette 6'. Optimum milling conditions, that produce fine, uniform and mechanically alloyed microstructure, were determined during fabrication, by varying process parameters (i.e., rpm, milling time, ball to powder ratio, milling atmosphere, surface-agents and milling/cooling cycle). Mechanically induced chemical and physical reactions and thermal effects were monitored 'in-situ' using a GTM system, which recorded temperature and pressure changes during milling. The alloy catalysts were characterized using TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD and BET techniques. Electrochemical tests were carried out on prepared powders. Exchange currents were determined from a potentiodynamic polarization tests and used to compare relative electrocatalytic behaviour of the new catalyst. Structure/property relationships were discussed and conclusions were drawn on the production of improved low cost catalyst. (author)

  7. Photodetachment of free hexahalogenometallate doubly charged anions in the gas phase: [ML6]2-, (M=Re, Os, Ir, Pt; L=Cl and Br)

    Wang, X.; Wang, L.


    We report the first observation and photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopic study of a series of hexahalogenometallates dianions MCl 6 2- (M=Re, Os, Ir, and Pt) and MBr 6 2- (M=Re, Ir, and Pt) in the gas phase. All of these species were found to be stable as free gaseous doubly charged anions. Photoelectron spectra of all the dianions were obtained at several detachment photon energies. The photon-energy-dependent spectra clearly revealed the dianion nature of these species and allowed the repulsive Coulomb barriers to be estimated. The binding energies of the second excess electron in MCl 6 2- (M=Re, Os, Ir, Pt) were determined to be 0.46 (5), 0.46 (5), 0.82 (5), and 1.58 (5) eV, respectively, and those in MBr 6 2- (M=Re, Ir, Pt) to be 0.76 (6), 0.96 (6), and 1.52 (6) eV, respectively. A wealth of electronic structure information about these metal complexes were obtained and low-lying and highly-excited electronic states of the corresponding singly charged anions were observed. Detachment from metal d orbitals or ligand orbitals were observed and could be clearly distinguished; detachments from the metal d-orbitals all occur at low binding energies whereas those from the ligand-dominated orbitals all take place at rather high binding energies. We also found a remarkable correlation between electron affinities measured in vacuo and the redox potentials obtained in the solution phase of these species. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. Formation of activation mechanism for investment maintenance management of gas industry enterprises

    Вікторія Валеріївна Чорній


    Full Text Available The problematic aspects of the existing management mechanism of investment management of gas industry enterprises are analyzed in the article. The ways of their elimination are suggested in accordance with the Energy Strategy of Ukraine – 2035 at different levels of its operation. The ways of improving the investment management mechanism of the enterprises in this industry on three levels are proved. Activation mechanism for investment maintenance management of gas industry enterprises is developed as result of research. Its implementation will allow enterprises of the industry to increase its investment attractiveness and effectively carry out the procedure for enterprises’ entry to the market of initial public offering to raise the required amount of investment resources for the modernization of investigated industry.

  9. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Tallackson, J. R.


    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  10. Industrial natural gas consumption in the United States: an empirical model for evaluating future trends

    Huntington, H.G.


    This study develops a statistical model of industrial US natural gas consumption based upon historical data for the 1958-2003 period. The model specifically addresses interfuel substitution possibilities and changes in the industrial economic base. Using a relatively simple approach, the framework can be simulated repeatedly with little effort over a range of different conditions. It may also provide a valuable input into larger modeling exercises where an organization wants to determine long-run natural gas prices based upon supply and demand conditions. Projections based upon this demand framework indicate that industrial natural gas consumption may grow more slowly over the next 20 yr than being projected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). This conclusion is based upon the assumption that natural gas prices will follow oil prices, as they have done over recent decades. If natural gas prices should lag well below oil prices, as envisioned by the latest EIA outlook, industrial natural gas consumption should rapidly expand well beyond the levels being projected by EIA. (author)

  11. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires


    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  12. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  13. A comparison of the structure and organisation of the West German and the U. S. gas industries. Consequences for the status of gas utility companies

    Dirrheimer, M J; Teece, D J


    When comparing the West German gas industry to the United States one finds some striking differences in their structure and organisation. The German industry is small but growing, vertically integrated, efficient and scarcely regulated. The US-industry is big, hardly integrated and just recovering from years of frictions caused by successive waves of misguided regulations which were interrupted only by short periods of deregulation. Violation of contracts, price rises, price dumps, 'evasions', law suits are characteristic of today's American gas industry. The history of regulations in the U.S. gas industry is a nightmare other countries have fortunately been able to avoid. (orig.).

