WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas energy dependent

  1. Ideal gas scattering kernel for energy dependent cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.; Dagan, R.

    1998-01-01

    A third, and final, paper on the calculation of the joint kernel for neutron scattering by an ideal gas in thermal agitation is presented, when the scattering cross-section is energy dependent. The kernel is a function of the neutron energy after scattering, and of the cosine of the scattering angle, as in the case of the ideal gas kernel for a constant bound atom scattering cross-section. The final expression is suitable for numerical calculations

  2. Energy dependences of absorption in beryllium windows and argon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C.T.; Staudenmann, J-P.

    1994-01-01

    In part of an ongoing work on x-ray form factors, new absorption coefficients are being evaluated for all elements, across the energy range from below 100 eV to above 100 keV. These new coefficients are applied herein to typical problems in synchrotron radiation stations, namely the use of beryllium windows and argon gas detectors. Results are compared with those of other authors. The electron-ion pair production process in ionization chambers is discussed, and the effects of 3d-element impurities are indicated. 15 refs., 6 figs

  3. Collisional energy dependence of molecular ionization by metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.M.; Parr, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The collisional energy dependence of several molecular total ionization cross sections by metastable rare gas atoms was studied over the thermal energy region using the crossed molecular beam time-of-flight method. Results are reported for the collision systems He, Ne, and Ar ionizing the geometric isomers cis- and trans-dichloroethylene and ortho- and para-dichlorobenzene. The He ionization cross sections oscillate about an energy dependence of E/sup -1/2/ over the energy range 0.004--1.0 eV, and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene cross section oscillates about an energy dependence of E/sup -2/5/ over the energy range 0.011--0.64 eV. The remaining systems are characterized by ''bent'' E/sup -m/ dependences with m values of 0.56--0.70 at low energies changing to 0.07--0.29 at higher energies. Comparison with the slopes of the He* systems and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene system shows that the ''bent'' and ''oscillating'' energy dependences are similar except for the form of the cross section functions at the lowest energies. No systematic differences are found between the cross section energy dependences for ionization of different geometric isomers or for ionization by the different metastable rare gas atoms

  4. Dependence of energy per molecule on sputtering yields with reactive gas cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Gas cluster ions show dense energy deposition on a target surface, which result in the enhancement of chemical reactions. In reactive sputtering with gas cluster ions, the energy per atom or molecule plays an important role. In this study, the average cluster size (N, the number of atoms or molecules in a cluster ion) was controlled; thereby the dependences of the energy per molecule on the sputtering yields of carbon by CO 2 cluster ions and that of Si by SF 6 /Ar mixed gas cluster ions were investigated. Large CO 2 cluster ions with energy per molecule of 1 eV showed high reactive sputtering yield of an amorphous carbon film. However, these ions did not cause the formation of large craters on a graphite surface. It is possible to achieve very low damage etching by controlling the energy per molecule of reactive cluster ions. Further, in the case of SF 6 /Ar mixed cluster ions, it was found that reactive sputtering was enhanced when a small amount of SF 6 gas (∼10%) was mixed with Ar. The reactive sputtering yield of Si by one SF 6 molecule linearly increased with the energy per molecule.

  5. Proof and implementation of the stochastic formula for ideal gas, energy dependent scattering kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Lohnert, G.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal gas, scattering kernel for heavy nuclei with pronounced resonances was developed [Rothenstein, W., Dagan, R., 1998. Ann. Nucl. Energy 25, 209-222], proved and implemented [Rothenstein, W., 2004 Ann. Nucl. Energy 31, 9-23] in the data processing code NJOY [Macfarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91, LA-12740-M] from which the scattering probability tables were prepared [Dagan, R., 2005. Ann. Nucl. Energy 32, 367-377]. Those tables were introduced to the well known MCNP code [X-5 Monte Carlo Team. MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 5 LA-UR-03-1987 code] via the 'mt' input cards in the same manner as it is done for light nuclei in the thermal energy range. In this study we present an alternative methodology for solving the double differential energy dependent scattering kernel which is based solely on stochastic consideration as far as the scattering probabilities are concerned. The solution scheme is based on an alternative rejection scheme suggested by Rothenstein [Rothenstein, W. ENS conference 1994 Tel Aviv]. Based on comparison with the above mentioned analytical (probability S(α,β)-tables) approach it is confirmed that the suggested rejection scheme provides accurate results. The uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the bias due to the enhanced multiple rejections during the sampling procedure are proved to lie within 1-2 standard deviations for all practical cases that were analysed.

  6. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2006-06-15

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states.

  7. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states

  8. Europe gas security. From dependence to interdependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes a diagnostic and draws perspectives for Europe's gas dependence. In a first part, and considering gas as an energy source facing the challenges of the struggle against climate change, it outlines the rather high level of gas resources, their concentration in few countries, and therefore the need to reinforce partnership with these countries. It also outlines the uncertainty about future gas consumption due to new environment policies. The wide spectrum of scenarios entails needs to be reconsidered. The second part deals with the implications of the relationship between Gazprom and the Russian Federation. The third part discusses the European energy policy which tries to combine competition and energy security. Then, four scenarios are proposed and studied for the future of the interdependence between the European Union and the Russian Federation: energy crisis (producer's power), status quo (under-capacity), solidarity between the UE and Russia, and agreement on the climate (globalization of energy exchanges)

  9. Proof of the formula for the ideal gas scattering kernel for nuclides with strongly energy dependent scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.

    2004-01-01

    The current study is a sequel to a paper by Rothenstein and Dagan [Ann. Nucl. Energy 25 (1998) 209] where the ideal gas based kernel for scatterers with internal structure was introduced. This double differential kernel includes the neutron energy after scattering as well as the cosine of the scattering angle for isotopes with strong scattering resonances. A new mathematical formalism enables the inclusion of the new kernel in NJOY [MacFarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91 (LA-12740-m)]. Moreover the computational time of the new kernel is reduced significantly, feasible for practical application. The completeness of the new kernel is proven mathematically and demonstrated numerically. Modifications necessary to remove the existing inconsistency of the secondary energy distribution in NJOY are presented

  10. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  11. Energy India 'dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygler, C.

    2007-01-01

    India has an economic growth between 8 to 10 % by year. To become a great country of the twenty first century and to stop poverty it is necessary to keep this growth but the growth of India is dependant of its ability to supply electric power necessary to increase the industrial production. The country has to multiply by four its energy production. The electric production comes from thermal power plants for 65%, 26% from hydroelectric power plants, 6% from renewable energy sources and 3% from nuclear energy. Between solar energy ( India has three hundred solar days by years) and nuclear energy using thorium that can be increased India has to choose an energy policy to answer its energy demand and independence need. (N.C.)

  12. Numerical analysis and field study of time dependent exergy-energy of a gas-steam combined cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barari Bamdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent exergy analysis of the Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle has been investigated. Exergy analysis has been used for investigating each part of actual combined cycle by considering irreversibility from Apr 2006 to Oct 2010. Performance analysis has been done for each part by evaluating exergy destruction in each month. By using of exergy analysis, aging of each part has been evaluated respect to time duration. In addition, the rate of lost work for each month has been calculated and variation of this parameter has been considered as a function of aging rate. Finally, effects of exergy destruction of each part have been investigated on exergy destruction of whole cycle. Entire analysis has been done for Unit 3 and 4 of gas turbine cycle which combined by Unit B of steam cycle in Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle located in Fars province in Iran.

  13. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-15

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states.

  14. Gas, the energy for transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigenet, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The author describes gas as the less polluting fossil energy. He outlines that new gas fields have been discovered, notably non conventional gas fields. He notices that whatever conventional or not conventional, a gas field produces methane, and that there is therefore no difference for the end user. However, he notices that reserve assessments by the IAE are a matter of discussion, and that hydraulic fracturing has resulted in important environmental and human damages. Anyway, gas will be needed to face energy demand

  15. Gas. The Energy of Possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz launches a campaign to introduce the general public to all the gas energy industry's advanced solutions for the future of energy. Gas takes on new forms through innovative and ambitious solutions that offer concrete applications in territories: producing biomethane from agricultural, industrial or domestic waste, transforming excess renewable electricity into storable renewable gas, using gas and biomethane for cleaner land transport and, in liquid form, cleaner sea transport. In support of this energy source, France can rely on its discreet and robust gas infrastructure to promote the growing dynamic and offer a response to major challenges, such as air quality, waste management and renewable energy storage

  16. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  17. Gas and energy technology 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Norway has a long tradition as an energy producing nation. No other country administers equally large quantities of energy compared to the number of inhabitants. Norway faces great challenges concerning the ambitions of utilizing natural gas power and living up to its Kyoto protocol pledges. Tekna would like to contribute to increased knowledge about natural gas and energy, its possibilities and technical challenges. Topics treated include carrying and employing natural gas, aspects of technology, energy and environment, hydrogen as energy carrier, as well as other energy alternatives, CO{sub 2} capture and the value chain connected to it.

  18. Rare gas dependence of vibration--vibration energy transfer processes: A diagnostic technique. Applications to CH2D2 and CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apkarian, V.A.; Weitz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The rare gas dependence of V--V rates can be used as a diagnostic technique to identify different mechanisms of vibrational energy transfer and determine the rate constants for individual kinetic steps. The method is especially useful for the identification and measurement of rates of resonant vibrational energy transfer processes. Analytical and numerical solutions of pertinent model equations are presented and their range of applicability is discussed. The technique is applied to CH 2 D 2 and CH 3 F. In CH 2 D 2 results of studies on ν 9 , [ν 1 , ν 6 ] and states in the 2000 cm -1 region are presented where the application of the technique has made it possible to identify the pathways leading to population of these states and to assign rate constants to some of the steps involved. In CH 3 F, by studying the Ar dependence of the V--V rates of the [ν 2 , ν 5 ] and [ν 1 , ν 4 ] states it has been possible to construct a complete map of energy transfer pathways which can explain all experimental observations for this system, to date. The general applicability of the technique and its potential application to other systems is also considered

  19. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively.

  20. US energy policy and Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a perspective of Arctic energy resource development and the impact that science and technology will have on the American National Energy Policy (NEP). The role of the NEP is to provide energy security for the United States by ensuring dependable, affordable and sustainable energy for the future. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) conducts a wide range of energy and research activities that contribute to energy efficiency advances that help meet rising energy demand and reduce pollution emissions. In May 2001, the NEP proposed 100 recommendations, of which half focus on energy efficiency and developing renewable energy sources. The Clean Coal Power Initiative is also based on technological innovation and focuses on a program called FutureGen to build and operate a zero emission coal-fired power plant to produce both electricity and hydrogen. These initiatives could result in major changes in America's energy scenario. The provisions of the Energy Bill in streamlining the regulatory process for the proposed Alaska gas pipeline were outlined. The 2004 Annual Energy Outlook for the United States indicates that a pipeline from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta would be constructed first, followed by one from Alaska. The North Slope Alaska natural gas pipeline will likely be operational by 2018 and add 4.5 BCF per day to meet growing natural gas demand in the United States. The National Petroleum Council's report on America's long-term natural gas supply and demand situation claims that lower-48 and traditional Canadian natural gas basins will be able to supply 75 per cent of the U.S. demand by the year 2025. The remainder will be made up by Alaskan natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas from new sources in Canada such as coalbed methane, methane hydrates, and oil sands

  1. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  2. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  3. Italy and gas: dependence and geopolitical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffida, L.G.; Nicolosi, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increase in world energy demand is making natural gas a leading player, yet its supply in Italy is still inefficient because of internal and external factors of its geopolitical diversification. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position and morphology our Country could represent the major point of gas exchange in central-southern Europe and transform itself from a country at the risk of emergency into one of the greatest gas hub in Europe [it

  4. Noble-gas ion sputtering yield of gold and copper: Dependence on the energy and angle of incidence of the projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Florio, A.; Baragiola, R.A.; Jakas, M.M.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.

    1987-02-15

    We have measured the sputtering yield of Au and Cu targets as a function of energy and the angle of incidence of noble-gas projectiles in the energy range 2--50 keV. The experimental results were compared with the analytical theory of sputtering and with computer simulations. Our study indicates that the linear-cascade model is applicable only asymptotically for low nuclear stopping powers.

  5. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  6. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  7. Fricke xylenol gel energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosangela T.; Moreira, Marcos V.; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of technology has increasingly use the of ionizing radiation mainly in the areas of medicine, industry and research. The development of instruments and methods for an effective performance for detection and measurement of each radiation area was crucial. The literature have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) as an adequate chemical sensor to be used for dosimetry, once its effective atomic number and density are near to those of the soft tissue. The use of photon beams for therapeutic purpose requires knowledge of their characteristics that can vary for each equipment. Therefore, is important to know all parameters involved for the patient irradiation as the total geometry involved, type of radiation, target material composition and beam energy, that have to be taken into account in the beam dosimetry for the treatment success being the energy parameter is one of the most important. This work was developed to study the energetic dependence of the FXG dosimeter. This chemical solution is made with gelatine 300 Bloom, ferrous ammonium sulfate, xylenol orange, sulfuric acid and Milli-Q water and is based on the Fe +2 oxidation to Fe +3 , due to the ionizing radiation leading to the xylenol orange - ferric complex formation, that is linear depend on the absorbed dose. The FXG samples were irradiated with photons of different energies and the absorbance measurements were done with the spectrophotometric technique at the 585 nm, FXG highest absorption peak. The energetic dependence results presented a stronger dependence for low energies and almost independence for high energies, as expected by the interaction of radiation with matter. (author)

  8. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-12-01

    As an introduction to the seminar of the 30 May 2002 on the US oil dependency and energy security, the author analyzes the different factors which characterize the american petroleum market situation today. A special interest is thus done to the price increase of 1999-2000 due to the legislation evolution, the gas market tensions, the impact and the power of the OPEC on the international markets, the 11 September 2001 attempts and their political and military consequences. The author also discusses about three papers written after the seminar. (A.L.B.)

  9. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J.; Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L.; Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  10. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  11. Energy transition: gas asserts its assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passebon, Philippe; Lesquel, Emmanuelle; Leroux, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Even though it is a fossil energy, gas has a role to play in energy transition as it emits less CO 2 than oil or coal. In this context, it can be used to fill the gaps due to intermittency of some renewable energies, and moreover can also be obtained from organic matter, and then becomes also a renewable source. A set of articles addresses and illustrates these different issues: the development of technologies to exploit methane, the role of substitute for gas, the assets of methane, of natural gas and of biogas, the transformation of electricity into gas in order to easily store energy (notably in the network gas according to the power-to-gas principle), the development of biomass-based methane, the replacement of oil by LNG (liquefied natural gas) in industry and transports (road and sea transport notably)

  12. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study quantifies greenhouse gas emissions from Kenya's energy activities. It is organised in four major sections, namely, an overview of the energy sector; data sources and methodology of analysis; results and recommendations for future climate change mitigation

  14. Exactly solvable energy-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, J.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena, J.J.; Schulze-Halberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a method for constructing exactly-solvable Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials. Our method is based on converting a general linear differential equation of second order into a Schroedinger equation with energy-dependent potential. Particular examples presented here include harmonic oscillator, Coulomb and Morse potentials with various types of energy dependence.

  15. Oil, gas and other energies, a primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, A.

    2007-09-01

    At a time when the topic of energy is front and centre, this book examines the basic concepts that are essential to grasping the energy issues of the 21 st century. Ail the main questions that people have about energy, especially oil and gas, are addressed, providing students, academics, journalists, representatives of government and other institutions and interested readers in general with the information they need to understand the complex, multifaceted energy sector. Abundantly illustrated, this book represents five years of exhaustive research on a fascinating and highly controversial topic. If discusses all the processes related to fossil forms of energy, from the formation of hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) to the delivery of oil and gas to consumers. It also examines renewable energy options and climate change issues in addressing the major geopolitical challenges facing the energy sector. Content: 1 - The Extraordinary History of the Earth; 2 - The Formation of Oil and Gas; 3 - Energy, Past and Present; 4 - Renewable Energies; 5 - The Essence of Oil and Gas; 6 - Geography of Oil and Gas; 7 - The Outlook for Petroleum Prices and Demand Until 2030; 8 - Global Warming; 9 - Liquefied Natural Gas;10 - The Big Three: Russia, China and the United States

  16. Gas diffusion and temperature dependence of bubble nucleation during irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreman, A. J. E.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1986-01-01

    The continuous production of gases at relatively high rates under fusion irradiation conditions may enhance the nucleation of cavities. This can cause dimensional changes and could induce embrittlement arising from gas accumulation on grain boundaries. Computer calculations have been made...... of the diatomic nucleation of helium bubbles, assuming helium to diffuse substitutionally, with radiation-enhanced diffusion at lower temperatures. The calculated temperature dependence of the bubble density shows excellent agreement with that observed in 600 MeV proton irradiations, including a reduction...... in activation energy below Tm/2. The coalescence of diatomic nuclei due to Brownian motion markedly improves the agreement and also provides a well-defined terminal density. Bubble nucleation by this mechanism is sufficiently fast to inhibit any appreciable initial loss of gas to grain boundaries during...

  17. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  18. Gas and energy efficiency. The ''E'' factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, G.

    1992-06-01

    On 1 April 1992 a new gas tariff formula came into effect limiting the prices British Gas can charge to its 18 million -primarily domestic - tariff customers. A feature of the new formula is the ''E'' factor, designed to stimulate investment by British Gas in energy efficiency. This paper is intended to explain the thinking which lay behind the introduction of the ''E''factor, what statutory and other considerations need to be taken into account in considering ''E'' factor proposals and how the arrangements for the gas industry are likely to fit in with the creation of an Energy Savings Trust recently announced by the Government. In doing so, it is intended to give guidance to those who may have proposals for the more efficient use of energy and gas and wish to understand whether these could be eligible to be considered as ''E'' factor projects. (Author)

  19. Energy supply: No gas from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempkens, W

    1983-03-01

    In the last twelve years the share of natural gas in the total consumption of primary energy has increased twelve-fold and now amounts to 16 per cent. One-third of this is produced in West Germany. Although world deposits will last well into the next century, attempts are already being made to perfect techniques for obtaining gas from coal. However, the cubic metre price of synthetic gas is still anything but competitive.

  20. Russian energy imperialism: the world mapped along the gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baločkaitė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    Energy imperialism refers to the use of natural resources for political purposes, i.e. weaponization of energy. At the state level, it means specific institutional structure, as the state building is predetermined by oil led developments. At the international level, it means international nets of energy dependency, centered around the mother state possessing oil, gas and other natural resources. In a paradox way, the so called Western world (Western Europe and North America) becomes increasin...

  1. Costly waiting for the future gas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses solutions while waiting for the pollution free gas power plant and points out that Norway will have to import Danish power from coal and Swedish nuclear energy for a long time yet. Various future scenarios are mentioned

  2. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  3. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  4. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  5. Energy market for energy. Natural gas and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scherpenzeel, H.; De Boer, I.

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the title market study is to provide insight into the energy market in Argentina for the Dutch industry and business sector, focusing on the structure of the natural gas and electricity sector and the market for equipment for the production and processing of natural gas and equipment for electricity generation

  6. Natural gas in low energy house Zittau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maertens, L.; Koschack, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a low-energy house in Zittau, Germany. The house consists of two parts A and B. Part A is heated by means of gas boilers and condensed boilers, while part B is solar heated. Energy for heating and warming of tap water is an important part of the primary energy consumption in Germany. Therefore, one way of reducing the CO2 emissions is to reduce the heat losses of buildings through outer facades and air ventilation, to use regenerative energy sources, to use fuels with low CO2 emissivity like natural gas, and to install efficient heating- and hot water preparation systems. The low-energy house in Zittau is used for energy research

  7. High gas dependence for power generation in Thailand: The vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2007-01-01

    Thailand uses 74% of its natural gas supply for power generation and 70% of its power comes from gas-based technology. High dependence on natural gas in power generation raises concerns about security of electricity supply that could affect competitiveness of Thai manufacturing and other industries at the global level. The effect of fuel dependence on security of electricity supply has received less emphasis in the literature. Given this gap, this research examines the economic impact of high dependence on natural gas for power generation in Thailand by analyzing the effect of changes in fuel prices (including fuel oil and natural gas) on electricity tariff in Thailand. At the same time, the research quantifies the vulnerability of the Thai economy due to high gas dependence in power generation. Our research shows that for every 10% change in natural gas price, electricity tariff in Thailand would change by 3.5%. In addition, we found that the gas bill for power generation consumed between 1.94% and 3.05% of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2000 and 2004 and in terms of GDP share per unit of energy, gas dependence in power generation is almost similar to that of crude oil import dependence. We also found that the basic metal industry, being an electricity intensive industry, is the most affected industry. Additionally, we find that volatility of gas price is the main factor behind the vulnerability concern. The research accordingly simulates two mitigation options of the problem, namely reducing gas dependence and increasing efficiency of gas-fired power plants, where the results show that these methods can reduce the vulnerability of the country from high gas dependence in power generation

  8. Gas and energy technology 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The conference Energy21 is a yearly event gathering young people working in the oil sector or students in subjects related to the business to meet and network. Presentations are given by young people working in the industry, describing their experiences from working in the sector. The oil sector's history and forecast about the future of the Norwegian oil sector are also topics discussed (ml)

  9. Enrichment technology. Dependable vendor of gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment Technology is an innovative, high-tech company that develops, manufactures and installs gas centrifuges for enriching uranium. In addition, Enrichment Technology designs enrichment plants that use gas centrifuge technology. This technology offers the most efficient and cost-effective method for enriching uranium yet: high-performance, safe technology that dominates the market with a global share of 45 percent. A determining factor in Enrichment Technology's success is its mission: supplying its customers with safe, reliable technology. Production of the centrifuges requires versatile know-how and collaboration between different departments as well as interdisciplinary teams at the various sites. More than 2000 operators at 8 sites in 5 countries contribute their individual knowledge and personal skills in order to produce this exceptional technology. The head office is in Beaconsfield near London and the operational headquarters are in Almelo in the Netherlands. There are other sites in Germany (Juelich und Gronau), Great Britain (Capenhurst) as well as project sites in the USA and France. Capenhurst is where experienced engineers design new enrichment plants and organise their construction. Centrifuge components are manufactured in Almelo and Juelich, while the pipework needed to connect up the centrifuges is produced at the site in Gronau. In Juelich, highly qualified scientists in interdisciplinary teams are continuously researching ways of improving the current centrifuges. Communication between specialists in the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering forms the basis for the company's success and the key to extending this leading position in the global enrichment market. (orig.)

