WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas industry assessment

  1. Assessment and perspectives for the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Ali; Bouchard, Georges; Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Delamare, Monique; Remont, Sophie; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed by contributors at the 2015 AFG Convention. These contributions comment the data published in the World Energy Outlook 2014 with a focus on gas (shares, sources of demand, unconventional gas production, share and evolution of LNG, competitiveness versus coal, gas to coal switching in Europe), propose an overview of the world gas market with a focus of European gas demand on the medium term, comment the evolution of the gas market on the short term in a context of oil price decrease (evolution of demand, of storage, of production and of imports in Europe), discuss an outlook for gas demand for power, comment recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (prices, supply/demand balance, influence of price evolution on delivery destinations), propose an assessment of the French gas market (competition in the retail market, world trends, creation of a unique market zone in France, European challenges, regime of access to storage, challenges of energy transition), discuss the role of storage as a tool for supply security, propose an analysis of gas supply safety (its pillars in the perspective of public authorities, associated prospective, aspects related to public service, problems related to storage, safeguard measures, European regulation), propose an overview of the present status and perspectives for the European gas supply, and discuss stress tests and measures on a short term aimed at improving supply security

  2. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  3. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  4. Radiological safety assessment of gas mantle industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, G.; Venkataraman, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thorium, a radioactive element of actinide family was discovered by Berzelius in 1828 and named by him in honor of the Scandinavian God open-quote Thor close-quote. Following its discovery the earliest known use of thorium was in the making of gas mantles. The other use as an X-ray contrast medium open-quote Thorotrast close-quote has since long been discontinued, where as even today its use in gas mantles is continued. Gas lights have been used as a source of light since 1800's. In India, although electric bulbs have replaced most of the gas lights, even today in villages and in urban areas where there is no continuous power supply and in outdoor lightings gas lamps are used. The mantle which is used in these lamps is called the Welsbach mantle and is a netted hose that is impregnated with thorium nitrate and other metals. The function of a gas mantle is to produce a bright light during operation of the lighting device (gas or kerosene lamp) in which the mantle is placed. When placed in a lighting device and heated to 1300-1800 degree Celcius thorium in the mantle incandesces and gives off bright light. In India presently there are about 70 manufacturing units handling 150 metric tons of thorium nitrate annually. There are about four hundred persons involved in manufacturing 200 million mantles per year. Thorium is chosen because of its property of incadescence, however since it is radioactive, radiation safety of the workplace, handling personnel and safe environmental condition for members of public have to be maintained

  5. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  7. Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlat, M.S.; Djeffal, S.; Kadi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive deposits, often referred to as naturally occurring radioactive material scale, can, because of incompatibility of formation and injection waters, be formed inside production equipment of the oil and gas industry. These scales contain mainly 226 Ra and its daughter products, which can cause an exposure risk. The gamma ray dose rates, with the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry, and 226 Ra concentration in production water, crude oil and hard/soft scale samples were determined. Results obtained are discussed and compared to those from other studies

  8. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  9. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  11. The evolution of gas price: gas assessment and perspectives; The evolution of gas price on the American, Asian and European markets; Assessment of the organised gas market; Assessment of gas market opening; Gas price: the point of view of consumers and providers; Tariff, the formula which cannot be found: a new stage in an endless history; The diversity of the world gas industry: the Mediterranean situation on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, Herve; Corbeau, Anne-Sophie; Lu, Long; Maire, Jacques; Verdier, Catherine; Bros, Thierry; Nyouki, Evariste; Astruc, Pierre; Katz, Richard; Jamme, Dominique; Rosier, Philippe; Salanson, Damien; Saniez, Thierry; Moraleda, Pedro; Le Gourrierec, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this document contains the various contributions and interventions during round tables dealing with the evolution of gas price on American, Asian and European markets, an assessment of the organised gas market (model, references, members, and so on), an assessment of market gas opening, the point of view of consumers and providers on gas price. Then three articles address the issue of gas pricing in France, the developments of gas industry in the world (consumptions, production, perspectives for LNG) and the Mediterranean situation with respect to gas prices (trends and challenges)

  12. Assessing risks and regulating safety standards in the oil and gas industry: the Peruvian experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Leonardo Vásquez Cordano; Julio Salvador Jácome; Raúl Lizardo García Carpio; Victor Fernández Guzman

    2013-01-01

    Environmental regulation has usually focused on controlling continuous sources of pollution such as CO2 emissions through carbon taxes. However, the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has shown that accidents associated to safety failures can also generate bursts of pollution with serious environmental consequences. Regulating safety conditions to prevent accidents in the oil and gas industry is challenging because public regulators cannot perfectly observe whether firms comply with safety ...

  13. The unique field experiments on the assessment of accident consequences at industrial enterprises of gas-chemical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.S.; Trebin, I.S.; Sorokovikova, O.

    1998-01-01

    Sour natural gas fields are the unique raw material base for setting up such large enterprises as gas chemical complexes. The presence of high toxic H 2 S in natural gas results in widening a range of dangerous and harmful factors for biosphere. Emission of such gases into atmosphere during accidents at gas wells and gas pipelines is of especial danger for environment and first of all for people. Development of mathematical forecast models for assessment of accidents progression and consequences is one of the main elements of works on safety analysis and risk assessment. The critical step in development of such models is their validation using the experimental material. Full-scale experiments have been conducted by the All-Union Scientific-Research institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technology (VNIIGAZ) for grounding of sizes of hazard zones in case of the severe accidents with the gas pipelines. The source of emergency gas release was the working gas pipelines with 100 mm dia. And 110 km length. This pipeline was used for transportation of natural gas with significant amount of hydrogen sulphide. During these experiments significant quantities of the gas including H 2 S were released into the atmosphere and then concentrations of gas and H 2 S were measured in the accident region. The results of these experiments are used for validation of atmospheric dispersion models including the new Lagrangian trace stochastic model that takes into account a wide range of meteorological factors. This model was developed as a part of computer system for decision-making support in case of accident release of toxic gases into atmosphere at the enterprises of Russian gas industry. (authors)

  14. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  15. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Maroulis, Jerry; Chen, Guangnan

    2010-08-01

    Recently, partly due to the increasing carbon consciousness in the electorates and partly due to the imminent introduction of the Australian Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), estimating carbon footprints is becoming increasingly necessary in agriculture. By taking data from several sources, this study estimates the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of farm inputs, for the 23 key vegetables crops grown in Australia. For the 121,122 ha of land occupied by vegetable farms, there are 1.1 MtCO(2)e GHG emissions or 9.2 tCO(2)e ha(-1). In total, 65% of total GHG emissions from the vegetable industry are due to electricity use for irrigation and post-harvest on-farm activities, 17% from soil N(2)O emissions due to N fertiliser use, 10% from agrochemicals, 7% through fossils fuels and 1% from on-farm machinery. The top four vegetables (by area), potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes and broccoli account for 29.1%, 7.9%, 5.9% and 7.2% of total GHG emissions from vegetables, respectively. However, the ratio of GHG emissions between the highest and lowest-emitting crops per hectare and per tonne, are different. Therefore, care must be exercised in carbon footprint labelling vegetable products to ensure that the labels reflect carbon emissions on a per tonnage basis.

  16. A conceptual framework and practical guide for assessing fitness-to-operate in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mark A; Hodkiewicz, Melinda R; Dunster, Jeremy; Kanse, Lisette; Parkes, Katharine R; Finnerty, Dannielle; Cordery, John L; Unsworth, Kerrie L

    2014-07-01

    The paper outlines a systemic approach to understanding and assessing safety capability in the offshore oil and gas industry. We present a conceptual framework and assessment guide for understanding fitness-to-operate (FTO) that builds a more comprehensive picture of safety capability for regulators and operators of offshore facilities. The FTO framework defines three enabling capitals that create safety capability: organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. For each type of capital we identify more specific dimensions based on current theories of safety, management, and organizational processes. The assessment guide matches specific characteristics to each element of the framework to support assessment of safety capability. The content and scope of the FTO framework enable a more comprehensive coverage of factors that influence short-term and long-term safety outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Eco-friendly Gases for Electrical Insulation to Replace the Most Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gas SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Mohamed; Franck, Christian M

    2018-01-16

    Gases for electrical insulation are essential for the operation of electric power equipment. This Review gives a brief history of gaseous insulation that involved the emergence of the most potent industrial greenhouse gas known today, namely sulfur hexafluoride. SF 6 paved the way to space-saving equipment for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Its ever-rising usage in the electrical grid also played a decisive role in the continuous increase of atmospheric SF 6 abundance over the last decades. This Review broadly covers the environmental concerns related to SF 6 emissions and assesses the latest generation of eco-friendly replacement gases. They offer great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electrical equipment but at the same time involve technical trade-offs. The rumors of one or the other being superior seem premature, in particular because of the lack of dielectric, environmental, and chemical information for these relatively novel compounds and their dissociation products during operation.

  18. The development and application of dynamic operational risk assessment in oil/gas and chemical process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaole [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.ed [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A methodology of dynamic operational risk assessment (DORA) is proposed for operational risk analysis in oil/gas and chemical industries. The methodology is introduced comprehensively starting from the conceptual framework design to mathematical modeling and to decision making based on cost-benefit analysis. The probabilistic modeling part of DORA integrates stochastic modeling and process dynamics modeling to evaluate operational risk. The stochastic system-state trajectory is modeled according to the abnormal behavior or failure of each component. For each of the possible system-state trajectories, a process dynamics evaluation is carried out to check whether process variables, e.g., level, flow rate, temperature, pressure, or chemical concentration, remain in their desirable regions. Component testing/inspection intervals and repair times are critical parameters to define the system-state configuration, and play an important role for evaluating the probability of operational failure. This methodology not only provides a framework to evaluate the dynamic operational risk in oil/gas and chemical industries, but also guides the process design and further optimization. To illustrate the probabilistic study, we present a case-study of a level control in an oil/gas separator at an offshore plant.

  19. The development and application of dynamic operational risk assessment in oil/gas and chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaole; Mannan, M. Sam

    2010-01-01

    A methodology of dynamic operational risk assessment (DORA) is proposed for operational risk analysis in oil/gas and chemical industries. The methodology is introduced comprehensively starting from the conceptual framework design to mathematical modeling and to decision making based on cost-benefit analysis. The probabilistic modeling part of DORA integrates stochastic modeling and process dynamics modeling to evaluate operational risk. The stochastic system-state trajectory is modeled according to the abnormal behavior or failure of each component. For each of the possible system-state trajectories, a process dynamics evaluation is carried out to check whether process variables, e.g., level, flow rate, temperature, pressure, or chemical concentration, remain in their desirable regions. Component testing/inspection intervals and repair times are critical parameters to define the system-state configuration, and play an important role for evaluating the probability of operational failure. This methodology not only provides a framework to evaluate the dynamic operational risk in oil/gas and chemical industries, but also guides the process design and further optimization. To illustrate the probabilistic study, we present a case-study of a level control in an oil/gas separator at an offshore plant.

  20. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  3. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  4. Australia's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Reasons for underperformance in the Australian oil and gas industry are explored in this paper including lower than expected oil prices following major capital investment, management strategies, taxation changes and access problems. Over the last two decades, the return offered to providers of equity capital has been adequate but lower than the industry expected. Corporate planning techniques need to be reexamined in the light of past performance, and realistic goals set. (UK)

  5. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  6. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Environmental assessment statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous by-products and wastes are generated during coal storage and processing, gasification, and gas cleanup. Recovery systems have been designed to collect and utilize by-products. Wastes will be placed in storage areas designed to prevent release of the materials to the environment. The coal gasification plant along with the solid waste disposal area will occupy approximately 115 acres. To prevent, to the fullest extent possible, degradation of groundwater and surface water resources, the coal stockpile, landfill, collection pond, settling basin, and drainage ditches will be constructed to prevent the seepage of potential contaminants into groundwater or the drainage of runoff into surface waters. Cooling water is the primary water requirement of the project. None of the water utilized in the gasification plant will be released into the area surface water system, but will be either recycled or directed into the settling basin. The gasification facility has the potential of emitting a broad spectrum of pollutants into the atmosphere. However, effective emission control procedures such as off-gas recycling, hydrogen sulfide removal, particulate removal, and flaring will be applied to minimize the plant's emissions. The necessity of monitoring the more exotic pollutants such as acid gases, trace elements, metal carbonyls, and a multitude of organic compounds, will be determined as the gasification facility becomes more of a reality and the latest literature and research developments can be surveyed to evaluate the emission rates, biological significance, and monitoring techniques for these pollutants.

  7. Adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W.

    1983-03-01

    The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO/sub 2/ control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  8. The gas industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    2000-01-01

    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  9. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  10. Tailoring Psychosocial Risk Assessment in the Oil and Gas Industry by Exploring Specific and Common Psychosocial Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Iren Vestly Bergh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risk management [Psychosocial Risk Management Approach (PRIMA] has, through the years, been applied in several organizations in various industries and countries globally. PRIMA principles have also been translated into international frameworks, such as PRIMA-EF (European framework and the World Health Organization Healthy Workplace Framework. Over the past 10 years, an oil and gas company has put efforts into adopting and implementing international frameworks and standards for psychosocial risk management. More specifically, the company uses a PRIMA. Methods: This study explores available quantitative and qualitative risk data collected through the PRIMA method over the past 8 years in order to explore specific and common psychosocial risks in the petroleum industry. Results: The analyses showed a significant correlation between job resources and symptoms of work-related stress, there was a significant correlation between job demands and symptoms of work-related stress, and there were differences in psychosocial risk factors and symptoms of work-related stress onshore and offshore. The study also offers recommendations on how the results can further be utilized in building a robust system for managing psychosocial risks in the industry. Conclusion: The results from the analyses have provided meaningful and important information about the company-specific psychosocial risk factors and their impact on health and well-being. Keywords: oil and gas industry, psychosocial risk factors, psychosocial risk management

  11. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  12. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenberg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry depends on the outlook for gas prices at Canadian producing basins, the cost of producing in Canada and the volume of production of Canadian natural gas. Price, cost and volume determine the health of the Canadian industry. Industry's costs are the basis of the supply (volume) offered on the market and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. (author)

  13. Synergy of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions of Chinese industries: A critical assessment of energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    In China, industrial energy use accounts for two thirds of total energy consumption, and this is expected to remain the same in the medium and long-term. China has embarked on a path towards more sustainable energy use to meet domestic (e.g. air quality) and global needs (e.g. climate change), and to sustain its economic welfare. However, most energy-economy models for China have shown limitations to evaluate policy instruments and technology diffusion in industries, in relation to the multiple policy goals. In this paper, the advantages and weaknesses of 19 current energy models for China are evaluated, including important co-benefits as reduced air pollutant emissions. Results show that the co-benefits of energy use and emission policies are rarely modeled on industrial level. Based on the critical assessment of the state-of-the-art energy models, we develop recommendations for modeling industrial energy use, with an emphasis on improved incorporation of (economic, environmental and energy) policy effects, technology representation, co-benefit modeling, and uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • This study evaluates 19 the state-of-the-art energy models on different level. • The co-benefits of different policies are rarely reported in energy models. • Technology plays a key role in models when assessing the co-benefits. • The integrated models provide a better understanding to evaluate the co-benefits. • The directions to improve the accuracy of the current energy models are presented.

  14. Oil and Gas Industry In Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In less than two decades, numerous impressive developments have taken place. These include: the realization of full ownership and complete control by the State over oil and gas operations and related industries, the establishment of Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC), the development of exploration and production activities, the full utilization of natural gas in industry and domestic sectors and the construction of down stream industries in the industrial area (Umm Said) including the refinery, the natural gas liquids plants and the fertilizer and petrochemical complexes. Such important achievements have been crowned with the development of the North Field massive reserves of non associated gas. 4 figs

  15. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  16. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  17. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  18. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  19. Mask industry assessment: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  20. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  1. Mask industry assessment: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the eighth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2008 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This in combination with the past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  2. Mask Industry Assessment: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2007-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  3. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  4. Mask industry assessment: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2008-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2007 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  5. An assessment of investment projects in terms of gas and oil sectors of Ukraine’s and Russia’s industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dzebykh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of investment projects with the usage of characteristic examples, taken from gas and oil sectors of the industries, which are of crucial importance for the economies of Ukraine and Russia. These branches of industry are characterized by insufficient definition and complicacy, which necessitates the financial analysis of these sectors in Ukraine and Russia, especially if it is made for the assessment of the investment projects. In the long-term investment budget planning of the company the financial analysis is carried out to determine the investment possibilities, the value of which for the company is more than the money necessary for the ensurance of such possibilities. A few proposed methods can help specialist-analysts to take right decisions concerning investments.

  6. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  7. Diagnosis and Supervision of Industrial Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of industrial gas turbines is of vital importance, since it gives valuable information for the customer about maintenance, performance, and process health. The performance of an industrial gas turbine degrades gradually due to factors such as environment air pollution, fuel content, and ageing to mention some of the degradation factors. The compressor in the gas turbine is especially vulnerable against contaminants in the air since these particles are stuck at the rotor and stator ...

  8. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  9. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  10. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  12. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  13. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of tbc effects of tbc European Union (EU) Gas Directive on the EU natural gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the European Committee, Directorate-General 17, in the Shared Analysis Project, 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020' managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report 'Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry', September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.c. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. 21 refs

  14. Environmental assessment: Industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadley, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian mining industry supports the concept of environmental assessment, but the current process at the time of the conference had a number of problems that the industry felt should be addressed. The author makes the following suggestions: that the process for individual projects should be separated from policy issues; that panel members should be drawn from a full-time staff; that there should be better referral criteria to determine which projects require full scale assessment including public hearings; that either the government or project opponents should participate but not both; that the financial burden on proponents should be reduced; that funding of intervenors should be controlled; that there should be a definite time frame

  15. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohasseb, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  16. Gas purchasing in the deregulated electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of electricity deregulation on the manner in which gas is purchased for consumption at power plants affected by deregulation, was discussed. An overview of deregulation in the electric power industry as it has occurred in Alberta, was provided, since Alberta has set the standard as the only operational power pool and deregulated marketplace for new power generation in North America. Ultimately, electricity deregulation will have a significant effect on many gas producers in Alberta. How the gas industry responds to the new challenges will determine what role gas will play in the electric marketplace. It can be safely predicted that the gas purchaser for a power producer will attempt to retain the least cost, most flexible gas supply available

  17. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft 3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  18. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1998-01-01

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries [it

  19. Strategic alliances in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A competitor today is an ally tomorrow. A strategic partner in one market is an adversary in another. In this radically new way of doing business, the oil and gas industry seems quite at home. The trend to mergers is not unique to the oil industry, what is unique is the knack of petroleum companies to form strategic alliances [it

  20. The gas industry in the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Having been reserved for decades primarily for the more noble uses of industry, natural gas, which basically has no captive market, is now the energy of choice in a multitude of applications. Although gas resources are limited in the very long term, they are yet sufficiently abundant to make a major contribution to the energy industry of the 21. century. Endowed with intrinsic qualities that make it less pollutant than its competitors, natural gas is the commercial energy harboring the strongest growth potential in the future energy balance. (author)

  1. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region's resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region's supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry's potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord's equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region's ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D)

  2. Onsite gas storage for industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikari, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changing pattern of industrial gas marketing in the United States and other countries has placed new pressures on industrial users to assume responsibility for assuring their own supply. Technological changes in manufacturing processes have placed greater emphasis on assuring fuel quality and many processes can no longer tolerate near-substitutes such as distillate fuel oil and LPG. One way to take advantage of lower cost interruptible gas service contracts is to provide stand-by sources of gas onsite which can be used when the primary supply is curtailed. This paper describes the methods which an industrial gas consumer could use to store gas onsite (or close by an industrial factory) and their technical and economic advantages or limitations. The regulatory factors such as environmental and safety issues are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are described. The application of emerging technologies such as storing natural gas on adsorbents at low pressure and solid absorption in LPG are reviewed and the research needed to make them acceptable is discussed. The potential applications in the marketplace are also discussed and the economics of onsite storage of natural gas is compared to other alternatives. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. The UK gas industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The progress of the gas industry in the United Kingdom (UK) for the year 1992 is reviewed, by the chairman of British Gas plc. Four areas of change are identified and discussed. Recent Government legislation and changes in regulations have led to improvements in efficiency and the growth of competition in the provision of gas supplies. British Gas's share of the UK market has fallen with the arrival of many new gas marketers. The Monopolies and Mergers Commission Inquiry into British Gas, published in July, has wide ranging implications. Finally, with the many coal pit closures announced in October, and the subsequent Coal Review, the gas-fired generation market received a substantial boost. (UK)

  4. Tolley's industrial and commercial gas installation practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hazlehurst, John

    2010-01-01

    This is the third of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. Covering both Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the many illustrations and worked examples include

  5. The natural gas industry and interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y.J.

    1995-01-01

    In discussing the impact of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, the latest rule on the restructuring and deregulation of the US natural gas industry, the effect of interest rates on the success of the FERC policy is often overlooked. The thesis of this paper is that interest rates play an important role in integrating seasonal gas markets and in stimulating investment in storage infrastructure. We propose a model to analyse the equilibrium condition for an efficient gas market. Also analysed are the implications of pipeline rate design of FERC 636 for gas despatch decisions. (author)

  6. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  7. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  8. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  9. Selected technology for the gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers were presented at a conference concerned with the application of technical topics from aerospace activities for the gas industry. The following subjects were covered: general future of fossil fuels in America, exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes, technology for liquefied gas, safety considerations relative to fires, explosions, and detonations, gas turbomachinery technology, fluid properties, fluid flow, and heat transfer, NASA information and documentation systems, instrumentation and measurement, materials and life prediction, reliability and quality assurance, and advanced energy systems (including synthetic fuels, energy storage, solar energy, and wind energy).

  10. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  11. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  12. Transformations in the world gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    1997-01-01

    Mergers, privatizations and deregulation certainly represent the three main trends that shape the world gas industry today: mergers in North America that have lead to the constitution of new 'BTU giants'; privatizations not only in Latin America but also in Central Europe, opening the way to new alliances; and last the deregulation in process within the European Union. At a world wide level, the gas industry, influenced by political, legislative and administrative events has experienced many dramatic transformations. A comparison between these three relatively independent regions (North America, Latin America and Europe in terms of gas supply might prove very instructive in efforts to forecast the future or maybe to avoid mistakes of the past. (author)

  13. What's ahead for the gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of what is in store for the North American electricity and gas markets was discussed. The electric power and gas industry are moving towards competition which will benefit the majority of market participants and will create a more level playing field. Deregulation in the U.S. natural gas industry is also building momentum. The steps that companies wishing to be successful must take before they can take full advantage of new and emerging opportunities are to: (1) know their business, and recognize that they are in the energy business, not only in the natural gas or electricity business, (2) organize for success by planning for mergers, acquisitions and alliances, (3) manage for change, and (4) know their markets and customers. Deregulation and converging energies were seen as the two major issues that the energy sector in Canada will be facing in the near future. Natural gas and electric utilities will survive beyond the year 2000 if they are flexible, provide a wide range of services, and offer new rates. Ontario Hydro's move to diversify their existing power generation and to burn natural gas for power generation to meet energy demand was considered to be a good example of how to manage for change. tabs., figs

  14. The French gas industry in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, Meline

    2015-01-01

    After a first article which briefly outlines the importance of the gas world market (in a context of increase of energy demand and of necessity of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), and indicates the important roles played by French companies who intervene on the whole supply chain (Total, GDF Suez, EDF) or as engineering companies Technip, Gaztransport Technigaz or GTT (the last one is specialized in marine engineering and intervenes in the LNG sector), an interview of the State Secretary in charge of Foreign Trade is proposed. It addresses the presence and intervention of French companies as natural gas tends to become the first fuel in the energy mix for OECD countries, the present and future role of the French gas industry and the importance for France of this international profile, the French policy to support the development of this industry, how the French gas industry may intervene in international diplomatic relationships, and how France and its industry have contributed to an access for all to energy at the international level. The next article describes the development of GDF Suez activities in Latin America (in Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Argentina, Costa Rica and Peru). The activities of the EDF group in the gas sector are then presented: development of infrastructures (notably the methane harbour of Dunkerque). In an interview, the manager of the LNG market strategy for Total presents and comments the LNG's role in Total's strategy, the perspectives of the LNG market and the influence of a low oil price, the Total's position with respect to shale gas exploitation, the planned developments and investments for the LNG sector, the use of LNG in the transport sector, the impact of the Yamat LNG project in the Arctic region. Then, an interview of the GTT chairman is proposed; it addresses the fact that Total sold its shares to a Singapore investment company, the activities and clients, the issue of international regulations, and the objectives of this

  15. Introducing new technology in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, S.; Powrie, D.

    1995-01-01

    The approach taken by Consumer's Gas in the introduction of new products was described. The company's role in technology development in the last decade was summarized in the context of other industries' practices. New product experiences and the key factors for success were also revealed. A professionally managed New Product Introduction (NPI) process launched by Consumer Gas in 1994 was outlined. Its objectives were stated as (1) providing strong leadership; (2) a widely held sense of urgency; (3) customer orientation; (4) doing the 'up front homework'; (5) the importance of teamwork; (6) a formal new product process; and (7) a simple management structure. The need for keeping up with technological changes and customer trends, while inspiring others in the gas distribution business to act similarly, was emphasized

  16. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  17. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isreb, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs

  18. Assessing the industry's new shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The one-page article discusses the changes in recent years in the hydrogenerator market which has forced ABB Alstom Power to reduce its workforce by tens of thousands. The Company blames 'a continuing shift from steam based power generation to gas.' Although there is a demand in the business of refurbishing, there are few new projects, and if the hydro industry fails to offer rapid competitive hydro plant construction then further downsizing is likely

  19. Afghan hydrocarbons: a source for development or for conflict? A risk assessment of Norwegian involvement in development of the Afghan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Arne; Hakim, Mohammad; Newrozi, Sediqa; Sarwari, Akbar; Williams, Aled

    2010-10-22

    Norad has been engaged in capacity building and provision of technical support to the Afghan Ministry of Mines since 2007. A part of this engagement relates to the development of the Afghan Hydrocarbons Law, and commercialization of gas and oil reserves through an international bidding process. The Afghan oil and gas industry has been in production since the mid 1980s, but is in need of major investments. Afghans interviewed are of the opinion that oil and gas reserves are national property, to be used for the benefit of all Afghans. The review has identified a range of risks and challenges to the further process, and Norad is advised to consider: To await further engagement on policy matters until there is further clarity as to how the Government of Afghanistan aims to develop and utilize these resources. But consider to provide: 1) Advice on the political/diplomatic process of negotiating agreements for utilization and division of underground natural resources; 2) Assist in training and development of Afghan technical expertise in oil and gas exploration, production and management; 3) Assist in the further development of the hydro power and alternative energy sector. (AG)

  20. The adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Final report Feb 81-Feb 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr

    1982-11-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic acid enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO2 control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with those of the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic acid enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  1. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisle, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  2. Human and Organisational Safety Barriers in the Oil & Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, E.; Szőke, I.