  14. An Industrial Cloud: Integrated Operations in Oil and Gas in the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Rong, Chunming

    Cloud computing may provide the long waiting technologies and methodologies for large scale industrial collaboration across disciplines and enterprise boundaries. Industrial cloud is introduced as a new inter-enterprise integration concept in cloud computing. Motivations and advantages are given by a practical exploration of the concept from the perspective of the on-going effort by the Norwegian oil and gas industry to build industry wide information integration and collaboration. ISO15926 is recognized as a standard enabling cross boundaries data integration and processing.

  15. The viability of deregulation in the Russian gas industry

    Locatelli, C.


    The reform of Gazprom has triggered much discussion in Russia and at an international level, because the aim of the reform exceeds the sectorial economic interests. On one hand, its success depends to some extent on the level of progress made by economic reforms overall. On the other hand, it depends on the structure of the industrial system which has resulted of the mass privatisation programmes and the non monetization of the economy during the 1990. Having set out the main aspects of the planned reforms, this paper looks at their attractiveness and feasibility. (A.L.B.)

  16. Integrated Risk Management as a Factor of Competitiveness Increase of Oil and Gas Industry

    Darya Nikolaevna Shabanova


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to risk assessment and analysis (RAA in oil and gas industry. The article reviews current trends of risks’ assessment and management in oil and gas industry in relation to the activities of enterprises engaged in engineering design in the field of oil and gas processing considering the requirements of international standards (ISO. The classification of risks is provided with consideration of peculiar features of enterprises of Mineral Resources Sector. The authors present a review of major international and national standards, specifying the activities in risk management. It is shown that one of the modern trends of international standardization is a development of risk management and management of sustainable business based on the risk oriented approach. The authors have proposed the algorithm of risk management in oil and gas projects using the domestic software Business Studio, logically divided into following three stages: identification and assessment of project risks, development of risks mitigation measures and monitoring of project risks. The main indicators of the oil and gas complex of Russia (the volume of oil and gas, the primary oil refining, are the main risk factors for the oil and gas industry. The peculiarities of risk management are described in the form of an economic category. The article shows that risk can and should be controlled, in other words, certain measures should be applied to anticipate as many as possible the risk events and to reduce them.

  17. Human capital for the future of the gas industry: Delivering on talent. Welcoming the youth

    Popescu, Marius; Le Gourrierec, Meline


    The gas industry has clearly identified one issue: it must attract young professionals to replace the previous generations of working people. The natural gas sector expanded rapidly in the mid-nineteen sixties with the first large import-export contracts of Dutch and Russian gas, the in the mid-seventies with several other sources (Algeria and Norway). It is now a global industry. Today's objective is to develop activities along the entire gas chain, both upstream and downstream. Therefore, it is necessary to attract the best researchers, managers and technicians to meet the new challenges of this expanding industry. Currently, the gas workforce remains predominantly masculine. Increasing the number of women employees is also a necessity for the sector. This requires improving communication and attracting young women into taking up scientific and technical studies. Together with the World Gas Conference organised in Paris, the second edition of the Youth Event is being held. Interactivity, professional network, exchanges, talks...: 3,4 and 5 June are dedicated to the future of the gas sector

  18. Generalising via the Case Studies and Adapting the Oil and Gas Industry's Project Execution Concepts to the Construction Industry

    Mejlænder-Larsen, Øystein


    The aim of this paper is to explore whether it is possible to generalise findings on project execution in the oil and gas industryrelated to the use of project execution models and a 3D design environment, based on case study research. Besides, sufficientsimilarities between the two industries were assessed and the applicability of the findings from the cases in the oil and gasindustry was assessed. The selected cases (the ongoing ...