  10. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1996-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  11. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues

  12. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  13. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucker, J.; Jungmeier, G. [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, RESOURCES - Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Zwart, R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}-eq.) - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide - and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O{sub 2}-blown entrained flow, O{sub 2}-blown circulating fluidised bed and air-steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air-steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO{sub 2}-eq. 32 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O{sub 2}-blown entrained flow and O{sub 2}-blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO{sub 2}-eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO2-eq. 57-75 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59-2.13 MWh MWh{sup -1} of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37-1.51 MWh MWh{sup -1} of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by

  14. A time-dependent dusty gas dynamic model of axisymmetric cometary jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosmezey, A.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1990-01-01

    The present time-dependent, axisymmetric dusty gas dynamical model of inner cometary atmospheres solves the coupled and time-dependent equations of continuity, momentum, and energy for a gas-dust mixture between the surface of the nucleus and 100 km, using an axisymmetric 40 x 40 grid structure. A novel numerical method employing a second-order accurate Godunov-type scheme with dimensional splitting is used to solve the time-dependent pde system. It is established that a subsolar dust spike not predicted by previous calculations is generated by narrow axisymmetric jets, together with a jet cone whose opening angle depends on the jet length. 28 refs

  15. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  16. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucker, Johanna; Zwart, Robin; Jungmeier, Gerfried

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 -eq.) – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O 2 -blown entrained flow, O 2 -blown circulating fluidised bed and air–steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air–steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO 2 -eq. 32 kg MWh −1 of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O 2 -blown entrained flow and O 2 -blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO 2 -eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh −1 of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO 2 -eq. 57–75 kg MWh −1 of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59–2.13 MWh MWh −1 of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37–1.51 MWh MWh −1 of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by 92% when air

  18. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  19. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  20. Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out ...

  1. Detection unit with corrected energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.

    1989-01-01

    The detection unit consists of a plastic scintillator with a layer of a powder semicrystalline scintillator deposited on its surface. An inorgaic monocrystalline scintillator is placed inside the plastic scintillator and surrounded with an absorption layer, except for the window. The advantage of the detection unit is a reduced energy dependence of response, especially in the energy range 100 to 400 keV. (E.J.). 3 figs

  2. Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Crown St, Wollongong

    2009-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to reading to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.

  3. Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T; Butson, M J; Yu, P K N

    2009-03-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6 MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to readings to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.

  4. '' Ideal Gas '' gluon plasma with medium dependent dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    An '' ideal gas '' model with temperature dependent particle mass is constructed for the gluon plasma equation of state. This simple model gives us an example of a system with temperature dependent effective Hamiltonian. To satisfy thermodynamical relations in these systems, standard statistical mechanics formulas have to be supplemented by special requirements which are considered in details. A self-consistent '' ideal gas '' formulation is used to describe Monte Carlo lattice data for the thermodynamical functions of SU(2) and SU(3) gluon plasma. 14 refs., 8 figs

  5. Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients inwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2007-06-25

    Noble gas isotopes are used extensively as tracers inhydrologic and paleoclimatic studies. These applications requireknowledge of the isotopic mass (m) dependence of noble gas diffusioncoefficients in water (D), which has not been measured but is estimatedusing experimental D-values for the major isotopes along with an untestedrelationship from kinetic theory, D prop m-0.5. We applied moleculardynamics methods to determine the mass dependence of D for four noblegases at 298 K, finding that D prop m-beta with beta<0.2, whichrefutes the kinetic theory model underlying all currentapplications.

  6. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author)

  7. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  9. Intensity dependence of electron gas kinetics in a laser corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašek Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In various experimental situations relevant to the laser fusion, such as plasma near the light entrance holes of hohlraum in the indirect drive experiments or more recently in the shock ignition direct drive a relatively long underdense plasma of corona type is encountered, which is subject to an intense nanosecond laser beam. The plasma is only weakly collisional and thus in the electron phase space a complicated kinetic evolution is going on, which is taking the electron gas fairly far from the thermal equilibrium and contributes to its unstable behaviour. These phenomena impede the absorption and thermalization of the incoming laser energy, create groups of fast electrons and also may lead to a non-linear reflection of the heating laser beam. One of the key processes leading to the electron acceleration is the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS in its non-linear phase. The SRS in the presence of electron-ion collisions requires a certain threshold intensity above which the mentioned non-dissipative phenomena can occur and develop to the stage, where they may become unpleasant for the fusion experiments. To assess this intensity limit a computational model has been developed based on the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetics describing such a plasma in 1D geometry. At a relatively high intensity of 1016 W/cm2 a number of non-linear phenomena are predicted by the code such as a saturation of Landau damping, which is then translated in an unfavourable time dependence of the reflected light intensity and formation of accelerated electron groups due to the electron trapping. The purpose of the present contribution is to map the intensity dependence of this non-linear development with the aim of assessing its weight in fusion relevant situations.

  10. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  11. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  12. Natural gas central to world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Continued growth in demand for natural gas is one of three pillars around which the energy mix of the future will take shape and upon which energy strategies should be based. The others are consumption efficiency and growth of renewable energy sources. This paper evaluates world energy supply and demand and includes an analysis of world pipeline gas, electricity, and LNG trends. The paper discusses the natural gas resource, proved reserves, reserves growth, gas prices and demand, country demand trends, world energy use, gas pipeline construction, power generation, electricity consumption and prices, and global carbon emissions

  13. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  14. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.

  15. Incident energy dependence of pt correlations at relativistic energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta, M R; Mazumdar; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2005-01-01

    We present results for two-particle transverse momentum correlations, , as a function of event centrality for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 20, 62, 130, and 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We observe correlations decreasing with centrality that are similar at all four incident energies. The correlations multiplied by the multiplicity density increase with incident energy and the centrality dependence may show evidence of processes such as thermalization, minijet production, or the saturation of transverse flow. The square root of the correlations divided by the event-wise average transverse momentum per event shows little or no beam energy dependence and generally agrees with previous measurements at the Super Proton Synchrotron.

  16. Exchange energy in the local Airy gas approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model of the edge electron gas is used to construct an exchange-energy functional that is an alternative to those obtained in the local-density and generalized-gradient approximations. Test calculations for rare-gas atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces show that the Airy gas...

  17. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z. [Military Technical Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation Protection Dept.

    1996-10-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author).

  18. Getting to Grips Again with Dependency. Japan's Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-08-01

    Japan has had to deal with a high level of dependency on energy imports for many decades. Today the country faces an increasingly competitive global energy market that forces it to reinvent its traditional security of supply policies. Unfortunately for Japan, the rise of China and India is increasing the competition for scarce energy supplies among consumer countries, whereas in the past supplier countries competed for access to the attractive Japanese market. To confront the challenges of the new environment the Japanese government has drafted a New National Energy Strategy. This paper analyses the strength of the strategy's proposals and targets, in particular those aimed at improving security of oil and gas supply. To assess the impact of the strategy we place it firmly against the background of Japan's history of energy security policy, as well as Japan's recent experiences with 'strategic resource projects'. This paper finds that Japan's policies in post-1973 history have been impeded by a complex set of factors. Traditionally this set has included Japan's troubled bilateral relations with Russia and China, and Japan's security dependence on the United States. Other factors are Japan's inability to synchronise national and corporate interests, and a lack of cooperation between domestic energy companies. More recently, rising oil prices, growing resource competition with China and lacklustre domestic demand-growth for energy have increased anxiety about security of supply amongst policymakers in Tokyo. In three case studies the paper illustrates in detail how these factors - in combination or by themselves - have structurally compromised Japanese initiatives to improve security of supply. The case studies discuss the Azadegan oil development project in Iran, plans for a pan-Siberian oil pipeline, and the oil and gas projects on Russia's Sakhalin Island. Our analysis of the New National Energy Strategy confirms that energy security is back on Japan's policy

  19. Gas and electricity 2000: energy deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulot, J.C.; Charbit, N.; Tuot, Th.

    2000-11-01

    This document brings together 17 testimonies of experts about the deregulation of the gas and electricity markets. Content: 1 - the new rules controlling the market: schedule and regulatory evolutions, the new legal framework, the new regulation, the missions and competences of the Commission of Electricity Regulation; 2 - the new commercial practices: the question of electricity transport and of the network independence, the development of trading, the stock exchanges and the forecasting of Paris market, the correlations with the environment (eco-taxes and climate change); 3 - the proposals of new actors: the contribution of a deregulated market like Spain, the comparison with a fully open market like Germany, an internal out-sourcing example to create an energy entity as a whole, the role of a bank in the risk management and the derived markets, the contribution of new technologies from service suppliers; 4 - the consumers attitude with respect to new offers: the historical gas and electricity utilities at the service of French and European clients, the new opportunities offered by the deregulation, the contribution of an independent supplier to consumers, the expectations of big companies and eligible consumers. (J.S.)

  20. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Energy dependence of double photoionization in He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrah, N.; Wehlitz, R.; Levin, J.; Whitfield, S.B.; Viefhaus, J.; Sellin, I.A.; Becker, U.

    1993-01-01

    The ratio of double-to-single ionization of He has been measured between 280 eV and 1210 eV to investigate its energy dependence in the intermediate region. The new intermediate energy measurement, compared with the most recent theories of Pan and Kelly and of Hino and Hino et al., show the importance of including not only ground state but also final state correlations. They also appear to indicate the importance of including higher-order effects in the theory. The previously reported high energy measurements between 2-12 keV give a ratio of 1.5 (2)% in good agreement with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain and of Aberg, as well as with recent many-body perturbation theory of Ishihara et al., calculations of Dalgarno and Sadeghpour, and of Andersson and Burgdoerfer. In contrast to the intermediate energy behavior, consideration of final state correlations proves inessential as discussed by Dalgarno and Sadeghpour. (orig.)

  2. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  3. The role of LP gas in eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael; Behuria, Sarthak

    2010-09-15

    LP Gas is an ideal solution for dealing with energy poverty. Clean burning, low carbon, extremely efficient, requiring minimal infrastructure or R and D investment and with plentiful long term global supply, LP Gas can be quickly introduced to play an important role in eradicating energy poverty and steering both industrialised and developing countries onto more sustainable energy development paths.

  4. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  5. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-09-29

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T{sub fill} =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T{sub fill}<130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B{sub i}O{sub i} defects, or negative contributions from three deep

  6. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-01-01

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10 14 cm -2 . In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T fill =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T fill <130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V 2 , V 3 and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B i O i defects, or negative contributions from three deep acceptors H(116K), H(140K) and H(152K).

  7. A multi vector energy analysis for interconnected power and gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, Joseph; Li, Kang; Higgins, Paraic; Foley, Aoife

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The first multi vector energy system analysis for Britain and Ireland is performed. • Extreme weather driven gas demands were utilised to increase gas system stress. • GB gas system is capable of satisfying demand but restricts gas generator ramping. • Irish gas system congestion causes a 40% increase in gas generator short run cost. • Gas storage in Ireland relieved congestion reduced operational costs by 14%. - Abstract: This paper presents the first multi vector energy analysis for the interconnected energy systems of Great Britain (GB) and Ireland. Both systems share a common high penetration of wind power, but significantly different security of supply outlooks. Ireland is heavily dependent on gas imports from GB, giving significance to the interconnected aspect of the methodology in addition to the gas and power interactions analysed. A fully realistic unit commitment and economic dispatch model coupled to an energy flow model of the gas supply network is developed. Extreme weather events driving increased domestic gas demand and low wind power output were utilised to increase gas supply network stress. Decreased wind profiles had a larger impact on system security than high domestic gas demand. However, the GB energy system was resilient during high demand periods but gas network stress limited the ramping capability of localised generating units. Additionally, gas system entry node congestion in the Irish system was shown to deliver a 40% increase in short run costs for generators. Gas storage was shown to reduce the impact of high demand driven congestion delivering a reduction in total generation costs of 14% in the period studied and reducing electricity imports from GB, significantly contributing to security of supply.

  8. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Lima Azevedo, Ines; Scott Matthews, H.; Hendrickson, Chris T.

    2011-01-01

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO 2 eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: → We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. → We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. → Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. → Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. → We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  9. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  10. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  11. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakeel, Asif, E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu; Love, Peter J., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Physics, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Meyer, David A., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California/San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  12. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  13. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Brook, B.W.; Meneley, D.A.; Misak, J.; Blees, T.; Van Erp, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  14. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  15. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  16. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy Resource · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Gas Hydrate Stability Zone · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Exploration of gas hydrates (seismic) · Characteristics of BSR · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Distribution of Gas Hydrates in KG ...

  17. Comparison of Gas Dehydration Methods based on Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out the dehydration process and suitability of use on the basis of energy ... pipelines and distribution for burning by end users, natural gas must ... A good account of energy and material balance will create a ...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  19. Renewable energy as a natural gas price hedge: the case of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2005-01-01

    Electric utilities use natural gas to fuel many of their power plants, especially those plants which provide electricity at peak and intermediate hours. Natural gas prices are highly volatile and have shown a general upward trend. Wind energy can provide a cost-effective hedge against natural gas price volatility or price increases. This conclusion is based on analysis of the costs of marginal conventional generation given the historical probability distribution of natural gas prices, the cost of wind energy, wind integration costs, transmission costs for wind energy, the capacity value of wind, and environmental benefits of wind energy for a hypothetical utility in the Southwestern United States. The efficacy of using wind energy as a hedge at a particular utility will depend on site specific conditions

  20. Nuclear three-body problem and energy-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, A.; Akhmadkhodzhaev, B.; Zubarev, A.L.; Irgaziev, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Energy-dependent potentials in the three-body problem are being considered. Three-particle equations for the case of pairing energy-dependent potentials are generalized and the problems related to this ambiguous generalization are investigated. In terms of the equations obtained the tritium binding energy and vertex coupling constants (Tdn) and (Tdν) are evaluated. The binding energy and, especially, coupling constants are shown to be sensitive to a shape of the energy-dependent potential

  1. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  2. Energy loss of charged particles to molecular gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of fast charged particles penetrating a dilute molecular gas target has been analysed theoretically, with a homogeneous gas mixture in the state of complete dissociation as a reference standard. It is shown that the geometrical structure of molecules causes the energy-loss straggling and higher moments over the energy-loss spectrum to be greater than the corresponding quantities for a completely dissociated gas of equal composition. Such deviations from additivity are shown to be most pronounced at energies around the stopping-power maximum. There is found supporting evidence in the experimental literature. (Auth.)

  3. Natural gas foothold in world energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Forli, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the expansion of natural gas from the '50s to the early '80s is analyzed. Following its positive success in industrial, residential and thermoelectric uses, natural gas still has new market spaces to win both in conventional and technical and process innovation-oriented industries

  4. Natural gas, energy with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauger, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Similar to the trend observed over the last thirty years, the production of electricity will likely account for much of the growth in natural gas consumption worldwide, regardless of the region. However transportation, storage and distribution make up, on the average, 70% of the total costs of producing gas

  5. Monitoring of energy efficiency of technological modes of gas transport using modern gas-turbine equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Shipovalov, A. N.; Akulov, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents calculations and an example of energy efficiency justification of the regimes of the equipment used. The engineering design of the gas pipeline in the part of monitoring the energy efficiency of a gas compressor unit (GCU) is considered. The results of the GCU characteristics and its components evaluation are described. The evaluation results of the energy efficiency indicators of the gas pipeline are presented. As an example of the result of the analysis, it is proposed to use gas compressor unit GCU-32 "Ladoga" because of its efficiency and cost effectiveness, in comparison with analogues.

  6. Liquefied natural gas : a Canadian perspective : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    World requirements for energy and natural gas are expected to increase in the near future. This energy market assessment presented an overview of global liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply and demand, and discussed the potential effects that imported LNG may have on Canadian gas markets and energy infrastructure. Regasification projects will double the world's existing LNG receiving capacity by 2015. However, LNG pricing will still be indexed to the price of crude oil and oil products in the future. LNG price differences will affect trading opportunities as well as the flow of LNG between regions. North American LNG facility development will be influenced by outlooks for continental gas supply and demand. Current declines combined with recent increases in United States natural gas production from unconventional gas resources will reduce requirements for LNG in the near future, and may have a significant impact on long-term North American and global LNG requirements. Canada's existing facilities are located competitively with other terminals. 33 figs.

  7. The ground state energy of a classical gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The ground state energy of a classical gas is treated using a probability function for the position of the particles and a potential function. The lower boundary for the energy when the particle number is large is defined as ground state energy. The coulomb gas consisting of positive and negative particles is also treated (fixed and variable density case) the stability of the relativistic system is investigated as well. (H.B.)

  8. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  9. The contribution of the DOE's R ampersand D budget in natural gas to energy price security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The energy price volatility model suggests that some of the proposed natural gas programs can contribute to energy price stability. The sector most vulnerable to fuel price variations is, of course, the transportation sector. The most effective strategy to achieve energy pace stability is to reduce petroleum consumption in this sector. The natural gas vehicle program is therefore recommended as potentially important and worthy of further consideration. At this point, distinguishing the merits of various subprograms is not feasible. This result farther supports the conclusion that the DOE's energy R ampersand D portfolio is not efficiently balanced and an increase in oil and gas research should be a high priority. The DOE has responded favorably and has significantly increased its proposed research with the explicit objective of displacing oil in the transportation sector. The enhanced research and development program for energy security, in the NES, proposes major funding, increases in this area. To recommend the further increases proposed by the industry, a careful analysis of incremental benefits and costs is required. The proposed natural as supply program is intended to enhance the future supply of natural gas. As explained above, enhanced gas supplies can reduce the volatility of gas prices and severe the link between gas and oil prices. The gas supply program is recommended as a potentially important strategy to ensure energy price stability. The importance of this point merits restatement. Oil price volatility affects directly the transportation and industrial sectors. The residential, commercial and electric utility sectors are not highly oil dependent. However, oil prices have affected gas prices and gas is used extensively the residential, commercial, industrial and electric utility sectors. Energy price stability is enhanced in these sectors by severing, the link, between oil and gas prices

  10. Liquid natural gas occupies an increasing position in the energy mix of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the profitability of using liquid natural gas (LNG) depends on the fluctuations of the gas price, LNG will play an increasing role in the ''energy mix'' of the USA. The amount of LNG imported by the USA rose by 175% from 1998 to 2001. There are at present four receiving stations for LNG in the USA and they will probably be extended. Plans to build gas-powered power stations in California will increase the demand for natural gas in the coming years. Several companies have announced their desire to build receiving stations for LNG. There is, however, some opposition from environmentalists

  11. Bangladeshi gas misses India's energy drive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraswamy, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    By allowing gas exports to be hijacked by partisan politics, Bangladesh not only failed to adopt a professional approach to a sensitive issue but also enabled India to look for attractive alternative markets. (author)

  12. Proposal of experimental device for the continuous accumulation of primary energy in natural gas hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siažik Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrates of the natural gas in the lithosphere are a very important potential source of energy that will be probably used in the coming decades. It seems as promising accumulation of the standard gas to form hydrates synthetically, stored, and disengage him when is peak demand. Storage of natural gas or biomethane in hydrates is advantageous not only in terms of storage capacity, but also from the aspect of safety storage hydrates. The gas stored in such form may occurs at relatively high temperatures and low pressures in comparison to other Technologies of gas- storage. In one cubic meter of hydrate can be stored up to 150 m3 of natural gas, depending on the conditions of thermobaric hydrate generation. This article discusses the design of the facility for the continuous generation of hydrates of natural gas measurement methodology and optimal conditions for their generation.