    2016-01-01

    The oil & gas industry is a safety-critical industry where errors or accidents may potentially have severe consequences. Offshore oil & gas installations are complex technical systems constructed to pump hydrocarbons from below the seabed, process them and pipe them to onshore refineries. Hydrocarbon leaks may lead to major accidents or have negative environmental impacts. The industry must therefore have a strong focus on safety. Safety barriers are devices put into place to prevent or reduce the effects of unwanted incidents. Technical barriers are one type of safety barrier, e.g., blow-out preventers to prevent uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from a well. Human operators may also have an important function in maintaining safety. These human operators are part of a larger organisation consisting of different roles and responsibilities and with different mechanisms for ensuring safety. This paper will present two research projects from the Norwegian oil & gas industry that look at the role of humans and organisations as safety barriers. The first project used questionnaire data to investigate the use of mindful safety practices (safety-promoting work practices intended to prevent or interrupt unwanted events) and what contextual factors may affect employees’ willingness to use these safety practices. Among the findings was that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices was affected more by factors on a group level than factors at an individual or organisational level, and that the factors may differ depending on what is the object of a practice—the employee or other persons. It was also suggested that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices could be an indicator used in the assessment of the safety level on oil & gas installations. The second project is related to organisational safety barriers against major accidents. This project was based on a review of recent incidents in the Norwegian oil & gas industry, as well as

  3. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  4. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2007. Questions are grouped into seven categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. (Examples are given below). Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  5. Statistics 2004 of the gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This document provides a analysis and statistical data on the natural gas consumption and supplies in France, the market organization, the employment of the natural gas industry, the transport, production and storage. (A.L.B.)

  6. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.)

  7. The Spanish experience - future developments in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraleda, P.

    1996-01-01

    Spanish experience is presented concerned it may be useful at the time of setting up a natural gas industry. The Spanish natural gas industry is of recent creation. Developing infrastructure and securing gas supplies have been major challenges. Challenges which, are also common for majority of the countries. The presentation is split into two blocks: the first one is on our experience in the establishment and consolidation of the market for natural gas in Spain. The second block deals with future developments aiming to strengthen the security of supply; and with the opportunities and threats the gas industry will face

  8. The rebirth of natural gas industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgley, R.

    1994-01-01

    In seventies years united states of america made a strict regulation of gas prices; as a matter of results, producers were discouraged and did not engaged themselves in gad prospecting and production. In eighties years began the deregulation and that what gave to producers the stimulation to prospect and produce. It is necessary to increase the efficiency of gas and then the gas industry will develop more and more. An other point made to favour gas industry is the performance from an ecological point of view. It is easy to understand why gas industry has a development three times more important than others energy sources

  9. Panorama 2010: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a period of strong expansion that lasted for most of 2008, the gas industry was hard hit by the impact of the economic recession. Although the competitiveness of the gas price was often an advantage in 2009, the natural gas market saw a net decline in consumption that led to a historic decrease in world production and international trade. In addition, the subsequent collapse of market prices gave LNG a competitive edge in the Atlantic Basin, where surplus gas continued to accumulate, heralding a long 'gas bubble' period that the industry will have to adjust to permit harmonious, long-term development of the gas markets. (author)

  10. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Rising natural gas prices : impacts on U.S. industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of rising natural gas prices on the United States economy and domestic industries was examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Industry comments were solicited on the effects of natural gas prices on their business performance from 2000 to 2004 in order to collect data, and macroeconomic impacts were determined through the use of an inter-industry model. Results of the survey and subsequent model suggested that in 2000 and 2001, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was depressed by 0.2 per cent because of higher natural gas prices. Between 2000 and 2004, the civilian workforce was lower by 489,000 jobs. It was determined that nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturing was the most gas intensive industry. The results indicated that higher natural gas prices were an additional burden on manufacturing industries, and that the economic performance of natural gas intensive industries was poor between 2000-2004. However, it was just as poor between 1997-2000, when gas prices were relatively low and stable. Natural gas intensive industries passed along price increases in their products to their downstream consumers. Despite job losses, wages in natural gas intensive industries were higher and grew faster than in the rest of the manufacturing industry in the 2000-2004 period. Although capital expenditures declined between 2000 to 2004, they declined more rapidly in the 1997-2000 period. There has been no evidence of a decline in international competitiveness of natural gas intensive industries. It was concluded that rising natural gas prices have had a significant impact on the growth of the economy and workforce. tabs., figs

  12. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  13. BC's oil and gas industry : opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2003-01-01

    An update of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry was presented with reference to activity trends and major issues. The presentation also described opportunities and challenges facing the industry in British Columbia and reviewed the impact of federal policies on BC. In recent years the industry has moved to oil sands and unconventional gas, offshore sites, and coalbed methane development. Other changes are a result of technology which makes it possible to drill deeper and faster while having less environmental impact. Government issues have become increasingly complex, however. Industry capital spending from 2000 to 2003 was presented for Northern Canada, the east coast offshore, Alberta, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, oil sand deposits, and international activities. The presentation included several graphs depicting: the changing natural gas production mix; North American natural gas demand; wells drilled by province; natural gas resources in BC; upstream capital spending in BC; wells drilled by type and depth in BC; top natural gas wells in 2000 and 2002; natural gas production in BC; finding and development costs for Canadian natural gas; and, the widening gap of the federal income tax rate between oil and natural gas and other industries. British Columbia is in the strategic position of having significant untapped gas potential in the northeastern part of the province. For now, there is sufficient pipeline capacity to bring the gas to markets in the United States where there is a strong demand for electric power generation. 16 figs

  14. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  15. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    IAC Operations Manual describes organizational model and operations of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC), Center management activities, typical process of energy assessment, and energy assessment data for specific industry sectors.

  17. French natural gas industry. Key-data 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The year 2000 is the year of deregulation of the European gas market. This short article reports on some significant economical data taken from a brochure edited by the French gas association: transport of natural gas (main suppliers), network (pipelines, distribution system), consumption (industry, residential and tertiary sectors), uses (vehicles, cogeneration units), liquefied petroleum gases (consumption in residential-tertiary, industry, agriculture and automotive applications). (J.S.)

  18. New lidar challenges for gas hazard management in industrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, Nicolas; Liméry, Anasthase; Bertrand, Johan; Le Méhauté, Simon; Benoit, Philippe; Fleury, Didier; Goular, Didier; Planchat, Christophe; Valla, Matthieu; Augère, Béatrice; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès.

    2017-10-01

    The capability of Lidars to perform range-resolved gas profiles makes them an appealing choice for many applications. In order to address new remote sensing challenges, arising from industrial contexts, Onera currently develops two lidar systems, one Raman and one DIAL. On the Raman side, a high spatial-resolution multi-channel Raman Lidar is developed in partnership with the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra). This development aims at enabling future monitoring of hydrogen gas and water vapor profiles inside disposal cells containing radioactive wastes. We report on the development and first tests of a three-channel Raman Lidar (H2, H2O, N2) designed to address this issue. Simultaneous hydrogen and water vapor profiles have been successfully performed along a 5m-long gas cell with 1m resolution at a distance of 85 m. On the DIAL side, a new instrumental concept is being explored and developed in partnership with Total E and P. The objective is to perform methane plume monitoring and flux assessment in the vicinity of industrials plants or platforms. For flux assessment, both gas concentration and air speed must be profiled by lidar. Therefore, we started developing a bi-function, all-fiber, coherent DIAL/Doppler Lidar. The first challenge was to design and build an appropriate fiber laser source. The achieved demonstrator delivers 200 W peak power, polarized, spectrally narrow (<15 MHz), 110 ns pulses of light out of a monomode fiber at 1645 nm. It fulfills the requirements for a future implementation in a bi-function Dial/Doppler lidar with km-range expectation. We report on the laser and lidar architecture, and on first lidar tests at 1645 nm.

  19. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  20. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  1. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  2. Gas and power industries linking as regulation fades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, S.W.; Callender, T.

    1996-01-01

    Although the gas and electricity markets have their organizational and operational idiosyncrasies, the principles of a competitive market apply to both. The gas industry model of functional and services unbundling, and the elimination of the pipeline merchant function should be emulated. This process of one industry learning from another is inevitable as electricity and natural gas come to be traded in a nearly unified energy market. As their markets merge, two once-distinct industries will be come much more alike, each borrowing the best features of the other and leaving less-desirable features behind. Factors are discussed

  3. Advances in operations research in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, M.; Zaccour, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various theories and examples of modelling, forecasting and optimization designing in the different parts of the petroleum and gas industries are presented, stochastic programming for long term planning in the refining industry, stochastic model for gasoline blending, feedstock optimization, location and sizing for offshore platforms, hydrocarbon exploration simulation rapid method, valuation of oil field development leases, economic models for petroleum allocation, models for oil supply market, trade embargo game theory, stochastic programming of gas contract portfolio management, scheduling transportation of oil and gas, strategic planning in an oil pipeline company, simulation of offshore oil terminal systems, hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

  4. Executive reflects on progress in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reflects on the UK oil and gas industry's international globalization and progress from the perspective of a UK industry executive. Sir Ian Wood, managing director of John Wood Group plc, outlined past and future industry developments during a 1997 Offshore Technology Conference speech. He concludes that the UK supply and service industry is now fully involved in the international arena, and hopes to play a significant role in the exciting oil and gas developments in the Gulf of Mexico and frontiers worldwide

  5. The gas industry in Britain: future structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a summary of the kind of structural changes to British Gas that can be considered in order to enable effective competition to develop in the gas market. It draws on an extensive analysis undertaken by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS) of recent developments in the gas market, the need to ensure the safety, efficiency and security of gas supplies under different structures and how regulation may change with different structures. Many of these issues covered are complex, and can each be discussed at length, but the intention of this paper is to provide an overview of the key options for a restructured gas market. OFGAS has also examined the regulatory environment within which competitors to British Gas who have emerged or who are likely to emerge in the future may be expected to operate. This paper describes the range of structural options we see. At one end of the spectrum there is the option of continuing with a vertically integrated but more heavily regulated monopoly; at the other end is a fully competitive structure with no or much reduced regulation. In between, there are various combinations between the degree of regulation and the extent of competition that can be considered. In analysing future structural options, we believe it necessary to consider the complete gas supply chain. The analysis therefore considers the offshore production or importation of gas, its purchase at the beach, its reception and processing at terminals, its transportation from terminal meters to customers' meters, its storage and sale to final customers. (author)

  6. Electronic data interchange in the Canadian natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of electronic data interchange (EDI) in the gas industry was discussed. EDI as a champion of costumer service and as a powerful management tool was defined, and the process of electronic information transfer was explained. EDI was then placed in the context of the business process, and its benefits in providing efficient service and product improvement were enumerated. North American Gas EDI standards, and industry initiatives were explored in detail

  7. New structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1998-01-01

    The basic stags of structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management are considered. It is shown, that in new economic situation the traditional branch scheme of management became out date and does not meet demands up the times. The spent structural changes in petroleum and gas industry management will promote to strengthening of strategic role of hydrocarbon raw material production and processing in prospect. (author)

  8. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of facts, events and data concerning the world oil and gas markets, the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, the challenges of gas European supplies, the exploration and production in France, the oil and oil-related industry, hydrocarbons imports, the refining activity in France, fuel quality, alternative fuels, the domestic transportation of oil products, gas infrastructures, the storage of oil products, the consumption of oil and gas products, taxes on hydrocarbons, prices for the final consumer, and the prices of oil products

  9. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  10. Panorama 2014 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2013-12-01

    Due to sustained competition between energy sources and an economic and geopolitical climate that is still unstable, gas growth has slowed. The year 2013 looks very mixed for the gas industry, particularly on the upstream side. Constraints on the supply of gas and the increased dependence on imports in consumer markets increase the vulnerability of the gas markets to the vagaries of geopolitical risks and result in tensions on the international market. In an environment full of uncertainties about future prices and contractual terms, investors are slow to initiate the projects necessary for a global gas balance in this decade. (author)

  11. Tasks and goals of the gas industry in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiev, N.

    1996-01-01

    There are two key gas producing regions in central Asia: Amudarinskyi and Murgabskiy. Gas resources in Turkmenistan are light and contain mostly methane. The majority of gas fields are complex: 45 of them contain condensate, 14 helium and ethane, propane and butane. Sulphur dioxide with the total of 893 billion cubic metres is found in 18 gas fields. Within the complex political and economic situation, Turkmen Ministry of Oil and Gas undertook the following measures: technical rehabilitation and refurbishment of the gas industry and research on the gas export pipelines projects. The accounts show that the Turkmen natural gas will find customers in Turkey and other European countries at the prices which will prevail at the time the pipeline is finished. The project costs are 9 billion US dollars and it cannot be finalized without international support

  12. The economics of Australia's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Rob

    1994-01-01

    This article evaluates the performance of the Australian oil and gas industry, focusing on the listed companies. A large part of the Australian oil and gas industry-(as much as 60 per cent)-is held by unlisted companies or by major international groups not listed in Australia. Nevertheless, it was considered that the sample of companies reviewed gives a reasonable guide to overall industry performance. Also, as part of this relative analysis, the Australian oil and gas industry will be compared to other investments that shareholders could have enjoyed. As well, its performance will be compared with the much larger industry in the United States. It is shown that over the past 10 to 20 years, the rate of return that the Australian oil and gas industry has offered to providers of equity capital has been less than industry expectations. While it was a better performer than the smaller US companies, it lagged substantially behind the major three sectors of the US index, which are international integrated gas distribution and domestic. 10 figs

  13. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2012-10-01

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  14. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2011-12-01

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  15. The future of the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs

  16. Gas industry in Russia. Gazprom supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    These four papers by senior executives of RAO Gazprom, the Russian state owned but self-financing gas company, highlight the company's key achievements and discuss current priorities. The close involvement between Gazprom and various research organizations through which equipment and technology have been developed is discussed. Details are given of the processing facilities for gas and condensates at four major installations together with their production histories and output projections into the next century. The development of the vast gas reserves on the Yamal peninsular is described. It is planned to link the new fields by pipeline to Europe. Ways in which to operate Gazprom's extensive pipeline network most efficiently are being sought and the findings and recommendations of the ''High Reliability Pipeline Transport'' programme are considered. A comprehensive table of Gazprom's output, exports, processing and development activity for 1994, in which planned levels are compared with currently predicted levels, is appended to the papers. (5 tables) (UK)

  17. Economics of retail competition in Australia's natural gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam; Harman, Julie

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable reform of the Australian natural gas industry. An element of this reform has been the introduction of ‘contestability’ — allowing customers to select their retailer of natural gas. The potential benefits and risks associated with this policy are presented and the key issues involved in the implementation of contestable natural gas market are explored. Aside from the potential risks, the policies that have been introduced in order to prevent potential difficulties a...

  18. Statistics 2005 of the natural gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document provides and analyses statistical data of the natural gas industry for the year 2005. After a presentation of the consumption and the supplying, it deals with the gas market organization (production, transport, storage, supply and distribution), the information sources and the methods of the analysis and the main data (transport, production, storage, employment, uses). The last part takes stock of the energy in 2005 and the main transport axis of the natural gas in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  20. Statistics 2007 of the natural gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides statistical data and an economic analysis of the natural gas industry activity in 2007. It is presented around six main poles: the production, the transport, the methane terminals, the storage, the distribution and the commercialization. The main events of the year 2007 are the importance of Norway in the gas supplying, the decrease of the gas sales and the market opening. (A.L.B.)

  1. Gas processing in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    This article is a brief overview of code requirements in the nuclear air cleaning arena. NRC standards, which employ the various ASME codes, are noted. It is also noted that DOE facilities do not fall under the purview of the NRC and that DOE facilities (especially fuel cycle facilities) typically have broader gas processing activities than for power reactors. The typical differences between DOE facilities` and power reactor facilities` gas processing needs are listed, as are DOE facility components not covered by the ASME AG-1 code.

  2. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrill, C; Liverman, D; Boykoff, M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO 2 e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO 2 e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO 2 e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  3. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  4. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  5. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  6. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  7. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  8. Quantifying the Industrial Facility-Level Emission Rate of Methane in Various Segments of the Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Mitchell, A.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Marchese, A.

    2014-12-01

    Methane, the dominant component in natural gas, is a potent short-lived radiative forcer. Recent technological advances in the extraction of oil and gas have increased the production rate dramatically since early 2000. In the context of CO2 emissions per energy generated, natural gas promises a tantalizing thermodynamic advantage over coal and other hydrocarbons. Natural gas emissions to the atmosphere along the entire path from well to customer, however, can wipe out the radiative forcing advantage once they surpass a threshold fraction of distributed gas. Recent studies have been undertaken to assess the methane emissions at various types of facilities within different sectors of the oil and gas industry. The distribution of observed facility level emission rates along with other results and conclusions from those studies will be presented. The implications that these findings have on the emissions inventories from these sectors will be discussed.

  9. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  10. Gas Industry in China: a New Resource for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Popov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of the gas industry in China since 1986 is considered by regions, by various consumer groups, gaseous fuels consumption pattern change with the development of gas transportation transmission and distribution systems. Current production of gaseous fuels, import infrastructure and natural gas prices in China are summarized. Implications on gas consumption growth in terms of customers and their geographical origin are provided. Competitive price stimations of the Russian natural gas for Chinese and other major gas importers in Eastern Asia are presented. Conclusion is made about Chinese monopsony on export gas pipelines from Siberia. The measures for elimination and/or reduction of such monopsony at the Asia-Pacific regional markets are offered

  11. Towards the future french organization of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the new directive on the internal gas market of 1998, the government proposed a discussion by the presentation of this white book, providing information and questions. This book proposes seven main chapters: the gas industry activity and the directive on the internal gas market; the gas actors, the key numbers and the juridical context in France; define and strengthen the natural gas public utility; useful actions for each gas facilities (transport, distribution, storage and retailers); the realization of progresses for the consumer; the operating of an efficiency control; actions to develop the gas operators in the world. The text of the 98/30/CE directive is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  13. 2003 statistics of the natural gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This document synthesizes the main annual results for the French natural gas industry in 2003: 1 - introduction: consumption and supplies; 2 - methodology: production, transport, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, reference documents, energy correspondences; 3 - Main data summarized in maps, graphics and tables: transport networks, storage, compression and production facilities; resources and employment; employment per sector of use; national production and imports; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel of the gas industry; sectoral distribution of gas supply networks; gas cogeneration: consumption, plants; monthly variation of imports and stocks; monthly variation of consumptions and stocks; regional supplies; regional and sectoral supplies; regional use of the national production; main 2003 status of the gas market; 2003 comparison between the inquiry and the provisional status; 2003 energy status. (J.S.)

  14. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  15. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, P.J. [Anbrer Consulting, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities

  16. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, P.J.

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities in

  17. US Department of Energy investments in natural gas R ampersand D: An analysis of the gas industry proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The natural gas industry has proposed an increase in the DOE gas R ampersand D budget from about $100 million to about $250 million per year for each of the next 10 years. The proposal includes four programs: natural gas supplies, fuel cells, natural gas vehicles and stationary combustion systems. This paper is a qualitative assessment of the gas industry proposal and recommends a natural gas R ampersand D strategy for the DOE. The methodology is a conceptual framework based on an analysis of market failures and the energy policy objectives of the DOE's (1991) National Energy Strategy. This framework would assist the DOE in constructing an R ampersand D portfolio that achieves energy policy objectives. The natural gas supply program is recommended to the extent that it contributes to energy price stability. Stationary combustion programs are supported on grounds of economic efficiency and environmental quality. The fuel cell program is supported on grounds of environmental quality. The natural gas vehicle program may potentially contribute to environmental quality and energy price stability. The R ampersand D programs in natural gas vehicles and in fuel cells should be complemented with policies that encourage the commercialization and use of the technology, not merely its development

  18. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  19. Overview of the U.S. gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand is first reviewed in a discussion of the current state of the gas industry in the USA. The deliverability surplus is declining due to factors including a decline in drilling and workover rig activity and a continuing growth in demand at least partly caused by new markets for gas such as gas-fired power generation. The environmental movement, influencing laws favoring clean-burning fuels such as gas, is an additional influence on future demand. A key factor in the gas industry's ability to keep demand growing is how safely and successfully it can implement many aspects of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636 regarding pipeline restructuring. It is expected that this restructuring will see changes in gas transport and marketing, including an increasing role for supply aggregators and capacity brokers and an abandonment of the merchant function by some pipeline companies. A significant change in the last year or so is that US producers are willing and able to enter into long term supply contracts. Finally, gas production from the Gulf of Mexico basin is expected to continue to produce 2-2.5 trillion ft 3 /y for years to come, despite being a mature area for gas production

  20. Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guohua; Jing Youyin; Wang Songling; Zhang Xutao

    2010-01-01

    With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As the liquid form of natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has also been paid more attention in the country. This paper explores main motives for the fast development of China's LNG industry. An overview of the industry is also described, covering LNG receiving terminals, plants and transportation. Despite a relatively short development history of LNG industry in China, there are many remarkable successes. City-gas supply by LNG is widely applied in many small to medium cities, and LNG vehicles and cold energy utilization are growing rapidly with governmental supports. At the end, the developmental trends of China's LNG industry are introduced. All the discussions show that LNG is strategically important in China's future energy infrastructure. - Research highlights: →Explore main momentums for the fast development of China's LNG industry→Analyze detailedly current states and future prospects of LNG infrastructure in China→Introduce and analyze the wide application of LNG-based gas supply mode in China→Discuss new developmental trends in China's LNG industry

  1. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  2. Estimation of cost function in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The natural gas industry in Korea has characteristics of a dual industrial structure with wholesale and retail and a regional monopoly of city gas company. Recently there have been discussions on the restructuring of gas industry and the problems arising from such industrial organization. At this point, the labor and capital cost of KOGAS were analyzed to find out efficiency of KOGAS, the wholesaler and the cost function focusing on distribution was estimated to find out effect of scale of city gas company, the retailer. As a result, in the case of KOGAS, it is prove that enhancing competitive power is needed by improving labor productivity through stabilization of labor structure and by maximizing value-added through stability of capital combination. From the estimation of cost function of city gas companies, the existing regional monopoly of city gas company have effects on its scale only when the area of operation and end users used the same amount per end user are increased. (author). 31 refs., 10 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Strategic alliances for the future of the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catell, R.B. [Brooklyn Union Gas, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The natural gas industry is in a position to benefit significantly from the inherent environmental advantages of natural gas and access to a large reserves base. Concurrently, the domestic natural gas industry will be undergoing extensive regulatory and structural changes in the coming years as a result of the implementation of FERC Order 636. The competition between fuels is intensifying, and the number of new market players and consumer demands are rising. As all sectors of the industry are facing new risk resulting from changes in access to storage, balancing, excess capacity, capacity release programs, and from the entry of gas marketers and aggregators, companies must increasingly rely on strategic alliances to remain competitive and stable. Strategic alliances are cooperative relationships between gas companies, pipelines, end-users, producers, marketers, as well as government bodies and labor unions. The principal goals of strategic alliances are to reduce risks, leverage resources and competitiveness, achieve long-term objectives, and build flexibility. Brooklyn Union has been involved in strategic alliances in the areas of (1) exploration, production, and supply; (2) transportation and storage; (3) marketing and market development; (4) regulatory and legislative activities; and (5) environmental activities. These alliances have allowed Brooklyn Union to diversify its gas supply, cooperatively support new pipelines, introduce new products and services, retain customers, generate new business, and assist in the enactment of reasonable Federal and State regulations and energy policies. Brooklyn Union recognizes that in the future the natural gas industry must continue to form strategic alliances to better serve the customer. Through strategic alliances the industry can increase the value and importance of natural gas as America`s premier energy source.

  4. Sustainability of TQM Implementation Model In The Indonesia’s Oil and Gas Industry: An Assessment of Structural Relations Model Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Slamet Ciptono

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study purposively is to conduct an empirical analysis of the structural relations among  critical factors of quality management practices (QMPs, world-class company practice (WCC, operational excellence practice (OE, and company performance (company non-financial performance or CNFP and company financial performance or CFP in the oil and gas companies operating in Indonesia. The current study additionally examines the relationships between QMPs and CFP through WCC, OE, and CNFP (as partial mediators simultaneously. The study uses data from a survey of 140 strategic business units (SBUs within 49 oil and gas contractor companies in Indonesia.  The findings suggest that all six QMPs have positive and significant indirect relationships on CFP through WCC and CNFP. Only four of six QMPs have positive and significant indirect relationships on CFP through OE and CNFP. Hence, WCC, OE, and CNFP play as partial mediators between  QMPs and CFP. CNFP has a significant influence on CFP. A major implication of this study is that oil and gas managers need to recognize the structural relations model fit by developing all of the research constructs simultaneously associated with a comprehensive TQM practice. Furthermore, the findings will assist oil and gas companies by improving CNFP, which is very critical to TQM, thereby contributing to a better achievement of CFP. The current study uses the Deming’s principles, Hayes and Wheelwright dimensions of world-class company practice, Chevron Texaco’s operational excellence practice, and the dimensions of company financial and non-financial performances.  The paper also provides an insight into the sustainability of TQM implementation model and their effect on company financial performance in oil and gas companies in Indonesia.

  5. Acoustic detection of seabed gas leaks, with application to Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and leak prevention for the oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Berges, B.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage, applied to the monitoring of underwater gas discharges from anthropogenic and natural sources, is becoming increasingly important. First, as the oil and gas industry is facing increasing regulation, there is a need to put more control in the industrial process and to assess the impact on the marine environment. The applications are diverse, including: early warnings of "blow-out" from offshore installations, detection of leaks from underwater...

  6. Inventory of methane losses from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burklin, C.E.; Campbell, L.M.; Campbell, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is being considered as an important transition fuel in an integrated national strategy to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States due to its lower carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission per unit of energy produced. However, the contribution of atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) from the production and handling of natural gas must also be considered. Radian Corporation has been working with the Gas Research Institute and the US Environmental Protection Agency to detail the sources of methane from the natural gas industry in the United States. All aspects of natural gas production, processing, transmission, storage and distribution are being examined. Preliminary results of preliminary testing for the below-ground gas distribution industry segment are presented. The emission rate (scf/hr) is the product of the leak rate per unit length of underground pipe and the total length of US distribution system pipelines. Preliminary estimates for the below-ground distribution segment are nearly 9 billion scf/yr. This total likely underestimates below-ground methane emissions for several reasons. These preliminary analyses suggest that significant uncertainty surround current methane emission estimates from below-ground distribution systems. Emission estimates from all segments of the US Natural Gas Industry, broken down by fugitive sources and non-fugitive sources, are also presented. The specific test methods being implemented to quantify emissions from each segment are described

  7. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  8. Institutional and Regulatory Assessment of the Extractive Industries in Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Smith International

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones) and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. However, it is not exhaustive with respect to all the sectors that may be considered under a scoping study for EITI .This re...