  19. Designing reliability into high-effectiveness industrial gas turbine regenerators

    Valentino, S.J.


    The paper addresses the measures necessary to achieve a reliable regenerator design that can withstand higher temperatures (1000-1200 F) and many start and stop cycles - conditions encountered in high-efficiency operation in pipeline applications. The discussion is limited to three major areas: (1) structural analysis of the heat exchanger core - the part of the regenerator that must withstand the higher temperatures and cyclic duty (2) materials data and material selection and (3) a comprehensive test program to demonstrate the reliability of the regenerator. This program includes life-cycle tests, pressure containment in fin panels, core-to-core joint structural test, bellows pressure containment test, sliding pad test, core gas-side passage flow distribution test, and production test. Today's regenerators must have high cyclic life capability, stainless steel construction, and long fault-free service life of 120,000 hr

  20. Alberta oil and gas industry annual statistics for 1998


    Annual prices and deliveries are provided by resource commodity, along with a summary of province-wide drilling activity for 1998 covering annual well count and depths drilled. By commodity information is provided: 1) supply and disposition of crude oil and its equivalent for 1998 and historically, 2) from a 1998 and historical perspective the supply and disposition of gas 3) for 1998 and historically the supply and disposition of ethane, 4) for 1998 and historically the supply and disposition of propane, 5) for 1998 and historically the supply and disposition of butanes, 6) for 1998 and historically the supply and disposition of NGL mixes, 7) for 1998 and historically the supply and disposition of sulfur. 25 figs

  1. Development of Microalloyed Steels for The Oil and Gas Industry

    Henein, H.; Ivey, D. G.; Luo, J.; Wiskel, J. B.

    Microalloying, in combination with thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP), is a cost effective method of producing steels for a wide range of applications where improved mechanical properties, namel y strength, formability and toughness coupled with weldability, are required. This paper reviews the efforts undertaken at the University of Alberta aimed at improving the above mentioned mechanical properties in microalloyed steels used in the transmission of oil and gas (i.e., pipelines). Topics that will be reviewed include the characterization of precipitates, the effect of processing conditions on precipitate evolution, and the effect of pipe forming and subsequent low temperature heat treatment on tensile behaviour and the use of Genetic Algorithm optimization of the laminar cooling system to produce a uniform through thickness microstructure.

  2. Advanced materials for critical components in industrial gas turbines

    Gibbons, T.B. (Div. of Materials Metrology, National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))


    Combined-cycle plant for power production has advantages in terms of capital costs and flexibility compared to large power plants either nuclear of fossil-fired, used for base load. In combined-cycle plant the overall efficiency is highly dependent on the performance of the gas turbine and turbine entry temperatures of > 1200deg C will be required to obtain attractive levels of efficiency. Bearing in mind the need for reliability and longterm performance from components such as turbine blades, the challenge to the materials enginer is formidable. In this paper some of the recent developments in Ni - Cr-base alloys are described and the potential for advanced materials such as ceramics and intermetallics is briefly considered. Development in coating technology to provide effective thermal barriers and good resistance to aggressive environments are discussed. (orig./MM).

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions trading - implications for the coal industry

    Joshua, F. [Arthur Andersen, London (United Kingdom). Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Services


    The Kyoto Protocol has initiated a process whereby greenhouse gas emissions markets are beginning to emerge and risks can be assessed at the corporate level. The talk discussed the three flexible market mechanisms to be available to companies for the management of carbon risk. It explained how a carbon-constrained environment will increase the emphasis on an efficient risk management strategy and infrastructure. The 'Clean Development Mechanism market place' may provide business opportunities. Recent increases in energy use and emissions, and forecasts to 2020, were discussed. Issues to be tackled at the next conference of the parties, COP6, in finalising the Kyoto Protocol are outlined. The proceedings contain only overheads/viewgraphs presented at the conference.

  4. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    Curran, R.