  13. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  14. Natural gas - bridge to a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Per unit of useful energy natural gas gives the lowest environmental pollution of all fossil fuels. This is due to its low carbon content, the absence of sulphur compounds, and the fact that natural gas can, rather easily, be burnt completely in such a way that also the NO x emission is acceptably low. Although natural gas has already a good record as an efficient and clean fuel large improvements are still possible, but this requires more R+D and time. The presently known natural gas world reserves are high enough to go for a substantially higher share of gas in the energy package. E.g. replacing coal by natural gas will give large environmental improvements. Furthermore, direct gas use is very often the most efficient and cleanest option, also when electricity is an alternative. To develop and connect the known large reserves to the market enormous amounts of money are required. The political and economical situation should make these investments possible and attractive. The ideas first expressed by the Dutch prime minister, now incorporated in the Energy Charter, have been developed to that end. Special attention should be given to the development of small gas fields as is e.g. being done in The Netherlands, which has improved the local gas reserves situation impressively. As a first major step to a clean future the potential of natural gas should be explored and put to work worldwide. Its potential as an important diversified source of energy is underestimated. Amongst others by funding more natural gas R+D natural gas should develop a keyrole in the energy scene of the next 3-5 decades.(author) 3 figs., 8 tabs., 3 refs

  15. Sustainability and energy security : the squeeze on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, G.; Howatson, A.; Parmenter, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the impact of environmental policy on natural gas demand and describes alternative energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and clean coal that can increase energy supplies. This briefing also establishes the short-, medium-, and long-term consequences of current natural gas realities. It also outlines the driving forces in Canada and the United States behind the demand for natural gas. The impact of policy formation and the phase-out of coal in Ontario are addressed along with natural gas supply prospects and the prospects and obstacles for riskier incremental supplies such as liquefied natural gas, natural gas from coal, and frontier natural gas. It was concluded that strong demand and tight supply are the factors that have driven up natural gas prices. Continued high natural gas prices in the short term will likely motivate conservation strategies at the personal household level as well as in the business and industrial sectors. Although wind power is seen as a clean, competitively prices alternative to natural gas-fired electricity generation, its contribution is not expected to change the supply and demand equilibrium. Initiatives such as the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, the Alaskan Pipeline and drilling in the Atlantic may help balance natural gas supply and demand in the mid-term. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Temperature dependence of muonium reaction rates in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Garner, D.M.; Mikula, R.J.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    A study of the temperature dependence of reaction rates has long been an important tool in establishing reaction pathways in chemical reactions. This is particularly true for the reactions of muonium (in comparison with those of hydrogen) since a measurement of the activation energy for chemical reaction is sensitive to both the height and the position of the potential barrier in the reaction plane. For collision controlled reactions, on the other hand, the reaction rate is expected to exhibit a weak T 1 sup(/) 2 dependence characteristic of the mean collision velocity. These concepts are discussed and their effects illustrated in a comparison of the chemical and spin exchange reaction rates of muonium and hydrogen in the temperature range approx.300-approx.500 K. (orig.)

  17. Modelling Reliability of Supply and Infrastructural Dependency in Energy Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and models for assessing reliability of supply and infrastructural dependency in energy distribution systems with multiple energy carriers. The three energy carriers of electric power, natural gas and district heating are considered. Models and methods for assessing reliability of supply in electric power systems are well documented, frequently applied in the industry and continuously being subject to research and improvement. On the contrary, there are compar...

  18. The non conventional gas, a factor of energy independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques Percebois

    2011-01-01

    As the recent exploitation of non conventional gases (or shale gases) has dramatically changed the energy deal in the USA, and therefore the energy world market, these gases seem to be a factor of energy independence for countries which possess such resources, but also create environmental constrains. The author describes how shale gas produces a technological revolution, and discusses how it can be a factor for the diversification of the energy mix, and above all a way to reconquer some energy independence

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at a water/gas interface: A study of bath gas-dependent molecular species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.; Padmanabhan, A.; Godfrey, G.J.; Rehse, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been performed on the surface of a bulk water sample in an air, argon, and nitrogen gas environment to investigate emissions from hydrogen-containing molecules. A microplasma was formed at the gas/liquid interface by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam operating at 1064 nm onto the surface of an ultra-pure water sample. A broadband Echelle spectrometer with a time-gated intensified charge-coupled device was used to analyze the plasma at various delay times (1.0-40.0 μs) and for incident laser pulse energies ranging from 20-200 mJ. In this configuration, the dominant atomic spectral features at short delay times are the hydrogen H-alpha and H-beta emission lines at 656 and 486 nm, respectively, as well as emissions from atomic oxygen liberated from the water and air and nitrogen emission lines from the air bath gas. For delay times exceeding approximately 8 μs the emission from molecular species (particularly OH and NH) created after the ablation process dominates the spectrum. Molecular emissions are found to be much less sensitive to variations in pulse energy and exhibit a temporal decay an order of magnitude slower than the atomic emission. The dependence of both atomic hydrogen and OH emission on the bath gas above the surface of the water was studied by performing the experiment at standard pressure in an atmospheric purge box. Electron densities calculated from the Stark broadening of the H-beta and H-gamma lines and plasma excitation temperatures calculated from the ratio of H-beta to H-gamma emission were measured for ablation in the three bath gases

  20. GasFair/PowerFair/EnergyUser '98 : Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Papers presented at three conferences, reviewing recent activities in the natural gas and electric power industries and matters of concern to energy consumers in North America are contained on this single CD-ROM. Seven presentations relate to the natural gas industry, nine to electric power generation and transmission, and ten to a wide range of topics dealing with various concerns relating to the environment, financial and cost management aspects of energy utilization. Speakers at the GasFair sessions discussed recent developments in natural gas supply, marketing, purchasing, risk management and the impact of energy convergence on natural gas. Presentations at the PowerFair segment dealt with issues in electricity deregulation, supply and financing, purchasing and marketing. Issues discussed at the EnergyUser sessions included presentations dealing with ways to save costs with energy technology and integrated services, environmental performance contracting and engineering and energy cost control. The CD-ROM also contains the summary of a round table discussion and five individual presentations made at the Natural Gas Pipeline Forum. This pre-conference institute dealt with the likely effects of new pipelines and pipeline extensions on North American natural gas consumers. . tabs., figs

  1. Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-12-01

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)

  2. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  3. Energy decay in a granular gas collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazán, Lidia; Serero, Dan; Pöschel, Thorsten; Salueña, Clara

    2017-01-01

    An inelastic hard ball bouncing repeatedly off the ground comes to rest in finite time by performing an infinite number of collisions. Similarly, a granular gas under the influence of external gravity, condenses at the bottom of the confinement due to inelastic collisions. By means of hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the condensation process of a granular gas reveals a similar dynamics as the bouncing ball. Our result is in agreement with both experiments and particle simulations, but disagrees with earlier simplified hydrodynamical description. Analyzing the result in detail, we find that the adequate modeling of pressure plays a key role in continuum modeling of granular matter. (paper)

  4. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Loan T.; Ierland, Ekko C. van; Zhu, Xueqin; Wesseler, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO 2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km −1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO 2 e emission of 156 g km −1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO 2 e emission of 942 g L −1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among

  5. Consolidation of natural gas on the energy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper joints itself in the effort to make natural gas a competitive fuel in Brazil as occurs in many countries. In the world, petroleum by products have an outstanding importance on the energy market as well as equals 38% of consumption. Comparing other commercialized energy, natural gas by itself contributes with 20% while other sources complete the world energy necessity. In Brazil, natural gas consumption is almost 2% of total consumption or 1/10 of that 20% said above so that there are plenty possibilities ahead to grow its participation. This paper aims to enlarge and solidify the natural gas utilization on the energy matrix so that new analysis have been made from new elements sources. The date collected should be considered not as an end result but as a first start to guide a market analysis study. (author)

  6. Energy Dependent Streaming in Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlo, Pavol; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 8 (2001), s. 241 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society/43rd./. Long Beach, CA, 29.10.2001-02.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Lattice Boltzmann Simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. The importance of North Sea gas to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas can, of course, be transported over very long distances but, because of the economics of gas transmission, its impact is most often local. This has certainly been the case with North Sea gas, which has clearly contributed significantly to European energy supply and will continue to do so for some time to come. The historical importance of the discovery of gas in the North Sea has been that it has enabled natural gas industries to grow rapidly in North West Europe. Without North Sea gas and Dutch gas it is difficult to see how town gas would have been replaced in North West Europe. Certainly, a much smaller natural gas industry would have emerged. North Sea gas has inevitably had the greatest impact on gas markets in the countries of the European Community and this will remain the case in future. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that gas will, in future, flow across more national boundaries than in the past, and that North Sea gas will have an important part to play in meeting the Central European demand for competitively priced, secure supplies. This paper discusses the United Kingdom market for gas and future demand both in the United Kingdom and more widely in Europe. An examination of the availability of gas supplies from the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely that there will be a surplus of gas for export from the United Kingdom continental shelf. Norway will remain the main source of exports, with the Netherlands also in a strong position. Transportation and political aspects are also considered. (author)

  8. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  9. French energy policy and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1994-01-01

    The 111th annual conference of the French gas association was held in Paris from the 20 to 23 September 1994. This year's conference was very well attended, beating even the record attendance levels of 1993, both at the technical sessions and the accompanying international exhibition. As tradition dictates, this November issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui is entirely given over to a comprehensive report on the conference. The speeches made by top gas industry executives have been fully transcribed along with the discussions which took place following these speeches. This issue also includes a report on the workshop and marketing sessions at the conference while a list of the winners of the Innovation competition, which takes place every two years when the exhibition is in Paris, provides a rundown of the competing products. (author)

  10. Natural gas prices in the Maritimes : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply and price of natural gas in the Maritimes. This report contains the results and analysis of a survey of the wholesale natural gas prices paid by Canadian buyers in the Maritimes from November 2002 to October 2003. The objective of the report is to improve the understanding of the market factors that influence wholesale natural gas prices in the Maritimes. A comparative evaluation of domestic and export prices shows that Canadian buyers have had access to gas at prices similar to the export market at St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Since the number of participants in the domestic market is low, only four large buyers have a major impact on average prices in the region. The challenge for small buyers will be to buy gas from others who can divert some of their own sales of use. However, these sellers may not want to over-commit to new firm sales in case they have to re-purchase the gas during shortages that may occur due to fluctuations in production or shipping. It was noted that a new gas supply into the region would support many buyers and sellers, and could lead to a more transparent Maritime natural gas market. The National Energy Board is satisfied that the Maritime natural gas market is currently performing as well as can be expected, given its young stage of development. 1 tab., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  11. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The national energy policy: a case for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, A.

    2001-01-01

    During the first half of 2001, Australia's Federal, State and Territory governments through COAG have dedicated considerable time to formulating their initial positions on a national energy policy. The formal development of that policy is expected to be agreed at a mid-year meeting of COAG. Given these many benefits, the AGA believes that a national energy policy should: address regulatory constraints on gas market growth and investment; ensure greenhouse programs and measures encourage fuel switching to cleaner energy sources such as natural gas; make gas market contestability regimes consistent and compatible across the States and Territories; improve and streamline project approval processes along the whole gas chain, from exploration and production through to transmission and distribution; remove regulatory structures and market rules that currently inhibit new gas entrants from entering the electricity generation and cogeneration sectors; introduce appropriate taxation regimes for long lived energy infrastructure assets, particularly following the loss of accelerated depreciation; maximise opportunities for energy choice in urban and regional areas and encourage the development, and market uptake, of new gas technologies

  13. Occupation number dependence of molecular energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Ferreira, R.

    1977-08-01

    The Roothaan expression for the energy of a closed-shell molecular system is generalized in order to apply to open shells. A continuous variation from 0 to 2 is supposed for each level's occupation number, extending to this range tbe correction due to the spurious repulsion appearing in the half-electron method. The characteristic equations of the Xα method are applied to the energy expressions. The one level case is discussed in detail. Ionic and excited states of the 1,3 transbutadiene π system are analyzed

  14. Gas energy meter for inferential determination of thermophysical properties of a gas mixture at multiple states of the gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Thomas B [San Antonio, TX; Kelner, Eric [San Antonio, TX; Owen, Thomas E [Helotes, TX

    2008-07-08

    A gas energy meter that acquires the data and performs the processing for an inferential determination of one or more gas properties, such as heating value, molecular weight, or density. The meter has a sensor module that acquires temperature, pressure, CO2, and speed of sound data. Data is acquired at two different states of the gas, which eliminates the need to determine the concentration of nitrogen in the gas. A processing module receives this data and uses it to perform a "two-state" inferential algorithm.

  15. Landfill Gas Energy Project Development Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    View handbook that provides an overview of LFG energy project development guidance and presents the technological, economic and regulatory considerations that affect the feasibility and success of these projects.

  16. Regulatory applications of the relationships between natural gas usage and weather; Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.A.; Patterson, D.L.; Proctor, M.S.; Warren, H.E.; Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-05-01

    This books includes two articles, each with an abstract dealing with the economic aspects of natural gas usage and solar energy usage both depending on the data about weather forecasting. The demand of natural gas depends on weather and the analysis of gas usage is required in a rate case in order to properly estimate the volumes and revenues that would be recovered from current rate under conditions of normal weather. The actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context are needed for future estimation concerning this energy sources which would have a more significant role in the future

  17. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1998-01-01

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  18. Symmetry energy in the liquid–gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, J.A., E-mail: jorgelopez@utep.edu [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Terrazas Porras, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Results from classical molecular dynamics simulations of infinite nuclear systems with varying density, temperature and isospin content are used to calculate the symmetry energy at low densities. The results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data and corroborate the claim that the formation of clusters has a strong influence on the symmetry energy in the liquid–gas coexistence region.

  19. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  20. Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

  1. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France); [Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  2. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  3. Calculation of nonstationary gas-dynamic flows with periodic local supply of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, N.V.; Myshetskaya, E.E.; Rakhimov, A.T.; Favorskii, A.P.

    The paper considers the motion of a flow of gas with local supply of energy periodic in time. Solution of the problem in one-dimensional formulation in the approximation of an ideal nonviscous non-heat-conducting gas is carried out by numerical methods. The possibility of emergence of the flow into a periodic regime is established and the rate of this process is calculated. The character of the periodic structure is investigated in dependence on the frequency of the superimposition of perturbations and the Mach number in unperturbed flow of the gas

  4. Study of recycling exhaust gas energy of hybrid pneumatic power system with CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Quang, Khong Vu; Tseng, K.-T.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid pneumatic power system (HPPS) is integrated by an internal combustion engine (ICE), a high efficiency turbine, an air compressor and an energy merger pipe, which can not only recycle and store exhaust gas energy but also convert it into useful mechanical energy. Moreover, it can make the ICE operate in its optimal state of maximum efficiency; and thus, it can be considered an effective solution to improve greatly the exhaust emissions and increase the overall energy efficiency of the HPPS. However, in this system, the flow energy merger of both high pressure compressed air flow and high temperature exhaust gas flow of the ICE greatly depends on the merging capability of the energy merger pipe. If the compressed air pressure (P air ) at the air inlet is too high, smooth transmission and mixture of the exhaust gas flow are prevented, which will interfere with the operation condition of the ICE. This shortcoming is mostly omitted in the previous studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the level of P air and the contraction of cross-section area (CSA) at the merging position on the flow energy merger and determine their optimum adjustments for a better merging process by using computation fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the CFD model was validated on the basis of the experimental data, including the temperature and static pressure of the merger flow at the outlet of the energy merger pipe. It was found that the simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that exhaust gas recycling efficiency and merger flow energy are significantly dependent on the optimum adjustment of the CSA for changes in P air . Under these optimum adjustments, the exhaust gas recycling efficiency can reach about 83%. These results will be valuable bases to research and design the energy merger pipe of the HPPS.

  5. Production from Giant Gas Fields in Norway and Russia and Subsequent Implications for European Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects total natural gas output in the EU to decrease from 216 billion cubic meters per year (bcm/year) in 2006 to 90 bcm/year in 2030. For the same period, EU demand for natural gas is forecast to increase rapidly. In 2006 demand for natural gas in the EU amounted to 532 bcm/year. By 2030, it is expected to reach 680 bcm/year. As a consequence, the widening gap between EU production and consumption requires a 90% increase of import volumes between 2006 and 2030. The main sources of imported gas for the EU are Russia and Norway. Between them they accounted for 62% of the EU's gas imports in 2006. The objective of this thesis is to assess the potential future levels of gas supplies to the EU from its two main suppliers, Norway and Russia. Scenarios for future natural gas production potential for Norway and Russia have been modeled utilizing a bottom-up approach, building field-by-field, and individual modeling has been made for giant and semi-giant gas fields. In order to forecast the production profile for an individual giant natural gas field a Giant Gas Field Model (GGF-model) has been developed. The GGF-model has also been applied to production from an aggregate of fields, such as production from small fields and undiscovered resources. Energy security in the EU is heavily dependent on gas supplies from a relatively small number of giant gas fields. In Norway almost all production originates from 18 fields of which 9 can be considered as giant fields. In Russia 36 giant fields account for essentially all gas production. There is limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU, and all of the scenarios investigated show Norwegian gas production in decline by 2030. Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU may even be, by 2030, 20 bcm/year lower than today's level. The maximum increase in exports of Russian gas supplies to the EU amount to only 45% by 2030. In real numbers this means a mere increase of about

  6. The energy density distribution of an ideal gas and Bernoulli’s equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo S. F.

    2018-05-01

    This work discusses the energy density distribution in an ideal gas and the consequences of Bernoulli’s equation and the corresponding relation for compressible fluids. The aim of this work is to study how Bernoulli’s equation determines the energy flow in a fluid, although Bernoulli’s equation does not describe the energy density itself. The model from molecular dynamic considerations that describes an ideal gas at rest with uniform density is modified to explore the gas in motion with non-uniform density and gravitational effects. The difference between the component of the speed of a particle that is parallel to the gas speed and the gas speed itself is called ‘parallel random speed’. The pressure from the ‘parallel random speed’ is denominated as parallel pressure. The modified model predicts that the energy density is the sum of kinetic and potential gravitational energy densities plus two terms with static and parallel pressures. The application of Bernoulli’s equation and the corresponding relation for compressible fluids in the energy density expression has resulted in two new formulations. For incompressible and compressible gas, the energy density expressions are written as a function of stagnation, static and parallel pressures, without any dependence on kinetic or gravitational potential energy densities. These expressions of the energy density are the main contributions of this work. When the parallel pressure was uniform, the energy density distribution for incompressible approximation and compressible gas did not converge to zero for the limit of null static pressure. This result is rather unusual because the temperature tends to zero for null pressure. When the gas was considered incompressible and the parallel pressure was equal to static pressure, the energy density maintained this unusual behaviour with small pressures. If the parallel pressure was equal to static pressure, the energy density converged to zero for the limit of the

  7. Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect

  8. Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyashev Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different scenarios and prospects for individual LNG terminal projects and associated pipeline infrastructure are evaluated. It is shown that the inability of countries to find a political compromise on this issue and the terms of existing contracts for Russian gas, as well as low domestic demand for gas hamper the implementation of a regional LNG terminal project even in the long term.

  9. Energy dependence of ion guiding through nanocapillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiessl, K.; Lemell, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Toekesi, K.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this work, we model the transmission of Ne 7+ ions with varying kinetic energies ranging from 2 to 9 keV through Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries with a diameter of 200 nm (see Fig. 1). We have simulated the ion transmission through insulating nanocapillaries using a mean-field classical-transport theory (see Fig. 2.). Ion trajectories are propagated in the combined fields of charges deposited on the capillary wall, their polarization charges, the projectile image charge, and the macroscopic field from neighboring capillaries. The simulation avoids any freely adjustable parameters in order to be predictive and to provide qualitative insights into underlying mechanisms. We have varied projectile energy and angle of incidence and have tested different models of dielectric shielding. Best agreement with experimental data is found for dielectrically screened surfaces charges. Response and transport employs linear response only. Reasonable agreement with data could be found employing only macroscopic material parameters of PET like dielectric constant, surface and bulk conductivity

  10. Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame

  11. Energy dependence of opaqueness for pp collisions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, T T

    1978-01-01

    Opaqueness of pp collisions is evaluated at three CERN-ISR energies. Comparisons with predictions of the factorisable eikonal models and the scaling hypothesis are made. It appears that results are in favour of the factorisable models. (20 refs).

  12. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  13. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  14. Energy transition: the role of the gas vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Suzanne; Mazzega, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    GrDF (Gaz de France network Distribution) takes on all the responsibility functions - technical, industrial and legal - for a natural gas distribution network of almost 200 000 km, the most extensive in Europe. In the course of France's national debate on energy transition, GrDF presented its scenario out to 2050. One of its main conclusions: gas infrastructures can play a major role, accommodating new production, while ensuring solidarity between regions. (authors)

  15. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  16. The natural gas. Forecast for 2010-2020 (availability, constraints and dependences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzian, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this book the author deals with the supply and the demand forecast of gas for 2020 and evaluate the risks of a possible european dependence towards the importations outside of Europe OECD. The following subjects are also considered: the gas and petroleum prices evolution, the supplying reliability, the european regulation and the specific question of the natural gas liquids. (A.L.B.)