  9. Toward 2000 - potential changes facing the North American gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.L.; Godec, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Rapid changes in U.S. gas market developments and key factors that are likely to change future market outlook were reviewed. Currently, the biggest challenges facing the North American gas industry are deregulation in the electric power industry, technological advances, Canadian exports, environmental considerations, and new sources of natural gas from Mexico and Sable Island. Forces driving the natural gas demand include technological advances, growth in gas demand by electric utilities, and expansion of pipeline capacity. Uncertainties and threats to natural gas use include the rising cost of environmental compliance, the continued use of coal for power generation, and the Alliance Pipeline development. Technological advances such as 3-D seismic, horizontal drilling, improved completion techniques, longer-life bits, improved control systems, and reduced project cycle time, have been credited for producers now finding more gas reserves per well drilled than a decade ago. Present estimates of technically recoverable gas resources in North America run to about 2,500 trillion cubic feet

  10. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2011-01-01

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  11. Misplaced generosity: extraordinary profits in Alberta's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, R.

    2010-11-01

    This document gives a picture extended over a decade of the revenues, investment levels and profits of the Alberta's oil and gas industry. It also investigates on the distribution of those revenues and profits that were accrued to the provincial government through royalties and land sales. This document, tries to fill the information gaps left by the current government's achievement as Albertans' oil and gas trustee, pointing out the ongoing lack of responsibility in this province's most important economic sector.

  12. Investing in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation explains what are the most common bottlenecks for foreign investments in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe. Taking into account the investment needs arising in economies in transition, from investor's point of view the issue of great importance is the risk when prices are not yet at market equivalent levels. Changes in the policy (regulatory, legal, financial) environment should stimulate investments. Privatization and liberalization are also driven by lack of public capital. Foreign investment would need a predictable investment environment. The investment needs of the gas industry would compete with other investments that might be more attractive

  13. Manual on oil-gas industry waste utilization radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashev, V.A.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Marabaev, Zh.N.; Pasysaev, V.A.; Kayukov, P.G.; Kozhakhmetov, N.B.; Shevtsov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a new document - 'Manual on radio-ecologically safe utilization of waste from oil-and-gas production' is carried out. This document regulates the whole cycle of environment protection measures at waste utilization for the named industry in Kazakhstan and is aimed on lowering the radiation risks and assurance of radioecological safety both at present and for the future. The document presents a set regulations necessary for radioactive wastes handling in the oil-gas industry. The normative document was agreed in both the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and Ministry of Environment Protection of RK

  14. Investment and uncertainty in the international oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus; Misund, Baard

    2009-01-01

    The standard theory of irreversible investments and real options suggests a negative relation between investment and uncertainty. Richer models with compound option structures open for a positive relationship. This paper presents a micro-econometric study of corporate investment and uncertainty in a period of market turbulence and restructuring in the international oil and gas industry. Based on data for 115 companies over the period 1992-2005, we estimate four different specifications of the q model of investment, with robust results for the uncertainty variables. The estimated models suggest that macroeconomic uncertainty creates a bottleneck for oil and gas investment and production, whereas industry-specific uncertainty has a stimulating effect. (author)

  15. French natural gas industry statistics; Statistiques de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  16. Integrated Risk Management as a Factor of Competitiveness Increase of Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Nikolaevna Shabanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to risk assessment and analysis (RAA in oil and gas industry. The article reviews current trends of risks’ assessment and management in oil and gas industry in relation to the activities of enterprises engaged in engineering design in the field of oil and gas processing considering the requirements of international standards (ISO. The classification of risks is provided with consideration of peculiar features of enterprises of Mineral Resources Sector. The authors present a review of major international and national standards, specifying the activities in risk management. It is shown that one of the modern trends of international standardization is a development of risk management and management of sustainable business based on the risk oriented approach. The authors have proposed the algorithm of risk management in oil and gas projects using the domestic software Business Studio, logically divided into following three stages: identification and assessment of project risks, development of risks mitigation measures and monitoring of project risks. The main indicators of the oil and gas complex of Russia (the volume of oil and gas, the primary oil refining, are the main risk factors for the oil and gas industry. The peculiarities of risk management are described in the form of an economic category. The article shows that risk can and should be controlled, in other words, certain measures should be applied to anticipate as many as possible the risk events and to reduce them.

  17. Assessment of industrial liquid waste management in Omdurman Industrial Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnasri, R. A. A.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted mainly to investigate the effects of industrial liquid waste on the environment in the Omdurman area. Various types of industries are found around Omdurman. According to the ISC the major industries are divided into eight major sub-sectors, each sub-sector is divided into types of industries. Special consideration was given to the liquid waste because of its effects. In addition to the available data, personal observation supported by photographs, laboratory analyses were carried on the industrial effluents. The investigated parameters in the analysis were, BOD, COD, O and G, Cr, TDS, TSS, pH, temp and conductivity. Interviews were conducted with waste handling workers in the industries, in order to assess the effects of industrial pollution. The results obtained showed that pollutants produced by all the factories were found to exceed the accepted levels of the industrial pollution control. The effluents disposed of in the sites allotted by municipal authorities have adverse effects on the surrounding environment and public health and amenities. Accordingly the study recommends that the waste water must be pretreated before being disposed of in site allotted by municipal authorities. Develop an appropriate system for industrial waste proper management. The study established the need to construct a sewage system in the area in order to minimize the pollutants from effluents. (Author)

  18. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  19. Panorama 2015 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Carpentier, Armelle

    2014-12-01

    For the third consecutive year, growth in gas demand is slowing down. The year of 2014 is marked by lower activity in the global gas industry at all stages in the chain. This can be explained by increased competition between energies (coal, renewables), the economic slowdown and the mild weather conditions which have put a brake on expansion of the gas demand (Europe, Asia) and led to high stock levels. These developments have pushed market prices downwards and modified inter-regional balancing flows. (author)

  20. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlay, C.; Huby, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries, and lists the most important mergers in terms of transaction value for the period 1981-1997, and plots oil and gas mergers and acquisitions activity by sector and by major region. The mean operation indicator in 1998 in terms of reserves, production and refining capacity of the major companies are tabulated. The impact of the mergers on the oil and gas markets are examined, and issues concerning these mergers and acquisitions are explored. (UK)

  1. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  2. Competence assessment toolbox for event industry professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project based thesis is to design an effective competence assess-ment tool for event management industry professionals. The writer noticed the lack of competence tools for the event management industry and therefore wanted to follow the topic trough a project thesis. The competence assessment tools will be designed through a portfolio of competence related instruments. The design of the assessment tools based on a careful literature review about the event management, p...

  3. 7 CFR 900.42 - Industry assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry assessments. 900.42 Section 900.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.42 Industry assessments. If the Secretary determines it is necessary to improve or...

  4. Urbanization and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, N. I.; Skripnuk, D. F.; Mirolyubova, O. V.

    2017-06-01

    This article analyses the global environment. The article describes processes that characterize the global environment, specific indicators are suggested, that can be used to measure the change in the global environment. It is said that cities and all urbanized territories have a negative effect on the global environment. Originally, the authors wanted to call the article «City as a source of destruction of the global environment». But taking into account the fact that urbanization contributes to improving the economic efficiency of the state, cities are the centers of the economic, cultural and informational potential that provide a «breakthrough» into the development of the economy. The article assesses the impact of urbanization on the global environment. For the analysis of the impact of urbanization on the natural habitat, the autoregressive distributed lags (ADL-model) are chosen.

  5. Safety practices in the oil and gas industries in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study uses plant visits, interviews and questionnaires to investigate safety practices in the oil, gas and related energy industries in Ghana. The study revealed that there are indeed peculiar safety hazards inherent in the operations of the oil, gas and related energy industries that have the potential to cause danger to life, property and the environment if not controlled or properly managed. It was observed that whilst pockets of regulations exist that address aspects of occupational health and safety in industry in Ghana, there is no national policy on occupational health and safety to guide the operations of industry in Ghana. As result, each of the companies investigated adopted its own safety regulations to guide its operations. Lapses were observed in the manner the companies practiced occupational health and safety at their plants. The Factories Inspectorate Department, the regulatory body responsible for promoting and monitoring occupational health and safety in Ghana was found to be under resourced and has not been monitoring the activities of the industries as required. The deficiencies observed in these industries and the non-performance of the regulatory bodies means that danger to life and property in these industries is imminent.

  6. 1997-98 statistical data of the natural gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the main economical results of the natural gas industry sector in France for 1997 and 1998. An overview of the gas market is also given (natural gas, LPG, fire damp gas, etc..). Several statements are provided for the natural gas: sectoral analysis of consumptions, number of consumers and amount of supplies, personnel status of the natural gas industry, consumptions in the industry, share of natural gas in the French energy balance sheet.. (J.S.)

  7. Short-term trends in the gas industry - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context of high investment costs and rising energy prices, and recurring unseasonably warm temperatures in recent years, the growth of natural gas demand is slowing. On the supply side, and on the demand side too, new trends are emerging, with potentially powerful impact on the short-and long-term development of the industry

  8. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  9. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  10. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  11. MANAGEMENT OF GAS-AIR ENERGY INSTALLATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Lobov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the work is to substantiate the issue of effective use of kinetic energy of gas-air flows used by the technological installation for generating electric power, which will allow developing a new control algorithm and creating new software for controlling the gas-air power plant. To test the adequacy of the developed control algorithms and software, to develop a laboratory gas-air power plant. Methodology. To investigate the distribution of air-gas mass in process plants used industrial plant simulation method performed in software SolidWorks Flow Simulation. The method of simulation allowed to develop a new control algorithm and create new software taking into account the basic technical requirements for the management of the gas-air power plant. To test the efficiency of the developed algorithms and control software for the gas-air power plant, a physical modeling method was used on a developed laboratory installation connected via a USB interface with a computer and has a virtual model of the SCADA system presented in the LabVIEW environment. Findings. Based on the modeling of gas-air flows on the developed mathematical model, the optimal ratios of pipeline sizes are rationally determined, the gas-air mixture costs necessary for the most efficient operation of the gas-air power plant, that is, in the working zone of the gas-air path, the generator screw contacts the most significant flows, providing the maximum effect rotation. The obtained results of research of gas-air flows of technological installations of an industrial enterprise in the software environment of SolidWorks Flow Simulation and on their basis the basic technical requirements for the management of a gas-air power plant are developed. An optimal control algorithm has been developed that enabled it to be introduced into the control scheme of a gas-air power plant with a microprocessor or a specialized microcontroller. Originality. New possibilities for

  12. The potential for Internet commerce in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    1999-01-01

    The potential for Internet commerce in natural gas is examined from the point of view of residential and commercial consumers, government agencies and industry associations, energy marketers and utilities. The overall conclusion of the inquiry is that there are many advantages for everyone concerned, but the few disadvantages that do exist, will delay implementation for a while. Impediments from the consumer's point of view are the natural desire to 'touch and feel' the product purchased, and the reluctance to put a credit card number on the web. The supplier's major reluctance may be that Internet commerce makes product differentiation difficult. The author provides a number of reasons why i nternetting' of the energy industry will eventually become inevitable, as well as tips on how perceived difficulties either do not apply to the gas industry, or can be overcome with only minor changes in attitudes on the part of consumers, and relatively painless adjustments in the way of doing business by suppliers and marketers

  13. The scientific assessment of shale gas development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman-Van der Walt, Luanita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the scientific assessment of shale gas development in South Africa by Luanita Snyman Van der Walt at the 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017, CSIR International Convention...

  14. System Safety Assessment Based on Past Incidents in Oil and Gas Industries: A Focused Approach in Forecasting of Minor, Severe, Critical, and Catastrophic Incidents, 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident in an occupation which occurred due to series of repetitive minor incidents within the working environment. This work demonstrates the critical system safety assessment based on various incidents that took place to the different system and subsystem of two Indian oil refineries in five years of span 2010 to 2015. The categorization of incidents and hazard rate function of each incident category were classified and calculated. The result of Weibull analysis estimators in the form of scale and shape parameters provides useful information of incidents forecasting and their patterns in a particular time.

  15. Natural gas market assessment ten years after deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Changes which have taken place in the Canadian natural gas market in the ten years since the gas market was de-regulated, were reviewed. A 1985 agreement created conditions for a competitive natural gas market. However, the National Energy Board ensured that the pipeline transmission sector of the gas industry would continue to be regulated because of its natural monopoly characteristics. Open non-discriminatory access was to be provided to all shippers on inter-provincial gas pipelines. One objective of this report was to provide the Board with the means of assuring itself that the market was operating in such a way that Canadian requirements for natural gas were being met at fair market prices. The report also provided a review of the major changes in the gas producing and transmission sector, and reviewed developments in gas markets and sales practices. The overall assessment was that the natural gas industry was efficient and responsive to the demands of the marketplace. 5 tabs., 30 figs

  16. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  17. The domestic natural gas industry in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khan, R.A.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    The domestic natural gas industry has generally exhibited slow growth in most developing countries that are fortunate enough to have sufficient proved gas reserves to meet energy needs. But supportive government policies that promote the use of indigenous reserves are now beginning to have a positive impact in many parts of the world. Supply and distribution infrastructures are being built or modernized. And natural gas is now or will be available at prices that encourage the displacement of competitive fuels in the larger, energy-intensive industrial and power-generation markets of these countries. It is expected that the domestic gas industry in many developing countries will expand at higher rates than in the past. In the next few decades, the resulting benefits will include reductions in oil consumption per capita, improvements in the balance of payments for oil-importing and exporting developing countries, greater efficiency of energy usage and lower energy consumption per output unit, and improved environmental quality. The national economies and living standards will also undergo significant advancement

  18. Increased value creation by industrial refining of natural gas in Norway?; Oekt verdiskaping gjennom industriell foredling av naturgass i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvik, John Magne; Kjelland, Torunn; Bakke, Kathrine Stene; Pedersen, Kent Vincent; Roetnes, Rolf; Fjose, Sveinung

    2009-07-01

    The report assesses whether industrial exploitation of gas from possible new major discoveries outside Northern Norway could be profitable. Profits are uncertain and depend heavily on gas prices. Industrial exploitation depends on the development of large, capital-intensive plants. This increases the financial risk. In a situation where gas export through pipelines is not an alternative industrial exploitation could be an alternative to export via LNG. However, the pressing demand for natural gas increases the probability of the construction of a gas export pipeline as a realistic alternative. Carbon emissions from a land-based plant will be important, and the costs for trading of emission allowances will reduce profitability. The authorities should allow for industrial exploitation to be assessed on an equal basis with pipeline transport and LNG as alternatives for market solutions for major new discoveries. (EW)

  19. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: Gaps and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.

  20. Radiation protection programme in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essien, E. C.

    2014-04-01

    The oil and gas industry uses many radiation sources in various radiation based technologies which are of great benefit to the industry, this includes nucleonic gauges, multiphase flow meters, well logging etc. Inappropriate use of these equipment and installations and uncontrolled activities associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) can contaminate the environment resulting in occupational and public exposures. The objective of this work is to develop a Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) for the oil and gas industry which when implemented by the operating organisation will keep doses to the workers and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), maximize the benefits while minimizing the hazards associated with the use of radiation based technologies. In order to achieve the aim of this work, review of previous works on radiation sources in nucleonic gauges, well logging and waste management processes of NORMs was carried out. Some recommendations were stated, which if strictly implemented would improve the scope of radiation protection in the oil and gas industries. (au)

  1. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  2. Natural gas industry faces more uncertainty in the upcoming decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffes, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The monumental discontinuity of the past decade in the natural gas industry was the change of the interstate gas pipeline industry from serving as a merchant function to a common carrier function. The main reason this change could come about was a past strategic error on the part of the interstate pipeline companies. In the early 1980s, they misread the gas supply signals and entered into uneconomical take or pay contracts at unreasonably high prices. This strategic mistake essentially bankrupted all of the pipeline companies. Their submittal to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) forced them to allow open access on their pipelines. The FERC then allowed them to buy their way out of their bad take or pay contracts. The method of pricing natural gas at the wellhead was the other big change. Instead of the major interstate pipeline continuing with a form of mandating area rates, each producer can now deal directly with anyone wanting to purchase the gas. The transportation is available due to these pipelines becoming common carriers. These two discontinuities allowed new paper interstate pipelines to come into existence

  3. Natural gas in Central Asia: industries, markets and export options of Kazakstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    Central Asia contains some of the world''s great gas resources, but their development has been impeded by the political uncertainty following the break-up of the Soviet Union, and the complexities of getting the gas out -whether west through Russia, southwest through Iran to Turkey and other European markets, or south and east to the expanding Asian economies. This comprehensive study examines the resources, industries, and recent developments in three major gas resource countries in Central Asia - Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The report assesses the strategies likely to be taken by the Central Asian gas industries and governments, especially with regard to export possibilities including pipeline routing and construction issues. (author)

  4. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H 2 +CO 2 ) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000 0 F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH 4 + H 2 O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR

  5. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  6. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  7. Considerations on possible consequences of the E.U. gas directive for the italian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    1998-01-01

    The approval by the E.U. Energy Council of the text of the Gas directive and its likely next approval by the European Parliament, have led the author to make an analysis of the main issues of the directive as regards the Italian gas industry. The comments are inherent to the market liberalisation according to principles of graduality and of subsidiarity, the bipolar conception of this industrial sector with a subdivision of the activities in 'competitive' and in potentially m onopolistic , the free access to the networks, the un bundling of the integrated activities of the companies. Comments relevant to the definition of 'eligible customers' are of particular interest for the Italian gas industry as well as the operational conditions to be assured to the companies to which public service tasks are entrusted [it

  8. Training using multimedia in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihn, G.C. [Technomedia International Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Multimedia is becoming a widely used and accepted tool in general education. From preschool to the university, multimedia is promising and delivering some very impressive results. Its application in specific industry segments, like oil and gas, is expected to proliferate within the very near future. In fact, many titles are already on the market or in development. The objective of this article is to present an overview of the current state of multimedia as used in petroleum industry training and to provide managers with a feel for not only the technology but, more importantly, what benefit the technology is expected to bring to their organization.

  9. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  10. Assessing the industry using Porter's five forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a business and plan for the future, there is a need to assess the current situation. One way of doing this is to use Porter's five forces framework. This was the brainchild of Harvard Business School's Michael Porter and developed in 1979. Looking at the competitive intensity of an industry, the model assesses internal and external factors that act together to determine the direction of the business; taken together, this gives an indication of the attractiveness of the industry.

  11. Strategies for the development of CBM gas industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan Mu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the environment for the CBM development in China has been changing in recent years, it is necessary to re-consider the relevant strategies. Through investigations, surveys, geologic assessment, strategic decision-making and other techniques, the strategies for CBM development in China were discussed in respect to present situations, opportunities, challenges, proved reserves, producing reserves, strategic principles, strategic countermeasures, time-spatial allocation of strategies, risk assessments, and elimination of relevant risks. Some research results were obtained. Firstly, still in its initial development stage with fast growth, the CBM industry in China has made outstanding achievements in six aspects and also faces challenges in six aspects. Secondly, strategic focus can be summarized as constructing six CBM production bases in Qinshui, Eastern margin of Ordos Basin, Southwest China, Changqing, Northwest China, and Northeast China, respectively, according to the principles of “steadily developing middle-high rank coals, accelerating the development of low-rank coals and strengthening the comprehensive utilization of mining gas wells”. It is expected that the producing reserves and peak-production rate will be 3–4 trillion m3 and 35–45 billion m3/a, respectively. Thirdly, major strategic risks in CBM development in China include low productivities of individual wells, improper understandings of geologic conditions, decline in investments and lack of technical reserves. To eliminate these risks, it is necessary to reinforce work in the following five aspects, namely, strengthening comprehensive exploration and development of coal-bearing formations, creating favorable environments for the development of private oil companies, expanding spaces for the growth of technical service companies, conducting more researches for the development of innovative technologies in more areas and intensifying law enforcement.

  12. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  13. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  14. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not

  15. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  16. Who's who in the LP-Gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    All pertinent information about the most important North American companies in the LP-Gas industry are listed alphabetically in an easy-to-use directory. A total of 395 listings are included. Besides company names and addresses, other information such as key personnel and products produced and marketed to affiliated companies, and a list of other services offered by each company are also provided

  17. Praktek Akuntansi Piutang Dagang Pada PT. Aneka Gas Industri Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syarah, Irma

    2011-01-01

    A lot of company faced difficulties in analizing, marking or classifying the receivable account. This case will cause the mistake in reporting the receivable account in the financial report in Balance Sheet. For further, this mistake will cause the different perception from the user itself. The aim of this observation is to know whether the Practical of Receivable Accounting at PT. Aneka Gas Industri Medan had been stipulated in accordance with Financial Accounting Standard (SAK) or not. Thi...

  18. Strategic implications of gas to liquids technology for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A new and economical gas to liquids (GTL) technology is described that promises to substantially increase industry's ability to exploit many trillions of cubic feet of largely unmarketable reserves of natural gas. The technology turns the gas into a form that overcomes prohibitive transportation costs, avoids long-term, high-risk, take-or-pay contracts, and helps satisfy the demand for cleaner liquid products. Widespread application of GTL technology is credited with having the power to ease the burden on every segment of the petroleum industry, from exploration through petrochemicals, and into allied industries such as electric power generation. It is claimed that in situations where GTL is the only economic option, it will create an entirely new set of opportunities. Among these are the monetization of known stranded gas and the early development of remote gas discoveries or of oil discoveries associated with gas. It will cause a re-evaluation of exploration strategies by upgrading gas prospects in remote locations and new investment options to countries with shut-in gas or heavy oil or tar sand reserves. The monetization of associated gas when reinjection is no longer needed or desired could occur. Extensive applications offshore and adjacent to coastal reserves and multiple options for refiners facing heavier, higher-sulfur crude slates are possible. The outlook for Syntroleum's version of the GTL process, and the 'grant-back' provisions of Syntroleum's license agreements with companies such as Texaco, ARCO, Marathon, Criterion Catalyst, Catalytica, and ABB, giving each licensee access to the improvements of the other licencees, and the joint development agreements with these companies, were also discussed. 6 refs

  19. The investment challenges facing the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellentrop, Steve

    1998-01-01

    In considering the potential of the United Kingdom for investment in the oil and gas industry, four factors are discussed. They are: the importance of certainty in identifying markets; the importance of infrastructure in assisting follow-on developments in mature oil and gas fields; the UK's competitive position in the world investment market; fiscal terms in the UK as compared with those offered by other countries. The conclusion drawn is that the UK needs to be responsive to its status as a mature oil and gas area and have the flexibility to stimulate investment in frontier areas. Stability in both the fiscal regime and also handling issues like market access is important. There is a need to capitalise on the many advantages conferred by the existing infrastructure in mature areas. (UK)

  20. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  1. China Oil and Gas Market Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yu

    2004-08-01

    China, with one-fifth of the world's population and one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is experiencing a boom in its energy requirements. China has been identified as a high priority market for the oil and gas sector. This priority has resulted in the high level of investment and many large-scale projects related to the oil and gas industry. Oil production from existing fields is expected to increase, new oil and gas fields will be developed, and the country's oil and gas transmission infrastructure will be extended to meet domestic demands. In addition, total domestic investment needs for the next three decades till 2030 are estimated at around $119 billion, and upstream exploration and development will account for about $69 billion. China's oil and gas exploitation business has been the biggest beneficiary of the bearish crude oil prices, national oil stockpile and the need of infrastructure. In the first six-month period of 2005, this industry has gained a profit of USD16.5 billion, up 73.4 per cent year-on-year. The country is becoming increasingly open to international oil companies, contractors and equipment suppliers, who can bring advanced technology, equipment, and management experience. In this context, considerable opportunities in the supply and service sectors are open to Dutch companies. This report analyses the present situation and market prospect of China upstream oil and gas industry, including: Current status of Chinese oil and gas industry analysis and future development forecast; Potential customers analysis, such as three stated-owned oil companies and their foreign partners;Domestic and foreign competitors analysis; Potential opportunities and challenges analysis; Providing contacts and information on main ongoing oil exploration and development projects, and business practices

  2. New models for success emerge for US natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addy, W.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Very few companies in the US natural gas industry are confident in their ability to compete effectively in the brave new world of deregulation. Boston Consulting Group recently conducted an internal study to help the industry think about its future and identify models for success in this new environment. The authors examined the historical performance of 800 companies using several shareholder-value indicators, including cash-flow returns on investment, a measure of cash returns on cash invested that correlates closely to share price. Based on that review and discussions with investment managers and industry analysts, the authors were able to focus on a handful of companies that actually have thrived and created value against the difficult landscape of the past decade. Interviews with their senior executives provided important strategic and operational insights

  3. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  4. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  5. Statistics 2004 of the gas industry in France; Statistiques 2004 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This document provides a analysis and statistical data on the natural gas consumption and supplies in France, the market organization, the employment of the natural gas industry, the transport, production and storage. (A.L.B.)

  6. The impact of electricity restructuring on the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, G.

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of the study is to quantify the impact of electrical restructuring on the natural gas industry, in particular the expected rise in natural gas consumption for electricity generation in Canada from 2000 to 2020. To this end, the study estimates how large the demand potential is and where it is likely to materialize, with the timing of these events also considered. Chapter two discusses the study methodology, which is that of a quantitative forecast. Before an analytical model was chosen, a careful review of potential candidates, a literature review, and an analysis of important issues were undertaken. Chapter three provides requisite background information of electricity restructuring issues. U.K. experiences are highlighted, and common issues and differences among states and provinces are discussed also. Chapter four provides some necessary historical background and puts into perspective the importance of gas consumption for electric generation. Also treated are relevant Canadian and U.S. generation and capacity, and forecasts of restructuring impacts from other organizations. Whether a consensus forecast for gas demand exists is examined, as well as a number of critical factors examined in various studies. Chapter five describes the development of individual study scenarios and key assumptions contained in each scenario. Also described are some of the selected model's capabilities. Retail and generation company strategy parameters are highlighted to provide a better understanding of those capabilities. The competition parameters chosen for generators and retail companies in the model are described. Chapter six reports all key forecast variables in a discussion which compares relevant scenario and sensitivity forecast results. Detailed forecast results for two scenarios are provided in appendices. Chapter seven discusses new investment and business opportunities and challenges in light of the forecast results. These are reviewed for a number of

  7. Mask industry assessment trend analysis 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data was presented at BACUS and a detailed trend analysis is presented here. The annual survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify trends in the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were only added to the survey in 2005; therefore meaningful trend analysis is not yet available.

  8. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  9. NORM management in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, general public and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management which aim towards enhancing: NORM monitoring; Control of NORM contaminated equipment; Control over NORM waste handling and disposal; Workers protection, awareness, and training. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice and, experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. (author)

  10. Modelling of energy / technology actions and measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector (the industry challenge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.J.; Sadownik, B.