    The impact of the oil and natural gas industry on the Canadian economy is explained in terms of employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and industry support to the community. It is reported that the industry employs almost one half million people in Canada; is the second largest contributor to Canada's balance of trade; generate billions of dollars for the economy and pays hundreds of millions of dollars in taxes and its employees contribute millions of dollars and thousands of hours of time to charitable and community organizations. The industry is also one of the major contributors to Canada's technology export through its leadership in high technology exploration methods, cold climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery technologies, producing and processing heavy oil; mining and upgrading oil sands bitumen, oil-well firefighting techniques and environmental protection technologies, among others. Citing Canada's cold climate and energy-intensive industries, hence the need for large quantities of energy, the booklet offers a rationale for the industry's need to continue to be profitable in order to develop new sources of oil and gas production and invest in energy-efficient technologies. Assuming continued profitability, combined with more efficient use of oil and gas, the Foundation remains confident that the industry will provide energy security and export revenues for the benefit of all Canadians. 12 refs., photos

  5. Identification and Evaluation of Strategic Decisions in Gas Industry Using DEMATEL Method

    Mohammad Reza Mehregan


    Full Text Available Given the fluctuations of oil price in international markets and its effect on global economy, it is expected that gas industry and use of gas as an alternative energy, have become more important. Therefore, identification of strategic decisions in this industry has attracted increasing attention of managers and researchers. This study aims to identify and evaluate strategic decisions in the National Iranian Gas Company, using DEMATEL method for the first time. For data collection, paired comparison questionnaire have been used. The results of the research show that expanding operations to enter a new market, opening and starting up a new plant or facility, expansion of capacity and restructuring are respectively the most important strategic decisions in the industry.

  6. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.


    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  7. Plugging in: Canada's oil and gas industry sits at the crossroads of a new information era


    A review is presented of the uses of the 'information highway' for the oil and gas industry. The Canadian Petroleum Internet Consortium (CANPIC) has been founded to: set up an electronic mail system between technical society members; create an environment for technology exchange between professionals; and to create an electronic bulletin board for commercial opportunities. The petroleum industry is well situated to take advantage of the information revolution with its technical and professional expertise, computing power, and environment of cooperative transfer of information and technology. At present, though, less than half of major oil and gas companies have Internet access. Newsgroups that cater to the oil and gas industry are discussed. While most information is free, fee-based services are emerging. Access routes to the Internet are described.


    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.


    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  9. The gas industry of Trinidad and Tobago - A case study of development; L'industrie du gaz de Trinidad et Tobago une etude de cas de developpement

    Jupiter, A. [Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago); Look Kin, F. [National gas company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago)


    This paper presents a case study of the development of the gas industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Recognition is given to State's role in providing a friendly regulatory, administrative and fiscal regime for investment in the upstream and downstream sectors and that of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited in the promotion and development of Natural Gas Based Industries. At present, initiatives for additional gas based industries are ongoing and it is expected that this portfolio of gas utilization will be expanded to include Aluminum manufacture, additional LNG, Methanol, Ammonia, Iron reduction and Steel manufacture and Ethylene. The provision of infrastructure to support these industries include a phased development of gas transmission network, industrial estates with multi-user piers and harbour facilities for export based projects. The evolution of an energy policy framework within which the full potential of the nation's energy resources can be realized is viewed as crucial to the development of the industry. The gas pricing policy used in conjunction with other factors provide a competitive advantage for foreign investment in gas based industries and have served to attract gas based manufacturing facilities. The country has realized employment opportunities, export earnings and increased financial and economic activities from these investments. (authors)

  10. Modelling of energy / technology actions and measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector (the industry challenge)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.J.; Sadownik, B.