  17. Feasibility of Ericsson type isothermal expansion/compression gas turbine cycle for nuclear energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    A gas turbine with potential demand for the next generation nuclear energy use such as HTGR power plants, a gas cooled FBR, a gas cooled nuclear fusion reactor uses helium as working gas and with a closed cycle. Materials constituting a cycle must be set lower than allowable temperature in terms of mechanical strength and radioactivity containment performance and so expansion inlet temperature is remarkably limited. For thermal efficiency improvement, isothermal expansion/isothermal compression Ericsson type gas turbine cycle should be developed using wet surface of an expansion/compressor casing and a duct between stators without depending on an outside heat exchanger performing multistage re-heat/multistage intermediate cooling. Feasibility of an Ericsson cycle in comparison with a Brayton cycle and multi-stage compression/expansion cycle was studied and technologies to be developed were clarified. (author)

  18. Could Shale Gas Become a Reliable Energy Source for Europe and Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While shale gas and oil is a success story in USA and Canada where production has considerably increased in the last five years the situation is quite different in Europe where exploration and production activities are quite low and prospects are not encouraging. Even in the Eastern Europe the first results of exploration are disappointing for the American companies, which have the technical expertise for exploring and extraction shale gas. Due to global warming there is now at the world scale a fierce confrontation between environmentalists and lobbyists of producing companies regarding the negative effects of hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas development in Europe depends more on the coal substitution by gas and on the use of CCS technologies. The collapse of crude oil prices may delay many projects in the field of shale gas and oil, especially in Europe. The prospects of oil gas in Romania are linked to the energy security concept, whose implementation requires diversification of energy supply on some levels. The development of shale gas in order to diversify the energy supply cannot compensate the groundwater pollution and other negative effects, like earthquake. The temporary withdrawal of Chevron from Romania will have some positive effects, allowing to our country a necessary time-out to better substantiate public policies in the field and to producing companies some time required for carrying out new technologies, less polluting and harmful.

  19. The role of gas in the external dimension of the EU energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Oultremont, Clementine d'

    2013-01-01

    As an economically attractive option for investors, a potential backup source for renewables and the cleanest fossil fuel, natural gas is expected to play an important role in the European transition towards a low-carbon economy by 2050. At a time when European primary energy resources are being depleted and energy demand is growing, the gas import dependency of the EU will continue to grow significantly in the coming years. The EU is thus facing important challenges linked to its gas policy both internally, by attempting to create a competitive, interconnected and well-functioning internal market for gas; and externally, by struggling to develop a coherent and collective external strategy, which would allow it to both diversify and secure its gas supply from abroad. Meanwhile, new sources of unconventional gas could change the world's energy markets with potential consequences for the EU. However, many uncertainties remain regarding their development within the EU. In view of all these challenges, this Policy Paper concludes by laying out concrete recommendations on how the EU could strengthen its gas strategy both internally and externally

  20. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  1. Gas dependent sensing mechanism in ZnO nanobelt sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manmeet, E-mail: manmeet@barc.gov.in [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kailasaganapathi, S.; Ramgir, Niranjan; Datta, Niyanta [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Sushil [Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru), Gautaminagar, Dist. Khammam, Telangana (India); Debnath, A.K.; Aswal, D.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanobelts exhibit an appreciable response towards H{sub 2}S and NO. • At room temperature, sensor recovers completely after exposure to NO (1 to 60 ppm). • At room temperature, incomplete recovery observed on exposure to higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S (> 5 ppm). • Complete recovery on exposure to concentrations higher than 5 ppm H{sub 2}S is achieved by heating the sensor films at 250 °C. • Incomplete recovery after exposure to higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S is due to formation of ZnS. - Abstract: Gas sensing properties of ZnO nanobelts synthesized using carbothermal reduction method has been investigated. At room temperature (28 °C), the sensor films exhibit an appreciable response towards H{sub 2}S and NO and response of these two gases were studied as a function of concentration. For NO the sensor films exhibit a complete reversible curve for the concentration range between 1 and 60 ppm. However, for H{sub 2}S a complete recovery was obtained for concentration <5 ppm and for higher concentration a partial recovery of the baseline resistance was observed. The reason for the incomplete recovery was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the sample before and after the H{sub 2}S exposure. After exposure, appearance of an additional peak at 26.6° corresponding to the formation of ZnS was observed in XRD. Formation of additional phase was further corroborated using the results of XPS. H{sub 2}S exposure causes decrease in the intensity of O 1s peak and appearance of sulphide peaks at binding energies of 162.8 and 161.8 eV corresponding to S-2p peaks – 2p{sub 3/2} and 2p{sub 1/2}, confirms the formation of ZnS upon exposure.

  2. Transverse momentum dependence of J/Ψsuppression in an equilibrium hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prorok, D.; Turko, L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider an ideal gas of massive hadrons in thermal and chemical equilibrium. The gas expands longitudinally in accordance with the Bjorken law. We show that J/Ψ suppression such an environment is essentially the same as in a pion gas of the equal initial energy density and agrees with the NA38 data. (orig.)

  3. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  4. Energy-dependent inversion of p+16O scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    A fast iterative procedure is developed to determine potentials by inversion from elastic cross section, analysing powers and reaction cross-section measurements covering a wide energy range. The procedure incorporates both energy and parity dependence. The method is applied to extensive p+ 16 O scattering data for an energy range from 27.3 to 46.1 MeV, giving a solution which simultaneously reproduces the data at all energies. The wide angle data is well reproduced by including parity dependence and a linear energy dependence is established for the real potential, including the parity-dependent component. The real terms agree qualitatively with potentials derived from the single channel RGM, but the central and spin-orbit imaginary components have distinct features strongly suggestive of further non-local contributions, possibly arising from channel coupling. The large data set is found essential to reduce the potential ambiguities present when fitting scattering data. (orig.)

  5. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rahardjo Tirtoatmodjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Gas buang dari motor diesel masih memiliki sejumlah energi panas yang cukup tinggi. Pada motor diesel stasioner, dengan mengalirkan air pada pipa spiral ya...

  6. Is inexpensive natural gas hindering the grid energy storage industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittinger, Eric; Lueken, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Grid energy storage is a maturing technology and forecasts of the industry's growth have been promising. However, recent years have realized little growth in actual deployments of grid-level storage and several high-profile storage companies and projects have failed. We hypothesize that falling natural gas prices have significantly reduced the potential profit from many U.S. energy storage projects since 2009 and quantify that effect. We use engineering–economic models to calculate the monthly revenue to energy storage devices providing frequency regulation and energy arbitrage in several electricity markets and compare that revenue to prevailing natural gas prices. We find that flywheel devices providing frequency regulation were profitable in months when natural gas prices were above $7/mcf, but face difficulties at current prices (around $4/mcf). For energy arbitrage alone, we find that the breakeven capital cost for large-scale storage was around $300/kWh in several key locations in 2004–2008, but is around $100/kWh in the same locations today. Though cost and performance improvements have been continually decreasing the effective cost of energy services from storage, fundamental market signals indicating the need for energy storage are at or near 10-year lows for both energy arbitrage and frequency regulation. - Highlights: • We use engineering–economic models to determine breakeven capital cost of storage. • Two applications are examined: frequency regulation and energy arbitrage. • For both services, potential revenue has decreased significantly since 2008. • We show a high correlation of revenue with natural gas price. • We demonstrate a causal relationship using the PHORUM grid modeling software.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF GAS-AIR ENERGY INSTALLATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Lobov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the work is to substantiate the issue of effective use of kinetic energy of gas-air flows used by the technological installation for generating electric power, which will allow developing a new control algorithm and creating new software for controlling the gas-air power plant. To test the adequacy of the developed control algorithms and software, to develop a laboratory gas-air power plant. Methodology. To investigate the distribution of air-gas mass in process plants used industrial plant simulation method performed in software SolidWorks Flow Simulation. The method of simulation allowed to develop a new control algorithm and create new software taking into account the basic technical requirements for the management of the gas-air power plant. To test the efficiency of the developed algorithms and control software for the gas-air power plant, a physical modeling method was used on a developed laboratory installation connected via a USB interface with a computer and has a virtual model of the SCADA system presented in the LabVIEW environment. Findings. Based on the modeling of gas-air flows on the developed mathematical model, the optimal ratios of pipeline sizes are rationally determined, the gas-air mixture costs necessary for the most efficient operation of the gas-air power plant, that is, in the working zone of the gas-air path, the generator screw contacts the most significant flows, providing the maximum effect rotation. The obtained results of research of gas-air flows of technological installations of an industrial enterprise in the software environment of SolidWorks Flow Simulation and on their basis the basic technical requirements for the management of a gas-air power plant are developed. An optimal control algorithm has been developed that enabled it to be introduced into the control scheme of a gas-air power plant with a microprocessor or a specialized microcontroller. Originality. New possibilities for

  8. Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

  9. Technical review of the high energy gas stimulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, B.; Cuthill, D. [Computalog Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    High Energy Gas Stimulation (HEGS) or propellant stimulation is a process that enhances production of oil wells by decreasing wellbore damage and increasing near wellbore permeability. The technique has been used on about 7,000 wells with varying results. The HEGS tool is a cast cylinder of solid rocket propellant with a central ignition system. The propellant is fired and as it burns it produces a pressure load on the formation, increasing fracture volume which enhances the flow channels. Background information on the development and application of this stimulation technique was provided. The introduction of fractures around a wellbore is dependent on the pressure loading rate and the dynamic response of the rock. Propellant stimulation relies on controlling the pressure-time behaviour to maximize fracture growth by fluid pressurization. The process is composed of 3 sequential phases: (1) wellbore pressurization, (2) fracture initiation, and (3) fracture extension. A full description of each of these phases was provided. Geologic and well-tool factors that have a significant influence on the fracturing process such as in-situ stress, natural fractures and flaws, formation mechanical properties, formation fluid and flow properties, formation thermal properties, and wellbore, tool, and tamp configuration, were also reviewed. The many applications for HEGS were presented. It was emphasized that the success of HEGS is dependent on pre-stimulation problem evaluation and on proper charge design. Since HEGS will decrease near-wellbore restrictions and initiate formation breakdown, it should only be used in cases where this will be beneficial to the well. Careful attention to engineering will optimize results. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves

  11. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  12. Natural gas cogeneration plants: considerations on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcuri, P.; Florio, G.; Fragiacomo, P.

    1996-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most interesting solution to be adopted in order to achieve the goals of the Domestic Energy Plan. Besides the high primary energy savings, remarkable environmental benefits can be obtained. In the article, an energy analysis is carried out on the major cogeneration technologies depending on the parameters which define a generic user tipology. The energy indexes of a cogeneration plant are the shown in charts from which useful information on the achievable performances can be obtained

  13. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  14. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  15. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  17. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  18. Holographic Dark Energy with Generalized Chaplygin Gas in Higher Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Saha, A.; Paul, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate holographic dark energy (HDE) correspondence of interacting Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) in the framework of compact Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology. The evolution of the modified HDE with corresponding equation of state is obtained here. Considering the present value of the density parameter a stable configuration is found which accommodates Dark Energy (DE). We note a connection between DE and Phantom fields. It reveals that the DE might have evolved from a Phantom state in the past.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  20. Materials dependence of mixed gas plasticization behavior in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen; Masetto, N.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The mass transport of asymmetric membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide/methane mixtures is determined by competitive sorption and plasticization. With increasing feed pressure in mixed gas experiments, the selectivity decreases due to both effects. Distinction whether one or the other

  1. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  2. Dimension dependence of clustering dynamics in models of ballistic aggregation and freely cooling granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Subhajit; Das, Subir K.

    2018-03-01

    Via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations we study kinetics of clustering in assemblies of inelastic particles in various space dimensions. We consider two models, viz., the ballistic aggregation model (BAM) and the freely cooling granular gas model (GGM), for each of which we quantify the time dependence of kinetic energy and average mass of clusters (that form due to inelastic collisions). These quantities, for both the models, exhibit power-law behavior, at least in the long time limit. For the BAM, corresponding exponents exhibit strong dimension dependence and follow a hyperscaling relation. In addition, in the high packing fraction limit the behavior of these quantities become consistent with a scaling theory that predicts an inverse relation between energy and mass. On the other hand, in the case of the GGM we do not find any evidence for such a picture. In this case, even though the energy decay, irrespective of packing fraction, matches quantitatively with that for the high packing fraction picture of the BAM, it is inversely proportional to the growth of mass only in one dimension, and the growth appears to be rather insensitive to the choice of the dimension, unlike the BAM.

  3. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner Untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtoatmodjo, Rahardjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %.

  4. Local kinetic-energy density of the Airy gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model is used to derive an expression for the local kinetic energy in the linear potential approximation. The expression contains an explicit Laplacian term 2/5((h) over bar(2)/2m)del(mu)(2)(r) that, according to jellium surface calculations, must be a universal feature of any accura...

  5. 78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., 13-37-NG, 13-24-NG, 13-28-LNG, and 13-32-LNG] Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA... natural gas from/to Canada. Group, Inc. 3247 03/05/13 12-161-LNG...... ENI USA Gas Order granting blanket...

  6. Energy and exergy recovery in a natural gas compressor station – A technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Kalina, Jacek; Bargiel, Paweł; Szufleński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy flow in a natural gas compressor station. • Operational efficiency only 18.3% vs. 35.1% nominal. • 3 energy/exergy recovery systems proposed. • Up to 168.9 GW h/y electricity and 6.5 GW h/y heat recoverable. • Legal obstacles: operators not allowed to produce electricity. - Abstract: The paper presents possible solutions to improve the thermodynamic performance of a natural gas compressor station equipped with various type of compressor units and operated at part-load conditions. A method for setting a simplified energy and exergy balance based on the available metering information has been presented. For a case study plant, it has been demonstrated that the current part-load operation leads to a significant decrease in energy and exergy efficiency compared to the nominal state of machinery. Three alternative improvement strategies have been proposed: (1) installation of a heat recovery hot water generator for covering the existing heat demand of the plant; (2) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater for covering the existing heat demand and driving an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for electricity generation; (3) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater with and ORC and gas expanders for switching into full-load operation of the gas turbine unit. Energy and exergy performance of the proposed strategies as well as their economic feasibility have been analyzed. The second scenario involving an ORC unit provides the highest local energy savings, however, its economic feasibility is not achieved under the current part-load operating conditions. A hypothetic scenario of the same station operated at full-load due to an increased gas transmission capacity demonstrate the economic feasibility (possible under optimistic price conditions). Finally, it has been shown that the possibility of waste energy recovery from natural gas transmission systems (in particular, from compressor stations) depends on legal

  7. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  8. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as

  9. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  10. Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced

  11. Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.; Papastylianos, A.; Amos, K.A.; Allen, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs

  12. Role of renewable energy policies in energy dependency in Finland: System dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Helo, Petri; Naaranoja, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A system dynamics model for evaluating renewable energy policies on dependency is proposed. • The model considers the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply in Finland. • Dependency on imported sources will decrease depends on the defined scenarios in Finland. - Abstract: Objective: We discuss the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply. A system dynamics model with especial focus on the role of renewable energy resources (as a portfolio) on Finland’s energy dependency is developed. The purpose is also to cover a part of research gap exists in the system dynamics modeling of energy security investigations. Methods: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies. The analysis describes the relationship between dynamic factors such as RE encouragement packages, dependency, and energy demand. Results: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate three different Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies by 2020. Conclusion: Analysis shows that despite 7% electricity/heat consumption growth by 2020 in Finland, dependency on imported sources will decrease between 1% and 7% depend on the defined scenarios. Practice Implications: The proposed model not only helps decision makers to test their scenarios related to renewable energy polices, it can be implemented by other countries

  13. Can Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency PutDownward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-06-01

    High and volatile natural gas prices have increasingly led to calls for investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. One line of argument is that deployment of these resources may lead to reductions in the demand for and price of natural gas. Many recent U.S.-based modeling studies have demonstrated that this effect could provide significant consumer savings. In this article we evaluate these studies, and benchmark their findings against economic theory, other modeling results, and a limited empirical literature. We find that many uncertainties remain regarding the absolute magnitude of this effect, and that the reduction in natural gas prices may not represent an increase in aggregate economic wealth. Nonetheless, we conclude that many of the studies of the impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency on natural gas prices appear to have represented this effect within reason, given current knowledge. These studies specifically suggest that a 1% reduction in U.S. natural gas demand could lead to long-term average wellhead price reductions of 0.8% to 2%, and that each megawatt-hour of renewable energy and energy efficiency may benefit natural gas consumers to the tune of at least $7.5 to $20.

  14. Energy-dependent point interactions in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, F A B; Nogami, Y; Tomio, Lauro; Toyama, F M

    2005-01-01

    We consider a new type of point interaction in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. It is characterized by a boundary condition at the origin that involves the second and/or higher order derivatives of the wavefunction. The interaction is effectively energy dependent. It leads to a unitary S-matrix for the transmission-reflection problem. The energy dependence of the interaction can be chosen such that any given unitary S-matrix (or the transmission and reflection coefficients) can be reproduced at all energies. Generalization of the results to coupled-channel cases is discussed

  15. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  16. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar

    2007-01-01

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  17. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  18. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  19. The dependence of Germany on Russian gas: analysis and prospects in the context of the current Ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solera Ureña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany and Russia share a strong economic interdependence, Germany being presently the largest importer of Russian gas. At the time of writing, the on-going conflict between Ukraine and Russia, compounded with economic sanctions imposed on Russia by the European Union, has raised concerns about Russia as a reliable gas supplier. This article analyses Germany’s dependence on Russian gas within the present economic and political contexts and assesses a the most plausible course of action of German energy policy, taking into account Germany’s current role as a gas transit country; and b the impact of the present context on the shaping of Germany’s foreign policy towards Russia. It is concluded that energy policy measures will not enable drastic reductions in Germany’s dependence on Russian gas in the short term and, moreover, that no abrupt change of direction in German foreign policy towards Russia is to be expected.

  20. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  1. Indicative energy technology assessment of UK shale gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O’Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • UK shale gas ‘fracking’ is at a very early stage with an uncertain size of resource. • Shale gas extraction might benefit UK fuel security, as well as jobs and growth. • Potentially harmful environmental ‘side-effects’ must be monitored and regulated. • Gas bills for UK household and industrial consumers are unlikely to fall sharply. • Costs & benefits of shale gas fracking are unevenly distributed between communities. - Abstract: There is at present much interest in unconventional sources of natural gas, especially in shale gas which is obtained by hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’. Boreholes are drilled and then lined with steel tubes so that a mixture of water and sand with small quantities of chemicals – the fracking fluid – can be pumped into them at very high pressure. The sand grains that wedge into the cracks induced in the shale rock by a ‘perforating gun’ then releases gas which returns up the tubes. In the United Kingdom (UK) exploratory drilling is at an early stage, with licences being issued to drill a limited number of test boreholes around the country. However, such activities are already meeting community resistance and controversy. Like all energy technologies it exhibits unwanted ‘side-effects’; these simply differ in their level of severity between the various options. Shale gas may make, for example, a contribution to attaining the UK’s statutory ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions targets, but only if appropriate and robust regulations are enforced. The benefits and disadvantages of shale gas fracking are therefore discussed in order to illustrate a ‘balance sheet’ approach. It is also argued that it is desirable to bring together experts from a range of disciplines in order to carry out energy technology assessments. That should draw on and interact with national and local stakeholders: ‘actors’ both large and small. Community engagement in a genuinely participative process – where the

  2. Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo

    1979-01-01

    A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)

  3. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  4. Temperature-dependent gas transport and its correlation with kinetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-20

    May 20, 2017 ... have been made to see this trade-off relation at relatively higher temperature. It is found that selectivity ... acceptable due to low capital cost, less energy requirement ... in solubility, with increased permeability due to interac-.

  5. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Rare-gas dependence of the self-quenching streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Koori, N.; Kumabe, I.; Ohgaki, H.; Matoba, M.

    1989-01-01

    The self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode is understood these days as one of the basic modes of gas counter operation. In the present work, the SQS transition is clearly observed for Ar-, Kr- and Xe-mixtures with CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , isoC 4 H 10 and CO 2 , and for He- and Ne-mixtures with C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 and isoC 4 H 10 . For He- and Ne-mixtures with CH 4 or CO 2 , the GM discharge is developed instead of the SQS transition. The avalanche size at the transition voltage decreases, in the order of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr- and Xe-mixtures, except for He-mixtures with CH 4 or CO 2 . The mechanisms of the SQS transition proposed by Atac et al. and Zhang have disadvantages in explaining all these results. If the photo-ionization is assumed as in Atac's mechanism, energetic photons whose yield is sufficiently large are needed for the SQS transition. The interaction between metastable states of rare gases proposed by Zhang may be energetically capable of producing electrons for the transition; effects of quenching gas in mixtures cannot be explained by this mechanism. Further investigation is necessary for microscopic processes occurring in the avalanche development. More detailed information is required on the atomic reaction cross sections of photo-ionization, radiative recombination, etc. (N.K.)