    2001-01-01

    The potential in Canadian industry for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed in this report. The analysis is aimed at providing a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of a wide spectrum of technology and energy actions available to the industrial sector in Canada, providing estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, costs and cost effectiveness for different actions by 2010, and simulating industry response to defined measures approved by representatives of the industry sector sub-table. The impacts of a set of measures was determined using in-house models. Four measures were tested against several actions including primary fossil and electricity consumption, using regionally specific energy prices, a discount rate approximating 40 per cent and growth rates derived from the Analysis and Modelling Group. Enhancement of voluntary initiatives, enhanced cogeneration, financial incentives for capital investment to improve efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a set of cost-of-carbon-dioxide simulations were the measures tested. Total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by sector and in aggregate are provided as well as the costs. An indication of the total cost of reduction per tonne, some sense of the cost of the permit and the quantity of a subsidy required to induce decision-makers to purchase the more efficient technology are also provided. 9 refs., tabs

  11. Financial outlook for the North American gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investor's viewpoint of the natural gas business in both the commodity and equity markets is presented. It is clear that the supply surplus is gone, and that the principle source of production gains, the reduction of reserve/production ratios, can no longer provide volume growth. The industry has reacted to the deregulated environment by aggressive marketing, to such an extent that producers are caught in a classic short squeeze. In order to meet contractual obligations, an aggressive drilling program is essential. While strong cash flow growth is expected over the next three years, substantial external capital will be required to fund expenditures. Financing opportunities should be utilized when they are available. More selective investment in equities is necessary, however it is proposed that the market is not overvalued, and a return of ca 50% in the oil and gas index over the next 2 years is targetted. 16 figs

  12. Gas cooled fast reactor background, facilities, industries and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1980-05-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the OECD-NEA Coordinating Group on Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Development and it represents a contribution (Vol.II) to the jointly sponsored Vol.I (GCFR Status Report). After a chapter on background with a brief description of the early studies and the activities in the various countries involved in the collaborative programme (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States), the report describes the facilities available in those countries and at the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and the industrial capabilities relevant to the GCFR. Finally the programmes are described briefly with programme charts, conclusions and recommendations are given. (orig.) [de

  13. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  14. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  15. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the eighth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Its results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2009. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  16. Cattle gas trading poised to spread to oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-06-19

    Fortius Natural Nutrition, a Calgary company, is seeking oil industry help to further its research into redirecting back into cattle some 20 per cent of the food energy lost by methane emissions by belching. Their research to date indicates that by using natural enzymes, vitamins and minerals, it is possible to change the process by which cattle digests feedstuffs. According to the company, the feed additive currently under development could reduce methane emissions in Canada anywhere from 300,000 to 3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent annually, and produce emission credits worth between $7.5 to $68 million. Apart from the emission credits, involvement in this project by the oil industry could be used as a clear demonstration of social and environmental responsibility. TransAlta Utilities is already involved in a similar project with the Global Livestock Group in Uganda, from which the Utility hopes to gain some 30 million tonnes of greenhouse gas credits.

  17. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  18. Panorama 2018 - Digital transformation in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Mere, Adrien; Castagna, Franck

    2018-01-01

    The arrival of digital and related technologies has impacted a number of industries during the past decade. By investing in them one by one, key players in the on-line and digital sectors - led by Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon - have raised awareness among historical players of potential growth tied to the digital transformation of their activities, along with the risk that their core businesses will face threats. The energy sector is no exception to this trend. Following an earlier note which discussed the involvement of key players in the on-line and digital industry in the energy sector, this second note focuses on the action - and reaction - to digital technology by players within the energy sector, particularly oil and gas companies. (authors)

  19. Panorama 2017 - Digital transformation in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Mere, Adrien; Castagna, Franck

    2017-07-01

    The arrival of digital and related technologies has impacted a number of industries during the past decade. By investing in them one by one, key players in the on-line and digital sectors - led by Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon - have raised awareness among historical players of potential growth tied to the digital transformation of their activities, along with the risk that their core businesses will face threats. The energy sector is no exception to this trend. Following an earlier note which discussed the involvement of key players in the on-line and digital industry in the energy sector, this second note focuses on the action - and reaction - to digital technology by players within the energy sector, particularly oil and gas companies

  20. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  1. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  2. Canadian oil and gas industry competitiveness and financial performance update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.; Baynton, K.

    2002-08-01

    This report presents an independent assessment of profitability in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry. The upstream sector includes exploration and production of oil and gas reserves. This report offers a historical and a forward looking perspective on the financial performance of the industry in 2001. The performance of the industry is compared with other industries in Canada and around the world. The report is divided into the following 4 sections: (1) how capital flows in the Canadian upstream oil and gas economy, (2) the analysis of sector profitability based on the efficiency of capital flow in section 1, (3) how the profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas sector stands up compared to other industries, and (4) appendices and other supplementary information. It was noted that as geologic basins are developed, non-renewable resources continue to become more capital intense, a phenomenon that is very evident in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The industry must provide financial incentives for investors to participate in exploration and development. The return on capital must exceed the cost of capital in order to maintain that incentive. The principal findings of this report include: (1) a higher than average uncertainty and volatility expected in 2003, (2) operating costs vary with production, but finding and developing costs are still increasing, (3) declining conventional reserves, (4) growing non-conventional expenditures, (5) current taxes cut into margins, (6) cost of capital only achievable with firm commodity prices, (7) in comparison to other industries, years 2000 and 2001 are exceptional for the industry with high commodity prices catalyzing returns greater than other countries. tabs., figs

  3. 7 CFR 900.33 - Industry assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry assessments. 900.33 Section 900.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings To Amend Federal Milk Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders...

  4. Antitrust Enforcement in the Electricity and Gas Industries: Problems and Solutions for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Antitrust enforcement in the electricity and gas industries raises specific problems that call for specific solutions. Among the issues: How can the anticompetitive effects of mergers be assessed in a changing regulatory environment? Should long-term agreements in energy purchasing be prohibited? What are the benefits of preventive action such as competition advocacy and market surveillance committees? Should Article 82 (a) of the EC Treaty be used to curb excessive pricing?. (author)

  5. Impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets: a power marketer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahns, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets was examined. The presentation included industry comparisons of 1994 gas total revenues versus electricity total revenues for residential, commercial, and industrial use. A chart forecasting the outlook for gas-fired generation of electric power indicated that the use of natural gas as feedstock for power generation will increase from 12% to 37% during the period 1994 to 2003. 16 figs

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: GAS DISTRIBUTION STAGE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 souce category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  7. Cost function for the natural gas transmission, industry: further considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the cost function for the natural gas transmission industry. 60 years ago, Hollis B. Chenery published an important contribution that demonstrated how, in that particular industry, the production function of micro-economic theory can be rewritten with engineering variables (Chenery, 1949). In 2008, an article published in The Engineering Economist (Yepez, 2008) provided a refreshing revival on Chenery's seminal thoughts. In addition to a tribute to the late H.B. Chenery, this document offers some further comments and extensions on Yepez (2008). It provides a statistically estimated characterisation of the long-run scale economies and a discussion on the short-run economics of the duplication of existing equipments. As a first extension, we study the optimal design for infrastructure that is planned to transport a seasonally-varying flow of natural gas. The second extension analyzes the optimal degree of excess capacity to be built into a new infrastructure by a firm that expects a random rise in its output during the infrastructure's lifetime. (author)

  8. GAS AND COAL EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY DURING THE SOCIALIST INDUSTRIALIZATION PERIOD (1948-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that since 1949 the extractive industry has undergone a strong process of restructuring when enterprises were nationalized and a strict control over all components of the economy was established. The new leadership of the country had the intention of developing the industrial sector as well, basically laying the foundations of the new Romanian economy where the industrial sector economy would bring considerable income. This program will lead to the development of the energy sector in Romania also, thus contributing to a great extent to the development and consolidation of coal and gas extraction. Despite of all the economic and social development achieved during the period 1950-1989, at the end of it, Romania ranked a marginal position in the European countries hierarchy since between its level of development and the market economy developed countries large gaps in respect to the main economic and social indicators occurred.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  10. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.-Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  11. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  12. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  13. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  14. Natural gas - too expensive alternative for the Finnish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyytinen, A.-M.

    2001-01-01

    National Climate Strategy estimates that the annual GNP would be reduced by about 0.2 - 0.6 % (2 - 6 billion FIM/a). One should notice that this is the reduction of one year only, so the cumulative sum for ten years is 10 - 30 billion FIM. The natural gas alternative of the strategy means shutting down of coal-based energy production by the enforcement of legislation. It has been estimated that the state has to pay indemnities of about 1.0 billion FIM to power companies. Energy producers have estimated the sum to be at least ten times that presented in the strategy. The price of natural gas has also been estimated to be significantly lower than it is. The present price is about 20% higher than the one used in the analyses. In the strategy the economic growth rate was estimated to be relatively low, especially in energy intensive industry. However, at present it has been necessary to increase the growth rates significantly. If Finland ends up meeting the emissions reductions, agreed in Kyoto, with natural gas, in 2010 nearly all the CO 2 emissions of energy production are caused by natural gas combustion. If the requirements are then tightened this means that Finland has to start shutting down natural gas plants as well. Half of the emission reductions presented in the strategy are planned to be achieved by approved energy conservation programs and promotion programs for using of renewable energy sources. Finnish industry is willing to make voluntary agreements with the condition that no further tax increments or any emission quota are set. New taxes have been taken into use in many European countries so it was estimated that Finland would no longer be the country of high-energy taxation. However, it has appeared that there are used different kinds of refunding and emergency provisions so the situation has not changed. Despite of the climatic attitudes in the USA the climatic issue has been taken seriously in the EU, and several measures and acts are justified by

  15. Is inexpensive natural gas hindering the grid energy storage industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittinger, Eric; Lueken, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Grid energy storage is a maturing technology and forecasts of the industry's growth have been promising. However, recent years have realized little growth in actual deployments of grid-level storage and several high-profile storage companies and projects have failed. We hypothesize that falling natural gas prices have significantly reduced the potential profit from many U.S. energy storage projects since 2009 and quantify that effect. We use engineering–economic models to calculate the monthly revenue to energy storage devices providing frequency regulation and energy arbitrage in several electricity markets and compare that revenue to prevailing natural gas prices. We find that flywheel devices providing frequency regulation were profitable in months when natural gas prices were above $7/mcf, but face difficulties at current prices (around $4/mcf). For energy arbitrage alone, we find that the breakeven capital cost for large-scale storage was around $300/kWh in several key locations in 2004–2008, but is around $100/kWh in the same locations today. Though cost and performance improvements have been continually decreasing the effective cost of energy services from storage, fundamental market signals indicating the need for energy storage are at or near 10-year lows for both energy arbitrage and frequency regulation. - Highlights: • We use engineering–economic models to determine breakeven capital cost of storage. • Two applications are examined: frequency regulation and energy arbitrage. • For both services, potential revenue has decreased significantly since 2008. • We show a high correlation of revenue with natural gas price. • We demonstrate a causal relationship using the PHORUM grid modeling software.

  16. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  18. The emerging role of natural gas on the African economy : the case study of the Nigerian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndubuisi, E.N.; Amanetu, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the African gas market, gas development, distribution, and utilization in Africa with particular emphasis on investment opportunities in Nigeria. Africa's non-renewable energy sources include fossil fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These fuels can be used to generate electricity. Their abundance is required for economic development and their efficient exploitation results in expansion of markets and industrialization, both of which are essential for Africa's social and economic progress. Natural gas is a premium fuel in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors because of its unique characteristics. In Nigeria, the gas market is relatively untapped in the domestic sector, but much progress has been made in the past decade to develop and use natural gas as an energy feedstock for the cement and fertilizer industries. Some major gas transmission systems have been developed along with export oriented projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  20. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  1. Gas industry and environmental reports: the SNAM case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Andreetto, B.; Trebeschi, C.

    1996-01-01

    The so-called 'Environmental Report' is a document containing data and information on the environmental impact of a company; it is being voluntary adopted by a growing number of companies as a tool for environmental management and as a transparent communication protocol between companies and customers. Methodologies and contents of environmental reports are shown, as well as the relevant advantages for companies. Although its activities have a low environmental impact, the gas industry is engaged in further reducing such an impact, by taking voluntary actions such as the adoption of codes of practice and the issue of environmental reports. The contents of SNAM's 1995 Environmental Report are presented, along with the activities carried out, the environmental data and the initiatives adopted for environmental protection

  2. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  3. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves

  4. Gas turbines for the rubber industry: Retrofit feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, F.; Pautasso, F.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration is becoming industry's choice to satisfy process requirements characterized by high energy demand and fairly steady thermal and electrical loads. This paper illustrated the suitability of cogeneration for the production of rubber and PVC floor tiles. The example studied here consists of a gas fuelled turboalternator set capable of producing 1,050 kW of electric power. The energy plant is equipped with a heat recovery system and a post-combustor for the production of a diathermic fluid used by the process equipment. The paper points out how engineers overcame the installation problems due to the presence of existing process equipment and the necessity for continuous plant operation during retrofitting. Attention is given to the energy and cost feasibility aspects of this intervention

  5. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  6. Royalty financing for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, F. M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Key concepts in royalty financing for the oil and gas industry are described. The basic significance of royalty financing for a public company is that financing is 'off balance sheet', and can be used to achieve objectives that neither debt, equity, nor outright sale of assets or farm-outs can accomplish. Royalty financing can provide increased available capital or debt reduction while maintaining the full gross share of reserve and production volumes on the books. This paper provides an overview of the field of royalty financing, with an appreciation of the benefits, reviews each of the financial alternatives (debt, equity, farmout and or sale of assets to reduce capital requirements), and provides examples of specific application of royalty financing. It is claimed that this type of financing, which has been available to the mining sector for some time, is a useful alternative to other financing instruments to acquire new oil and gas assets, to develop new areas, to implement enhanced recovery projects or to carry out mergers and acquisitions. Used judiciously, royalty financing can provide significant benefits to both the working interest owner and his shareholders, as well as the royalty company

  7. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  9. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  10. Liquid scintillation for NORM in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, Siegurd; Moebius, Rolf; Bartenbach, Martin; Ramamonjisoa, Tiana

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides of Radium, Lead and Polonium are trapped along with crude oil and gas and accumulate as scale deposits on equipment in the oil industries. Problems arise by residues and sludge where such Norm often becomes concentrated during the process of extraction, transport, and storage of crude oil. Additionally, Radon is accumulated in natural gas or is co extracted into oil as organic phase where it equilibrates with its Progenies. Thus Norm creates a possible hazard to workers both by external radiation exposure and internal due to incorporation during intervention work, and to the environment due to waste disposal. The determination of 222 Rn, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po in the various production stages is a precondition for an efficient Radiation Protection Management. We have studied the applicability of Liquid Scintillation L S for the measurement of NORM in the oil and gas industry. Our investigations show that 226 Ra may be quantified by L S in solid scale deposits as carbonate and sulphate after grinding and as carbonate additionally after dissolution. Then, an organic L S scintillation cocktail like Betaplate Scint is added and the sample stored for Rn equilibration. While 222 Rn is quantitatively extracted from the solution, only 20 to 30% are emanated as free Rn from the powder into the organic phase. Emanation yield versus grain size and sample amount has been studied using synthetic Ra/Ca-carbonate powder and grinded Pitchblende ore samples. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in carbonate may be determined by α/β-discriminating L S after dissolution, mutual separation on Radium Rad Disk filters and final elution with DHC and EDTA. From these results the isotopic ratio of Radium isotopes in the different scale fractions may be determined. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in production and waste waters may be quantified accordingly. Radon in oil fractions has been measured as 0.1 to 2% solution in Betaplate Scint with sensitivity down to 5 Bq/l. From

  11. Gas turbine efficiency enhancement using waste heat powered absorption chillers in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, Sahil; Rodgers, Peter; Eveloy, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In hot climates, the efficiency of energy-intensive industrial facilities utilizing gas turbines for power generation, such as oil refineries and natural gas processing plants (NGPPs), can be enhanced by reducing gas turbine compressor inlet air temperature. This is typically achieved using either evaporative media coolers or electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers. However, the performance of evaporative media coolers is constrained in high relative humidity (RH) conditions, such as encountered in the Middle East and tropical regions, and such coolers require demineralized water supply, while electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers consume a significant amount of electric power. In this study, the use of gas turbine exhaust gas waste-heat powered, single-effect water–lithium bromide (H 2 O–LiBr) absorption chillers is thermo-economically evaluated for gas turbine compressor inlet air cooling scheme, with particular applicability to Middle East NGPPs. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed scheme, integrated in a NGPP, is compared with that of conventional evaporative coolers and mechanical vapor-compression chillers, in terms of key operating parameters, and either demineralized water or electricity consumption, respectively. The results show that in extreme ambient conditions representative of summer in the Persian Gulf (i.e., 55 °C, 80% RH), three steam-fired, single-effect H 2 O–LiBr absorption chillers utilizing 17 MW of gas turbine exhaust heat, could provide 12.3 MW of cooling to cool compressor inlet air to 10 °C. In the same ambient conditions, evaporative coolers would only provide 2.3 MW cooling capacity, and necessitate consumption of approximately 0.8 kg/s of demineralized water to be vaporized. In addition, mechanical vapor-compression chillers would require an additional 2.7 MW of electric energy to provide the same amount of cooling as H 2 O–LiBr absorption chillers. The additional electricity

  12. Biocide and corrosion inhibition use in the oil and gas industry: Effectiveness and potential environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, D.M.; Fillo, J.P.; Morris, A.E.; Evans, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment chemicals are used in all facets of the natural gas industry (NGI) from well development through transmission and storage of natural gas. The multitude of chemicals used, combined with the dozens of chemical manufacturers and/or suppliers has lead to the availability of hundreds of possible chemical products. Because of the widespread use of chemical products and their numerous sources, the NGI needs access to consistent data regarding their effectiveness and potential environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and potential environmental impacts of, chemical products used in the NGI. This assessment was initially focused on biocides and corrosion inhibitors and their use in the gas production, storage and transmission facilities, The overall approach was obtain the necessary data on chemical use and effectiveness directly from the oil and gas industry, supplemented with data/information obtained from the published literature. Five case histories of chemical use were documented and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of these chemicals. Potential environmental impacts were addressed by performing a screening environmental assessment on the use of glutaraldehyde, a widely used biocide. Prototype discharge scenarios were formulated and modeled to evaluate potential impacts to groundwater and surface water. The paper describes the basis for the study, provides an overview of chemical use with a focus on biocides and corrosion inhibitors, describes and assesses the specific uses of chemicals, and presents the results of the environmental assessment. It was found that various chemicals can be effective in treating microbiologically influenced corrosion and souring, but that the effectiveness of specific chemicals is dependent on the operational scenario and the site-specific conditions

  13. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  14. Foot off the gas : regulating BC's oil and gas industry as if the environment mattered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, B. [Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    The province of British Columbia (BC) is committed to cutting overall greenhouse gas emissions by one third by 2020, yet it continues to subsidize the oil and gas industry, which is a major source of those emissions. It was argued that in order to make a credible effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the province must phase out subsidies to oil and gas companies, and put an end to industry practices such as gas flaring. This common industry practice has major social, economic and environmental consequences as it is unnecessarily wasteful, a significant source of greenhouse gases, and is harmful to public health, the provincial economy and community resources. This paper examined the issue of gas flaring and made policy recommendations for the province. It discussed how much gas is produced in northeast British Columbia; declining fossil fuel reserves; subsidizing natural gas extraction; and treating the atmosphere as a free waste receptacle. It was concluded that on average in each of the past 10 years, the deliberate burning or flaring of natural gas and the leaking or loss of gas at production facilities accounted for 13.5 per cent of BC's greenhouse gas emissions. Recommended reforms include phasing out all provincial government subsidies to the oil and gas industry; ending gas flaring in British Columbia and imposing increasingly higher fines on companies that fail to meet deadlines; immediately charging royalty fees on every unit of gas flared; placing annual limits on the amount of natural gas produced; implementing a carbon tax; raising royalty rates and create a stand-alone provincial fund; and, keep protected areas and special management zones protected. refs., tabs.

  15. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  16. Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be

  17. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  18. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  19. Canadian oil and gas industry competitiveness and financial performance February 2003 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.; Baynton, K.

    2003-02-01

    An independent assessment of profitability in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry is presented. The report looks at capital flows in the Canadian upstream oil and gas economy, and analysis of sector profitability based on the efficiency of capital flow. Appendices and other supplementary information are provided along with a commodity price review and forward revisions. It was noted that geopolitical instability is tightening near-term supply expectations. Persistent instability is likely to keep prices high in the first half of 2003. Higher commodity prices implies that industry revenue will increase, particularly for 2003. Structural factors affecting production growth stem from two main issues: basin maturation, and moderating re-investment by oil and gas producers. The report notes that more than 400,000 wells have been drilled in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin since the early 1950s, and each well, on average, is less productive than its predecessors. Declining productivity is directly related to marginal costs. The report presents a summary of industry cash flow and capital expenditures, including royalties, profitability and amendments to industry taxes. A review of federal resource allowance and royalties is also presented. tabs

  20. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2005-01-01

    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  1. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010; Rapport sur l'industrie petroliere et gaziere en 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  2. Competency assessments for nuclear industry personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering

  3. Statistics 2007 of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2007 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document provides statistical data and an economic analysis of the natural gas industry activity in 2007. It is presented around six main poles: the production, the transport, the methane terminals, the storage, the distribution and the commercialization. The main events of the year 2007 are the importance of Norway in the gas supplying, the decrease of the gas sales and the market opening. (A.L.B.)

  4. Statistics 2005 of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2005 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document provides and analyses statistical data of the natural gas industry for the year 2005. After a presentation of the consumption and the supplying, it deals with the gas market organization (production, transport, storage, supply and distribution), the information sources and the methods of the analysis and the main data (transport, production, storage, employment, uses). The last part takes stock of the energy in 2005 and the main transport axis of the natural gas in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  5. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  6. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry; Statistiques 2006 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  7. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  8. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  9. Prospects of and challenges to natural gas industry development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chengzao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented breakthrough has been made over the past decades in natural gas industry, which helps improve energy mix and promote the low-carbon economy in China. With such abundant hydrocarbon resources, China owns two intensive oil and gas producing blocks in the Ordos Basin and Xinjiang province and two other concentrated gas producing blocks in Sichuan and Western South Sea. In addition, arterial gas lines have been connected as a gas grid all over China and natural gas market has become more and more mature and expanded. Thus, a natural gas industry system has come into being. However, with natural gas unevenly scattering all across China, the remnant resources mainly are distributed in the stratigraphic strata, deep strata in superimposed basins or in mature exploration zones, foreland basin thrust belts, marine gas fields, and so on. In reality, the future gas exploration should focus on such domains as the weathered crust karst reservoirs or carbonate and stratigraphic traps, deep clastic gas layers, and unconventional oil and gas plays. Achievements have been made in marine shale gas exploration, CBM gas steady development, and other unconventional natural gas resources. From the perspective of exploration potential, more giant oil and gas fields will be possibly discovered in deep strata or deep sea water, and stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs and tight oil and gas reservoirs will also be the exploration focus. With the increase of exploration depth and degree, the overall oil and gas exploration cost will be significantly rising in general. New discoveries or reserves increase in natural gas exploration will highly depend upon research theory and technology progress, and such development technologies as 3D seismic survey, horizontal drilling and fracturing treatment will be more highlighted. Through enhancing the cost in natural gas exploration and development and strengthening the research of core technologies, natural gas

  10. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  11. U. S. EPA voluntary programs and the oil and gas industry : Natural Gas STAR and Energy STAR Buildings Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnung, P.

    2000-01-01

    The structure of two EPA programs directed towards wasted energy in buildings, reducing emissions, increasing energy efficiency and maximizing profits are described. The programs are based on a partnership approach between EPA and participants, and involve elements of plans and performance benchmarks, an integrated approach and communications and demonstration of successful initiatives. EPA provides planning and technical support in the form of a website, software tools, manuals, electronic sources and a purchasing tool kit. The Energy STAR Building Partnership has over 3,000 participants, and can boast of a cumulative saving of over $ 1.4 billion in energy bills and carbon dioxide emission reduction of 44.1 billion pounds, resulting from efficiency upgrades. The Natural Gas Partnership between the EPA and the oil and natural gas industry to cost effectively reduce methane emissions from the production, transmission, and distribution of natural gas also has had a number of successful initiatives such as replacement or retrofit of high bleed pneumatic devices, installation of flash tank separators on glycol dehydrators and other partner-reported projects such as replacement of wet seals with dry seals on compressors and connecting glycol pump to vapour recovery unit. As a results of these and other initiatives, annual methane emission was reduced by 22.2 bcf in 1998 as opposed to 3.4 bcf prior to the beginning of the program in 1993. Approximately 67 per cent of all reductions can be attributed to partner innovation. Overall assessment is that the program is innovative, achieves both economic and environmental goals, facilitates government and industry cooperation and is living proof that non-regulatory, cooperative programs work

  12. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is an interview with an energy representative for a major gas-producing company regarding the impact of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636. This legislation was suppose to streamline the interstate transportation of natural gas unhindered by local distribution company (LCD) interference. Many times these LCD's owned a portion of the necessary pipeline route used to transport natural gas, and as a result, had a priority on purchasing pipeline gas whenever they needed. This could, in turn, result in a depletion of contract gas which was in-route to a specified contract market. Such interferences caused problems with the contract markets, but could boost the net profits to natural gas companies who had excess gas that could be sold in-route to other markets. This paper addresses both the pro's and cons' of this new regulation on both the pipeline and gas producing companies

  13. Panorama 2017 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2016-12-01

    The slowing growth in demand observed since 2012 has continued in 2016. Despite weak gas prices, gas growth is limited by the rapid expansion of renewable energy, advances in energy efficiency and the economic downturn in some countries. Excess supply of LNG entering the market favored declining gas prices which benefits emerging countries. These countries appear to be the main driver for future expansion of gas demand

  14. Natural gas industry in USSR and in Central Europe: Domestic market and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousnetzoff, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of natural gas industry in USSR and Central Europe and the state of domestic market and exports: natural gas accounting in Eastern Europe before the crisis, production capacity of the former USSR, impacts of crisis on natural gas consumption and long term forecasts are the main subjects described. 2 tab

  15. Industrial assessment center program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad R. Ganji, Ph.D., P.E., IAC DIrector

    2007-01-01

    The Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) has served the cause of energy efficiency as a whole, and in particular for small and medium-sized manufacturing facilities in northern and central California, within a approximately 150 miles (radial) of San Francisco since 1992. In the current reporting period (September 1, 2002 through November 31, 2006) we have had major accomplishments, which include but are not limited to: Performing a total of 94 energy efficiency and waste minimization audit days of 87 industrial plants; Recommending and analysis of 809 energy efficiency measures; Training 22 energy engineers, most of whom have joined energy services companies in California; Disseminating energy efficiency information among local manufacturers; Acting as an information source for energy efficiency for local manufacturers and utilizes; Cooperating with local utilities and California Energy Commission in their energy efficiency projects; Performing various assignments by DOE such as dissemination of information on SEN initiative, conducting workshops on energy efficiency issues, contacting large energy user plants--Establishing a course on 'Energy: Resources, Alternatives and Conservation' as a general education course at SFSU; Bringing energy issues to the attention of students in classrooms

  16. 2003 statistics of the natural gas industry in France; Statistiques 2003 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-15

    This document synthesizes the main annual results for the French natural gas industry in 2003: 1 - introduction: consumption and supplies; 2 - methodology: production, transport, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, reference documents, energy correspondences; 3 - Main data summarized in maps, graphics and tables: transport networks, storage, compression and production facilities; resources and employment; employment per sector of use; national production and imports; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel of the gas industry; sectoral distribution of gas supply networks; gas cogeneration: consumption, plants; monthly variation of imports and stocks; monthly variation of consumptions and stocks; regional supplies; regional and sectoral supplies; regional use of the national production; main 2003 status of the gas market; 2003 comparison between the inquiry and the provisional status; 2003 energy status. (J.S.)