    The potential in Canadian industry for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed in this report. The analysis is aimed at providing a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of a wide spectrum of technology and energy actions available to the industrial sector in Canada, providing estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, costs and cost effectiveness for different actions by 2010, and simulating industry response to defined measures approved by representatives of the industry sector sub-table. The impacts of a set of measures was determined using in-house models. Four measures were tested against several actions including primary fossil and electricity consumption, using regionally specific energy prices, a discount rate approximating 40 per cent and growth rates derived from the Analysis and Modelling Group. Enhancement of voluntary initiatives, enhanced cogeneration, financial incentives for capital investment to improve efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a set of cost-of-carbon-dioxide simulations were the measures tested. Total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by sector and in aggregate are provided as well as the costs. An indication of the total cost of reduction per tonne, some sense of the cost of the permit and the quantity of a subsidy required to induce decision-makers to purchase the more efficient technology are also provided. 9 refs., tabs

  11. Natural gas industry optimistic for U.S. and Canadian supply



    According to a survey conducted by the Ziff Energy Group, industry insiders are optimistic about natural gas supply and demand during 2000. The survey, which was designed to provide an integrated description of the North American gas industry from wellhead to burner tip, covered 124 companies across North America. Slightly more than half of the U.S. respondents expect to produce at least five per cent more natural gas in 2000 than the previous year, while 19 per cent of the respondents expect production increases to exceed 15 per cent. Among Canadian respondents, some 70 per cent expect production to increase five per cent; another 25 per cent anticipate increases in production to reach or exceed 15 per cent. Canadian natural gas export to the United States are expected to grow by up to 700 million cubic feet per day by almost 50 per cent of Canadian respondents; one third of the respondents expect exports to increase by 700 to 900 million cubic feet per day. Growth in U.S. demand for natural gas are predicted to be moderate in 2000, and increase somewhat in 2001. Canadian growth in sales is expected to be in the one-to-two per cent range. Few of the respondents expect gas prices to decline, and few are concerned that gas prices may put sales at risk. The majority of respondents believe that gas supply growth poses the greatest challenge to increasing pipeline capacity

  12. The natural gas industry in Japan and Europe. A comparative study

    Hideo Taki.


    Natural gas demand is forecast to rise dramatically in both Japan and Europe in the next two decades. Between the Japanese gas market and that of West European countries, however, there are considerable differences as well as some similarities. This study looks at demand and supply of natural gas, the history and structure of the industries, and the regulatory regimes, in both Japan and West European countries. It concentrates specifically on the latest moves towards liberalization of gas markets. Finally it considers possible implications of the European experience for the future of the industry in Japan, where not only is the government about to introduce a more competitive environment, but construction of a national transmission pipeline is under active consideration. (author)

  13. The natural gas market in North-America. The evolution of the Mexican gas industry

    Angevine, Gerry [Canadian Energy Research Institute (Canada)


    This study by Petro Consultants of Houston suggests that Mexican gas can compete with United States gas. First, the resource base is relatively immature and prospects are good for the discovery of large pools with low per unit finding, development and production costs. Second, the resources are considered to be producible using conventional methods. There were 11 basins to consider for Mexico in this survey. [Spanish] Este estudio realizado por Petro Consultants sugiere que el gas mexicano puede competir con el gas de los Estados Unidos. Primero, la base del recurso esta relativamente inmadura y los prospectos para el descubrimiento de grandes depositos son buenos, con costos unitarios de localizacion, desarrollo y produccion bajos. Segundo, se considera que los recursos son capaces de producir usando metodos convencionales. Existian 11 cuencas por considerar en Mexico, en este estudio.

  14. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    Finon, D.


    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei


    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  16. Application of Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Failure Analysis in the Automotive Industry

    Kusch, Peter (Dr.)


    This book chapter describes application examples of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis – gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in failure analysis for the identification of chemical materials like mineral oils and nitrile rubber gaskets. Furthermore, failure cases demanding identification of polymers/copolymers in fouling on the compressor wall of a car air conditioner and identification of fouling on the surface of a bearing race from the automotive industry are demonstr...