  7. Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude

  8. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  10. Calculation of burnup and power dependence on fission gas released from PWR type reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edy-Sulistyono

    1996-01-01

    Burn up dependence of fission gas released and variation power analysis have been conducted using FEMXI-IV computer code program for Pressure Water Reactor Fuel During steady-state condition. The analysis result shows that the fission gas release is sensitive to the fuel temperature, the increasing of burn up and power in the fuel element under irradiation experiment

  11. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has been heralded as a "game changer" in the struggle to meet America's demand for energy. The "Pickens Plan" of Texas oil and gas pioneer T.Boone Pickens suggests that gas can replace coal for much of U.S. electricity generation, and oil for, at least, truck transportation1. Industry lobby groups such as ANGA declare "that the dream of clean, abundant, home grown energy is now reality"2. In Canada, politicians in British Columbia are racing to export the virtual bounty of shale gas via LNG to Asia (despite the fact that Canadian gas production is down 16 percent from its 2001 peak). And the EIA has forecast that the U.S. will become a net exporter of gas by 20213. Similarly, recent reports from Citigroup and Harvard suggest that an oil glut is on the horizon thanks in part to the application of fracking technology to formerly inaccessible low permeability tight oil plays. The fundamentals of well costs and declines belie this optimism. Shale gas is expensive gas. In the early days it was declared that "continuous plays" like shale gas were "manufacturing operations", and that geology didn't matter. One could drill a well anywhere, it was suggested, and expect consistent production. Unfortunately, Mother Nature always has the last word, and inevitably the vast expanses of purported potential shale gas resources contracted to "core" areas, where geological conditions were optimal. The cost to produce shale gas ranges from 4.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) to 10.00, depending on the play. Natural gas production is a story about declines which now amount to 32% per year in the U.S. So 22 billion cubic feet per day of production now has to be replaced each year to keep overall production flat. At current prices of 2.50/mcf, industry is short about 50 billion per year in cash flow to make this happen4. As a result I expect falling production and rising prices in the near to medium term. Similarly, tight oil plays in North Dakota and Texas have been heralded

  12. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  13. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin-Lin; Ma Jun; Jin Wu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh–Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. (paper)

  14. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  15. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.c [Faculty of Maths and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, W. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  16. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  17. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  18. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsubota, T. [Tokyo KOATSU Co., Ltd., 1-9-8 Shibuya, Shibuyaku, Tokyo 150-0002 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  19. The energy sector abroad. Part 12. The Czech Republic. Spider in the European natural gas web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    The natural gas industry in the Czech Republic is one of the oldest in Europe. In the past, natural gas has played a modest role in the Czech energy supply: coal and town gas from coal and lignite were the major energy sources. However, more and more use is made of natural gas, imported from Russia (Gazprom) and Norway. Besides, the Czech natural gas distribution, transportation and storage system occupies a key position in the Central-European natural gas network

  20. Energy-dependent losses in pulsed-feedback preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1978-11-01

    Energy dependent counting losses occur in most pulsed-feedback preamplifiers due to the loss of those pulses which activate the recharge system. A pulsed-feedback system that overcomes this inefficiency is described. Pulsed-light feedback as used with germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is discussed as used at high energies and high rates where those losses become significant. Experimental results are presented

  1. Assessing the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanjun; Yoo, Han Kyul; Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas and has a global warming potential at least 28 times as high as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In the United States, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are reported to be the third-largest source of human-made methane emissions, responsible for 18% of methane emissions in 2011. Capturing landfill gas (LFG) for use as an energy source for electricity or heat produces alternative energy as well as environmental benefits. A host of federal and state policies encourage the development of landfill gas to energy (LFGE) projects. This research provides the first systematic economic assessment of the role of these policies on adoption decisions. Results suggest that Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credits have contributed to the development of these projects, accounting for 13 of 277 projects during our data period from 1991 to 2010. These policy-induced projects lead to 10.4 MMTCO 2 e reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and a net benefit of $41.8 million. - Highlights: • Examine the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects • Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credit had impacts. • Investment tax credit policy is cost-effectiveness in promoting these projects. • Policy-induced projects lead to significant environmental benefits

  2. Performance analysis of solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is proposed. • The two processes are modeled and simulated. • Performance analysis of the two processes are conducted. • The proposed process can cut down the greenhouse gas emission. • The proposed process can save natural gas consumption. - Abstract: Methanol is an important platform chemical. Methanol production using natural gas as raw material has short processing route and well developed equipment and technology. However, natural gas reserves are not large in China. Solar energy power generation system integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol (NGTM) process is developed, which may provide a technical routine for methanol production in the future. The solar energy power generation produces electricity for reforming unit and system consumption in solar energy integrated natural-gas-to-methanol system (SGTM). Performance analysis of conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process and solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process are presented based on simulation results. Performance analysis was conducted considering carbon efficiency, production cost, solar energy price, natural gas price, and carbon tax. Results indicate that solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is able to cut down the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. In addition, solar energy can replace natural gas as fuel. This can reduce the consumption of natural gas, which equals to 9.2% of the total consumed natural gas. However, it is not economical considering the current technology readiness level, compared with conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process.

  3. Magnetic-Field Dependence of Raman Coupling Strength in Ultracold "4"0K Atomic Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang-Hui; Wang Peng-Jun; Meng Zeng-Ming; Peng Peng; Chen Liang-Chao; Li Dong-Hao; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the relation of Raman coupling strength with the external bias magnetic field in degenerate Fermi gas of "4"0K atoms. Two Raman lasers couple two Zeeman energy levels, whose energy splitting depends on the external bias magnetic field. The Raman coupling strength is determined by measuring the Rabi oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the Rabi oscillation is to be damped after several periods due to Fermi atoms in different momentum states oscillating with different Rabi frequencies. The experimental results show that the Raman coupling strength will decrease as the external bias magnetic field increases, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. (paper)

  4. Nuclear energy contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions and long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2004-01-01

    An important source of greenhouse gases, in particular Co 2 , is fossil fuel combustion for energy applications. Since nuclear power is an energy source that does not produce Co 2 , nuclear energy is already making a contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions. Because it has been internationally decided to reduce carbon dioxide emission before the year 2005 in order to avoid the green house catastrophy of the earth's atmosphere, and since there is an urgent need of energy especially in the developing countries, there is now a strong demand for alternative energy sources. While the established low cost energy production by light water nuclear fission reactors could be a solution for a period of transition (limited by resources of the light Uranium isotope), fusion energy is of interest for long- term and large scale energy production to provide the increased energy demand

  5. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  6. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  7. Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation

  8. Dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.E.; Newton, J.O.; Sobotka, L.G.; Lindenberger, H.; Wozniak, G.J.; Moretto, L.G.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; McDonald, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of γ rays associated with deep-inelastic products from the 1150-MeV 136 Xe+ 181 Ta reaction have been measured. The yield of 10--20-MeV γ rays initially increases rapidly with the excitation energy of the products and then more slowly for excitation energies in excess of 120 MeV. Statistical-model calculations with ground-state values of the giant dipole strength function fail to reproduce the shape of the measured γ-ray spectra. This suggests a dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

  9. Energy companies in the Netherlands work on sustainable use of natural gas. Manifesto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Berge, J.B.M.; Boersma, M.A.M.; Dijkgraaf, H.G.; Platenkamp, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This manifesto concerns the vision of several Dutch energy companies with regard to sustainable use of natural gas in the Netherlands. The aim is to realize innovations in the field of efficient supply of natural gas, improving the efficiency of gas appliances, use of natural gas in transportation, development of 'virtual power plants', and experimental applications for 'green' gas and hydrogen [nl

  10. Clustering and Symmetry Energy in a Low Density Nuclear Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, S.; Natowitz, J.B.; Shlomo, S.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Wang, J.; Materna, T.; Chen, Z.; Ma, Y.G.; Qin, L.; Botvina, A.S.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Keutgen, T.; El Masri, Y.; Majka, Z.; Ono, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and density dependent symmetry energy coefficients have been derived from isoscaling analyses of the yields of nuclei with A= 64 Zn projectiles with 92 Mo and 197 Au target nuclei. The symmetry energies at low density are larger than those obtained in mean field calculations, reflecting the clustering of low density nuclear matter. They are in quite good agreement with results of a recently proposed Virial Equation of State calculation

  11. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  12. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  13. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  14. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  15. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biomass energy use: Comparison with other energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.; Norman, N.A.; Gleick, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recently a major new concern has arisen: the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is now generally believed that continued emissions of these gases are current or increasing levels will lead to significant climatic changes with the potential for dramatic, adverse impacts. Since the major anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas emissions is energy production and use, it is essential to future energy policy to understand how energy sources differ with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. Characterizing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with biomass energy use is extremely complicated. It is necessary to consider both the source and alternative use of the biomass material and its alternative disposal (if any), as well as the biomass energy application itself. It is desirable also to consider not just CO 2 emissions, but also CH 4 and N 2 O, both potent greenhouse gases. The authors' analysis shows that in many cases biomass energy use can actually help to ameliorate the greenhouse effect by converting emissions that would have been CH 4 into the less potent greenhouse gas CO 2 . In many cases the beneficial effect is very dramatic. This major new research result should help increase public support for biomass research and development, and for further development of waste conversion technology and installations

  16. The three body problem with energy dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; McKay, C.M.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1975-10-01

    It is shown how to generalize the three body equations of Faddeev, and of Karlsson and Zeiger, to include the case when the two body potential is energy dependent. Such generalizations will prove useful in the three nucleon problem and in three body models of nuclear reactions. (author)

  17. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...

  18. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...

  19. Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated

  20. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  1. Effects of the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster formation on the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.; Roepke, G.; Blaschke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium-dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons. (orig.)

  2. Communication on climate, energy, natural gas and forests as a problem for energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Danish energy planning has since its inception in the end of the 1970s been politically controversial, which led to language problems of communicating on alternatives (natural gas, nuclear energy). But previously alternative scenarios were in the 1990s successfully transformed into law...... that it can happen on the ground of wrong premises (on CO2 neutrality e.g.) that a shift say from natural gas to wood combustion can be interpreted as a solution to climate problems, whereas this in reality aggravates them. Not the least because forests because of continuously high emissions of CO2...

  3. Electron energy distribution function control in gas discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godyak, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron temperature in low temperature gas discharge plasmas is analyzed in frames of local and non-local electron kinetics. It is shown, that contrary to the local case, typical for plasma in uniform electric field, there is the possibility for EEDF modification, at the condition of non-local electron kinetics in strongly non-uniform electric fields. Such conditions “naturally” occur in some self-organized steady state dc and rf discharge plasmas, and they suggest the variety of artificial methods for EEDF modification. EEDF modification and electron temperature control in non-equilibrium conditions occurring naturally and those stimulated by different kinds of plasma disturbances are illustrated with numerous experiments. The necessary conditions for EEDF modification in gas discharge plasmas are formulated

  4. Gas and oil towards Europe: infrastructures outlook. European governance and energy geopolitics - Tome 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, S.

    2008-01-01

    In a context of strong energy dependence, the safety of supplies and the reliability of infrastructures remain of prime importance. The Europe of 27 is looking for the proper balance between excessive dependence and beneficial interdependence. A real competitive bidding about the potential paths of the Russian and CIS gas towards western Europe is taking place. However, a given energy infrastructure can change the economic and cultural relations and the prices as well. Interpreting the energy diplomacy between political and economical stakes has become a hard task. The underlying logic of the impressive number of projects in progress is extremely complex as many projects are in competition and linked with each others (like the BTC - Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan, the Transcaspian and the South Stream). This study aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the existing and planned projects with the help of a table which includes the oil and gas pipelines and the methane gas terminals. This study includes the imports coming from the north (Norway, UK), from the south (Algeria) and above all from the east (Russia and CIS). It includes the layout and the potential flow rate of these infrastructures, their present day use and financial conditions of transport, the projects in progress or planned, their cost, financing and possible date of commissioning. Even if the study encompasses all infrastructures (including Norway, UK and North Africa), it stresses on those linking Europe to Russia and to the post-soviet area (Central Asia, Caspian Sea). (J.S.)

  5. Full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    The field of work of the Advisory Group Meeting/Workshop, i.e. full-energy chain emissions of greenhouse gases, is defined, and its environment, i.e. the Earth Summit -the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio-, is discussed. It is inferred that countries that ratified the Earth Summit's Convention on Climate Change have committed themselves to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from their energy use, and that this can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy chain emissions of all greenhouse gases. The scatter in literature values of greenhouse gas emission factors of the full energy chain of individual energy sources is discussed. The scatter among others is due to different analytical methods, data bases and system boundaries, and due to neglect of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and professional biases. Generic values for greenhouse gas emission factors of energy and materials use are proposed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  7. Telecommunications energy and greenhouse gas emissions management for future network growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chien Aun; Gygax, André F.; Leckie, Christopher; Wong, Elaine; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Hinton, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Model to evaluate key interdependencies of a fast growing telecommunications network. • Network growth analysis using real data and Monte Carlo simulation. • Importance of both operational and embodied energy efficiency improvements. • Embodied energy expected to dominate in the future under current energy efficiency trends. • Carbon footprint and energy management through optimum network replacement cycle. - Abstract: A key aspect of greener network deployment is how to achieve sustainable growth of a telecommunications network, both in terms of operational and embodied energy. Hence, in this paper we investigate how the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a fast growing telecommunications network can be minimized. Due to the complexities in modeling the embodied energy of networks, this aspect of energy consumption has received limited attention by network operators. Here, we present the first model to evaluate the interdependencies of the four main contributing factors in managing the sustainable growth of a telecommunications network: (i) the network’s operational energy consumption; (ii) the embodied energy of network equipment; (iii) network traffic growth; and (iv) the expected energy efficiency improvements in both the operational and embodied phases. Using Monte Carlo techniques with real network data, our results demonstrate that under the current trends in overall energy efficiency improvements the network embodied energy will account for over 40% of the total network energy in 2025 compared to 20% in 2015. Further, we find that the optimum equipment replacement cycle, which will result in the lowest total network life cycle energy, is directly dependent on the technological progress in energy efficiency improvements of both operational and embodied phases. Our model and analysis highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to better understand the interactions between network growth, technological

  8. Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.

  9. Bremsstrahlung of La and its dependence on electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riehle, F.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of La-bremsstrahlung isocromates with high resolution for quantum energies between 135 eV and 1867 eV are presented and discussed. In the whole energy range investigated, the isocromate structure, identified with the 4f band of La, is placed 5,45 +- 10,1 eV above the Fermi level. This is in contradiction with a calculation of Gloetzel, which predicts the 4f band maximum about 3eV above the Fermi level. This discrepancy is explained in the present work by the fact that the La electronic density of states depends on the occupation number of the states. The bremsstrahlung isocromate has to be considered as a direct copy of the La ion density of states, consisting of the La-atom and the additional primary electron. Resonance like intensity modulations of the x-ray radiation, resulting from transitions of the primary electron in f-like final states, are observed in an analysis of the La-bremsstrahlung isochromate energy dependence. For transitions of the primary electron in d-like final states, no resonances have been found. The energy dependence of the scattering probability in f-like final states can be explained by a model which assumes the final state as composed by a continuum state and a discrete state. (orig.) [de

  10. Environmental and energy efficiency evaluation of residential gas and heat pump heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Energy efficiency and source air pollutant emission factors of gas heaters, gas engine heat pumps, and electric heat pumps for domestic heating have been evaluated and compared. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, gas engine heat pumps have the highest energy efficiency followed by electric heat pumps and then gas heaters. Electric heat pumps produce more than twice as much NO x , and comparable CO 2 and CO per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. CO production per unit of useful heating energy from gas engine heat pumps without any emission control is substantially higher than electric heat pumps and natural gas heaters. NO x production per unit of useful heating energy from natural gas engine heat pumps (using lean burn technology) without any emission control is about the same as effective NO x production from electric heat pumps. Gas engine heat pumps produce about one-half CO 2 compared to electric heat pumps

  11. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  12. Detailed oil and gas proposals in UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The UK government is proposing a four-pronged attack to try and sustain future oil and gas production from the UK with measures designed to coerce and encourage maximum exploitation of reserves under the Energy Review proposals. Tax is to be looked at again. There will also be a move towards web-based licence awards to speed up the licensing process for oil and gas exploration blocks; an infrastructure task force in the West of Shetlands region is planned, and the Stewardship initiative will be refocused. The 218-page Energy Review policy document says: 'Using regulatory powers if necessary, Government must press for full investment in fields that are already producing. We will immediately refocus the DTI's Stewardship initiative - on maintaining reliability and encouraging nearby exploration and should see results in these areas by the middle of next year.' Turning to the plans for a taskforce, the Energy Review announces: 'We are establishing a Taskforce with Industry to get the right infrastructure (for example pipelines) in place to the west of Shetland so that, with minimal impact to the environment, we can speed up development and exploration in the area. The Taskforce will report by the end of the year.' Also the Department of Trade and Industry will re-examine the UK's licensing regime, as part of a policy for 'Ensuring the development of a dynamic market fit for the future.' On this point, the government says: 'The commercial framework needs to change so that it encourages the industry to be dynamic in the future by facilitating a strong market in assets and rapid access to infrastructure. For example, the DTI is moving to a web-based system of licence assignments that will substantially speed up deal making and reduce costs, especially for smaller firms. We will also continue to build on the work of PILOT to secure the long-term future of the industry in the UK.' And on tax: 'It is vital to ensure that we have the right fiscal approach,' the government

  13. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  14. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  15. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  16. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2014-01-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation

  17. Modeling of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers: dependence of the operation on the gas velocity and on the nature of the buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmashenko, B D; Rosenwaks, S

    2012-09-01

    A simple, semi-analytical model of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is presented. The model takes into account the rise of temperature in the lasing medium with increasing pump power, resulting in decreasing pump absorption and slope efficiency. The model predicts the dependence of power on the flow velocity in flowing gas DPALs and checks the effect of using a buffer gas with high molar heat capacity and large relaxation rate constant between the 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 fine-structure levels of the alkali atom. It is found that the power strongly increases with flow velocity and that by replacing, e.g., ethane by propane as a buffer gas the power may be further increased by up to 30%. Eight kilowatt is achievable for 20 kW pump at flow velocity of 20  m/s.

  18. Model dependence of energy-weighted sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to energy-weighted sum rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions is investigated. It is found that only isoscalar electric transitions might have model-independent energy-weighted sum rules. For these transitions, explicit momentum and angular momentum dependence of the nuclear force give rise to corrections to the sum rule which are found to be negligibly small, thus confirming the model independence of these specific sum rules. These conclusions are unaffected by correlation effects. (author)

  19. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Serdivan (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO{sub 2} emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO{sub 2} emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m{sup 2} room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  20. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  1. Landfill gas for energy utilisation. A market strategy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Biogas and Landfill Gas Marketing Strategy Group was set up with the objective to advise EU-DG 17 (THERMIE/OPET) on the dissemination strategies for biogas and landfill gas (LFG), a subsector of the Renewable Energy Sector (RES). The Marketing Strategy Group has identified market barriers and users' needs in the biogas and LFG subsector. Subsequently, the group evaluated successful instruments/methods to overcome these market barriers and to satisfy the users' needs. The group investigated the feasibility of transposing these instruments/success stories to other countries. The work of the Marketing Strategy Group resulted in proposals for future dissemination of biogas and LFG technology. After a short introduction into LFG technology and the LFG market, this document describes barriers to landfill gas technology dissemination and gives some examples about how to overcome them. This results in recommendations on a strategy for dissemination of LFG technology and expanding LFG markets. The document is mainly based on experience gained in the United Kingdom, Italy and the Netherlands

  2. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/ρ α , has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003

  4. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2007-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].

  5. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R; Hirschberg, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Knoepfel, I [Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study `Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems` are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs.