  17. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas

  18. Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

    2005-07-06

    Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

  19. The role of the upstream oil and gas industry in the Canadian economy and the macroeconomic impacts of increased taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The direct, indirect and overall impacts of the upstream oil and gas industry on the Canadian economy and the impact of increased taxation on the industry and the overall economy was assessed. The industry's value of production in 1995 was $25 billion, two-thirds of which were exports that contributed to Canada's trade surplus. In the same year, the industry also spent more than $10 billion in exploration and development. About five per cent of Canadian gross domestic product (GDP) and three per cent of national employment can be traced to the upstream oil and gas industry, therefore, increased taxation on the industry would have significant impacts on overall economic activity. For the purposes of this analysis, three assumptions were made: (1) a one-time $100 million tax increase on the industry, (2) the tax revenue to go toward government debt reduction, and (3) the reduction in industry net revenue to produce an investment impact equal with the average behaviour of the industry in recent years. Given these factors, it was concluded that a one-time $100 million tax increase could reduce national GDP by $250 million and employment by 3000 jobs. The balance of payments impact would be about -$75 million. Once factors related to expectations and capital mobility have been factored in, the negative macroeconomic impacts could be even greater. 6 tabs., 24 figs

  20. Assessment of University- Industry Collaboration and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the cultural differences between university and industry, the mutual benefits from collaboration between university and industry have long been recognized in the advanced countries. Recently, the issue of technology transfer and collaboration between universities and industries has been receiving attention in the ...

  1. assessment of university- industry collaboration and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... and ecommerce [3]. Technology transfer between industry and university come in different ways such as direct hires of students, graduates, temporary exchanges of researchers, university/faculty consultancies, joint research involving industry and academic scientists and engineers, industry-sponsored.

  2. The gas industry in Qatar: strategies and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser Jaidah

    1997-01-01

    Possessing the largest gas field in the world with definitive proven reserves, Qatar started its development of these reserves towards the end of the last decade. The overall situation of the gas market was unfavourable. The prices of energy were declining and the cost for development of both offshore field and transportation was almost prohibitive. Major international gas players were shy and very reluctant to invest or enter the gas market through the Qatar road. Such ventures were considered to be too risky. Since then interest in the development of export and local gas projects has multiplied, with major gas players and premier market buyers willing to participate by investing in further developments. 8 fig

  3. Panorama 2016 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-12-01

    In an environment marked by slowing economic growth in emerging markets and developing countries, trends in gas market fundamentals varied widely across the regions during 2015. Structural economic factors stifled growth in natural gas demand, which was unable to take up all the excess supply, leading to imbalance in the global gas market and price weakness which is expected to continue in the short and medium-term. (author)

  4. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  5. Panorama 2009 - outlook for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    World consumption of natural gas continued to climb in 2007, but with significant variations depending on the geographical region. The market is expected to keep growing for years, albeit at a slower rate due to the competition with coal, because of the specific advantages that natural gas brings to the energy mix. Consumption may be inhibited by the global financial and economic crisis. By 2030, gas supply and demand will diverge widely at regional level. Considering the uncertainties associated with key markets like the United States, Europe and Russia, it is imperative to develop appropriate strategies to meet the justifiable need to ensure the security of each link in the gas supply chain

  6. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  7. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  8. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment

  9. Concentration fluctuations in gas releases by industrial accidents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Chatwin, P.C.; Joergensen, H.E.; Mole, N.; Munro, R.J.; Ott, S.

    2002-05-01

    The COFIN project studied existing remote-sensing Lidar data on concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion from continuous sources at ground level. Fluctuations are described by stochastic models developed by a combination of statistical analyses and surface-layer scaling. The statistical moments and probability density distribution of the fluctuations are most accurately determined in a frame of reference following the instantaneous plume centreline. The spatial distribution of these moments is universal with a gaussian core and exponential tails. The instantaneous plume width is fluctuating with a log-normal distribution. The position of the instantaneous plume centre-line is modelled by a normal distribution and a Langevin equation, by which the meander effect on the time-averaged plume width is predicted. Fixed-frame statistics are modelled by convolution of moving-frame statistics and the probability distribution for the plume centreline. The distance-neighbour function generalized for higher-order statistics has a universal exponential shape. Simulation tools for concentration fluctuations have been developed for either multiple correlated time series or multi-dimensional fields. These tools are based on Karhunen-Loeve expansion and Fourier transformations using iterative or correlation-distortion techniques. The input to the simulation is the probability distribution of the individual processes, assumed stationary, and the cross-correlations of all signal combinations. The use in practical risk assessment is illustrated by implementation of a typical heavy-gas dispersion model, enhanced for prediction and simulation of concentration fluctuations. (au)

  10. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  11. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    David Reinstein; Daniel A. Benítez Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  12. Assessing scenarios of the brazilian energy matrix in the long-term plan of Ministry of Mines and Energy: impacts in the oil and gas industry; Avaliacao de cenarios de matriz energetica nacional no plano de longo prazo do Ministerio de Minas e Energia: impactos na industria de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The Law no. 9,478/97 establishes that among its attributions the Energy Policy National Council (CNPE) must review periodically the national energy matrix. This paper aims at discussing the scenarios considered in the current revision based on an integrated energy planning approach, identifying its key points and analyzing its eventual consequences, particularly for oil and gas industry. More precisely, it evaluates the effects over the O and G industry of changes in the international and national circumstances. The international key factors focused are, mainly, oil and oil product prices and productive and technological strategies of O and G companies. The national key factors discussed fuel prices, inter-fuel substitution potentials, efficiency levels, potentials of new discovers and characteristics of Brazilian reserves of oil and natural gas (on-shore or off-shore E and P, oil or gas fields, API degree density, sulfur and acid contents), and adequate energy infra-structure (necessity of distribution and transportation grid expansion, refining capacity etc.). Such discussions have important implications for public policies and corporate strategies. (author)

  13. Impacts of low oil price on China and the world natural gas industry chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of 2014, the crude oil price has been in rapid decline, which poses profound impacts on the global natural gas industry chain. The issue started to surface in the oil and gas sector on how to survive in such a situation. In this paper, an overview was first made on the world natural gas industry chain experiencing from the high-oil-price period to the low-oil-price period, then the influences of low oil price on natural gas production patterns, prices and development prospects, etc., and finally discussion focus was put on the challenges and opportunities brought about by the sustained low oil price to the natural gas industry chain in present China. The results are concluded as follows. First, under such low oil price situation, oil and gas companies at present have to cut capital expenditure to such a degree that the oil and gas output will be both of particular concern in the future. Second, low oil price will compel the falls of global natural gas prices to different degrees, so natural gas economy will drop greatly compared with crude oil prices. Third, such a low oil price will exert more severe impact on the high-cost unconventional natural gas sector; as a result, many unconventional oil and gas companies have suffered frequent bankruptcy at abroad, while such companies in China are holding different attitudes towards unconventional natural gas. Fourth, the oil and gas M&A market remains a laggard due to many other reasons. Fifth, this drop in oil prices is just occurring at the time when natural gas is developing so rapidly in China, which will bring both challenges and opportunities to the industrial structural reform of natural gas in China.

  14. Indicative energy technology assessment of UK shale gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O’Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • UK shale gas ‘fracking’ is at a very early stage with an uncertain size of resource. • Shale gas extraction might benefit UK fuel security, as well as jobs and growth. • Potentially harmful environmental ‘side-effects’ must be monitored and regulated. • Gas bills for UK household and industrial consumers are unlikely to fall sharply. • Costs & benefits of shale gas fracking are unevenly distributed between communities. - Abstract: There is at present much interest in unconventional sources of natural gas, especially in shale gas which is obtained by hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’. Boreholes are drilled and then lined with steel tubes so that a mixture of water and sand with small quantities of chemicals – the fracking fluid – can be pumped into them at very high pressure. The sand grains that wedge into the cracks induced in the shale rock by a ‘perforating gun’ then releases gas which returns up the tubes. In the United Kingdom (UK) exploratory drilling is at an early stage, with licences being issued to drill a limited number of test boreholes around the country. However, such activities are already meeting community resistance and controversy. Like all energy technologies it exhibits unwanted ‘side-effects’; these simply differ in their level of severity between the various options. Shale gas may make, for example, a contribution to attaining the UK’s statutory ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions targets, but only if appropriate and robust regulations are enforced. The benefits and disadvantages of shale gas fracking are therefore discussed in order to illustrate a ‘balance sheet’ approach. It is also argued that it is desirable to bring together experts from a range of disciplines in order to carry out energy technology assessments. That should draw on and interact with national and local stakeholders: ‘actors’ both large and small. Community engagement in a genuinely participative process – where the

  15. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  16. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  17. Modification of risk assessment value to test industry reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2015-05-01

    This paper is in a form of a technical note, in which modified method of industry reliability analysis is reviewed. This paper introduces a multi-expert approach group decision making analysis for Risk Assessment Value (RAV), which directly tests the reliability of the system (industry). A case of construction industry has been studied for verification of the method. Reviewed RAV modified technique helps to assess the value of industry reliability; and brings contribution to the body of risk management knowledge.

  18. The gas industry in Korea: the prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Kyong Kim

    1996-01-01

    The energy supply situation in Korea, which has few indigenous resources, is reviewed in the light of increasing demand. In order to lower dependence on imported oil, nuclear power, coal and natural gas have been substituted. However, further expansion of nuclear power is meeting with strong public opposition and coal is also out of favour on environmental grounds. It is hoped, therefore, that natural gas will fill the gap. This presents a number of challenges, the three major ones being: security of gas supply in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG); huge investment in expanding the infrastructure, and financing R and D on utilisation; the deregulation and privatisation of the state owned gas company in order to cope with the accelerating demand. (UK)

  19. East-west cooperation: Market oriented restructuring and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.

    1996-01-01

    The presentation deals with economic situation in the region og the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and in particular in transition countries. Recent developments and trends in the natural gas industry are stressed upon with a description of the role of the Economic Commission for Europe and that of the ECE gas Centre in the current transition process. The subjects covered were concerned with foreign investment trends in economies in transition, energy situation, natural gas market trends, current state of reforms of gas industry in transition countries and the role of ECE in this process

  20. Albertans' views of the oil and gas industry: Angus Reid Group poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Angus Reid Group was commissioned to carry out research to determine and evaluate the image of the oil and gas industries in Alberta. The research was conducted using the Angus Reid Group's January Alberta omnibus study. Of 1200 telephone interviews conducted, 800 were completed by the general population of Alberta and 400 were completed by respondents who live in areas where there is a high level of activity by the oil and gas industries. All respondents were asked a series of questions on the image of the oil and gas industries in Alberta, while the oil and gas community respondents were asked a series of additional questions about their relationship to the oil and gas companies in their area. The 400 interviews with oil and gas communities were combined with the 800 general population interviews and the data were statistically weighed to ensure that the sample's age, gender and regional distribution reflects that of the actual adult populations of Alberta according to 1996 census data. The industries are generally seen as credible, and fifty-eight percent of Albertans see the oil and has industries as a good listener, while 38% do not agree. Fifty-three percent of Albertans see that the industries have become more responsible, and 7% disagree. Two thirds of Albertans see that the industries communicate well with the public, but one third does not. The two industries are seen as being on a par with other industries as far as social values are concerned. The main concern of Albertans about the two industries is that of the environment. A large group see that the industries are concerned about the environment, but they differ on whether actions are actually taken in support of the expressed concern. A majority see the relationship between the industries and themselves as good. tabs

  1. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei

    2018-02-27

    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p gas emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p gas emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  4. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  5. Technical potential for developing natural gas use in the Brazilian red ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca; Henriques, Mauricio Jr.; Szklo, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The red ceramic industry in Brazil, consisting of over 7000 companies, requires large amounts of thermal energy, currently being met mainly by native fuelwood, which causes serious deforestation and soil erosion problems. The use of firewood does not allow achieving good energy performance in industrial ceramic kilns, causing high energy losses, low productivity and low quality products (bricks and roof tiles). Thus, to implement higher added value products, besides mitigate environmental problems caused by deforestation, the use of natural gas by the sector seems to be a promising alternative. Brazil's natural gas market has grown at a fast pace in recent years. Its share in the country's primary energy consumption increased from 3.7% to 9.3% between 1998 and 2007, compared to almost 21% in the world. The development of the Brazilian natural gas industry was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with Bolivia from where natural gas is imported, together with fiscal incentives for promoting the demand. This paper estimates that the natural gas market that could be developed in the Brazilian red ceramic industry corresponds to less than 5% of the total industrial natural gas consumption, meaning that a major technological transformation of the country's red ceramic industry will not severely affect the natural gas market equilibrium, contributing to reduce the country's high rates of deforestation. (author)

  6. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i

  7. Infrared gas heating applied to industrial processes; Le chauffage infrarouge au gaz applique aux procedes industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhue, C. [Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    The theory of radiative heat transfer and the concepts of emissive power and coupled emitters and receptors were presented. Different types of radiative infrared gas heaters available for industrial applications were also reviewed. These include perforated ceramic plate heaters, fibrous panels, combined radiative and convective ceramic heaters, radiative tubes and catalytic panels. The respective advantages of these different heaters were discussed. Application domains of infrared radiative gas heaters include drying in the pulp and paper and textile industries, various drying and baking needs in the agro-food industry, and other applications in the plastic and paint industries. 3 figs.

  8. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  9. Resource-assessment perspectives for unconventional gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Concepts are described for assessing those unconventional gas systems that can also be defined as continous accumulations. Continuous gas accumulations exist more or less independently of the water column and do not owe their existence directly to the bouyancy of gas in water. They cannot be represented in terms of individual, countable fields or pools delineated by downdip water contacts. For these reasons, traditional resource-assessment methods based on estimating the sizes and numbers of undiscovered discrete fields cannot not be applied to continuous accumulations. Specialized assessment methods are required. Unconventional gas systems that are also continous accumulations include coalbed methane, basin-centered gas, so-called tight gas, fractured shale (and chalk) gas, and gas hydrates. Deep-basin and bacterial gas systems may or may not be continuous accumulations, depending on their geologic setting. Two basic resource-assessment approaches have been employed for continous accumulations. The first approach is based on estimates of gas in place. A volumetric estimate of total gas in place is commonly coupled with an overall recovery factor to narrow the assessment scope from a treatment of gas volumes residing in sedimentary strata to a prediction of potential additions to reserves. The second approach is based on the production performance of continous gas reservoirs, as shown empirically by wells and reservoir-simulation models. In these methods, production characteristics (as opposed to gas in place) are the foundation for forecasts of potential additions to reserves.

  10. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Isabelle; Hesske, Philip; Welter-Nicol, Cecile; Korman, Bernard; Wermelinger, Elea; Gouge, Patrick; Balian, Armelle; Guichaoua, Sabine; Levaillant, Elise; Ripaux, Marion; Baumont, Thierry; Fondeville, Louis; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Delvincourt, Thibaud; Pertuiset, Thomas; Quintaine, Thierry; Miraval, Bruno; Cesari, Vartouhie

    2012-01-01

    Illustrated by several graphs and tables, this report first proposes an overview of international oil and gas markets and supplies: markets, exploration, challenges faced by European supplies, and French hydrocarbon imports. It comments oil exploration and production activities in France, refining activities and activities in the field of substitution fuels. The next part addresses the French oil and gas logistics: domestic transports of oil products, oil product storage infrastructures, strategic storage, and gas infrastructures. The last part addresses the final consumption: consumption, distribution, fuel quality, prices, and tax policy

  11. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-01-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections

  12. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-07-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections.

  13. NGVS. Challenges for the Japanese gas industry to open the door for their mass introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Minoru; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    There have been a number of restraints in Japan delaying the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGVs), which is a new comer in car industry. The Japanese gas industry, with support from government agencies, has conducted feasibility studies and clarified necessary technical and safety standards and regulations. These efforts have contributed to the government's drive for deregulation. Concurrently, the gas industry worked out its own scenarios for the promotion of NGVs in Japan, which helped the government in laying down necessary regulations and establishing clear market objectives for the vehicles as government policies. Such activities have yielded model introduction by the national and local governments and government-sponsored incentives for NGV promotion. For auto manufacturers, the gas industry proposed joint development projects and clarified potential market for NGVs. Consequently, many manufactures are now involved in their own NGV development projects. (au)

  14. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Nan; Tang, Hongjun; Li, Jun; Xiong, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, ener...

  15. Gas industry reforms and consumers' prices in the European Union: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brau, Rinaldo; Doronzo, Raffaele; Fiorio, Carlo V.; Florio, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers an exploratory empirical analysis of the impact on consumers’ welfare of the reforms of the gas industry in EU-15 area. After considering the key features of the natural gas industry and of its reform in selected countries, we study the relationship between regulatory reform indicators and price dynamics by means of panel data techniques. We find that none of the relationships between price dynamics and regulatory reform indicators is robust to different econom...

  16. State of development and perspectives of the East German gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The East Germany gas industry has been characterised by fundamental changes during the past four years: reorganisation of the structure of the energy supply companies and their privatisation, the enforcement of fair energy prices and tariffs, the preparation and introduction of process of switching from town gas to natural gas and the connection of the East Germany combined network to the West German/West European natural gas system. Until the year 2010, the level of consumption is expected to be three times greater than the amount of natural gas imported in 1989. (orig./BWI) [de

  17. Risk Management at NASA and Its Applicability to the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David

    2018-01-01

    NASA has a world-class capability for quantitatively assessing the risk of highly-complex, isolated engineering structures operated in extremely hostile environments. In particular, the International Space Station (ISS) represents a reasonable risk analog for High Pressure, High Temperature drilling and production operations on deepwater rigs. Through a long-term U.S. Government Interagency Agreement, BSEE has partnered with NASA to modify NASA's Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) capabilities for application to deepwater drilling and production operations. The immediate focus of the activity will be to modify NASA PRA Procedure Guides and Methodology Documents to make them applicable to the Oil &Gas Industry. The next step will be for NASA to produce a PRA for a critical drilling system component, such as a Blowout Preventer (BOP). Subsequent activities will be for NASA and industry partners to jointly develop increasingly complex PRA's that analyze other critical drilling and production system components, including both hardware and human reliability. In the presentation, NASA will provide the objectives, schedule, and current status of its PRA activities for BSEE. Additionally, NASA has a Space Act Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation to develop a PRA for a generic 20K BOP. NASA will summarize some of the preliminary insights gained to date from that 20K BOP PRA as an example of the distinction between quantitative versus qualitative risk assessment.

  18. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  19. IR and UV gas absorption measurements during NOx reduction on an industrial natural gas fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Jørgensen, L.

    2010-01-01

    NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma-generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments on an industrial power plant running on natural gas. Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx slightly below two. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet absorption...... spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled. Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The operation costs for NOx reduction were estimated...

  20. The natural gas industry - a survey; Erdgaswirtschaft - Eine Branche im Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natural gas supply, the environmental impacts, the energy-saving effect of natural gas, natural gas prices, the competitive strength of the German gas industry, and the long-term reliability of natural gas supply. (orig.) [German] Die Situation des Erdgases in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wird beschrieben, wobei die wichtigsten Vorteile und Auswirkungen der Erdgasversorgung besonders hervorgehoben werden. Es geht um die Stellung des Erdgases im Energiemarkt, die Sicherheit der Energieversorgung, Umweltschutz, Energieeinsparung durch Erdgaseinsatz, Erdgaspreise, Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Gaswirtschaft und um die langfristig gesicherte Erdgasversorgung. (orig.)

  1. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  2. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  3. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  4. Numerical Simulation of an Industrial Absorber for Dehydration of Natural Gas Using Triethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Dagde, Kenneth Kekpugile; Akpa, Jackson Gunorubon

    2014-01-01

    Models of an absorber for dehydration of natural gas using triethylene glycol are presented. The models were developed by applying the law of conservation of mass and energy to predict the variation of water content of gas and the temperature of the gas and liquid with time along the packing height. The models were integrated numerically using the finite divided difference scheme and incorporated into the MATLAB code. The results obtained agreed reasonably well with industrial plant data obta...

  5. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  6. legal status of sections 10 and 12 of the nigerian oil and gas industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALADEJARE: LEGAL STATUS OF SECTIONS 10 AND 12 OF THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY CONTENT DEVELOPMENT ACT. 129. LEGAL ..... 30 Indonesia – Autos, Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry (Panel report, ad- opted 23 July ... (1996) 5 Minnesota Journal of Global Trade 467. 32 United ...

  7. The Prospects for Industrial Development in the Context of High Natural Gas Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii G. Goncharuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presentsa study of the source providing a key role in investment activity of the enterprises of metallurgy and chemical industries during a period of high natural gas prices. Based on the results of the study there suggested public policies aimed at revitalizing its work, giving prospects of industrial development.

  8. The European gas industry at a corner of its history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1996-01-01

    The closing session of the 113. gas conference has been delivered by Mr Pierre Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France. This session has been held when the discussion on the European Union gaseous organization begins. This discussion has to determine the environment of Gaz de France for the future years. (O.M.)

  9. The promotion of work safety. A continuous task for the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The modern Western European population values the work safety very highly because of ethical and economical reasons. In Switzerland too, safety at work is actively promoted. Based on national legislation and on the SGWA-Association Statutes, the Swiss Gas Industry, with great engagement, promotes the measures for accident prevention. Following a general introduction into the legislative basis, possible ways and means for the promotion of safety at work are described. Subsequently, the concrete activities of the Gas Supply Authorities and the SGWA are pointed out, followed by a description of the future work-safety programmes of the Swiss Gas Industry. (orig.) [de

  10. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  11. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Recent rapid increases in the demand for city gas in manufacturing industries and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shigero

    1992-01-01

    City gas companies in Japan are experiencing an expansion in demand for gas in all manufacturing industries. The reason for this is, first and foremost, external, in that the first and second oil crises and the recent Gulf War have placed the oil market in a state of flux. That is to say, supply and demand in the oil products market is unstable while the stability of city gas, which is the main raw material for LNG, is being highly appraised. Another external reason is related to a subject much in the news recently the world over - the environment. City gas is highly regarded for its minimum environmental impact. Domestic reasons for the expansion include the fact that with the increase in use of city gas in manufacturing industries, the end user is beginning to recognize the various special qualities that city gas possesses. The expansion is also due in part to the unrelenting efforts in sales by the gas producers themselves. This report focuses on the expansion in demand in city gas over the past ten years from the point of view of Tokyo Gas as a producer that has been party to the increased sales of city gas in manufacturing industries for over 10 years giving views on the reasons for the increase. Graphic reports of the actual situation of the industry at meetings such as these are rare and therefore although this is slightly different from the main theme, I would like to proceed with the debate in the hope that this will be beneficial in the expansion of future gas demand in countries all over the world

  13. The modifications on natural gas industry legislation: focus on the transportation sector; As alteracoes na legislacao da industria de gas natural: enfoque no setor de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mails: hirdanmedeiros@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br; Ferreira, Jurandir Goncalves [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade]. E-mail: jurasferreira@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present paper aims to dissertation, specifically, concerning to legislative proposals deal with the transport natural gas. In methodological sense we show one brief historical exposition of the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the approach given for the Law of the Oil and the Resolutions of the National Agency of Oil, Gas Natural and Bio fuels (ANP) for the natural gas transport. Therefore relevant questions to the natural gas transport are detailed in the Legislative Bills proposals for the natural gas Brazilian industry. As conclusions, it is presented a parallel between legal security and the accomplishment of investments in the sector of natural gas transport. (author)

  14. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The technological and economic significance of the Canadian petroleum industry to the national economy and to Canada's standing in the world are reviewed. The six key ways in which the oil and gas industry affects Canada, namely employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and community support are stressed within the context of describing present and future oil and gas resources, Canada's petroleum and natural gas trade balance, and capital spending and product sales. Attention is also drawn to the role of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry as a producer and exporter of world class technology, especially in the areas of high tech exploration methods, cold-climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery techniques, heavy oil production and and processing, mining and upgrading of oil sands bitumen, oil well firefighting, and environmental protection technology. maps, figs

  15. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  16. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  17. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995; Statistiques de l`industrie gaziere en France pour l`annee 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.).

  18. Assessment of US industry's technology trends and new technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of a novel approach (the Applications Development, or AD approach), intended to augment the efficiency of NASA's technology utilization (TU) through dissemination of NASA technologies and joint technology development efforts with U.S. industry is tested. The innovative AD approach consists of the following key elements: selection of NASA technologies appearing to have leading edge attributes; interaction with NASA researchers to assess the characteristics and quality of each selected technology; identification of industry's needs in the selected technology areas; structuring the selected technologies in terms of specifications and standards familiar to industry (industrial Spec. Sheets); identification and assessment of industry's interest in the specific selected NASA technologies, utilizing the greatly facilitated communication made possible by the availability of the industrial Spec. Sheets; and matching selected NASA technologies with the needs of selected industries.

  19. Towards the future french organization of the natural gas industry; Vers la future organisation gaziere francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the new directive on the internal gas market of 1998, the government proposed a discussion by the presentation of this white book, providing information and questions. This book proposes seven main chapters: the gas industry activity and the directive on the internal gas market; the gas actors, the key numbers and the juridical context in France; define and strengthen the natural gas public utility; useful actions for each gas facilities (transport, distribution, storage and retailers); the realization of progresses for the consumer; the operating of an efficiency control; actions to develop the gas operators in the world. The text of the 98/30/CE directive is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available , and then test this against experimental data. This is because rate laws must be determined from measurements of reaction rates, and cannot be deduced from reaction stoichiometry. The reader is refered to standard physical chemistry texts5 for further... if kd is not gas species dependent. 3. CATALYSTS PRESENT With catalysts present in the laser, the oxygen concentration stabilise quickly and at lower levels than in the case of no catalysts. Using the model already found for the discharge chemistry...