  17. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    Nelson, Lee


    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processes in several common industrial areas: (1) Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle; (2) Producing hydrogen; (3) Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer; (4) Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal; (5) Producing substitute natural gas from coal; and (6) Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  18. Alberta oil and gas industry: Annual statistics for 1997. Statistical series number 98-17


    This document presents annual statistics for the Alberta oil and gas industry for the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent; gas; ethane; propane; butanes; NGL mixes; and sulfur. Figures are given for deliveries and prices for the current year and also historically (1987--1996). Figures are also provided for the number of wells drilled during the year, meters drilled, and the annual well count

  19. Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    Hamlat, M.S.; Djeffal, S.; Kadi, H.


    Radioactive deposits, often referred to as naturally occurring radioactive material scale, can, because of incompatibility of formation and injection waters, be formed inside production equipment of the oil and gas industry. These scales contain mainly 226 Ra and its daughter products, which can cause an exposure risk. The gamma ray dose rates, with the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry, and 226 Ra concentration in production water, crude oil and hard/soft scale samples were determined. Results obtained are discussed and compared to those from other studies

  20. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information


    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  1. Automation Architecture based on Cyber Physical Systems for Flexible Manufacturing within Oil&Gas Industry

    Marcelo V García


    Full Text Available It is clear that in the next few years most of the technologies involved in the so-called Industry 4.0 will have a deep impact on manufacturing companies, including those related to Oil & Gas exploration and production. Low cost automation promotes reference architectures and development approaches aiming at increasing the flexibility and efficiency of production operations in industrial plants. In this sense, OPC UA, in addition to allowing companies to join the Industry 4.0 initiative, provides local and remote access to plant information, enabling a recognized mechanism for both, horizontal and vertical integration in a reliable, safe and efficient way. The contribution of this article is an open architecture for vertical integration based on cyber-physical production systems, configured under IEC 61499 and using OPC UA, suitable to achieve flexible manufacturing within Oil & Gas industry.

  2. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    Isabelle, M.


    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  3. Concentration fluctuations in gas releases by industrial accidents. Final report

    Nielsen, M.; Chatwin, P.C.; Joergensen, H.E.; Mole, N.; Munro, R.J.; Ott, S.


    The COFIN project studied existing remote-sensing Lidar data on concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion from continuous sources at ground level. Fluctuations are described by stochastic models developed by a combination of statistical analyses and surface-layer scaling. The statistical moments and probability density distribution of the fluctuations are most accurately determined in a frame of reference following the instantaneous plume centreline. The spatial distribution of these moments is universal with a gaussian core and exponential tails. The instantaneous plume width is fluctuating with a log-normal distribution. The position of the instantaneous plume centre-line is modelled by a normal distribution and a Langevin equation, by which the meander effect on the time-averaged plume width is predicted. Fixed-frame statistics are modelled by convolution of moving-frame statistics and the probability distribution for the plume centreline. The distance-neighbour function generalized for higher-order statistics has a universal exponential shape. Simulation tools for concentration fluctuations have been developed for either multiple correlated time series or multi-dimensional fields. These tools are based on Karhunen-Loeve expansion and Fourier transformations using iterative or correlation-distortion techniques. The input to the simulation is the probability distribution of the individual processes, assumed stationary, and the cross-correlations of all signal combinations. The use in practical risk assessment is illustrated by implementation of a typical heavy-gas dispersion model, enhanced for prediction and simulation of concentration fluctuations. (au)

  4. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States

    Meritet, S.


    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  5. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.


    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  6. The oil and gas industry in Alberta: drilling and production



    This document outlined the impacts of drilling and production on the forest structure and integrity. The cumulative impact of all 11,898 wells drilled in 2000 in Alberta, coupled with previously drilled wells that is of primary concern. It is estimated that an 886 square kilometres area of the boreal forest has been cleared as a result of well drilling, based on an assumption of 1 hectare cleared per well site. No regulations govern the reforestation of the areas once the activities have been terminated, and nothing to regulate the cumulative road densities or pipeline densities. A progressive loss and fragmentation of habitat, increased access, and damage to aquatic systems are all consequences of the drilling and production activities. These activities also lead to the contamination of soil and water. Reductions in air quality are associated with drilling and production activities, mainly through the release of various gases in the atmosphere, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, both responsible for acid rain deposition. Explicit limits on cumulative densities of well sites, pipelines and access roads are part of best practices that can result in a minimization of the negative environmental impacts. Integrated planning with the forest industry, the development and implementation of new operating practices, and a reduction in the pace of development would also go a long way toward the reduction of the ecological footprint