  6. US Department of Energy investments in natural gas R ampersand D: An analysis of the gas industry proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The natural gas industry has proposed an increase in the DOE gas R ampersand D budget from about $100 million to about $250 million per year for each of the next 10 years. The proposal includes four programs: natural gas supplies, fuel cells, natural gas vehicles and stationary combustion systems. This paper is a qualitative assessment of the gas industry proposal and recommends a natural gas R ampersand D strategy for the DOE. The methodology is a conceptual framework based on an analysis of market failures and the energy policy objectives of the DOE's (1991) National Energy Strategy. This framework would assist the DOE in constructing an R ampersand D portfolio that achieves energy policy objectives. The natural gas supply program is recommended to the extent that it contributes to energy price stability. Stationary combustion programs are supported on grounds of economic efficiency and environmental quality. The fuel cell program is supported on grounds of environmental quality. The natural gas vehicle program may potentially contribute to environmental quality and energy price stability. The R ampersand D programs in natural gas vehicles and in fuel cells should be complemented with policies that encourage the commercialization and use of the technology, not merely its development

  7. Under the Yoke: Europe’s Natural Gas Dependency on Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    extraction technique known as hydraulic fracturing or " fracking ". North America’s use of this technique is already increasing availability and... fracking go beyond poisoned water supplies and earthquakes," Earth Times, March 22, 2011, http://www.earthtimes.org/energy/dangers- hydraulic ...nuclear power, the EU’s need for gas is increasing while its limited organic gas sources, such as the North Sea, are depleting. Hydraulic fracturing is

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  9. Possible energy dependence of Θ13 in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, Frans R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple three-flavor neutrino-oscillation model is discussed which has both nonzero mass differences and timelike Fermi-point splittings, together with a combined bi-maximal and trimaximal mixing pattern. One possible consequence would be new effects in ν μ →ν e oscillations, characterized by an energy-dependent effective mixing angle Θ 13 . Future experiments such as T2K and NOνA, and perhaps even the current MINOS experiment, could look for these effects

  10. Innovation and greenhouse gas reductions in the Canadian energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, I.J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stewart, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    Canada's hydrocarbon industry must address the challenges presented by the Kyoto Protocol in order to thrive. This paper argued that technological innovations are the primary means of creating long-term options to provide clean hydrocarbon energy. Both federal and provincial governments have developed energy policies to ensure environmental stewardship, promote economic growth, and create a diversified energy sector. While the Canadian energy industry funds and undertakes a significant amount of research and development, government programs must continue to show leadership in research and development activities. In order to ensure Canada's future prosperity, research and innovation programs must expand. Adequate commercialization processes must be in place. Industry and government programs must also link market needs with research directions. Enhanced research coordination is needed between government agencies, research agencies, and educational facilities. Future research and development agendas must be designed to focus on energy technology developments that offer Canada a competitive advantage. The Cleaner Hydrocardon Technology Futures (CHTF) Group has recently focused on 5 key areas in which Canada's energy industry can contribute to a clean hydrocarbon future: (1) clean coal; (2) oil sands and heavy oil; (3) conventional and unconventional oil and gas; (4) carbon capture, use and storage; and (5) hydrocarbon to hydrogen bridging technologies. Investments in research and development in all 5 areas are expected to create a suite of new transformational technologies that will sever the relationship between GHG emissions and the continued production of hydrocarbons. A systems approach was recommended to encourage the creation of new networks and increase Canada's capacity to nurture science and technology innovation. Directions advocated by the EnergyINet have also been embraced by universities and research organizations in western Canada. It

  11. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission of Korean Offshore Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Taeho; Ellingsen, Harald; Hognes, Erik Skontorp; Hwang, Bokyu

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission assessments of Korean offshore fisheries. The consumption of energy by fisheries is a significant concern because of its attendant environmental effect, as well as the cost of the fuel consumed in fishing industry. With the global attention of reducing GHG emission and increasing energy efficiency of fuel, the seafood industry needs to further understand its energy use and reduce its GHG emission. In the present study, the amount of energy consumed and the GHG emission of Korean offshore fisheries in a period from 2009 to 2013 were examined. Offshore fisheries accounted for 24% of Korean production in 2013 and 60% of fuel consumption related GHG emission. Whereas the total GHG emission intensity of this sector improved slightly between 2009 and 2012; as such emission decreased by approximately 1.9%, which increased again in 2013. The average amount of total GHG emission in this five years period was 1.78 × 106 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent/year (t CO2 eq. y-1). Active fishing gear was found to consume 20% more fuel than passive gear. However, the production from passive gear was 28%, lower than 72% from active gear. The reason for this is that less abundant stationary resources are harvested using passive gear. Furthermore, the consumption of fuel was significantly influenced by the fishing method. Implementation and development of new fishing technologies and methods are important for improving energy efficiency and reducing the climate impact on fisheries. To realize these purposes, the fishery management system needs to be established by centralizing on energy efficiency and climate effect.

  12. Energy from fermentation gas. Testing of basic design; Energie uit gistingsgas. Toetsing van ontwerpgrondslagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    When stabilizing sewage sludge by means of fermentation, fermentation gas is released, consisting for 67% of methane. This gas is an important energy source for waste water treatment plants (wwtp). A previous STORA study (Fermentation gas as a source of energy in waste water treatment plants; 1981) has shown that the most significant energy saving in wwtps using sludge fermentation can be realized through energy generation. The aim of this study is to assess the current practical situation of wwtps that are in operation and generate their own energy. The main parameters in determining the appeal of own energy generation have been examined for these wwtps and compared to the technological and economic starting points of the study from 1981. The results indicate whether and which optimizations are possible for existing and new own systems for generating energy and which parameters from the previous STORA study need to be revised [Dutch] Bij stabilisatie van zuiveringsslib door middel van gisting komt gistingsgas vrij, dat voor circa 67% uit methaan bestaat. Dit gas vormt een belangrijke energiebron voor rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen (rwzi). In een eerder STORA-onderzoek (Gistingsgas als energiebron op rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen; 1981) is gebleken, dat de belangrijkste energiebesparing op rwzi's met slibgisting kan worden verkregen door toepassing van eigen energieopwekking. Doelstelling van deze studie is de huidige praktijksituatie op de reeds in bedrijf zijnde rwzi's met eigen energieopwekking na te gaan. De belangrijkste parameters die de aantrekkelijkheid van eigen energieopwekking bepalen, zijn voor deze rwzi's nader onderzocht en vergeleken met de technologische en economische uitgangspunten van het onderzoek uit 1981. De resultaten geven aan of en welke optimalisaties voor bestaande en nieuwe eigen energieopwekkingssystemen mogelijk zijn, en welke parameters in de eerdere STORA-studie opnieuw moeten worden bezien.

  13. Dependence of balance energy on isospin degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.; Hartnack, Ch.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Collective transverse in-plane flow in heavy ion collisions has been a subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies, as it can provide information about the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) as well as in medium nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross section. The study of dependence of collective transverse flow on various entrance channel parameters as beam energy and impact parameter has revealed much interesting physics about the origin and properties of the collective flow. From these studies, it has been found that the transverse in plane flow disappears at an incident energy termed as balance energy (E bal ), where attractive part of the nuclear interactions balances the repulsive part. Presently, due to availability of the radioactive beams, role of isospin degrees of freedom in EOS can be studied. The collective transverse in-plane flow has been found to depend on isospin of the colliding system. Here, we aim to study the dependence of E bal on N/Z ratio of the colliding system using IQMD model

  14. Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified

  15. Temperature Dependence of the Energy Band Diagram of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of the energy band diagram of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was investigated by theoretical calculation and experiment. Through solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently by using the Silvaco Atlas software, the energy band diagram with varying temperature was calculated. The results indicate that the conduction band offset of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 7 K to 200 K, which means that the depth of quantum well at AlGaN/GaN interface becomes shallower and the confinement of that on two-dimensional electron gas reduces. The theoretical calculation results are verified by the investigation of temperature dependent photoluminescence of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. This work provides important theoretical and experimental basis for the performance degradation of AlGaN/GaN HEMT with increasing temperature.

  16. 75 FR 68607 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-80-001] CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 28, 2010, CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company submitted a revised...

  17. 76 FR 67158 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the cancellation of the November 1, 2011, meeting of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Natural Gas...

  18. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  19. Energy from gas hydrates - assessing the opportunities and challenges for Canada: report of the expert panel on gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Gas hydrates form when water and natural gas combine at low temperatures and high pressures in regions of permafrost and in marine subseafloor sediments. Estimates suggest that the total amount of natural gas bound in hydrate form may exceed all conventional gas resources, or even the amount of all combined hydrocarbon energy. Gas from gas hydrate could provide a potentially vast new source of energy to offset declining supplies of conventional natural gas in North America and to provide greater energy security for countries such as Japan and India that have limited domestic sources. However, complex issues would need to be addressed if gas hydrate were to become a large part of the energy future of Canada. Natural Resources Canada asked the Council of Canadian Academies to assemble a panel of experts to examine the challenges for an acceptable operational extraction of gas hydrates in Canada. This report presented an overview of relevant contextual background, including some basic science; the medium-term outlook for supply and demand in markets for natural gas; broad environmental issues related to gas hydrate in its natural state and as a fuel; and an overview of Canada's contribution to knowledge about gas hydrate in the context of ongoing international research activity. The report also presented current information on the subject and what would be required to delineate and quantify the resource. Techniques for extracting gas from gas hydrate were also outlined. The report also addressed safety issues related to gas hydrate dissociation during drilling operations or release into the atmosphere; the environmental issues associated with potential leakage of methane into the atmosphere and with the large volumes of water produced during gas hydrate dissociation; and jurisdictional and local community issues that would need to be resolved in order to proceed with the commercial exploitation of gas hydrate. It was concluded that there does not appear to be

  20. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The current Danish energy plan stipulates a production of 5 PI from energy crops in 2010. This may be attained through growing of either annual (e.g., cereal) or perennial energy crops (e.g., willow or Miscanthus). Existing Danish data and the IPCC methodology was used to calculate nitrous oxide emissions from and carbon sequestration in soils cropped with an annual energy crop (triticale) or a perennial energy crop (Miscanthus). The calculations for Miscanthus were performed separately for harvest in November or April, since the harvest time affects both yields and emissions. The estimates for Miscanthus were based on a 20-year duration of the cultivation period. The energy use for growing the crops was included in the energy budgets, as was the reduction in CO 2 emission that will result from substitution of fossil fuel (natural gas). The calculations were performed for both a coarse sandy soil and a loamy sand. The results were compared with current (reference) practice for growing cereals. There were only minor differences in production data and emissions between the two soil types. The area required to produce 5 PI was smallest for Miscanthus harvested in November (c. 25,000 ha), and about equal for triticale and Miscanthus harvested in April (c. 32,000 ha). The reduction in nitrous oxide emissions compared with cereal production was smallest for triticale (20 kt CO 2 equivalents /eq] yr -1 ) and about equal for Miscanthus at the two harvest times (30-36 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ). Growing Miscanthus resulted in a carbon sequestration, with the highest rates (100 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ) for Miscanthus harvested in April. The energy use for production of triticale was slightly lower than for normal cereal growing, whereas growing Miscanthus for harvest in April resulted in a smaller energy use which corresponded to an emission reduction of 20 kt CO 2 yr -1 . The substitution of fossil fuel corresponded to 285 kt CO 2 yr -1 . Summing all items, growing 5 PI worth of

  1. Institutional change in European natural gas markets and implications for energy security: Lessons from the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on institutional change in the German gas market driven by EU internal market and climate policies. It argues that institutional change has functional externalities for energy security. The German gas market provides a useful case study, as Germany is the biggest continental gas market, a major hub and transport country which has largely privatised, unbundled and separated its natural gas undertakings. Transition is ongoing, tending towards an internal market. Inter/national natural gas economics is in flux. Institutional evolution has repercussions for corporate and market structures, the operating of the system and the realization of transactions. Changes in the institutional framework crucially affect energy security, which is often associated with institutional stability. On the basis of this case study, it is argued herein that the security of natural gas supplies should be reexamined in the context of the developments described above, since overall the institutional changes in natural gas security lag behind the EU’s internal natural gas market development. - Highlights: • EU natural gas market regulation primarily aims to establish competitive markets. • German/EU regulatory approach has externalities for supply security. • Institutional changes and breaks with path dependencies take place in Germany/the EU. • Institutional change results in increasing uncertainty and complexity. • Subsequent change in perceptions and expectations may destabilise trade relations

  2. Natural gas heating. The energy saving concept. Topical tasks of consumer guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windfeder, H

    1978-01-01

    Brief comments on natural gas, the technology of using natural gas for heating purposes, consumer psychology, and on energy policies are presented. It is concluded that the more natural gas heating is installed, the more primary energy can be saved. Some fundamental thoughts on consumer guidance are given for discussion.

  3. Optical Properties Dependence with Gas Pressure in AlN Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J A; Riascos, H; Caicedo, J C; Cabrera, G; Yate, L

    2011-01-01

    AlN films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD) using an Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm). The films were deposited in a nitrogen atmosphere as working gas; the target was an aluminum high purity (99.99%). The films were deposited with a laser fluence of 7 J/cm2 for 10 minutes on silicon (100) substrates. The substrate temperature was 300 deg. C and the working pressure was varied from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr. The thickness measured by profilometer was 150 nm for all films. The crystallinity was observed via XRD pattern, the morphology and composition of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The optical reflectance spectra and color coordinates of the films were obtained by optical spectral reflectometry technique in the range of 400 cm-1- 900 cm-1 by an Ocean Optics 2000 spectrophotometer. In this work, a clear dependence of the reflectance, dominant wavelength and color purity was found in terms of the applied pressure to the AlN films. A reduction in reflectance of about 55% when the pressure was increased from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr was observed. This paper deals with the formation of AlN thin films as promising materials for the integration of SAW devices on Si substrates due to their good piezoelectric properties and the possibility of deposition at low temperature compatible with the manufacturing of Si integrated circuits.

  4. Optical Properties Dependence with Gas Pressure in AlN Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J A; Riascos, H [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Grupo plasma Laser y Aplicaciones A.A 097 (Colombia); Caicedo, J C [Grupo pelIculas delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cabrera, G; Yate, L, E-mail: jcaicedoangulo@gmail.com [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    AlN films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD) using an Nd: YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm). The films were deposited in a nitrogen atmosphere as working gas; the target was an aluminum high purity (99.99%). The films were deposited with a laser fluence of 7 J/cm2 for 10 minutes on silicon (100) substrates. The substrate temperature was 300 deg. C and the working pressure was varied from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr. The thickness measured by profilometer was 150 nm for all films. The crystallinity was observed via XRD pattern, the morphology and composition of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The optical reflectance spectra and color coordinates of the films were obtained by optical spectral reflectometry technique in the range of 400 cm-1- 900 cm-1 by an Ocean Optics 2000 spectrophotometer. In this work, a clear dependence of the reflectance, dominant wavelength and color purity was found in terms of the applied pressure to the AlN films. A reduction in reflectance of about 55% when the pressure was increased from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr was observed. This paper deals with the formation of AlN thin films as promising materials for the integration of SAW devices on Si substrates due to their good piezoelectric properties and the possibility of deposition at low temperature compatible with the manufacturing of Si integrated circuits.

  5. Green gas (SNG) in the Dutch energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.

    2006-04-01

    The presentation on the title subject comprises Motivation for Green Gas; Potential and application; Green Gas and SNG implementation; Biomass availability and import; Economy of SNG production; and the SNG development trajectory. SNG stands for Synthetic Natural Gas

  6. Leveling off the energy demand. Air conditioning by town gas NEXT STAGE. Energy juyo no heijunka wo motomete. Gas reibo NEXT STAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1994-07-01

    Utilizing various types of energy with combining them rationally is now drawing attention. One of these types of energy is the town gas. The air conditioning by town gas draws a special attention. The town gas is characterized by environmental conservation, energy saving, and comfortability. The town gas does not contain sulfur compounds which cause the acid rain. The town gas produces the least amount of carbon dioxide among all the fossil fuel. The air conditioning by the town gas is getting popular. Examples are Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, Pavilion Plaza, a new shopping spot in Fukuoka, Umeda Sky Building in Osaka, Dai-ich Apparel Center in Tokyo, Ohno Memorial Hospital in Osaka, Nagoya Municipal Integrated Stadium in Nagoya, Meguro-Gajoen in Tokyo, and New Yomiuri-Shimbun Building in Sapporo. 41 figs.

  7. Pathways to Decarbonization. Natural Gas and Renewable Energy. Lessons Learned from Energy System Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Camila [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Ensuring the resilience, reliability, flexibility, and affordability of the U.S. electric grid is increasingly important as the country addresses climate change and an aging infrastructure. State and federal policy and actions by industry, non-profits, and others create a dynamic framework for achieving these goals. Three principle low-carbon generation technologies have formed the basis for multiple scenarios leading toward a low-carbon, resilient, and affordable power system. While there is no “silver bullet,” one avenue identified by key stakeholders is the opportunity to invest in natural gas (NG) and renewable resources, both of which offer abundant domestic resource bases and contribute to energy independence, carbon mitigation, and economic growth. NG and renewable electricity (RE) have traditionally competed for market share in the power sector, but there is a growing experience base and awareness for their synergistic use (Cochran et al. 2014). Building upon these observations and previous work, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA), in collaboration with the Center for the New Energy Economy and the Gas Technology Institute, convened a series of workshops in 2014 to explore NG and RE synergies in the U.S. power sector. This report captures key insights from the workshop series, Synergies of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy: 360 Degrees of Opportunity, as well as supporting economic valuation analyses conducted by JISEA researchers that quantify the value proposition of investing in NG and RE together as complements.

  8. Introduction of natural gas in the Scandinavian energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandberg, E.

    1992-05-01

    We have given special attention to strategic features of some current decision problems of relevance for the future development of the energy market. The analysis indicates that these features will be of importance. The market solutions in our analysis are, of course, results of the specific parameters that we have stipulated. The types of strategic issues that arise, however, do often seem to be rather independent of the specific market description. Traditionally, government policies towards the energy sector have primarily been based on direct regulations. There is a strong trend towards increased emphasis on structural and strategic issues in regulatory policies. In order to establish an efficient regulatory framework for the Scandinavian gas market, a thorough understanding of the energy market's mode of functioning is indispensable. Energy market analyses have, in many cases, treated aspects of demand and supply more or less separately. We believe that an integrated, equilibrium-based approach could be useful. In order to facilitate an explicit representation of important strategic aspects, such an approach will be essential. Further work on strategic issues in the energy market could be of great value. Among other things, future research should put emphasis on the dynamics of investment decisions and the modeling of games that involve several players. More complicated formulations on non-cooperative games would tend to give results that are more in line with the cooperative solutions. The complicating features serve to put constraints on the players' actions. These constraints are in many ways similar to binding agreements. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  12. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  13. Sustainable supply of global energy needs and greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plants emit virtually no greenhouse gases over their full life-cycle. Consequently, continued operation of existing nuclear plants is recognized as essential to meeting even the modest greenhouse gas reduction targets of the Kyoto Accord. However, much expanded nuclear deployment will be needed as developing economies aggressively grow GDP with its associated growth in electrical power. Projecting to 2040 and based on the scenarios of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC), we have examined deploying increased non-carbon energy sources for electricity production, including further conversion of electricity to hydrogen using conventional low-temperature water electrolysis. Our NuWind model has been used to calculate the production costs for hydrogen in typical potential markets, using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool and by the Ontario Grid. The analysis shows clearly that by optimizing the co-production of hydrogen and electricity (referred to as the H2/e process) the cost for hydrogen produced can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's target for realistic nuclear investment costs, hydrogen generation systems, and wind capacity factors. The synergy of nuclear plus wind power for hydrogen generation plus co-production of electricity improves the economics of harnessing wind energy to produce hydrogen. (author)

  14. Low energy atomic field bremsstrahlung from thin rare gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semaan, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A relative measurement of the doubly-differential cross-section for electron atomic field bremsstrahling, differential in photon energy and angle is reported. Data for (d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/) have been taken for incident electron energies T ranging from 4 to 10 keV on target atoms of helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon at a photon emission angle of 90 0 . The X-rays, produced at 90 0 to the intersection of the crossed electron and gas beams, are detected by a Si(Li) detector, having a resolution of about 200 eV at 6 keV and 0.3 mil Be window. The theoretical angular distribution (d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/) has been deduced from the photon energy spectrum by the use of the shape function S(Z,T,k,T) defined by Tseng and Pratt as S(Z,T,k,T) = [(d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/)] / [(dsigma)/(dk)]. The values of S used were obtained by an interpolation of the benchmark data provided by Pratt et al. Agreement between our experiment and the theory is measured by how well the theoretical curve fits the data. The agreement appeared to be good

  15. The energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Walker, Ben; Masanet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of streaming video entertainment has recently received attention as a possibly less energy intensive alternative to the manufacturing and transportation of digital video discs (DVDs). This study utilizes a life-cycle assessment approach to estimate the primary energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with video viewing through both traditional DVD methods and online video streaming. Base-case estimates for 2011 video viewing energy and CO 2 (e) emission intensities indicate video streaming can be more efficient than DVDs, depending on DVD viewing method. Video streaming benefits from relatively more efficient end-user devices than DVD viewing, though much of that savings is lost when accounting for the additional energy from network data transmission. Video streaming appears distinctly favorable when compared against any DVD viewing that includes consumer driving, which significantly increases the energy and CO 2 (e) emissions per viewing hour. Total US 2011 video viewing required about 192 PJ of primary energy and emitted about 10.5 billion kg of CO 2 (e). Shifting all 2011 DVD viewing to video streaming reduces the total primary energy use to about 162 PJ and the CO 2 (e) emissions to about 8.6 billion kg, representing a savings equivalent to the primary energy used to meet the electricity demand of nearly 200 000 US households each year. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results are most influenced by the end-user DVD player power demand, data transmission energy, and consumer travel for store DVDs. Data center energy use—both operational and embodied within the IT equipment—account for <1% of the total video streaming energy use. Results from this study indicate that designers and policy makers should focus on the efficiency of end-user devices and network transmission energy to curb future increases in energy use from the proliferation of video streaming. (letters)

  16. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  17. Rapidity dependence of strangeness enhancement factor at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Kalyan; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2014-01-01

    Strange particles are produced only at the time of collisions and thus expected to carry important information of collision dynamics. Strangeness enhancement is considered to be one of the traditional signatures of formation of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Due to the limitation of the detector acceptance, the past and ongoing heavy ion experiments could measure the strangeness enhancement at midrapidity only. But the future heavy ion experiment CBM at FAIR will have the access to the entire forward rapidity hemisphere and thus the experimental determination of rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement is a possibility. In this work, an attempt has therefore been made to study the rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement at FAIR energies with the help of a string based hadronic model (UrQMD). A sum of 93 million minimum biased UrQMD events have been used for the present analysis

  18. Energy dependence of strangeness production and event-byevent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamov Anar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the energy dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and contrast it with the experimental observations in pp and p-A collisions at LHC energies as a function of the charged particle multiplicities. For the high multiplicity final states the results from pp and p-Pb reactions systematically approach the values obtained from Pb-Pb collisions. In statistical models this implies an approach to the thermodynamic limit, where differences of mean multiplicities between various formalisms, such as Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles, vanish. Furthermore, we report on event-by-event net-proton fluctuations as measured by STAR at RHIC/BNL and by ALICE at LHC/CERN and discuss various non-dynamical contributions to these measurements, which should be properly subtracted before comparison to theoretical calculations on dynamical net-baryon fluctuations.