  1. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  2. A model for utilizing industrial off-gas to support microalgae cultivation for biodiesel in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laamanen, Corey A.; Shang, Helen; Ross, Gregory M.; Scott, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a model to assess process-coupled algae production in cold climates. • Algae growth temperatures in open tanks can be maintained with industrial off-gas. • Indirect and direct heat application from industrial off-gasses are assessed. • CO 2 -rich off-gas can be bubbled into algae tanks to provide a carbon source. • A nickel smelter’s off-gas is used to demonstrate how waste heat can be repurposed. - Abstract: Lipids produced by microalgae are a promising biofuel feedstock. However, as most commercial mass production of microalgae is in open raceway ponds it is generally considered only a practical option in regions where year-round ambient temperatures remain above 15 °C. To address this issue it has been proposed to couple microalgae production with industries that produce large amounts of waste heat and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The CO 2 would provide a carbon source for the microalgae and the waste heat would allow year-round cultivation to be extended to regions that experience seasonal ambient temperatures well below 15 °C. To demonstrate this concept, a dynamic model has been constructed that predicts the impact on algal pond temperature from both bubbled-in off-gas and heat indirectly recovered from off-gas. Simulations were carried out for a variety of global locations using the quantity off-gas and waste energy from a smelter’s operations to determine the volume of microalgae that could be maintained above 15 °C. The results demonstrate the feasibility of year-round microalgae production in climates with relatively cold winter seasons

  3. Assessment of Occupational Health Services in a Petroleum Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Lagos Zone of the largest and oldest indigenous oil and gas company in Nigeria. The purpose was to compare the occupational health facilities and services in the Upstream and Downstream operations of the industry. Data was collected by key informant interviews ...

  4. Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffington, Warren M.; Eggebrecht, James A.

    2007-02-24

    This project benefited the public by assisting manufacturing plants in the United States to save costly energy resources and become more profitable. Energy equivalent to over 75,000 barrels of oil was conserved. The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) visited 96 manufacturing plants and spent 101 days in those plants during the contract period from August 9, 2002, through November 30, 2006. Recommended annual energy savings for manufacturers were 37,400,000 kWh (127,600 MMBtu—site basis) of electricity and 309,000 MCF (309,000 MMBtu) of natural gas. Each manufacturer subsequently was surveyed, and based on these surveys reportedly implemented 79% of the electricity savings and 36% of the natural gas savings for an overall energy savings of 48% of recommended. Almost 800 (798) projects were recommended to manufacturers, and they accomplished two-thirds of the projects. Cost savings recommended were $12.3 million and implemented savings were $5.7 million or 47%. During the contract period our average time between site visit and report submittal averaged 46 days; and decreased from 48 days in 2003 to 44 days in 2006. Serving clients well and promptly has been a priority. We visited five ESA overflow clients during FY 06. The Texas A&M University IAC pioneered the presentation of air pollution information in reports, and includes NOx and CO2 reductions due to energy savings in all reports. We also experimented with formal PowerPoint BestPractices presentations called Lunchtime/Showtime in each plant and with delivering electronic versions of the report. During the period of the contract, the director served on the Texas Industries of the Future (IOF) Refining and Chemicals Committee, which oversaw the showcases in 2003 and 2006. The assistant director was the Executive Director of the International Energy Technology Conference held annually. The director and assistant director became qualified specialists in the Process Heating Assessment Scoping

  5. Portable rapid gas content measurement - an opportunity for a step change in the coal industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, Basil; Kizil, Mehmet; Gu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The last major advance in gas content measurement for coal seams was the introduction of the quick crush technique in the early 1990s. This is a laboratory test method that has proven very reliable over the years. Recent laboratory testing using a portable quick crushing device, known as the portable gas content analyser, has produced consistent gas content results for a set of core samples obtained from a single borehole that intersected four coal seams. The retained gas content values obtained for the seams show the same increasing gas content pattern and gas composition change with depth as the standard quick crush technique. Use of the portable gas content analyser provides the opportunity to produce rapid, reliable gas content measurement of coal that could be developed for assessing gas compliance cores and outburst-prone conditions at a mine site.

  6. Environmental performance assessment: a case study in the paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Antonov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The inherent complexity of environmental performance measurement makes it difficult to be gauged, sending it forth to methodologies supported on assessments of the various factors that could influence the overall performance. In association with the environmental performance lies the need to create methods that allows the assessment over the time in order to facilitate comparisons amongst different organizations or operations of a same company. Measurement of environmental performance comes from several sources thus a dominant approach widely recognized and accepted by the academic community and organizations can not be singled out. The purpose of this review is to test a method for assessing environmental performance in a manufacturer organization, performing a case study in the paper industry. The results can be compared with other operations and can be used, cumulatively, in supply chains. The specific objectives are (i to model the environmental performance of the transaction, (ii to use the model to measure performance, and (iii to interpret the results and come to a conclusion. It begins with a review of the environmental performance measurement and then proceeds to the description of the research methodology and the results of its application. The method consists of five constructs, assessed by managers and processes experts according to their potential of environmental performance's improvement: solid waste, wastewater, gas emissions, deployment of natural resources, and legal compliance. The constructs are perceived by qualitative indicators categorically evaluated. The final result is an index of 76.69%, which represents the environmental performance of the operation.

  7. Panorama 2010: Short-term trends in the gas industry; Panorama 2010: Tendances a court terme de l'industrie gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2010-07-01

    After a period of strong expansion that lasted for most of 2008, the gas industry was hard hit by the impact of the economic recession. Although the competitiveness of the gas price was often an advantage in 2009, the natural gas market saw a net decline in consumption that led to a historic decrease in world production and international trade. In addition, the subsequent collapse of market prices gave LNG a competitive edge in the Atlantic Basin, where surplus gas continued to accumulate, heralding a long 'gas bubble' period that the industry will have to adjust to permit harmonious, long-term development of the gas markets. (author)

  8. Deregulation of LP gas industry and future problems; LP gas sangyo no kisei kanwa to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Okaya, Y.; Kaneko, Y. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes deregulation of LP gas industry and future problems. The conventional regulation in LP gas industry aims at the security of safety of LP gas and the proper business. The deregulation consists of the release of social regulation of safety and the reconsideration based on the introduction of competitive principle. The law was enforced from April, 1997. This law includes the proper response to advancement of safety technology, addition of self-safety incentive, open information to general consumers, and simplification of procedures. Safety and sales are separated through an establishment of safety organization. License system of sales is changed to registration system for easier participation. The current LP gas industry is loosing its competitive force due to its higher cost compared with the competitive fuels. The demand stays in a low level. There are a lot of small-scale retailers, and the enhancement of them is a problem. It is required to improve the productivity by the expansion of scale through cooperation and integration, to reduce the cost by rationalization through bulk supply and centralized monitoring, and to realize the diversification of management.

  9. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  10. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  11. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  12. An Industrial Cloud: Integrated Operations in Oil and Gas in the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chunming

    Cloud computing may provide the long waiting technologies and methodologies for large scale industrial collaboration across disciplines and enterprise boundaries. Industrial cloud is introduced as a new inter-enterprise integration concept in cloud computing. Motivations and advantages are given by a practical exploration of the concept from the perspective of the on-going effort by the Norwegian oil and gas industry to build industry wide information integration and collaboration. ISO15926 is recognized as a standard enabling cross boundaries data integration and processing.

  13. The viability of deregulation in the Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2003-01-01

    The reform of Gazprom has triggered much discussion in Russia and at an international level, because the aim of the reform exceeds the sectorial economic interests. On one hand, its success depends to some extent on the level of progress made by economic reforms overall. On the other hand, it depends on the structure of the industrial system which has resulted of the mass privatisation programmes and the non monetization of the economy during the 1990. Having set out the main aspects of the planned reforms, this paper looks at their attractiveness and feasibility. (A.L.B.)

  14. Human capital for the future of the gas industry: Delivering on talent. Welcoming the youth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Marius; Le Gourrierec, Meline

    2015-01-01

    The gas industry has clearly identified one issue: it must attract young professionals to replace the previous generations of working people. The natural gas sector expanded rapidly in the mid-nineteen sixties with the first large import-export contracts of Dutch and Russian gas, the in the mid-seventies with several other sources (Algeria and Norway). It is now a global industry. Today's objective is to develop activities along the entire gas chain, both upstream and downstream. Therefore, it is necessary to attract the best researchers, managers and technicians to meet the new challenges of this expanding industry. Currently, the gas workforce remains predominantly masculine. Increasing the number of women employees is also a necessity for the sector. This requires improving communication and attracting young women into taking up scientific and technical studies. Together with the World Gas Conference organised in Paris, the second edition of the Youth Event is being held. Interactivity, professional network, exchanges, talks...: 3,4 and 5 June are dedicated to the future of the gas sector

  15. The Role of Bottom Simulating Reflectors in Gas Hydrate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, U.; Shedd, W. W.; Cook, A.; Frye, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this research we test the viability of using a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) to detect gas hydrate. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) occur at many gas hydrate sites near the thermodynamic base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and are frequently used to identify possible presence of gas hydrate on a regional scale. To find if drilling a BSR actually increases the chances of finding gas hydrate, we combine an updated dataset of BSR distribution from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management with a comprehensive dataset of natural gas hydrate distribution as appraised from well logs, covering an area of around 200,000 square kilometers in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The BSR dataset compiles industry 3-D seismic data, and includes mostly good-quality and high-confidence traditional and non-traditional BSRs. Resistivity well logs were used to identify the presence of gas hydrate from over 700 existing industry wells and we have found over 110 wells with likely gas hydrate occurrences. By integrating the two datasets, our results show that the chances of encountering gas hydrate when drilling through a BSR is ~ 42%, while that when drilling outside the BSR is ~15%. Our preliminary analysis indicates that a positive relationship exists between BSRs and gas hydrate accumulations, and the chances of encountering gas hydrate increases almost three-fold when drilling through a BSR. One interesting observation is that ~ 58% of the wells intersecting a BSR show no apparent evidence of gas hydrate. In this case, a BSR may occur at sites with no gas hydrate accumulations due to the presence of very low concentration of free gas that is not detected on resistivity logs. On the other hand, in a few wells, accumulations of gas hydrate were observed where no BSR is present. For example in a well in Atwater Valley Block 92, two intervals of gas hydrate accumulation in fractures have been identified on resistivity logs, of which, the deeper interval has 230 feet thick

  16. Designing reliability into high-effectiveness industrial gas turbine regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper addresses the measures necessary to achieve a reliable regenerator design that can withstand higher temperatures (1000-1200 F) and many start and stop cycles - conditions encountered in high-efficiency operation in pipeline applications. The discussion is limited to three major areas: (1) structural analysis of the heat exchanger core - the part of the regenerator that must withstand the higher temperatures and cyclic duty (2) materials data and material selection and (3) a comprehensive test program to demonstrate the reliability of the regenerator. This program includes life-cycle tests, pressure containment in fin panels, core-to-core joint structural test, bellows pressure containment test, sliding pad test, core gas-side passage flow distribution test, and production test. Today's regenerators must have high cyclic life capability, stainless steel construction, and long fault-free service life of 120,000 hr

  17. Performance of small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers comparative assessment of simple and advanced cycle small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines. More particularly, investigation was made of technical performance of the small-scale aero-derivative engine cycles based on existing and projected cycles for applications in industrial power generation, combined heat and power concept, rotating equipment driving, and/or allied processes. The investigation was done by carrying out preliminary design and performance simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool small-scale aero-derivative turboshaft engine model, and some advanced counterpart aero-derivative configurations. The advanced configurations consist of recuperated and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles of same nominal power rating of 1.567 MW. The baseline model was derived from the conversion of an existing helicopter engine model. In doing so, design point and off-design point performances of the engine models were established. In comparing their performances, it was observed that to a large extent, the advanced engine cycles showed superior performance in terms of thermal efficiency, and specific fuel consumption. In numerical terms, thermal efficiencies of recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles, over the simple cycle at DP increased by 13.5%, and 14.5% respectively, whereas specific fuel consumption of these cycles over simple cycle at DP decreased by 12.5%, and 13% respectively. This research relied on open access public literature for data.

  18. Atomizing industrial gas-liquid flows – Development of an efficient hybrid VOF-LPT numerical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ström, Henrik; Sasic, Srdjan; Holm-Christensen, Olav; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling of turbulent atomizing gas-liquid flows in real industrial devices. • A combined VOF-LPT framework with statistical coupling. • Regions of separated and dispersed multiphase flow treated simultaneously. • Statistical model based on a limited amount of highly resolved VOF data. - Abstract: Atomizing gas-liquid flows are used in industrial applications where high interphase heat and mass transfer rates and good mixing are of primary importance. Today, there is no single mathematical framework available to predict the entire liquid breakup process at an acceptable computational cost for a typical problem of industrial size. In this work, we develop a volume-of-fluid (VOF) framework that is combined with Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) to take advantage of the respective strengths of these two approaches. The two frameworks are coupled via a statistical model that enables a transition from the VOF to the LPT formulation using input data about the primary breakup process obtained from detailed VOF simulations in dedicated switching zones. LPT-to-VOF transitions are handled directly by analyzing the proximity of LPT parcels to larger VOF structures. The combined framework is specifically designed to accommodate situations where atomization occurs in several locations simultaneously and when separated and dispersed turbulent gas-liquid flows co-exist in the same industrial unit. The procedure in which the statistical model is derived is presented and discussed, its performance is verified and the computational efficiency of the combined VOF-LPT model is assessed. Finally, the application of the coupled framework to the simulation of an industrial gas-liquid mixer with four separate atomization regions is presented.

  19. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-01

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10 -2 per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  20. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, R.

    2000-02-01

    The impact of the oil and natural gas industry on the Canadian economy is explained in terms of employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and industry support to the community. It is reported that the industry employs almost one half million people in Canada; is the second largest contributor to Canada's balance of trade; generate billions of dollars for the economy and pays hundreds of millions of dollars in taxes and its employees contribute millions of dollars and thousands of hours of time to charitable and community organizations. The industry is also one of the major contributors to Canada's technology export through its leadership in high technology exploration methods, cold climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery technologies, producing and processing heavy oil; mining and upgrading oil sands bitumen, oil-well firefighting techniques and environmental protection technologies, among others. Citing Canada's cold climate and energy-intensive industries, hence the need for large quantities of energy, the booklet offers a rationale for the industry's need to continue to be profitable in order to develop new sources of oil and gas production and invest in energy-efficient technologies. Assuming continued profitability, combined with more efficient use of oil and gas, the Foundation remains confident that the industry will provide energy security and export revenues for the benefit of all Canadians. 12 refs., photos

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Strategic Decisions in Gas Industry Using DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehregan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the fluctuations of oil price in international markets and its effect on global economy, it is expected that gas industry and use of gas as an alternative energy, have become more important. Therefore, identification of strategic decisions in this industry has attracted increasing attention of managers and researchers. This study aims to identify and evaluate strategic decisions in the National Iranian Gas Company, using DEMATEL method for the first time. For data collection, paired comparison questionnaire have been used. The results of the research show that expanding operations to enter a new market, opening and starting up a new plant or facility, expansion of capacity and restructuring are respectively the most important strategic decisions in the industry.

  2. First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  3. On the use of risk acceptance criteria in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2005-01-01

    Risk acceptance criteria, as upper limits of acceptable risks, have been used for offshore activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf for more than 20 years. The common thinking has been that risk analyses and assessments cannot be conducted in a meaningful way without the use of such criteria. The ALARP principle also applies, but the risk acceptance criteria have played a more active role in the assessment processes than seen for example in the UK. Recently there has, however, been a discussion about the suitability of risk acceptance criteria to assess and control risks. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by presenting and discussing a risk analysis regime that is not based on the use of risk acceptance criteria at all. We believe that we can do better if cost-effectiveness (in a wide sense) is the ruling thinking rather than adoption of pre-defined risk acceptance limits. This means a closer resemblance with the ALARP principle as adopted in the UK and other countries, but is not a direct application of this practice. Also the building blocks of the common way of applying the ALARP principle are reviewed. The Norwegian offshore oil and gas industry is the starting point, but the discussion is to large extent general

  4. The gas industry of Trinidad and Tobago - A case study of development; L'industrie du gaz de Trinidad et Tobago une etude de cas de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jupiter, A. [Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago); Look Kin, F. [National gas company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of the development of the gas industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Recognition is given to State's role in providing a friendly regulatory, administrative and fiscal regime for investment in the upstream and downstream sectors and that of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited in the promotion and development of Natural Gas Based Industries. At present, initiatives for additional gas based industries are ongoing and it is expected that this portfolio of gas utilization will be expanded to include Aluminum manufacture, additional LNG, Methanol, Ammonia, Iron reduction and Steel manufacture and Ethylene. The provision of infrastructure to support these industries include a phased development of gas transmission network, industrial estates with multi-user piers and harbour facilities for export based projects. The evolution of an energy policy framework within which the full potential of the nation's energy resources can be realized is viewed as crucial to the development of the industry. The gas pricing policy used in conjunction with other factors provide a competitive advantage for foreign investment in gas based industries and have served to attract gas based manufacturing facilities. The country has realized employment opportunities, export earnings and increased financial and economic activities from these investments. (authors)

  5. TRANSIENT MODELLING OF INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE FOR POWER GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    VINICIUS PIMENTA DE AVELLAR

    2010-01-01

    As turbinas a gás são equipamentos de vital importância para o setor industrial, fornecendo trabalho e calor para diversos setores, do transporte aos sistemas de cogeração. A crescente necessidade de geração de energia elétrica confiável tem incentivado o projeto de turbinas a gás industriais, inclusive no Brasil, que operam com vários combustíveis como o diesel, gás natural, álcool e de combustíveis de baixo poder calorífico. Para melhor monitorar e controlar estes motores,...

  6. The oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon: assessing impacts and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne Alemagi

    2007-01-01

    While the oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon has made important contributions to the national economy, this has been accompanied with adverse environmental impacts. There has been significant pollution from oil drilling, refinery waste, oil spillage, gas and flaring. After discussing these impacts, this paper argues that prevailing regulations are inadequate and need overhauling. It proposes that cleaner production requires: (i) specific laws to protect dwellers in the neighbourhood of oil refineries, filling stations, service stations and pipelines; (ii) adoption of national standards for levels of industrial effluents, and allocation of sufficient resources for monitoring these standards; (iii) formation of industry-government research partnerships; (iv) the divorcing of gas flaring; and (v) a more comprehensive legislation enabling a robust public participation in environmental impact assessment and nomination of indicators to evaluate corporate environmental management plans. (author)

  7. Technology assessment of automation trends in the modular home industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Mitchell; Robert Russell Hurst

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technology used in manufacturing modular homes in the United States, and that used in the German prefabricated wooden home industry. It is the first step toward identifying the research needs in automation and manufacturing methods that will facilitate mass customization in the home manufacturing industry. Within the United States...

  8. US lessons for energy industry restructuring: based on natural gas and California electricity incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.

    2004-01-01

    During the regulation and deregulation processes, the US experienced, besides temporary price spikes, several unhappy incidences; natural gas shortage in mid-1970s, gas bubble in 1980s, California power crisis, and high natural gas price in 2000-2001. This paper focuses on the US natural gas and California electricity industries, especially on the above-mentioned four incidences. Through analyzing their causes and effects, this paper tries to deduce some lessons, which would be helpful to prevent and/or overcome other probable incidences in the US as well as in other countries in a process of deregulation or planning to introduce competition in their energy industries. Main lessons deduced are encouragement of investment, minimization of political consideration, transmission of price signal to all the market players, outlet for any market interference, diversification of trading options, and minimum ambiguity on responsibility between regulators as well as watching on general market situation and correcting its flaws in timely manner

  9. US lessons for energy industry restructuring: based on natural gas and California electricity incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonwoo Lee

    2004-01-01

    During the regulation and deregulation processes, the US experienced, besides temporary price spikes, several unhappy incidences; natural gas shortage in mid-1970s, gas bubble in 1980s, California power crisis, and high natural gas price in 2000-2001. This paper focuses on the US natural gas and California electricity industries, especially on the above-mentioned four incidences. Through analyzing their causes and effects, this paper tries to deduce some lessons, which would be helpful to prevent and/or overcome other probable incidences in the US as well as in other countries in a process of deregulation or planning to introduce competition in their energy industries. Main lessons deduced are encouragement of investment, minimization of political consideration, transmission of price signal to all the market players, outlet for any market interference, diversification of trading options, and minimum ambiguity on responsibility between regulators as well as watching on general market situation and correcting its flaws in timely manner. (Author)

  10. The natural gas market in North-America. The evolution of the Mexican gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, Gerry [Canadian Energy Research Institute (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This study by Petro Consultants of Houston suggests that Mexican gas can compete with United States gas. First, the resource base is relatively immature and prospects are good for the discovery of large pools with low per unit finding, development and production costs. Second, the resources are considered to be producible using conventional methods. There were 11 basins to consider for Mexico in this survey. [Spanish] Este estudio realizado por Petro Consultants sugiere que el gas mexicano puede competir con el gas de los Estados Unidos. Primero, la base del recurso esta relativamente inmadura y los prospectos para el descubrimiento de grandes depositos son buenos, con costos unitarios de localizacion, desarrollo y produccion bajos. Segundo, se considera que los recursos son capaces de producir usando metodos convencionales. Existian 11 cuencas por considerar en Mexico, en este estudio.

  11. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-08-01

    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Gas turbine in cogeneration in a petrochemical industry; Turbina e gas em cogeracao numa industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreyevich, Svetislav Tomas [FINEGER S.A. Engenheiros Associados (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    A feasibility study with technical and economical analyses about a new gas turbine, operating in a cogeneration process at a petrochemical plant, is developed comparative evaluations were made between various kinds of gas turbine, considering two different sceneries. The economic evaluation includes investments, financing, maintenance and operational costs, direct and indirect costs and tariffs. Energy and mass balances for each are also presented. 24 figs.

  13. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  14. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processes in several common industrial areas: (1) Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle; (2) Producing hydrogen; (3) Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer; (4) Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal; (5) Producing substitute natural gas from coal; and (6) Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  15. Money Talks: Why Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill will Fail to End Gas Flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Industry Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that...previous legislation failed. Loopholes in the PIB combined with corruption, lack of effective enforcement mechanisms and lack of incentives to develop...Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written, the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that previous

  16. Wastewater Management in Shale Gas Industry: Alternatives for Water Reuse and Recycling, Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Caballero, José A.; Antunes, Carlos H.

    2017-01-01

    18th European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry (EMEC). Poster (#22) http://emec18.eventos.chemistry.pt/ Wastewater management is nowadays one of the major concerns faced by the shale gas industry to improve its cost-effectiveness, while preserving the human health and environment. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations usually demand excessive freshwater consumption and generate large wastewater volumes. The highly polluting nature of shale gas wastewater impels the appl...

  17. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  18. Automation Architecture based on Cyber Physical Systems for Flexible Manufacturing within Oil&Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo V García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that in the next few years most of the technologies involved in the so-called Industry 4.0 will have a deep impact on manufacturing companies, including those related to Oil & Gas exploration and production. Low cost automation promotes reference architectures and development approaches aiming at increasing the flexibility and efficiency of production operations in industrial plants. In this sense, OPC UA, in addition to allowing companies to join the Industry 4.0 initiative, provides local and remote access to plant information, enabling a recognized mechanism for both, horizontal and vertical integration in a reliable, safe and efficient way. The contribution of this article is an open architecture for vertical integration based on cyber-physical production systems, configured under IEC 61499 and using OPC UA, suitable to achieve flexible manufacturing within Oil & Gas industry.

  19. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabelle, M.

    2000-12-01

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  20. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2000-01-01

    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  1. contractual agreements in ghana's oil and gas industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    manages its own oil by taking absolute control of exploration and production, the other the options demand a contractual ..... to assess the offices, installations and structural facilities for audit in consultation with the contractor. This is to ensure that ... for internship or on-the-job training. These opportunities will include short ...

  2. Competition and regulation in the gas industry: an evaluation of the MMC report on gas in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppard, M.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of a more competitive gas market in the UK are examined, and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC) references and recommendations are outlined. An assessment of the findings of the MMC report is given covering the structure of British Gas, the monopoly threshold, setting charges for the tariff market and transportation, services, market share targets, the regulatory system, and guarantees to shareholders. (UK)

  3. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the US biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division`s Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry`s insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.

  4. The Maritimes natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The National Energy Board continually monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the functioning of the natural gas market in the Maritimes and discusses several issues facing the market. The focus of the report is on the existing markets served by the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It also includes Prince Edward Island, another Maritime market that may be served by the pipeline before the end of the decade. Since the initiation of the Sable Offshore Energy (SOE) Project more than 3 years ago, pipeline facilities have been built off the mainline M and NP system to serve Halifax and Point Tupper in Nova Scotia, and Saint John, Moncton, and St. George in New Brunswick. Enbridge Gas New Brunswick has built distribution facilities in Fredericton and Oromocto, New Brunswick to serve large industrial, commercial and residential consumers. A distribution system has not been set up for residential or commercial customers in Nova Scotia. Approximately 20 per cent of the Scotian production is being consumed in the Maritimes, while 80 per cent of the gas produced from the SOE Project is being exported to the United States. Despite the high export, the Board is satisfied that the market is working to the benefit of Canadians because energy users in the Maritimes already have access to a variety of fuels at competitive prices. The Maritimes also benefited from the development of the natural gas industry and the export market has provided a large anchor market necessary for the development of offshore reserves. Domestic demand has also grown due to a pipeline system policy that has maintained low transportation rates to domestic users. The challenges facing the Maritimes gas market include the fact than many of the markets in the Maritimes are small, thereby reducing the economics of serving these

  5. Economic analysis of the reduction of dehydrator emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalifoux, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act benzene has been designated as toxic, and after gasoline combustion, the natural gas extraction industry is the largest source of benzene emissions to the environment. The study's objective is to present a profile of the natural gas industry and to analyze the costs to the private sector of complying with the various benzene reduction targets. Also outlined is a profile of the natural gas extraction industry. A description is included of the method used to extrapolate the results obtained from the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. Two scenarios studied are described in section four including: (1) scenario one in which the environmental requirements would have to be applied across-the-board to all emitting sites, which would have to comply with maximum benzene reductions, and (2) scenario two in which the environmental requirements would only be applied to high-emission sites, which would have to comply with specific requirements. A compilation is made in the fifth section for each scenario of the cost to the industry and the benzene emission reductions for each scenario for the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. The aim of developing the two scenarios used to analyze various benzene emissions reduction levels at the sample of 370 sites was to determine: capital costs required, additional annual costs as additional annual operating costs plus annualized capital costs, number of sites affected, and total benzene reductions expressed in tonnes per year. 10 tabs

  6. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  7. Credit risk assessment: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring different risk factors such as credit risk in banking industry has been an interesting area of studies. The artificial neural network is a nonparametric method developed to succeed for measuring credit risk and this method is applied to measure the credit risk. This research’s neural network follows back propagation paradigm, which enables it to use historical data for predicting future values with very good out of sample fitting. Macroeconomic variables including GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, stock price index, and M2 are used to forecast credit risk for two Iranian banks; namely Saderat and Sarmayeh over the period 2007-2011. Research data are being tested for ADF and Causality Granger tests before entering the ANN to achieve the best lag structure for the research model. MSE and R values for the developed ANN in this research respectively are 86×〖10〗^(-4 and 0.9885, respectively. The results showed that ANN was able to predict banks’ credit risk with low error. Sensibility analyses which has accomplished on this research’s ANN corroborates that M2 has the highest effect on the ANN’s credit risk and should be considered as an additional leading indicator by Iran’s banking authorities. These matters confirm validation of macroeconomic notions in Iran’s credit systematic risk.