  7. Asset monitoring in the upstream oil and gas industry : wireless, the fusion of industrial automation and business performance

    Shuster, D. [IBM Wireless, IBM Global Services, Markham, ON (Canada)


    This keynote presentation addressed issues concerning the accurate management of assets and meeting business objectives with specific reference to new communications technologies in the oil and gas industry. An outline of various communications challenges specific to the oil and gas industry were reviewed, including: field technicians; inspections; predictive, preventive and corrective maintenance tasks; and the need for greater efficiency across large geographic areas. The concept of reporting critical data back to a central data repository to improve performance, cost management and regulatory programs was introduced. The benefits of remote monitoring and control in the petroleum industry were outlined. An overview of effective business approaches including initiatives and operating costs was presented. High impact transformation priorities in the oil and gas sector were also reviewed. A new business model was presented in which a differentiation was distinguished between process re-engineering and the more recent tenets of on-demand business. The deepening relationship of information technology with business was outlined in a business model, suggesting a trend towards modular business components that were easily defined and manipulated. Other significant benefits and ideas included: a demonstration of business opportunities through the creation of a real-time enterprise linked by separate systems; the use of information technology to extend business systems; and integrated, standards based business systems. A list of new options was presented, including sensor technology, new communications options and greater flexibility and reliability through the use of Information Technology architectures. A list of value propositions of upstream petroleum was given, including a chart with percentages of projected savings and efficiency increases. In addition, business advantages through new SCADA technologies and applications were presented, including scalability and new

  8. Economic analysis of the reduction of dehydrator emissions in the natural gas industry

    Chalifoux, C.


    Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act benzene has been designated as toxic, and after gasoline combustion, the natural gas extraction industry is the largest source of benzene emissions to the environment. The study's objective is to present a profile of the natural gas industry and to analyze the costs to the private sector of complying with the various benzene reduction targets. Also outlined is a profile of the natural gas extraction industry. A description is included of the method used to extrapolate the results obtained from the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. Two scenarios studied are described in section four including: (1) scenario one in which the environmental requirements would have to be applied across-the-board to all emitting sites, which would have to comply with maximum benzene reductions, and (2) scenario two in which the environmental requirements would only be applied to high-emission sites, which would have to comply with specific requirements. A compilation is made in the fifth section for each scenario of the cost to the industry and the benzene emission reductions for each scenario for the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. The aim of developing the two scenarios used to analyze various benzene emissions reduction levels at the sample of 370 sites was to determine: capital costs required, additional annual costs as additional annual operating costs plus annualized capital costs, number of sites affected, and total benzene reductions expressed in tonnes per year. 10 tabs

  9. The Spanish Gas Market: Demand Trends Post Recession and Consequences for the Industry


    In parallel with a flourishing economy, the natural gas industry in Spain was characterised by rapid consumption growth in the late 1990s and 2000s. Infrastructure and supplies were designed to meet the needs of a gas market growing at double digit rates each year. This high growth rate – for a European gas market – was expected to continue until at least the mid-2010s. By 2011, this outlook was replaced by a more pessimistic one. Firstly, the country’s economy was hit hard by the global rece...

  10. Developing competition while building up the infrastructure of the Brazilian gas industry

    De Mello Sant Ana, Paulo Henrique; De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto; Valdir Bajay, Sergio


    For the last 20 years, countless countries have been carrying out structural reforms in the natural gas industry, trying to achieve efficiency and economic rationality with the introduction of competition. The objective of the paper is to present an approach to the development of competition and infrastructure of the Brazilian natural gas industry. This approach is based on a market projection to 2011, on the international experience and on the characteristics of the Brazilian market, infrastructure and regulatory framework. Possible impacts of the proposed measures are also provided. According to the market projection carried out in this paper, in 2011 there will be a possible surplus of natural gas in the country, which includes a dependence diminishing of the Bolivian gas supply. This gas surplus, allied to an upcoming Gas Law and the trade liberalization in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, can stimulate the development of competition, if some changes that proposed in this paper are made in the current Gas Bills. The approach proposed herein seeks to stimulate non-discriminatory open access, focused on information transparency and tariff regulation to help the development of infrastructure and competition. (author)

  11. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    Batten, R.M.