  19. The energy dependence of neutron-proton charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.; Diu, R.

    1978-01-01

    The new Fermilab data on up charge exchange are analysed phenomenologically, to determine the energy dependence of the amplitudes in the corresponding domain (60 2 trajectories. If one imposes the presence of standard rho-A 2 terms (three-component analysis), one has to introduce a pomeronlike contribution, with a trajectory α approximately equal to 1.0+0.25t. In both cases, the resulting parametrization gives a good description of the data from Psub(lab)=1GeV/c up to 300GeV/c

  20. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  1. Energy-dependent applications of the transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztunali, O.I.; Aronson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is applied to energy-dependent neutron transport problems for multiplying and nonmultiplying media in one-dimensional plane geometry. Experimental cross sections are used for total, elastic, and inelastic scattering and fission. Numerical solutions are presented for the problem of a unit point isotropic source in an infinite medium of water and for the problem of the critical 235 U slab with finite water reflectors. No iterations were necessary in this method. Numerical results obtained are consistent with physical considerations and compare favorably with the moments method results for the problem of the unit point isotropic source in an infinite water medium. (U.S.)

  2. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  3. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location.

  4. Free energy landscape and molecular pathways of gas hydrate nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Porras, Anna; Li, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significance of gas hydrates in diverse areas, a quantitative knowledge of hydrate formation at a molecular level is missing. The impediment to acquiring this understanding is primarily attributed to the stochastic nature and ultra-fine scales of nucleation events, posing a great challenge for both experiment and simulation to explore hydrate nucleation. Here we employ advanced molecular simulation methods, including forward flux sampling (FFS), p B histogram analysis, and backward flux sampling, to overcome the limit of direct molecular simulation for exploring both the free energy landscape and molecular pathways of hydrate nucleation. First we test the half-cage order parameter (H-COP) which we developed for driving FFS, through conducting the p B histogram analysis. Our results indeed show that H-COP describes well the reaction coordinates of hydrate nucleation. Through the verified order parameter, we then directly compute the free energy landscape for hydrate nucleation by combining both forward and backward flux sampling. The calculated stationary distribution density, which is obtained independently of nucleation theory, is found to fit well against the classical nucleation theory (CNT). Subsequent analysis of the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories show that although on average, hydrate formation is facilitated by a two-step like mechanism involving a gradual transition from an amorphous to a crystalline structure, there also exist nucleation pathways where hydrate crystallizes directly, without going through the amorphous stage. The CNT-like free energy profile and the structural diversity suggest the existence of multiple active transition pathways for hydrate nucleation, and possibly also imply the near degeneracy in their free energy profiles among different pathways. Our results thus bring a new perspective to the long standing question of how hydrates crystallize.

  5. Free energy landscape and molecular pathways of gas hydrate nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Porras, Anna; Li, Tianshu

    2016-12-07

    Despite the significance of gas hydrates in diverse areas, a quantitative knowledge of hydrate formation at a molecular level is missing. The impediment to acquiring this understanding is primarily attributed to the stochastic nature and ultra-fine scales of nucleation events, posing a great challenge for both experiment and simulation to explore hydrate nucleation. Here we employ advanced molecular simulation methods, including forward flux sampling (FFS), p B histogram analysis, and backward flux sampling, to overcome the limit of direct molecular simulation for exploring both the free energy landscape and molecular pathways of hydrate nucleation. First we test the half-cage order parameter (H-COP) which we developed for driving FFS, through conducting the p B histogram analysis. Our results indeed show that H-COP describes well the reaction coordinates of hydrate nucleation. Through the verified order parameter, we then directly compute the free energy landscape for hydrate nucleation by combining both forward and backward flux sampling. The calculated stationary distribution density, which is obtained independently of nucleation theory, is found to fit well against the classical nucleation theory (CNT). Subsequent analysis of the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories show that although on average, hydrate formation is facilitated by a two-step like mechanism involving a gradual transition from an amorphous to a crystalline structure, there also exist nucleation pathways where hydrate crystallizes directly, without going through the amorphous stage. The CNT-like free energy profile and the structural diversity suggest the existence of multiple active transition pathways for hydrate nucleation, and possibly also imply the near degeneracy in their free energy profiles among different pathways. Our results thus bring a new perspective to the long standing question of how hydrates crystallize.

  6. Free energy landscape and molecular pathways of gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Porras, Anna; Li, Tianshu, E-mail: tsli@gwu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-12-07

    Despite the significance of gas hydrates in diverse areas, a quantitative knowledge of hydrate formation at a molecular level is missing. The impediment to acquiring this understanding is primarily attributed to the stochastic nature and ultra-fine scales of nucleation events, posing a great challenge for both experiment and simulation to explore hydrate nucleation. Here we employ advanced molecular simulation methods, including forward flux sampling (FFS), p{sub B} histogram analysis, and backward flux sampling, to overcome the limit of direct molecular simulation for exploring both the free energy landscape and molecular pathways of hydrate nucleation. First we test the half-cage order parameter (H-COP) which we developed for driving FFS, through conducting the p{sub B} histogram analysis. Our results indeed show that H-COP describes well the reaction coordinates of hydrate nucleation. Through the verified order parameter, we then directly compute the free energy landscape for hydrate nucleation by combining both forward and backward flux sampling. The calculated stationary distribution density, which is obtained independently of nucleation theory, is found to fit well against the classical nucleation theory (CNT). Subsequent analysis of the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories show that although on average, hydrate formation is facilitated by a two-step like mechanism involving a gradual transition from an amorphous to a crystalline structure, there also exist nucleation pathways where hydrate crystallizes directly, without going through the amorphous stage. The CNT-like free energy profile and the structural diversity suggest the existence of multiple active transition pathways for hydrate nucleation, and possibly also imply the near degeneracy in their free energy profiles among different pathways. Our results thus bring a new perspective to the long standing question of how hydrates crystallize.

  7. The tenth CERI [Canadian Energy Research Institute] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At a conference on oil and gas markets, papers were presented on oil market instability and its impact on economic development, international energy policy, oil supply and demand, natural gas liquids sales, world gas trade, gas markets in Europe and Asia, petroleum industry activities and their relation to government, oil refining and product market developments, and the North American natural gas market. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers from this conference

  8. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation: A Comparative Analysis of Australian Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hynes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation is one of the major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning the World’s energy economy to a lower carbon future will require significant investment in a variety of cleaner technologies, including renewables and nuclear power. In the short term, improving the efficiency of fossil fuel combustion in energy generation can provide an important contribution. Availability of life cycle GHG intensity data will allow decision-makers to move away from overly simplistic assertions about the relative merits of certain fuels, and focus on the complete picture, especially the critical roles of technology selection and application of best practice. This analysis compares the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG intensities per megawatt-hour (MWh of electricity produced for a range of Australian and other energy sources, including coal, conventional liquefied natural gas (LNG, coal seam gas LNG, nuclear and renewables, for the Australian export market. When Australian fossil fuels are exported to China, life cycle greenhouse gas emission intensity in electricity production depends to a significant degree on the technology used in combustion. LNG in general is less GHG intensive than black coal, but the gap is smaller for gas combusted in open cycle gas turbine plant (OCGT and for LNG derived from coal seam gas (CSG. On average, conventional LNG burned in a conventional OCGT plant is approximately 38% less GHG intensive over its life cycle than black coal burned in a sub-critical plant, per MWh of electricity produced. However, if OCGT LNG combustion is compared to the most efficient new ultra-supercritical coal power, the GHG intensity gap narrows considerably. Coal seam gas LNG is approximately 13–20% more GHG intensive across its life cycle, on a like-for like basis, than conventional LNG. Upstream fugitive emissions from CSG (assuming best practice gas extraction techniques do not materially alter the life cycle

  9. Effects of symmetry energy and momentum dependent interaction on low-energy reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dipole response associated with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR and the Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR, in connection with specific properties of the nuclear effective interaction (symmetry energy and momentum dependence, in the neutron-rich systems 68Ni, 132Sn and 208Pb. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation.We observe that the peak energies of PDR and IVGDR are shifted to higher values when employing momentum dependent interactions, with respect to the results obtained neglecting momentum dependence. The calculated energies are close to the experimental values and similar to the results obtained in Hartree-Fock (HF with Random Phase Approximation (RPA calculations.

  10. Interacting polytropic gas model of phantom dark energy in non-flat universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K.; Ghaffari, S.; Fehri, J.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing the polytropic gas model of interacting dark energy, we obtain the equation of state for the polytropic gas energy density in a non-flat universe. We show that for an even polytropic index by choosing K>Ba (3)/(n) , one can obtain ω Λ eff <-1, which corresponds to a universe dominated by phantom dark energy. (orig.)

  11. 75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Complaint...

  12. 75 FR 66744 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-001] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Amended...

  13. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential through Renewable Energy Transition in South Korea and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maennel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany and South Korea are the world’s sixth and seventh largest emitters of greenhouse gases, respectively; their main sources of pollution being fossil-fueled power plants. Since both countries signed the Paris Agreement in 2016, renewable energy transition is emerging as an effective means and method for avoiding air pollutant emissions and for replacing old fossil-fueled power plants. This paper attempts to evaluate—by using a grid emission factor dependent on a series of energy mix scenarios—the potential for South Korea and Germany to reduce their air pollutants (CO2, NOx, SOx, PM (particulate matter until 2030. South Korea plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by increasing nuclear power, while Germany aims to do so by shutting down its nuclear power plants and expanding the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix to over 50%. Therefore, both countries are able to achieve their voluntary greenhouse gas reduction targets in the power sector. However, since the uncertainty of the CO2 emission factor of coal power plants in South Korea is as high as 10%, efforts to reduce that uncertainty are required in order to produce a reliable assessment of the avoided emissions.

  14. Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Jack, Michael W.; Felby, Claus; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) energy policy has three targets: supply security, development of a competitive energy sector and environmental sustainability. The EU countries have issued so-called National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) for increased renewable energy generation. Biomass is stipulated to account for 56% of renewable energy generation by 2020, corresponding to an increase in bioenergy generation from 2.4 × 10 9  GJ in 2005 to 5.7 × 10 9  GJ in 2020. There is uncertainty about the amounts of biomass available in the EU, and import challenges policy targets on supply security and sustainability. We address issues about how, from a technical point of view, the EU may deploy its biomass resources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption. We investigate if deployment patterns depend on resource availability and technological development. In situations with adequate biomass availability the analysis suggests that liquid fuel production should be based on agricultural residues. Electricity production should be based on forest residues and other woody biomass and heat production on forest and agricultural residues. Improved conversion technologies implicitly relax the strain on biomass resources and improve supply security. - Highlights: • Optimal allocation of biomass to energy is analysed conceptually for the EU by 2020. • Allocation is influenced not only by GHG performance, also by resource availability. • Surplus biomass could be allocated to electricity generation to reduce GHG emissions

  15. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  16. Are oil and gas stocks from the Australian market riskier than coal and uranium stocks? Dependence risk analysis and portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreola Hernandez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article models the dependence risk and resource allocation characteristics of two 20-stock coal–uranium and oil–gas sector portfolios from the Australian market in the context of the global financial crisis of 2008–2009. The modeling framework implemented consists of pair vine copulas and, linear and nonlinear portfolio optimization methods with respect to five risk measures. The paper's objectives are to find out if the oil and gas stocks are riskier than the coal and uranium stocks, to identify the optimization method and risk measure that produce the best risk-return trade-off, to recognize the stocks in which the optimal weight allocations converge on average, and to acknowledge the vine copula model that best accounts for the overall dependence of the energy portfolios. The research findings indicate that the oil stocks have higher dependence risk than the coal, uranium and gas stocks in financial crisis periods. The higher risk of the oil stocks is confirmed by the larger concentration of symmetric and asymmetric dependence they have in the negative tail. The canonical vine (c-vine) copula model is observed to better capture the overall dependence of the energy portfolios. The combination of a pair c-vine copula and nonlinear portfolio optimization produces the highest return relative to risk. The optimal weight allocations converge on average in some stocks. - Highlights: • Vine copula dependence modeling of coal, uranium, oil and gas stocks • Oil stocks are riskier than coal, uranium and gas stocks in financial crisis periods. • The c-vine model better captures the overall dependence of the energy portfolios. • Vine copulas and nonlinear optimization combined produce the best results. • The optimal weight allocations converge on average in some stocks

  17. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  18. Lack of oil and gas resources leads to concentration on coal and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-20

    The Bulgarian energy sector is characterised by a marked shortage of domestic resources. The country has no oil to speak of, no gas, relatively little hydro potential compared with its neighbours, and the one resource it does have in fair abundance - coal - is of the poorest quality. This poverty of resources has led to an extraordinary dependence on the Soviet Union for supplies of every resource and for technology to utilise them. Most oil, all gas, some electricity and even significant quantities of coal are all imported from the USSR. There is little Bulgaria can do about its oil needs for the transport sector, but otherwise current policy is to concentrate development in the nuclear and coal sectors. One of the main thrusts of the energy policy is to continue expansion of coal, largely opencast lignite deposits, in order to feed thermal power stations and, when clean coal technology is developed, to use coal in CHP plants. The country uses a small amount of natural gas but no development is foreseen; instead district heating is considered a more efficient use of resources. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. U.S. oil dependence 2014: Is energy independence in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Liu, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reducing U.S. oil dependence may have changed in light of developments in the world oil market over the past two decades. Since 2005, increased domestic production and decreased oil use have cut U.S. import dependence in half. The direct costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy are estimated under four U.S. Energy Information Administration Scenarios to 2040. The key premises of the analysis are that the primary oil market failure is the use of market power by OPEC and that U.S. economic vulnerability is a result of the quantity of oil consumed, the lack of readily available, economical substitutes and the quantity of oil imported. Monte Carlo simulations of future oil market conditions indicate that the costs of U.S. oil dependence are likely to increase in constant dollars but decrease relative to U.S. gross domestic product unless oil resources are larger than estimated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Reducing oil dependence therefore remains a valuable goal for U.S. energy policy and an important co-benefit of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: •Increased oil production and decreased use caused U.S. oil imports to fall from 60% in 2005 to 27% in 2014. •OPEC's market power appears to have increased due to lower oil price elasticities. •Future costs of oil dependence to the U.S. are likely to increase but decrease relative to GDP. •If U.S. oil resources are far larger than EIA estimates, the U.S. could be oil independent by 2040

  20. Energy and zenith angle dependence of atmospheric muons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    1973-01-01

    The recently proposed new process for energetic-muon production in the atmosphere should be tested at Mt. Chacaltaya. Rigorous calculations of zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons have been made for the altitude of 5200 m above sea level with energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV and for zenith angles from 0 degrees to 92.3 degrees . Calculations are based on the extension of the Chapman function to the case of a non-isothermal atmosphere, taking into account (i) energy- dependent nuclear-interaction mean free path of cosmic-ray hadrons in air, (ii) different magnitudes of photonuclear cross-section in the energy-loss process of muons in the atmosphere, (iii) contributions of atmospheric muons arriving below the horizontal directions, and (iv) atmospheric structure and geomagnetic deflection. Results are compared with those corresponding to sea level. Range straggling, particularly its effect on horizontally incident muons, is investigated by Monte Carlo calculation, indicating that its effects and t...

  1. Energy dependence of radiation interaction parameters of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohinder; Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-04-01

    Gamma rays interact with a material through photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering and Pair production in the intermediate energy range. The probability of occurrence of a particular type of process depends on the energy of incident gamma rays, atomic number of the material, scattering angle and geometrical conditions. Various radiological parameters for organic compounds, namely ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), propylene glycol (C3H8O2), glycerin (C3H8O3), isoamyl alcohol (C5H12O), butanone (C4H8O), acetophenone (C8H8O2), cyclohexanone (C6H10O), furfural (C5H4O2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O), cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), aniline (C6H7N), benzyl amine (C6H7N), nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2), ethyl benzene (C8H10), ethyl formate (C3H6O2) and water (H2O) are presented at 81, 122, 356 and 511 keV energies employing NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in narrow-beam transmission geometry. The radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation, molar extinction and mass energy absorption coefficients, half value layer, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and CT number have been evaluated for these organic compounds. The general trend of values of mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, molar extinction coefficients, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and mass energy absorption coefficients shows a decrease with increase in incident gamma photon energy. The values of CT number are found to increases linearly with increase of effective atomic number (Zeff). The variation in CT number around Zeff ≈ 3.3 shows the peak like structure with respect to water and the correlation between CT number and linear attenuation coefficient is about 0.99. Appropriate equations are fitted to these experimentally determined parameters for the organic compounds at incident photon energy ranging from 81 keV to 511 keV used in the present study. Experimental values are compared with the theoretical data obtained using Win

  2. The role of conventional and unconventional gas in the energy transition in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Minh Thong

    2017-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are one of the main challenges for humanity in the 21. Century. Global growth in energy demand links to environmental concerns including pollution, global warming and reduction of CO 2 emissions. In particular, it is an urgent request in rapidly growing developing regions such as Asian countries. Using cleaner energy sources, renewable energy instead of traditional energy sources like coal and oil is an inevitable option in the future. In the current context, natural gas is seen as a clean energy source which plays a major role in the energy transition process towards a low-carbon economy. The consequences for natural gas markets are significant and the condition of this change is an abundant supply of natural gas. The development of unconventional gas, particularly shale gas, provides an opportunity to expand the global gas supply. This is illustrated by the 'shale gas revolution' in US which has profoundly changed the regional gas markets. However, this 'revolution' is hardly reproducible in other regions of the world. This thesis demonstrates particularly that apart from geological, institutional conditions (taxation, property rights), economic (prices, technologies) and organizational (free markets) are necessary for a large scale development of unconventional resources. This research also shows that most of these conditions are not met in Europe or Asia (especially in China). Therefore, an energy transition by natural gas to meet climate challenges in Asia will be solved through imports, rather than through regional production. From three scenarios of the POLES model based on assumptions about climate policy, shale gas development and rapid increase of demand for gas in the energy mix (particularly in Asia), two main conclusions emerge. The developments of shale gas with low cost in the USA make the global gas supply abundant and more competitive than other energies, particularly coal. Therefore, even without

  3. Design of the energy storage system for the High Energy Gas Laser Facility at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, K.B.; Kircher, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Antares laser is being built in the High Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) at Los Alamos to continue laser fusion experiments at very high power. The laser medium will be pumped by an electrical discharge, which requires an energy input of about 5 MJ in a few microseconds at about 500 kV. The energy storage system which will provide the pulsed power will be a bank of high-voltage pulse-forming networks. Tradeoff studies have been performed comparing the performance of multi-mesh networks with single-mesh networks. The single-mesh network requires about 20% more energy than a two-mesh network, but will tolerate three times the inductance of a two-mesh network. Analysis also shows that amplifier gain is not sensitive to impedance mismatch among the pulse-forming network, the transmission cables, and the gas discharge. A prototype pulse-forming network is being built to test components and trigger performance. It is a Marx generator storing 300 kJ at 1.2 MV open circuit, with 3 μH internal inductance

  4. The excitation of an independent-particle gas - classical or quantal - by a time-dependent potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Skalski, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic numerical investigation of the excitation of a classical or quantal gas of non-interacting particles in a time-dependent potential well is described. The excitation energy was followed in time for one oscillation around the sphere for six types of deformation: spheroidal shapes and Legendre polynomial ripples P 2 , P 3 , P 4 , P 5 , P 6 , with relative rms amplitudes of 0.2. Ten different speeds of deformation and eleven different values of the diffuseness of the potential well were studied, making altogether 660 quantal and 660 classical time-dependent calculations. In the upper range of deformation speeds the quantal results for the non-integrable shapes P 3 -P 6 agree approximately with the wall formula for dissipation, the deviations being largely accounted for by the wave-mechanical suppression factor of Koonin et al. For low deformation speeds the dissipation becomes dominated by one or two avoided level crossings. (orig.)

  5. Ziff Energy Group's 3. annual 2001+ gas industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    A survey was conducted in April 2001 regarding industry expectations of gas prices, supply, markets, and transportation. The survey involved 97 participants ranging from gas producers, end-users, marketers, pipeline and local distribution companies in North America. The results of the survey can be summarized as follows: Natural gas prices are expected to grow and remain above oil prices through at least 2002. There will continue to be strong growth prospects for North American gas supply, but North American gas storage will be tight for the winter of 2001. North American gas demand is expected to continue to grow. Participants in the survey remained confident that gas demand would continue to grow, despite higher gas prices. Competition from alternative fuels in electricity generation did not appear to be an area of concern for the participants of the survey. 30 figs

  6. The excitation of an independent-particle gas by a time dependent potential well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Błocki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The order-to-chaos transition in the dynamics of independent classical particles gas was studied by means of the numerical simulations. The excitation of the gas for containers whose surfaces are rippled according to Legendre polynomials P2 , P3, P4 , P5 , P6 was followed for ten periods of oscillations. Spheroidal deformations were also considered. Poincare sections and Lyapunov exponents have been calculated showing different degrees of chaoticity depending on the shape and amplitude of oscillations. For 2 P polynomial the reaction of a gas to the periodic container deformation is mostly elastic as 2 P deformation especially for not very big deformations is almost like an integrable spheroid. For other polynomials the situation is more or less chaotic with a chaoticity increasing with the increasing order of the polynomial.