  8. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  9. Developing competition while building up the infrastructure of the Brazilian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mello Sant Ana, Paulo Henrique; De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto; Valdir Bajay, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    For the last 20 years, countless countries have been carrying out structural reforms in the natural gas industry, trying to achieve efficiency and economic rationality with the introduction of competition. The objective of the paper is to present an approach to the development of competition and infrastructure of the Brazilian natural gas industry. This approach is based on a market projection to 2011, on the international experience and on the characteristics of the Brazilian market, infrastructure and regulatory framework. Possible impacts of the proposed measures are also provided. According to the market projection carried out in this paper, in 2011 there will be a possible surplus of natural gas in the country, which includes a dependence diminishing of the Bolivian gas supply. This gas surplus, allied to an upcoming Gas Law and the trade liberalization in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, can stimulate the development of competition, if some changes that proposed in this paper are made in the current Gas Bills. The approach proposed herein seeks to stimulate non-discriminatory open access, focused on information transparency and tariff regulation to help the development of infrastructure and competition. (author)

  10. Turbine Inlet Air Cooling for Industrial and Aero-derivative Gas Turbine in Malaysia Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, A.; Salim, D. A.; Othoman, M. A.; Kamal, S. N. Omar; Tam, Danny; Yusof, M. KY

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a gas turbine is dependent on the ambient temperature. A higher temperature results in a reduction of the gas turbine’s power output and an increase in heat rate. The warm and humid climate in Malaysia with its high ambient air temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of gas turbine generators. In this paper, the expected effect of turbine inlet air cooling technology on the annual performance of an aero-derivative gas turbine (GE LM6000PD) is compared against that of an industrial gas turbine (GEFr6B.03) using GT Pro software. This study investigated the annual net energy output and the annual net electrical efficiency of a plant with and without turbine inlet air cooling technology. The results show that the aero-derivative gas turbine responds more favorably to turbine inlet air cooling technology, thereby yielding higher annual net energy output and higher net electrical efficiency when compared to the industrial gas turbine.

  11. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  12. Numerical Simulation of an Industrial Absorber for Dehydration of Natural Gas Using Triethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kekpugile Dagde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of an absorber for dehydration of natural gas using triethylene glycol are presented. The models were developed by applying the law of conservation of mass and energy to predict the variation of water content of gas and the temperature of the gas and liquid with time along the packing height. The models were integrated numerically using the finite divided difference scheme and incorporated into the MATLAB code. The results obtained agreed reasonably well with industrial plant data obtained from an SPDC TEG unit in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Model prediction showed a percentage deviation of 8.65% for gas water content and 3.41% and 9.18% for exit temperature of gas and liquid, respectively.

  13. White book - The 10 proposals of the gas industry for 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The members of the French Gas Association (AFG - the union of natural gas industry professionals), have joint their efforts to promote the advantages of natural gas as a support to the development of renewable energies. The role that natural gas can play in the French energy policy is summarized in this white book in the form of 10 proposals: 1 - promoting all renewable energy sources; 2 - Making energy transition in the regions a success; 3 - Improving air quality thanks to clean mobility; 4 - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions; 5 - Reducing energy consumption in accommodations; 6 - Fighting fuel poverty; 7 - Contributing to the energy security supplies of France; 8 - Making energy taxation more efficient; 9 - Storing energy while accompanying renewable energy sources development; 10 - Promoting innovation

  14. Lunar resource assessment: an industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. C.; Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.

    The goals of the U.S. space program are to return to the Moon, establish a base, and continue onward to Mars. To accomplish this in a relatively short time frame and to avoid the high costs of transporting materials from the Earth, resources on the Moon will need to be mined. Oxygen will be one of the most important resources, to be used as a rocket propellant and for life support. Ilmenite and lunar regolith have both been considered as ores for the production of oxygen. Resource production on the Moon will be a very important part of the U.S. space program. To produce resources we must explore to identify the location of ore or feedback and calculate the surface and underground reserves. Preliminary resource production tests will provide the information that can be used in final plant design. Bechtel Corporation's experience in terrestrial engineering and construction has led to an interest in lunar resource assessment leading to the construction of production facilities on the Moon. There is an intimate link between adequate resource assessment to define feedstock quantity and quality, material processing requirements, and the successful production of lunar oxygen. Although lunar resource assessment is often viewed as a research process, the engineering and production aspects are very important to consider. Resource production often requires the acquisition of different types, scales, or resolutions of data than that needed for research, and it is needed early in the exploration process. An adequate assessment of the grade, areal extent, and depth distribution of the resources is a prerequisite to mining. The need for a satisfactory resource exploration program using remote sensing techniques, field sampling, and chemical and physical analysis is emphasized. These data can be used to define the ore for oxygen production and the mining, processing facilities, and equipment required.

  15. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem...... into an Internet-based design tool, and results and conclusions from four empirical tests with environmentally non-skilled designers are presented....

  16. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  17. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry. 1984 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the second annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to requirements set forth in Section 23(b) of Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act, which was enacted on January 4, 1983. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions and projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports

  18. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry: 1986 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the fourth annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1982. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions, as well as projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports. 13 refs., 26 figs., 37 tabs

  19. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  20. Development of Information Support of the Automated System for Monitoring the State of the Gas Transportation System’s Industrial Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to developing the information security of the automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the gas transportation system within the framework of the safety management system, which will enable timely and objective detection of adverse accident hazards (hazardous events and taking the necessary specific measures to eliminate them and operate the gas transport system safely. It is proved that the basis of the information provision of the automated system for monitoring the state of the industrial safety of the gas transmission system is a methodology that includes the following basic procedures: identifying hazards; qualitative and quantitative assessment of emergencies; establishing of unacceptable (unallowable risks and their introduction to the information base (register of unacceptable risks of objects of the gas transportation system; comprehensive assessment and certification of the state of industrial safety of objects of the gas transportation system; identification of effective, productive (efficient risk management measures. The prospect of further research in this area is the development and implementation of an automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the objects of the gas transmission system based on the results of the research (of the submitted information provision.

  1. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  2. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-09-28

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures.

  3. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures

  4. An industrial FT-IR process gas analyzer for stack gas cems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, G.M. [American instruments, Anacortes, WA (United States); Herman, B.E. [Applied Automation/Hartmann & Braun, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) technology to meet and exceed EPA requirements to Continuously Monitor Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO){sub 2} in an oil refinery. The application consists of Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEMS) of two stacks from a Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit (FCCU). The discussion will follow the project from initial specifications, installation, start-up, certification results (RATA, 7 day drift), Cylinder Gas Audit (CGA) and the required maintenance. FT-IR is a powerful analytical tool suitable for measurement of stack component gases required to meet CEMS regulations, and allows simultaneous multi-component analysis of complex stack gas streams with a continuous sample stream flow through the measurement cell. The Michelson Interferometer in a unique {open_quotes}Wishbone{close_quotes} design and with a special alignment control enables standardized configuration of the analyzer for flue gas analysis. Normal stack gas pollutants: NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO; as well as water soluble pollutants such as NH{sub 3} and HCI may be accurately determined and reported even in the presence of 0-31 Vol % water vapor concentrations (hot and wet). This FT-IR analyzer has been operating with EPA Certification in an oil refinery environment since September 1994.

  5. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  6. Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R. L.; Amos, W. P.; Downing, M.; Perlack, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the state of the biopower industry and the technology for producing electricity and heat from biomass. Biopower (biomass-to-electricity generation), a proven electricity generating option in the United States and with about 11 GW of installed capacity, is the single largest source of non-hydro renewable electricity. This 11 GW of capacity encompasses about 7.5 GW of forest product industry and agricultural industry residues, about 3.0 GW of municipal solid waste-based generating capacity and 0.5 GW of other capacity such as landfill gas based production. The electricity production from biomass is being used and is expected to continue to be used as base load power in the existing electrical distribution system. An overview of sector barriers to biopower technology development is examined in Chapter 2. The discussion begins with an analysis of technology barriers that must be overcome to achieve successful technology pathways leading to the commercialization of biomass conversion and feedstock technologies. Next, an examination of institutional barriers is presented which encompasses the underlying policies, regulations, market development, and education needed to ensure the success of biopower. Chapter 3 summarizes biomass feedstock resources, characteristics, availability, delivered prices, requirements for processing, and the impediments and barriers to procurement. A discussion of lessons learned includes information on the California biomass energy industry, lessons from commercial biopower plants, lessons from selected DOE demonstration projects, and a short summary of the issues considered most critical for commercial success is presented in Chapter 4. A series of case studies, Chapter 5, have been performed on the three conversion routes for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications of biomass--direct combustion, gasification, and cofiring. The studies are based on technology characterizations developed by NREL and EPRI

  7. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  8. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  9. Estimate of methane emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, D.A.; Lott, R.A.; Cowgill, R.M.; Harrison, M.R.; Shires, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Global methane emissions from the fossil fuel industries have been poorly quantified and, in many cases, emissions are not well-known even at the country level. Historically, methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry have been based on sparse data, incorrect assumptions, or both. As a result, the estimate of the contribution these emissions make to the global methane inventory could be inaccurate. For this reason the assertion that global warming could be reduced by replacing coal and oil fuels with natural gas could not be defended. A recently completed, multi year study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and the Gas Research Institute, had the objective of determining methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry with an accuracy of ± 0.5% of production. The study concluded that, in the 1992 base year, methane emissions from the industry were 314 ± 105 Bscf or 6.04 ± 2.01 Tg (all conversions to international units are made at 15.56 o C and 101.325 kPa). (author)

  10. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  11. Investing in Troubled Territories The Oil and Gas Industry in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central research question of this study concerns the level of political risk in the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia for companies in the oil and gas industry. It is practically impossible and very costly to gather all relevant information for a political risk analysis. The aim here is to illustrate such an analysis using a ...

  12. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  13. SYSTEM MODELLING OF ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DESIGN ORGANIZATION IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kh. Bakhitova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effectivization of design organization in oil and gas industry is being investigated in terms of system modeling. A method of forming production functions of design organization is considered and used for substantiation of cost, expenses, budget of design organization, as well as the mechanism of transparent interaction, cooperation, coordination and control of field development.

  14. Toward the next fiber optic revolution and decision making in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boering, M.; Braal, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber optic data transmission has caused revolutionary developments in the current information society. It was also an eye opener for the Oil & Gas industry when fiber optic-based Distributed Temperature Sensing was introduced in the nineties. Temperature profiles over the entire length of the

  15. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria and the process of delivering it was examined with oil and gas projects. ... which the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is obtained to give guide on the appropriate means of managing the environment during the various project activities.

  16. Natural Gas Vehicles in Egypt Challenges and Prospects of A Growing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, M.

    2004-01-01

    Growing industrialization, if not mere population growth, on the face of the Earth will induce organizations and nations world wide to reconsider the variety, priority, and efficiency of their energy sources. Natural gas has become the world's premier energy source because it is efficient, adaptable, and environmentally safer than other fossil fuels. The vehicular sector is a growing and major fuel consuming sector in any economy. Technological advancements and the flow of funds in that industry have allowed nations to target that sector as a priority in a plan to achieve maximum adaptation to natural gas consumption. The use of compressed natural gas vehicles dates back to the 1930 s in Italy. The late 70 however witnessed the launch of and commitment to a growing and developing industry. Today there are 3 million natural gas vehicles world wide with major concentrations in Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Pakistan, USA, and Egypt. The majority of these vehicles are converted gas vehicles adapted to use CNG in bi-fuel systems

  17. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  18. An overview of the upstream oil and gas industry in Australia in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian oil and gas exploration and production industry entered 1997 with high expectations and the promise of significant further discoveries and potential developments. This optimism is based on the results from a busy 1996 in which more exploration wells were drilled than any year since 1991. Offshore seismic acquisition, which is an indication of the future health of the industry, also increased almost four times; onshore, slightly less seismic than the previous year was recorded. Major projects and future prospects are highlighted. It is estimated that for many of these projects to eventuate it will be necessary for world wide gas demand to increase significantly and for oil and gas prices to improve and for the markets and economies in India and China (potential large markets) to mature

  19. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  20. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  1. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing.

  2. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  3. Emergence of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry: Emphasis on the application of silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muili Feyisitan Fakoya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry is on the rise as evidenced by the number of researches undertaken in the past few years. The quest to develop more game-changing technologies that can address the challenges currently facing the industry has spurred this growth. Several nanoparticles, of different sizes and at different concentrations, have been used in many investigations.In this work, the scope of the study covered the application of nanotechnology in drilling and hydraulic fracturing fluids, oilwell cementing, enhanced oil recovery (which includes transport study, and foam and emulsion stability, corrosion inhibition, logging operations, formation fines control during production, heavy oil viscosity reduction, hydrocarbon detection, methane release from gas hydrates, and drag reduction in porous media. The observed challenges associated with the use of nanoparticles are their stability in a liquid medium and transportability in reservoir rocks. The addition of viscosifier was implemented by researchers to ensure stability, and also, surface-treated nanoparticles have been used to facilitate stability and transportability.For the purpose of achieving better performance or new application, studies on synergistic effects are suggested for investigation in future nanotechnology research. The resulting technology from the synergistic studies may reinforce the current and future nanotechnology applications in the oil and gas industry, especially for high pressure and high temperature (HPHT applications. To date, majority of the oil and gas industry nanotechnology publications are reports of laboratory experimental work; therefore, more field trials are recommended for further advancement of nanotechnology in this industry. Usually, nanoparticles are expensive; so, it will be cost beneficial to use the lowest nanoparticles concentration possible while still achieving an acceptable level of a desired performance. Hence

  4. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  5. Cyber Vulnerabilities Within Critical Infrastructure: The Flaws of Industrial Control Systems in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Danielle Marie

    The 16 sectors of critical infrastructure in the US are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Potential attacks come from internal and external threats. These attacks target the industrial control systems (ICS) of companies within critical infrastructure. Weakness in the energy sector's ICS, specifically the oil and gas industry, can result in economic and ecological disaster. The purpose of this study was to establish means for oil companies to identify and stop cyber-attacks specifically APT threats. This research reviewed current cyber vulnerabilities and ways in which a cyber-attack may be deterred. This research found that there are insecure devices within ICS that are not regularly updated. Therefore, security issues have amassed. Safety procedures and training thereof are often neglected. Jurisdiction is unclear in regard to critical infrastructure. The recommendations this research offers are further examination of information sharing methods, development of analytic platforms, and better methods for the implementation of defense-in-depth security measures.

  6. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2006-2008 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This report presented an assessment of the expected capability of Canadian gas production through to the year 2008. Strong natural gas prices have led to record drilling levels in Canada's natural gas industry. North American natural gas prices reached a peak near the end of 2005. The rise in prices during 2005 reflected high world crude oil prices, a tight balance between natural gas supply and demand, and disruptions to United States gas supply from 2 hurricanes. In response to rising prices, western Canada drilling activity achieved new highs in early 2006. Higher drilling rates also reflected rising costs for key inputs of steel, fuel, and labour. Gas prices have since softened due to a storage overhang resulting from a mild winter. The combination of rising costs and softening prices has impacted margins for Canadian gas producers. In response, some producers have reduced drilling expansion plans in coalbed methane (CBM) and shallow gas plays in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Increases in deeper gas drilling have been maintained. Total gas drilling for 2006 is expected to rise by 3 per cent compared to 2005. The report projected a small increase in Canada's total annual gas production from 484 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 491 million m 3 /d in 2008. Annual average deliverability of conventional gas is expected to decline slightly over the projection period. The decrease is expected to be more than offset by growth in CBM production in western Canada, which is expected to increase from 8 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 27 million m 3 /d in 2008. 5 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovdal, Nicolai; Neumann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: → Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. → International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. → Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. → Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. → Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  9. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  10. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Sugar Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Arieyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar, by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  11. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Sugar Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Arieyanti Dwi; Astuti, Rahayu Siwi Dwi; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar), by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  12. Economic Sanctions Against Russia: Short and Medium Term Consequences for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in production and exports of oil and gas from the United States and other OECD countries led to pressure on energy prices, and posed the problem of redistribution of the structure of oil and gas market shares. The aggravation of competition contributed to the selection of measures to modernize the industry in Russia as the main measures of economic sanctions, as well as restrictions on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Europe, which jeopardized the implementation of the South Stream and North Stream-2 projects. The oil and gas industry continues to play a significant role in the formation of the revenue base of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. As a result of the imposition of sanctions, the export of Western equipment to Russia was banned, it could be a serious blow to the industry, which potential could be fully realized in the next 3–5 years. Oil and gas companies are most dependent on the pumping equipment (import share is 50%, catalysts (80% share of imports, applied software (the share of imports is more than 80%. Currently, Russian companies purchase equipment in China and South Korea, but the quality is much lower than the US, and the equipment often fails, so it is associated with the high costs of repairs. The import substitution should revive the domestic production of oil and gas equipment, but how this policy is implemented is difficult to predict, as enterprises have to overcome a significant technological gap and lag behind foreign developments. Russia managed to survive the short-term period of economic sanctions with significant, but not extremely large losses. Much more acute consequences can affect in the medium term, unless vigorous steps are taken to import substitution and modernization of oil and gas production and processing.

  13. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  14. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RELIABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the procedure of identification of organizational and technological reliability is described. This methodology is applicable both to separate functional areas and to all industrial enterprises. Its objective is to assess the expediency of reorganization. The objective of this scientific research is the substantiation of reorganization of an industrial enterprise. Multivariable models, or convolutions, were used as research methods. According to the RF law, industrial enterprises are divided into four functional areas, each of which is assessed on the basis of multiple criteria. Assessment of organizational and technological reliability requires a multi-parameter model. Its axes correspond to the number of evaluation criteria. The set of criteria designated for the assessment of organizational and technological reliability is identified on the basis of the homogeneity of trend indicators designated for centripetal and centrifugal models. The axes of a multi-parameter model represent real and benchmark values. The unit serves as the benchmark value; it is the maximal value of this parameter. The formula based on average values shall be used to determine the total value of the above parameters. The authors have also generated a model of organizational and technological reliability of industrial enterprises. It is noteworthy that assessment of organizational and technological reliability of an industrial enterprise requires a concentric multi-layer model developed through the application of the convolution method.

  15. Assessment and exploitation of energy-related externalities in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.; Tourkolias, C.

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of alternative policy measures in reducing impacts from atmospheric pollution generated from industrial energy use. The evaluation procedure relies on the assessment of energy-related externalities by exploiting the methodology developed in the framework of the ExternE project. The analysis focuses on 2 industrial units located in the Greater Athens area and examines three types of abatement measures that can be used independently of the extent energy saving or end-of-pipe emission reduction measures are used: substitution of fuel oil with natural gas, relocation of the units several hundreds of kilometers far from Athens and increase of stack height in the same site. It results that the use of natural gas is by far the most effective among these measures, leading to a reduction of more than 90% of both local and regional damages. The relative effectiveness of the examined measures does not change if the significant uncertainties associated with the accounting procedure are taken into account, while inclusion of the external cost due to greenhouse gases emissions is further accentuating the advantages of natural gas. Moreover, it is shown that the quantifiable energy-related external costs of a single industrial product, may be very low compared to the corresponding private costs, but they sum up to significantly high damages to society if we take into account the total energy consumption in the industrial sector

  16. Workshop on technical assessment of industrial thermal insulation materials: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    1976-07-01

    Over 80 participants representing 50 organizations met to discuss the report, Industrial Thermal Insulation--An Assessment, ORNL/TM-5283. Presentations on the performance of available materials, economic considerations, and measurement problems were followed by discussion. A final wrap-up session concluded that the report was valuable in pointing the direction for needed effort in the area, confirmed the indicated actions needed to further industrial application of insulation, and called for future meetings to continue the dialogue between the various facets of the industry

  17. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of

  18. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  19. Image is all: Deregulation, restructuring and reputation in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Does image affect how one views his local utility company--or energy supplier? Does one value his utility companies more if one sees a lot of image advertising and public relations stories about community involvement, environmental action and charitable work? Or does one view utilities as faceless and anonymous entities that provide necessary services one thinks little about until there's a problem? And, more important, what is the role of utility image in an era of deregulation, as companies begin a new scramble for customers? To find an answer to these questions, American Gas and Christopher Bonner Consultants conducted a survey of A.G.A. member companies to learn what, if anything, utility companies are doing in the areas of image assessment and change. The survey was sent to more than 200 A.G.A. member companies; written responses were received from 35. In addition, 13 follow-up telephone interviews were conducted, including four with companies that had not responded in writing. The picture that emerges if of an industry that is starting to pay greater and greater attention to image. And, as utilities reorganize and redefine themselves, they are also reexamining the ways they communicate with key audiences, including employees, customers, legislators, the financial community and the news media

  20. NON-INTRUSIVE GAS-PHASE THERMOMETRY FOR INDUSTRIAL OXY-FUEL BURNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Tröger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oxy-fuel combustion processes is of large interest for several industrial fields applications since it offers the advantages of low NOx emissions in combination with high combustion temperatures even without additional preheating. For optimization of such processеs a detailed understanding based on precise experimental data is necessary. So far there is still a lack of precise experimental data achieved with high spatial and temporal resolution from industrial relevant turbulent oxy-fuel combustion processes. Beside species concentration information the gas phase temperature is of utmost importance for an improved understanding of the basic chemical reactions and the pollutant formation. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS technique is a very well suited laser based tool for a non-intrusive investigation of such turbulent high temperature combustion processes. In this work we analysed an industrial 400 kW oxy-fuel burner with the help of O2 based vibrational CARS system which is integrated in an industrial relevant test furnace. The burner is fed with pure oxygen and natural gas at an equivalence ratio of =0.9. At one downstream position temporal and spatial resolved temperatures were measured along a 600 mm line. Additional air sucked in from the environment seems to influence the gas phase temperature significantly.

  1. Sustainable development and the oil and gas industry. A tense relationship?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkink, E.

    2003-12-01

    The behaviour of a multinational company stems from strategic considerations. With the globalisation of our economy and society as a whole, information became easier retrievable. Companies had to expand their organisational scope. Consequently, the pressure on companies to act responsibly mounted over the years. Companies have gradually come to realise that they have to fulfil a societal duty and started a slow move towards sustainability. This pressure is particularly high on the international oil and gas companies that provide the whole world with energy. Corporate sustainable development can only be realised when every organisational activity takes notice of the demands of the concept. To comply with these demands a company needs to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Sustainable development requires a company to take its economic, environmental and social responsibilities seriously. This paper assesses the attitude of 26 international oil and gas companies with respect to sustainable development. For this purpose, an attitude test model was developed that qualifies the companies' level of sustainability along 5 predefined levels. Increased sustainability is related to better care for the companies' impact. The companies' annual reports of the year 2000 were used as main source of information. On average the industry reached an overall sustainability score of 2.84. This score represents an attitude that goes beyond compliance, but has not yet reached the level of pro-activeness. The companies' attitude towards the environment is worse, with an average score of 2.56. Most companies do not take it much further than is needed to secure their licence to operate. In comparison, West-European companies have the best attitude towards sustainable development, followed by Canada, America, Australia and Russia. The influence of home country characteristics is statistically

  2. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m 3 /day (147 ft 3 /day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ''burps,'' that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m 3 (21,400 to 36,700 ft 3 ); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m 3 (6,800 to 11,600 ft 3 ). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m 3 (14,600 to 25,100 ft 3 )

  3. Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry, a global industry operating in many Member States, makes extensive use of radiation generators and sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, some of which are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment if not properly controlled. In addition, significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) originating from the reservoir rock are encountered during production, maintenance and decommissioning. The oil and gas industry operates in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety and control - this includes the need to maintain control over occupational exposures to radiation, as well as to protect the public and the environment through proper management of wastes that may be radiologically and chemically hazardous. The oil and gas industry is organizationally and technically complex, and relies heavily on specialized service and supply companies to provide the necessary equipment and expertise, including expertise in radiation safety. This training manual is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering its training course on radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry. Enclosed with this manual is a CD-ROM that contains the presentational material used in the training course, the course syllabus and additional notes for course presenters. The course material is based principally on IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 34 Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry, published by the IAEA in 2003. The training course is aimed at regulatory bodies; oil and gas field operators and support companies; workers and their representatives; health, safety and environmental professionals; and health and safety training officers. A pilot training course was held in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2000 as

  4. Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry, a global industry operating in many Member States, makes extensive use of radiation generators and sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, some of which are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment if not properly controlled. In addition, significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) originating from the reservoir rock are encountered during production, maintenance and decommissioning. The oil and gas industry operates in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety and control - this includes the need to maintain control over occupational exposures to radiation, as well as to protect the public and the environment through proper management of wastes that may be radiologically and chemically hazardous. The oil and gas industry is organizationally and technically complex, and relies heavily on specialized service and supply companies to provide the necessary equipment and expertise, including expertise in radiation safety. This training manual is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering its training course on radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry. Enclosed with this manual is a CD-ROM that contains the presentational material used in the training course, the course syllabus and additional notes for course presenters. The course material is based principally on IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 34 Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry, published by the IAEA in 2003. The training course is aimed at regulatory bodies; oil and gas field operators and support companies; workers and their representatives; health, safety and environmental professionals; and health and safety training officers. A pilot training course was held in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2000 as

  5. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  6. Oil & Natural Gas Technology A new approach to understanding the occurrence and volume of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico using petroleum industry well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Ann [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Majumdar, Urmi [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The northern Gulf of Mexico has been the target for the petroleum industry for exploration of conventional energy resource for decades. We have used the rich existing petroleum industry well logs to find the occurrences of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We have identified 798 wells with well log data within the gas hydrate stability zone. Out of those 798 wells, we have found evidence of gas hydrate in well logs in 124 wells (15% of wells). We have built a dataset of gas hydrate providing information such as location, interval of hydrate occurrence (if any) and the overall quality of probable gas hydrate. Our dataset provides a wide, new perspective on the overall distribution of gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico and will be the key to future gas hydrate research and prospecting in the area.