    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  12. Numerical Simulation of an Industrial Absorber for Dehydration of Natural Gas Using Triethylene Glycol

    Kenneth Kekpugile Dagde


    Full Text Available Models of an absorber for dehydration of natural gas using triethylene glycol are presented. The models were developed by applying the law of conservation of mass and energy to predict the variation of water content of gas and the temperature of the gas and liquid with time along the packing height. The models were integrated numerically using the finite divided difference scheme and incorporated into the MATLAB code. The results obtained agreed reasonably well with industrial plant data obtained from an SPDC TEG unit in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Model prediction showed a percentage deviation of 8.65% for gas water content and 3.41% and 9.18% for exit temperature of gas and liquid, respectively.

  13. Government spending on Canada's oil and gas industry : undermining Canada's Kyoto commitment

    Taylor, A.; Bramley, M.; Winfield, M.


    This study investigates government spending in the Canadian oil and gas industry within the context of greenhouse gas emission trends and Kyoto commitments. Various forms of provincial and federal government support provided between 1996 and 2002 through grants, tax expenditures, and government program expenditures for conventional oil and gas and oil sands sectors are presented. The paper contextualizes government support for oil and gas production, discusses what constitutes a subsidy, presents the methodology and approach used to establish expenditure estimates, presents the study findings and discusses expenditure estimates and puts the results into the context of other public policy work. The conclusion recommends policy changes and describes important areas for future research related to public expenditure on oil and gas production. The study concludes that while it is understood that reform or removal of environmentally harmful subsidies will not solve environmental problems alone, such actions are important in order to achieve environmental improvements and objectives. 163 refs., 24 tabs, 5 figs

  14. White book - The 10 proposals of the gas industry for 2017


    The members of the French Gas Association (AFG - the union of natural gas industry professionals), have joint their efforts to promote the advantages of natural gas as a support to the development of renewable energies. The role that natural gas can play in the French energy policy is summarized in this white book in the form of 10 proposals: 1 - promoting all renewable energy sources; 2 - Making energy transition in the regions a success; 3 - Improving air quality thanks to clean mobility; 4 - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions; 5 - Reducing energy consumption in accommodations; 6 - Fighting fuel poverty; 7 - Contributing to the energy security supplies of France; 8 - Making energy taxation more efficient; 9 - Storing energy while accompanying renewable energy sources development; 10 - Promoting innovation

  15. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.


    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  16. Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union

    Fueg, J.C.


    The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

  17. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1


    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  18. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Jianjun Chen


    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  19. Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy

    Н. В. Василенко


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of oil and gas service. The transformation of the oil and gas sector with the separation of independent enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas service sector is compared by the author with the trend of rapid development of the service sector in the postindustrial economy. The purpose of the study is to identify the general and specific characteristics of modern oil and gas services and to determine the directions for the transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere under consideration. The growth of quantitative parameters of the oil and gas services market has been analyzed. The classification of this market is proposed depending on the place of services in a single technological cycle in relation to the main oil production process. The positive consequences of the development of oil and gas services for the development of oil and gas production have been systematized. Basic organizational models of entrepreneurship development in oil and gas service are generalized and substantiated. It is shown that the main influence in the market of services is taken by vertically integrated national oil and gas companies, as well as by international companies that provide service support for the work of Russian oil and gas companies. The results of a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of organizational models of entrepreneurship in the field of oil and gas services are presented. It is proved that oil and gas service as an organizational form of entrepreneurship in its development reflects the general trends of the post-industrial economy. Specific features of oil and gas service in Russia are singled out. The revealed directions of transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere of oil and gas service in current conditions can be used in the formation of state programs in the field of industrial

  20. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)