  7. The propulsive industry; oil and gas breed a community of builders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The role that government-industry cooperation has played in the development of the Canadian petroleum industry is recounted by way of providing background to delegates to the World Petroleum Congress taking place in June 2000 in Calgary, Alberta. Among individuals whose contributions have been vital to the development of the industry are the late Premier Manning of Alberta, and J. Howard Pew, President of Sun Corporation, Todd Montgomery, Michael Supple, Chris Hopkins, the triumvirate leaders of the privately owned SynEnCo Inc., the latest entry into the oilsands lineup, Dave Beckwerment and Jeff Arsenych, the visionaries behind Ravenwood Resources Inc., Robert McLeay, founder of Mera Petroleum Inc., and Robert Mansell, the economist who keeps tab on the industry from his home base at the University of Calgary. According to Mansell, four-fifths of Canadian oil and gas production is located in Alberta, which constitutes some 45 per cent of the country's economy. From manufacturing to communications and information technology, other sectors draw heavily on the oil and gas community for customers and talent. Despite occasional disparaging remarks applied to the industry as being 'a mature and sunset industry' it survives through its visionaries and adventurers who flourish in a cross-section of the community built by earlier pioneers, in various niches ranging from economical drilling for modest conventional reserves to international hunts for proverbial elephant-sized discoveries in world trouble spots. The staying power of the industry through upheavals of global proportions underlines the talent and policies that manage the Canadian petroleum industry, and provide an indication of the scale of the country's natural resources

  8. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry? -- Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an interview with a representative of the natural gas industry regarding the impacts of the new Order 636 recently approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The regulations are related to natural gas production and regulated pipeline distribution. The goal is to help establish long-term contracts between users and producers with a stable transportation system allowing both competition and price controls. The interview discusses the economic aspects of this regulation, the effects on marketing and production, and the ability of the regulation to actually be a catalyst for long-term contract agreements

  9. Convergence between power and gas industries: evolution and perspectives in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Rueda, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Convergence between power and gas industries in spain has already become very important, and it will be even more in the future, as the installed capacity in combined cycles will increase as expected, and tariff distortions, that have blocked commercialization development, could be eliminated. Convergence of both businesses signals the necessity to approach a series of key questions for an efficient operation of both markets that guarantees a reasonable level of competition to assure a fair treatment among gas and power operators that will also produce more added value for clients. (Author)

  10. Impact of uncertain oil prices on investment and integration efforts in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banbi, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    A rapid review of the energy resources situation in the world today shows the important role that oil and gas play in human life. World economies will continue to rely on oil and gas as a major energy source. It is absolutely critical that policy makers--governments, investment decisions makers, and oil companies--cooperative in securing a supply of energy for future generations. The international oil industry, in its sustained efforts to optimize resources in a cost-conscious and challenging environment, has been working under several constraints: reduction in investments, environmental issues and policies, and workforce optimization. This paper highlights recommendations for facing these challenges

  11. Sectoral approaches establishment for climate change mitigation in Thailand upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiyapa, Warathida; Esteban, Miguel; Kameyama, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the upstream oil and gas (O&G) industry's responses to climate change and what factors can be influential to trigger their mitigation strategies is crucial for policy-makers to harness the huge resources that this industry can mobilize towards environmental protection. Considering that individual climate change efforts are unlikely to affect global mitigation paths, the study investigates the possibility that sectoral approaches can help in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, using Thailand as a case study. It conducted online questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews to acquire primary data from companies and key informants from the government, NGOs, NPOs and academics. The results suggested that, among three possible groups of factors that could affect company decisions on whether to promote sectoral approaches, domestic politics (particularly the Thai government) is the most important, though other factors also play important and interrelated roles. The most welcomed type of scheme that could be envisaged would appear to be a sectoral agreement between government and industry. Finally, the authors provide two main policy recommendations, namely the establishment of an industrial association of O&G companies and for it to target how to start looking at measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions amongst large companies in the sector. - Highlights: •Examining the possibility of establishing a sectoral approach Thailand's upstream O&G industry. •Analytical framework was constructed to ascertain most influential factors. •Questionnaires and interviews were employed with companies, government, NGOs and academic. •Domestic politics is the most determining factor, but other factors have strong interrelation. •Sectoral agreement between government and industry is the most likely scheme to be established.

  12. Human resource needs and development for the gas industry of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas industry will confront many challenges in the 1990s and beyond, one of which is the development of human resources to meet future needs. An efficient, trained work force in this era of environmental concern, high technology, and alternative fuels is essential for the industry to continue to meet the competition and to safely deliver our product and service to all customers. Unfortunately, during this period there will be an increasing shortfall of technical personnel to replace those lost to attrition and a steady decline in the availability of new employees who are able to read, write, and perform simple math. Technological and government developments that will impact the industry and the skill levels needed by the industry employees are reviewed. In-house and external training of professional and nonprofessional personnel and the benefits and disadvantages of selected advanced training methods are discussed. Recommendations are presented that can help improve the training of gas industry employees to meet future needs. 22 refs

  13. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  14. Investigating GHGs and VOCs emissions from a shale gas industry in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, L.; Weger, L.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The shale gas and shale oil production boom experienced in the US led the country to a significant reduction of foreign fuel imports and an increase in domestic energy security. Several European countries are considering to extract domestic shale gas reserves that might serve as a bridge in the transition to renewables. Nevertheless, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact local and regional air quality and climate. Results from numerous studies investigating greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from shale oil and shale gas extraction in North America can help in estimating the impact of such industrial activity elsewhere, when local regulations are taken into consideration. In order to investigate the extent of emissions and their distribution from a potential shale gas industry in Germany and the United Kingdom, we develop three drilling scenarios compatible with desired national gas outputs based on available geological information on potential productivity ranges of the reservoirs. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to wells under development, as well as to producing wells (from activities at the well site up until processing plants) to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different shale gas development pathways: 1) implementation of "high-technology" devices and recovery practices (low emissions); 2) implementation of "low-technology" devices and recovery practices (high emissions), and 3) intermediate scenarios reflecting assumptions on local and national settings, or extremely high emission events (e.g. super-emitters); all with high and low boundaries of confidence driven by uncertainties. A comparison of these unconventional gas production scenarios to conventional natural gas production in Germany and the United Kingdom is also planned. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to

  15. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  16. A geographical perspective on the natural gas supply industry in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Keith

    2004-11-01

    Natural gas has, over the last 40 years, come to account for a substantial percentage of primary energy consumption (i.e. including inputs to electricity and heat generation) in the United Kingdom (UK). In 2002, this percentage (37.3) was exceeded in only two other European countries, the Netherlands (46.0) and Hungary (43.0) (International Energy Agency, 2003). Although oil has generally attracted greater attention than natural gas, the effects of the latter upon the energy economy of the UK have, in certain respects, been more profound. Most North Sea oil production is exported directly from the UK (69.4 per cent in 2003 (DTI, 2004)) and the balance has been processed within an oil refining system originally established to handle imported oil. By contrast, the availability of natural gas from the North Sea from the mid-1960s transformed the UK gas industry from a producer of secondary energy (i.e. town gas manufactured from coal and oil) to a distributor of primary energy. This transformation had a geographical dimension evident in the contrast between the essentially local distribution systems of the town gas industry and the national system created to deliver natural gas. The development of this system has been accompanied by very significant organisational changes as the gas industry became one of several network utilities transferred from public to private ownership in the UK since the 1980s. This paper reviews these events from a geographical perspective. It is divided into three main sections. The first describes the growth of the natural gas consumption in the UK. The second places this empirical material within a policy framework. The third relates spatial variations in the availability and cost of natural gas to patterns of economic development and welfare. The introduction of natural gas from the North Sea into the UK energy market has clearly had major consequences at the national scale. It rapidly displaced the town gas industry, superimposing a

  17. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  18. Maritimes natural gas market : an overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) adopted a market-based procedure (MBP) to assess long-term gas exports. The MPB included monitoring and assessment of Maritimes natural gas markets. The NEB is responsible for interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines as well as tolls and tariffs on NEB-regulated pipelines. The NEB is also responsible for electricity and natural gas exports and exploration programs on federally regulated lands not covered by an Accord agreement. The province of New Brunswick requested a new set of rules for the export of natural gas from the Maritimes to ensure competitiveness with other jurisdictions. The NEB decided that the public interest is best served by allowing the market to work. It also decided that the developing Maritimes market faces several challenges not faced by buyers in the export market. It was concluded that the market is working reasonably well to meet the needs of domestic consumers. 20 per cent of Scotian gas is being used in the Maritimes and many laterals have been constructed to extend service. Most major population centres have natural gas. However, there is no residential or commercial natural gas service in Nova Scotia, and only limited penetration of natural gas in residential and commercial markets in New Brunswick. Maritimers have a long history of using other fuel options and must make capital investment to switch to natural gas. They must, therefore, be convinced that investment will pay off in fuel savings and other benefits. The NEB will have to improve price transparency and strive for regulatory efficiency and cooperation with other jurisdictions. 2 figs

  19. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  20. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  1. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  2. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  3. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  4. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  5. Strategic alliances in oil and gas industry; Alleanze strategiche e innovazioni industriali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, J.G. [World Energy Group, Huston, TX (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A competitor today is an ally tomorrow. A strategic partner in one market is an adversary in another. In this radically new way of doing business, the oil and gas industry seems quite at home. The trend to mergers is not unique to the oil industry, what is unique is the knack of petroleum companies to form strategic alliances. [Italiano] Un concorrente oggi puo` essere un alleato domani e un partner in un dato mercato e` un avversario in un altro. In questo modo radicalmente nuovo di operare delle imprese, l`industria del petrolio e del gas si trova del tutto a suo agio. La tendenza alle fusioni non e` un fatto esclusivo dell`industria petrolifera, ma esclusiva e` la capacita` di quest`ultima di stringere alleanze strategiche.

  6. Export diversification and resource-based industrialization: the case of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier; Banal-Estanol, Albert

    2012-01-01

    For resource-rich economies, primary commodity specialization has often been considered to be detrimental to growth. Accordingly, export diversification policies centered on resource-based industries have long been advocated as effective ways to moderate the large variability of export revenues. This paper discusses the applicability of a mean-variance portfolio approach to design these strategies and proposes some modifications aimed at capturing the key features of resource processing industries (presence of scale economies and investment lumpiness). These modifications help make the approach more plausible for use in resource-rich countries. An application to the case of natural gas is then discussed using data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a calibrated empirical model. Lastly, the proposed framework is put to work to evaluate the performances of the diversification strategies implemented in a set of nine gas-rich economies. These results are then used to formulate some policy recommendations. (authors)

  7. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Patricia; Groen, Evelyne A.; Berg, Werner; Prochnow, Annette; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food products, such as dairy, require many input parameters that are affected by variability and uncertainty. Moreover, correlations may be present between input parameters, e.g. between feed intake and milk yield. The purpose of this study was to

  8. Quantitative risk management in gas injection project: a case study from Oman oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Mohammad Miftaur Rahman Khan; Piya, Sujan; Shamsuzzoha, Ahm

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the recognition, application and quantification of the risks associated in managing projects. In this research, the management of risks in an oil and gas project is studied and implemented within a case company in Oman. In this study, at first, the qualitative data related to risks in the project were identified through field visits and extensive interviews. These data were then translated into numerical values based on the expert's opinion. Further, the numerical data were used as an input to Monte Carlo simulation. RiskyProject Professional™ software was used to simulate the system based on the identified risks. The simulation result predicted a delay of about 2 years as a worse case with no chance of meeting the project's on stream date. Also, it has predicted 8% chance of exceeding the total estimated budget. The result of numerical analysis from the proposed model is validated by comparing it with the result of qualitative analysis, which was obtained through discussion with various project managers of company.

  9. An Assessment of Performance of Industrial Development Centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the performance of Industrial Development Centres (IDCs) in Nigeria. The study specifically aimed to determine the extent to which IDCs have met the service targets set for meeting their objectives for developing small-scale businesses in Nigeria and to identify problems(if any) that hindered the IDCs ...

  10. An Assessment of Industrial Customers' Satisfaction at Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Assessment of Industrial Customers' Satisfaction at Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation: A Case of South Addis Ababa Region. ... up with an appropriate service delivery standards, proper complaint handling mechanisms, relevant training for its employees, and strengthening decision making power of employees.

  11. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  12. The role of the Industrial Bank of Japan in financing gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns liquefied natural gas projects, or LNG projects for short, and more specifically, how the Industrial Bank of Japan, IBJ, as a private bank has been involved in many projects, and how the bank has solved a range of problems encountered in the process of financing such projects. After that, the author's personal views are expressed on how to tackle the future development of LNG, an energy source that will become increasingly important in the future

  13. MCNP modeling of NORM dosimetry in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqiu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes in the oil and gas industry create a radioactive environment for the workers in the field. MCNP simulation conducted in this work provides a useful tool in terms of radiation safety design of the oil field, as well as validation and an important addition to in situ measurements. Furthermore, phantoms are employed to observe the dose distribution throughout the human body, demonstrating radiation effects on each individual organ. (author)

  14. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  15. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  16. Essays on the industrial composition of Texas oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Genevieve Lynn

    This dissertation examines the changes in Texas oil and gas production from 1970--1996. Chapter II applies the survivor technique to the 300 largest oil producing firms in Texas for the years 1970--1996. The survivor technique is a powerful method to determine the efficient scale of production in a competitive industry. While previous applications of the survivor technique did not yield conclusive findings, Texas oil production is a competitive industry for which the technique provides clear results. Specifically, the technique shows that firms producing more than 100,000 barrels of oil per day in Texas have higher opportunity costs of production. Chapter III describes the size distribution of firms in Texas oil production. The Pareto distribution is found to correctly describe the size distribution of the 300 largest firms producing oil in Texas from 1970--1996, while the lognormal distribution is conclusively rejected. The k-firm concentration ratio reveals that Texas oil production became relatively less concentrated over this period. A simple relationship between the concentration ratio and the parameters of the Pareto distribution is defined and estimates of the Pareto distribution parameters are used to show that the size distribution of firms did not change significantly over the period 1970--1996. The fourth chapter analyses the impact of the changes in the regulatory environment of the Texas natural gas industry. In 1970, natural gas producers faced a quagmire of regulations governing the sale and price of their gas. Today, natural gas is a commodity traded freely in spot and futures markets. This chapter examines the pattern of production that resulted from this changing regulatory environment by examining the behavior of nine natural gas producing firms in Texas over the period 1970--1996. Each of these firms appeared on the list of the Texas top four natural gas producers at least once over this period. The analysis reveals that the majors have

  17. Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Hurst, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope technology has been used for almost half a century by the oil and gas industry to solve problems and to help optimize process operations. The use of radioactive isotopes to investigate the effectiveness of well stimulation procedures and to measure the sweep-out patterns of oil and gas in secondary recovery process is well known. The applications of radioisotopes to study features of plant and process operation has been less widely reported though the economic benefits deriving from such applications are very great. Nevertheless, there has been continuous development in the range of application and in the design of equipment to facilitate the use of the technology at remote environments such as an oil or gas platform. Some indication of the current usage of radioisotope techniques may be obtained from examination of Table I, which lists projects carried out in the UK's North Sea fields by ICI Tracerco, which is the world's largest radioisotope applications service group

  18. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.

    2018-03-01

    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  19. A labour market study of the manufacturing, oil and gas, and business services industries in Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    A survey was conducted in Calgary in spring 1994 of 861 firms in the manufacturing, oil and gas, and service industries. The main objective of the survey was to collect labor market information to assist in making career and educational decisions. A total of 543 employment vacancies were identified, with the largest number of vacancies reported for electrical contractors, computer operators, petroleum engineers, geologists, and geological technicians. A total of 1,129 new personnel were planned to be hired in the near future. Of the employees covered by the survey, 57.1% were reported as having some post-secondary qualifications. Over 88% of reported employment was listed as full-time. Of the firms surveyed, 56.2% indicated that they would provide training to their employees over the next six months. Of the three industries surveyed, the oil and gas sector reported the largest increase in employment within the past six months. Improved profitability and sales in natural gas was a major factor for the reported increase of 1,648 employees in the oil and gas sector. 16 figs., 17 tabs

  20. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuckmyun Kwon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm- shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers’ compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012 and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  1. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  2. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A.; Lee, W. John

    2010-01-01

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic

  3. Factors affecting industrial energy consumption and natural gas use. Topical report, April 1990-December 1992. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, M.O.; Bluestein, J.; Hogan, T.

    1992-12-01

    The report is intended to identify the determinants of the increase in industrial consumption of natural gas in the 1980's after several years of declining use since the 1970's. The approach relied on a decomposition methodology which attempts to determine the impact of a single factor, while holding the effect of other factors constant. The forecasts of industrial energy and natural gas demand were developed using the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM). The analysis of historical trends was based on generally available data. Major reasons for the reversal of the historical pattern of declining industrial natural gas consumption include: changes in production mix among industry groups, a slowdown in the growth of energy efficiency improvements, greater importance of cogenerated power and slower displacement of natural gas by alternative energy sources.

  4. Factors affecting industrial energy consumption and natural gas use. Topical report, April 1990-December 1992. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, M.O.; Bluestein, J.; Hogan, T.

    1992-12-01

    The report is intended to identify the determinants of the increase in industrial consumption of natural gas in the 1980's after several years of declining use since the 1970's. The approach relied on a decomposition methodology which attempts to determine the impact of a single factor, while holding the effect of other factors constant. The forecasts of industrial energy and natural gas demand were developed using the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM). The analysis of historical trends was based on generally available data. Major reasons for the reversal of the historical pattern of declining industrial natural gas consumption include: changes in production mix among industry groups, a slowdown in the growth of energy efficiency improvements, greater importance of cogenerated power and slower displacement of natural gas by alternative energy sources.

  5. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  6. Using BP Neural Networks to Prioritize Risk Management Approaches for China’s Unconventional Shale Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is motivated by a conundrum: How can shale gas development be encouraged and managed without complete knowledge of the associated risks? To answer this question, we used back propagation (BP neural networks and expert scoring to quantify the relative risks of shale gas development across 12 provinces in China. The results show that the model performs well with high predictive accuracy. Shale gas development risks in the provinces of Sichuan, Chongqing, Shaanxi, Hubei, and Jiangsu are relatively high (0.4~0.6, while risks in the provinces of Xinjiang, Guizhou, Yunnan, Anhui, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, and Shanxi are even higher (0.6~1. We make several recommendations based on our findings. First, the Chinese government should promote shale gas development in Sichuan, Chongqing, Shaanxi, Hubei, and Jiangsu Provinces, while considering environmental, health, and safety risks by using demonstration zones to test new technologies and tailor China’s regulatory structures to each province. Second, China’s extremely complex geological conditions and resource depths prevent direct application of North American technologies and techniques. We recommend using a risk analysis prioritization method, such as BP neural networks, so that policymakers can quantify the relative risks posed by shale gas development to optimize the allocation of resources, technology and infrastructure development to minimize resource, economic, technical, and environmental risks. Third, other shale gas industry developments emphasize the challenges of including the many parties with different, often conflicting expectations. Government and enterprises must collaboratively collect and share information, develop risk assessments, and consider risk management alternatives to support science-based decision-making with the diverse parties.

  7. Techno-economic assessment and policy of gas power generation considering the role of multiple stakeholders in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhang Xu; Xu Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the energy planning in China, within the “Twelfth Five-Year” period (2011–2015), the proportion of natural gas among primary energy consumption is expected to increase from the current 4% to 8%. In 2015, about 17 natural gas pipelines will be completed. This paper reviews the current situation of gas power generation, analyzes the main opportunities and obstacles of gas power generation development in China, and conducts a techno-economic assessment of the natural gas power generation, taking into account the role and the interaction of the multiple stakeholders in the natural gas industry chain. Taking a power plant fueled with the natural gas transported by the second West-to-East Pipeline as an example, it is found that the on-grid power price fluctuates upward with the rise of gas price and downward with the increase of annual utilization hours, and the influences of tax policies on the on-grid power price prove to be highly significant. As the analysis and calculation indicate, the environmental benefits of natural gas power generation ought to be strongly emphasized, compared with coal-fired power generation. Finally, this paper puts forward specific policy recommendations, from the perspectives of electricity price, gas price, tax, power grid dispatching, etc. - Highlights: ► Presents the opportunities and obstacles of gas power generation development in China. ► Analyzes the interactions of multiple stakeholders in the natural gas industry chain. ► Conducts a techno-economic assessment on the natural gas power generation. ► Discusses the responsibilities and risks of multiple stakeholders. ► Puts forward policy recommendations, from electricity price, gas price, tax, etc.

  8. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingbo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); South China Univ. of Technology (SCUT), Guangzhou (China); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  9. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-464-000] Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that... aspects of the terms and conditions of the 311 firm storage service offered by Hattiesburg. Petal agrees...

  10. The machines maintenance conditions assessment in the plastic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose, methodology, main findings, the originality of the subject area (research, way of using. The main research analysis purpose is a presentation, an assessment and an interpretation of the research findings on the machines maintenance conditions in the plastic industry. The research analysis was carried out with applying Technology ABC method and TPM coefficients calculations connected with Techno pak machine components maintenance. The research was carried out in the chosen manufacturing enterprise of the plastic industry. Research findings interpretation results have been introduced in the analyzed enterprise in the form of the manufacturing processes improvement.

  11. Health technology assessment from a Canadian device industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusi, Ilia L; Ames, David; Lim, Morgan E; Goeree, Ron

    2009-05-01

    Health technology assessment has significantly improved the decision-making process via the thorough and systematic evaluation of the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of new drugs and health technologies. However, the device industry faces a significant challenge in meeting the evidentiary demands of the health technology assessment process, particularly given the small size of the Canadian market and device manufacturers. This is further compounded by the somewhat short-sighted nature of health care budgets, which see medical devices as a cost-driver given the sometimes significant upfront investment required to implement a technology producing downstream benefits in the long-term. Industry is the research and development of the health care system, but innovative development could be stifled unless the health technology assessment process recognizes the risk of manufacturers. The authors propose that health technology assessment can be improved by recognizing the challenges that device manufacturers face and by sharing the risk associated with evaluations of effectiveness. Health technology assessment is a powerful tool that can be used to evaluate new and potentially obsolete technologies alike, with the goal of meeting the needs of patients as customers of both the device industry and the health care system.

  12. Development of Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) for the Malaysian Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment is recognized as a powerful and important tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development. However, most of the sustainability measurement tools emphasize on environmental, economy and governance aspects. Some of the companies also implement different of sustainability indicators to evaluate the performance of economy, social and environmental separately. In this research, a new methodology for assessing sustainability in the context of Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration Matrix, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This systematic assessment will help the engineers or project managers measure the critical element of sustainability compliance.

  13. Proliferation resistance assessment of high temperature gas reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikamatsu N, M. A.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    The Generation IV International Forum has established different objectives for the new generation of reactors to accomplish. These objectives are focused on sustain ability, safety, economics and proliferation resistance. This paper is focused on how the proliferation resistance of the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) is assessed and the advantages that these reactors present currently. In this paper, the focus will be on explaining why such reactors, HTGR, can achieve the goals established by the GIF and can present a viable option in terms of proliferation resistance, which is an issue of great importance in the field of nuclear energy generation. The reason why the HTGR are being targeted in this writing is that these reactors are versatile, and present different options from modular reactors to reactors with the same size as the ones that are being operated today. Besides their versatility, the HTGR has designed features that might improve on the overall sustain ability of the nuclear reactors. This is because the type of safety features and materials that are used open up options for industrial processes to be carried out; cogeneration for instance. There is a small section that mentions how HTGR s are being developed in the international sector in order to present the current world view in this type of technology and the further developments that are being sought. For the proliferation resistance section, the focus is on both the intrinsic and the extrinsic features of the nuclear systems. The paper presents a comparison between the features of Light Water Reactors (LWR) and the HTGR in order to be able to properly compare the most used technology today and one that is gaining international interest. (Author)

  14. Proliferation resistance assessment of high temperature gas reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikamatsu N, M. A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: midori.chika@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The Generation IV International Forum has established different objectives for the new generation of reactors to accomplish. These objectives are focused on sustain ability, safety, economics and proliferation resistance. This paper is focused on how the proliferation resistance of the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) is assessed and the advantages that these reactors present currently. In this paper, the focus will be on explaining why such reactors, HTGR, can achieve the goals established by the GIF and can present a viable option in terms of proliferation resistance, which is an issue of great importance in the field of nuclear energy generation. The reason why the HTGR are being targeted in this writing is that these reactors are versatile, and present different options from modular reactors to reactors with the same size as the ones that are being operated today. Besides their versatility, the HTGR has designed features that might improve on the overall sustain ability of the nuclear reactors. This is because the type of safety features and materials that are used open up options for industrial processes to be carried out; cogeneration for instance. There is a small section that mentions how HTGR s are being developed in the international sector in order to present the current world view in this type of technology and the further developments that are being sought. For the proliferation resistance section, the focus is on both the intrinsic and the extrinsic features of the nuclear systems. The paper presents a comparison between the features of Light Water Reactors (LWR) and the HTGR in order to be able to properly compare the most used technology today and one that is gaining international interest. (Author)

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes the more important improvements in risk assessment methodology developed over the last decade. The book covers the following areas - a general view of risk pertaining to nuclear power, mathematics necessary to understand the text, a concise overview of the light water reactors and their features for protecting the public, probabilities and consequences calculated to form risk assessment to the plant, and 34 applications of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the power generation industry. There is a glossary of acronyms and unusual words and a list of references. (author)

  16. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  17. The Share Price and Investment: Current Footprints for Future Oil and Gas Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Jianu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The share price has become a very important indicator for shareholders, banks, and financial institutions evaluating the performance of companies. The oil and gas industry seems to be in a difficult era of development, due to the market prices for its products. Moreover, climate change and renewable energies are barriers for fossil energy. This state of affairs, and the fact that oil and gas shares are considered one of the most solid and reliable shares on the London Stock Exchange (LSE, have drawn our attention. International institutions encourage the investment in the oil and gas economic sector. This study investigates how investments of oil and gas companies in long-term assets influence the share price. Using the Ohlson share price model for a sample of 51 listed companies on the LSE proves that investments in long-term assets influence the share price in the case of companies which record losses. Investments in long-term assets are responsible for the attractiveness of the oil and gas company shares.

  18. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  19. AN APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekarev A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National pharmaceutical industry profiles an innovation-driven indicator of any national economy and level of social assistance. Innovation in pharmaceutical industry associated with branded pharmaceutical companies which make a great deal of investments in Research and Development (R & D. The world pharmaceutical market partition by different regions was suggested referring to analytical information. It was made according to the factors such as different national pharmaceutical market conditions and its tendencies, governments’ patent protection, amount of consumers’ and government’s expenditures on the market. Component analysis, regression, and cluster analysis were implemented for estimation of competitiveness level of national pharmaceutical industries. According to the assessment countries’ rating was suggested, where the place of Russia was defined.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.