  7. Guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido; Hokkaido bio gas energy riyo guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of smoothly introducing biogas plants to Hokkaido in the future, the following were conducted: collection of the data on samples of development/introduction of biogas plants, survey of the organizations concerned, etc., study of economical efficiency, etc. Those were arranged as a guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido. In the biogas plant, organic matters such as animal faces, garbage, etc. are anaerobicly fermented at medium temperatures between 35 and 38 degrees C or at about 55 degrees C to obtain biogas including methane gas of approximately 60%. From this gas, heat is obtained by gas boiler, and also electricity and heat are obtained by gas cogeneration or fuel cells. In the case of introducing the biogas plant using animal faces as raw material in Hokkaido, it is important to cover all the electricity and heat used to maintain the plant with the biogas obtained, from a viewpoint of economical efficiency. In the present situation, it is the most economical for each farmer to introduce an individual plant to be installed and to obtain the power generated and heat. (NEDO)

  8. Natural gas to improve energy security in Small Island Developing States: A techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Raghoo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of studies on natural gas-based energy production in Small Island Developing States (SIDS even though technological improvements today are likely to make the application of natural gas more and more feasible. The development of natural gas in some of the regions of the Pacific, Africa, Indian Ocean and Caribbean attracts nearby countries and the coming up of the compressed natural gas (CNG technology which can serve regional markets are two motivations for SIDS to develop natural gas-based energy provision. A third factor concerns long-term energy security. Due to continued reliance on fossil fuels and slow uptake of renewable energy, there is a need to diversify SIDS’ energy mix for a sustainable electricity industry. Comparing the opportunities and constraints of liquefied natural gas (LNG and compressed natural gas (CNG in a SIDS-specific context, this paper discusses how to improve the integration of natural gas in prevailing energy regimes in SIDS as an alternative fuel to oil and complementary to renewable energy sources. To illustrate feasibility in practice, a techno-economic analysis is carried out using the island of Mauritius as an example. Keywords: Energy security, Natural gas, Small Island Developing States

  9. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  10. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  11. Personnel β-dosimetry method for reducing energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Jones, D.E.; Gupta, V.P.; Kalbeitzer, F.L.; Cusimano, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    Current practices for the measurement of skin dose are reviewed and found to be inadequate. The current INEL dosimeter was examined for systematic and random error. Systematic (i.e., variation with energy) error was found to range over a factor of 10 while the random error was reasonably small for the larger β/γ ratios. Other designs with thicker windows as is more common would show even larger systematic errors. Various methods for improving beta dosimetry were reviewed. A new dosimeter design utilizing three chips, each having a window of difference thickness, was proposed. According to the calculations, this dosimeter should markedly reduce systematic error but will introduce somewhat more random error. Preliminary measurements were carried out related to angular dependence and charged particle equilibrium. The proposed dosimeter design was tested with betas from a uranium slab. The average of the seven results was in excellent agreement with the known dose rate and the standard deviation of the result was 16%

  12. Dose energy dependence in proton imaging with thin detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denyak, V.V., E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim 1632, Curitiba 80250-200 (Brazil); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Silva, R.C.L.; Kozuki, C.; Paschuk, S.A.; Milhoretto, E. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Since the earliest works proposing the use of protons for imaging, the main advantage of protons over X-rays was expected to be a result of the specific property of the proton flux dropping off very steeply at the end of the particle range. This idea was declared but was not checked. In the present work, this assumption was investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation for the case of registration of protons with a thin detector. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Principal idea of proton imaging 'to work at the end of the range' was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of thin detector was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dose energy dependence was calculated using computer simulation.

  13. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  14. A pathway to eliminate the gas flow dependency of a hydrocarbon sensor for automotive exhaust applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors will play an essential role in future combustion-based mobility to effectively reduce emissions and monitor the exhausts reliably. In particular, an application in automotive exhausts is challenging due to the high gas temperatures that come along with highly dynamic flow rates. Recently, a thermoelectric hydrocarbon sensor was developed by using materials which are well known in the exhausts and therefore provide the required stability. As a sensing mechanism, the temperature difference that is generated between a catalytically activated area during the exothermic oxidation of said hydrocarbons and an inert area of the sensor is measured by a special screen-printed thermopile structure. As a matter of principle, this thermovoltage significantly depends on the mass flow rate of the exhausts under certain conditions. The present contribution helps to understand this cross effect and proposes a possible setup for its avoidance. By installing the sensor in the correct position of a bypass solution, the gas flow around the sensor is almost free of turbulence. Now, the signal depends only on the hydrocarbon concentration and not on the gas flow. Such a setup may open up new possibilities of applying novel sensors in automotive exhausts for on-board-measurement (OBM purposes.

  15. To fully exert the important role of natural gas in building a modern energy security system in China: An understanding of China's National l3th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the introduction of 13th Five-Year Plans in succession for natural gas development programmed by governments at all levels and much more attention paid to haze governance by relevant departments, natural gas, as one of the major energy sources, has ushered in a strategic opportunity era. In view of this, based upon China's National 13th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development formulated by the National Development and Reform Commission, the developing trend of natural gas sector was predicted in the period of 13th Five-Year Plan in terms of supply side, demand side, pricing system, infrastructure construction, etc. and some feasible proposals were made on the whole industrial chain. In terms of the supply side, natural gas will be of availability, accessibility, assurance, affordability, and accountability in the production and supply chains. In terms of the demand side, air pollution treatment will indirectly stimulate gas consumption increase. Gas power generation will become the dominant. Natural gas as a transportation fuel will bring a good new opportunity. Thus it is believed that as the present natural gas development is restricted by both gas pricing system and infrastructure construction, further reform should be strengthened to break the barriers of systems and mechanisms; and that due to many uncertainties in the natural gas market, the decisive role of market in the resource allocation should be fully exerted to ensure the main force of natural gas in building a dependable energy strategic system in present and future China.

  16. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  17. How gas producers can position themselves to take advantage of a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of Norcen Energy Resource's finances, their production of oil, natural gas liquids (NGL) and gas, and their approach to marketing was provided in this poster presentation. Formerly owned power projects and current opportunities for Norcen were summarized. The potential role of natural gas in electrical restructuring, and some possible marketing strategies were highlighted

  18. Power-to-Gas: storing surplus electrical energy. A design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, O.S.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Veneman, Rens; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a conceptual design of a Power-to-Gas (PtG) process for storing electrical energy in form of synthetic natural gas (SNG) of gas grid quality H is presented. The combination with a conventional lignite fired power plant (LPP) was investigated for possible improvement of its economic

  19. The Department of Energy's involvement with power generation from landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, G.G.; Aitchison, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with landfill gas since the early days of landfill gas exploitation to the present. Topics covered include resource assessment, abstraction and management technology, and emissions and environmental studies. The future programme is also outlined and the current status of the Non-Fossil Fuels obligation in landfill gas is described. (UK)

  20. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  1. Time-dependent analysis of dissolver off-gas cleaning installations in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Furrer, J.; Becker, G.; Obrowski, W.; Seghal, Y.P.; Weymann, J.

    1983-01-01

    The iodine- and aerosol-filtering test facility PASSAT of the Nuclear Research Centre in Karlsruhe has been investigated using a method which allows time-dependent analyses under accident conditions. This method which is closely related to fault-tree analysis needs subdivision in barriers of the system, and their logical combination in a tree. The barriers have binary states: defect and intact. The defect state will be described by a fault tree, whereas the intact state includes dependences of a barrier operation on physical parameters. The intact state enables time-dependent calculations. Calculations have been done for iodine filtering, because the best known entrance data are given. Results demonstrate clearly that the amount of iodine released increases only if both heaters failed, which heat the off-gas from 30 0 C to 80 0 C and then to 130 0 C. Additionally the integrated amount of iodine released depends on time period between the failures of the heaters

  2. Electron transfer in organic glass. Distance and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongauz, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have investigated the distance and energy dependence of electron transfer in rigid organic glasses containing randomly dispersed electron donor and electron acceptor molecules. Pulsed radiolysis by an electron beam from a linear accelerator was used for ionization resulting in charge deposition on donor molecules. The disappearance kinetics of donor radical anions due to electron transfer to acceptor was monitored spectroscopically by the change in optical density at the wavelength corresponding to that of donor radical anion absorbance. It was found that the rate of the electron transfer observed experimentally was higher than that computed using the Marcus-Levich theory assuming that the electron-transfer activation barrier is equal to the binding energy of electron on the donor molecule. This discrepancy between the experimental and computed results suggests that the open-quotes inertclose quotes media in which electron-transfer reaction takes place may be participating in the process, resulting in experimentally observed higher electron-transfer rates. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Results at Mallik highlight progress in gas hydrate energy resource research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent studies that project the role of gas hydrates in the future energy resource management are reviewed. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually be a commercial resource for the future. A Joint Industry Project led by ChevronTexaco and the US Department of Energy is designed to characterize gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. Countries including Japan, canada, and India have established large gas hydrate research and development projects, while China, Korea and Mexico are investigating the viability of forming government-sponsored gas hydrate research projects.

  4. Energy equivalence factor in gasoline to compressed vehicle natural gas substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Amell Arrieta, Andres A

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors show a model based in a vehicle energy balance used to obtain the ratio of energy equivalence of natural gas and petrol used as fuels in the vehicle. The model includes the engine, transmission and natural gas cylinders effects. The model has been applied to different colombian natural gases, it shows that Guajira natural gas has 14,5% lower ratio than Cusiana natural gas and 5,6% lower ratio than Apiay natural gas, these results shows a need in the study of colombian natural gases interchangeability

  5. Russian Oil and Natural Gas: Strategic Culture and Security Implications of European Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... The third section investigates the importance of revenues that Russia receives from consumption of oil and natural gas exports to Europe on their Gross National Product and economic growth for the future. By understanding Russia's strategic culture and the interdependence of European demand and Russian supply, conclusions are made that determine the threat, risk, and circumstances that Russia will deny energy resources to European countries.

  6. NATURAL GAS - A CHANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SERBIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstic, S.; Djajic, N.; Kukobat, M.

    2007-07-01

    Republic Serbia has produced and consumed natural gas domestically since 1952, but has always been net importer. Strategy of Energy Development in Serbia and, especially, National Action Plan for the Gasification on the Territory of Republic of Serbia dedicated special attention to gas economy development in respect with expected contribution in efficient energy use and environmental policy protection in our country. Option of expanded share of natural gas in fulfilling energy requirements in future is reasonable, considering natural gas with its energetic, ecological and economical characteristics as very suitable fuel. Also, in mid-term and most probably in long-term period, the gas import is expected to be more advantageous than oil import. The paper deals the basic features of natural gas consumption in Serbia in nineties and analyses the further development in gas sector for next period until 2015 based on strategic analyses. (auth)

  7. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  8. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  9. Space dependent neutron slowing and thermalization in monatomic hydrogen gas in the P-1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musazay, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solution to the space and energy dependent neutron transport equation in the framework of the consistent P-1 approximation is sought. The transport equation for thermal neutrons in a moderator of 1/v absorption and constant scattering cross section is changed into a set of coupled partial differential equations. The space dependent part is removed by assuming a cosine shaped flux due to a cosine shaped source at a very high energy. The resulting set of strongly coupled ordinary differential equations is decoupled by assuming expansion of collision density in the powers of a leakage parameter whose coefficients are energy and absorption dependent. These energy dependent coefficients are solutions of a set of weakly coupled differential equations. Series solutions to these differential equations in powers of epsilon and 1/epsilon, where epsilon = E/kT, E being the neutron energy and kT the moderator temperature in units of energy, are found. The properties of these solutions are studied extensively. Absorption appears as a parameter in the coefficients of the series. The difficulties arising in choosing the correct form of the asymptotic solutions are resolved by comparing slowing and thermalization. The limitations on the size of the slab and on the range of absorption are included in the analysis

  10. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  11. Future of the gas industry. Energy carriers instead of power source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Riechmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For a long time, natural gas was considered as an ideal bridge technology for the energy transition because of the relatively low CO_2 content. With increasing decarbonisation of electricity generation by renewable energies and the associated political vision of a far-reaching electrification of energy applications, in particular in the heat sector, the gas sector is, however, threatened to be overtaken by the renewables. This creates increasing uncertainty for business models and investments in the natural gas sector itself, but also potentially high macroeconomic costs of the energy transition. It can be shown that such a development is not unavoidable if the gas sector succeeds in using the existing possibilities cleverly. Thereby the continued use of existing gas infrastructure plays a central role. For use of the opportunities, however, a paradigm shift in politics, regulation and natural gas sector is necessary, whose key points are developed in this article. [de

  12. Reduction of energy cost and CO2 emission for the furnace using energy recovered from waste tail-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Chih-Ju G.; Wu, Chung-Rung; Lee, Chien-Li

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the waste tail gas emitted from petrochemical processes, e.g. catalytic reforming unit, catalytic cracking unit and residue desulfurization unit, was recovered and reused as a replacement of natural gas (NG). On-site experimental results show that both the flame length and orange-yellowish brightness decrease with more proportion of waste gas fuel added to the natural gas, and that the adiabatic temperature of the mixed fuel is greater than 1800 o C. A complete replacement of natural gas by the recovered waste gas fuel will save 5.8 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, and 3.5 x 10 4 tons of CO 2 emission annually. In addition, the reduction of residual O 2 concentration in flue gases from 4% to 3% will save 1.1 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, reduce 43.0% of NO x emission, and 1.3 x 10 3 tons of CO 2 emission annually. Thus, from the viewpoint of the overall economics and sustainable energy policy, recovering the waste tail gas energy as an independent fuel source to replace natural gas is of great importance for saving energy, reducing CO 2 emission reduction, and lowering environmental impact.

  13. 13th CERI [Canadian Energy Research Inst.] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At an oil and gas industry conference, papers were presented on world oil supply and demand, energy geopolitics, world oil prices, the status of the Chinese oil/gas industry and prospects for exploration and development, Latin American oil/gas markets and development opportunities, the oil and gas industries in non-OPEC Middle East countries (Oman, Yemen, Turkey), oil and gas markets in North America, and financial and regulatory aspects of domestic gas markets in Canada and the USA. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 17 papers from this conference

  14. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-05-15

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available--in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as $0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  15. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-01-01

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments-made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001-have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available-in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as$0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy

  16. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  17. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  18. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO 2 emissions produced during the conversion process

  19. Energy dependence of ulrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons and high energy X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, T.

    1977-02-01

    The energy dependence of ultrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons (5-40 MeV) and high energy X-radiation (6 MV, 42 MV) is experimentally determined. The experimental values are compared to values calculted earlier by other authors. The influence of the thickness of the dosemeters have been considered by comparison of experimental values for 0.03 mm thick dosemeters and theoretical values for 0.13 mm and 0.38 mm thick ones. Also different commersially available dosemeters have been compared by experiments. It is difficult to draw any other conclutions about the energy dependence than that the variation of the relative responce is within +- 3 percent (2S). However the results seems to be sulficient for clinical applications

  20. The Role of Gas in the European Energy Transition: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Following difficult years for the European gas industry, natural gas is back to the front stage. Given its environmental credentials, its flexibility, its performance and the variety of its uses, gas has a key role to play in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the improvement of air quality, the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the power mix. Its role will evolve in the longer term and one must distinguish the period 2015-2030 from the period 2030-2050

  1. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  2. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm(3)) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the

  3. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenau, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.ebenau@tu-dortmunde.de; Sommer, Holger; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Str. 4a, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Flühs, Dirk [Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm{sup 3}) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Methods: Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a {sup 60}Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks’ formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. Results: The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks’ formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. Conclusions: The energy response was quantified relative to the response to {sup 60}Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  7. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  8. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Carlson, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  9. Charge-dependent and A-dependent effects in isotope shifts of Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, R.

    1977-01-01

    Coulomb displacement energies in a series of isotopes generally decrease with A. This decrease can arise from an increase with A of the average distance of interaction between pairs of protons. In the shell model a decrease can also result from charge-independence-breaking effects if the neutron-proton interaction for the valence nucleons is more attractive than the neutron-neutron interaction. Using the model recently proposed by Sherr and Talmi for the 1d/sub 3/2/ shell, existing data for this shell and also the 1d/sub 5/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells were analyzed allowing all matrix elements to vary as A/sup -lambda/3/. Least squares calculations of the rms deviation sigma were carried out for varying values of lambda from -2 to +2. It was found that although there was a minimum in sigma vs lambda it was too shallow to exclude any lambda for -1 to +1 in the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells or 0 to +1 in the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell. It is therefore not possible to distinguish between A dependence and charge dependence in this model. The magnitude of the latter as expressed in terms of (np-nn) matrix elements depends strongly on the former. As lambda increases from -1 to +1, these (np-nn) matrix elements decrease roughly linearly in absolute magnitude and eventually change sign. For lambda = 0 they have appreciable and reasonable magnitudes for the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells but for the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell the values are too small to be considered significant

  10. 76 FR 28023 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2232-522; Project No. 516-459] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Meetings On March 18, 2011, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) requested a meeting with Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC...

  11. 75 FR 17407 - Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-11-000] Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public Conference March 31... Room on the second floor of the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street...

  12. Mining gold from the waste mountain. Energy recovery from landfill gas; Afvalberg als goudmijn. Meer energie uit stortgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, K. [Energieprojecten.com, Steenwijk (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    Methane from landfill sites can be an attractive source of green gas or green power. Utilisation of landfill gas has so far been held back by lack of efficient collection and application techniques. However, research into the extraction, purification and conversion of the gas carried out in the Netherlands and elsewhere has been yielding promising results. Depending on the circumstances, processed landfill gas can serve as a domestic gas or be used to produce electricity. [Dutch] Methaan dat op stortplaatsen vrijkomt, kan een aantrekkelijke bron zijn voor groen gas of groene stroom. Tot nu toe ontbreekt het aan technieken om dit stortgas met maximaal rendement te winnen en te benutten. Experimenten in binnen- en buitenland met winning, opwerking en conversie zijn echter veelbelovend. Afhankelijk van de omstandigheden zal de keuze vervolgens vallen op gas of op elektriciteit.

  13. Seasonal and particle size-dependent variations in gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se-Jin; Ale, Debaki; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Sun Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored particle size-dependent variations in atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Two gas/particle partitioning models, the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L 0 ) and the octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) model, were applied to each particle sizes. The regression coefficients of each fraction against the gas/particle partition coefficient (K P ) were similar for separated particles within the same sample set but differed for particles collected during different periods. Gas/particle partitioning calculated from the integral of fractions was similar to that of size-segregated particles and previously measured bulk values. Despite the different behaviors and production mechanisms of atmospheric particles of different sizes, PCDD/F partitioning of each size range was controlled by meteorological conditions such as atmospheric temperature, O 3 and UV, which reflects no source related with certain particle size ranges but mixed urban sources within this city. Our observations emphasize that when assessing environmental and health effects, the movement of PCDD/Fs in air should be considered in conjunction with particle size in addition to the bulk aerosol. - Gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric PCDD/Fs for different particle sizes reflects the impacts of emitters of different size ranges

  14. Activation of cGAS-dependent antiviral responses by DNA intercalating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Thomas, Belinda J; Ferrand, Jonathan; McArthur, Kate; Bardin, Philip G; Williams, Bryan R G; Gantier, Michael P

    2017-01-09

    Acridine dyes, including proflavine and acriflavine, were commonly used as antiseptics before the advent of penicillins in the mid-1940s. While their mode of action on pathogens was originally attributed to their DNA intercalating activity, work in the early 1970s suggested involvement of the host immune responses, characterized by induction of interferon (IFN)-like activities through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate here that sub-toxic concentrations of a mixture of acriflavine and proflavine instigate a cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-dependent type-I IFN antiviral response. This pertains to the capacity of these compounds to induce low level DNA damage and cytoplasmic DNA leakage, resulting in cGAS-dependent cGAMP-like activity. Critically, acriflavine:proflavine pre-treatment of human primary bronchial epithelial cells significantly reduced rhinovirus infection. Collectively, our findings constitute the first evidence that non-toxic DNA binding agents have the capacity to act as indirect agonists of cGAS, to exert potent antiviral effects in mammalian cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Landfill gas: energy and environmental issues in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandeville, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned about landfill gas generation, recovery, and control over the last 10 to 15 years are reviewed. Some major issues that are worthy of discussion include the difficulty of assessing generation rates; the limitations of field testing; the use of modeling; landfill characterization and the expense of landfill gas processing and condensate disposal. (author)

  16. The struggle for energy. How the growing need for oil and gas will cause a world crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op het Veld, R.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the rapid and continued economic growth of China and India, energy demand is increasing rapidly. At the same time, the Western world is facing decreasing oil and gas reserves. As a result, it becomes increasingly dependent on the Middle East and countries such as Russia and Venezuela. Shell and ExxonMobil, who were once dominant oil giants, are losing territory to state energy companies such as Saudi Aramco and Gazprom. The author analyses all these developments, also based on a series of interviews with various experts from trade and industry and the government in the Netherlands and abroad. The author states that the only solution for the energy issue and the climate issue is the development of alternative energy sources. However, for the present this will not suffice to meet growing demand. The battle for energy ultimately paints a picture that is not rosy, involving a crisis and an increasing international rat race for energy. [mk] [nl

  17. Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Natural gas position in the energy sector of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, Th.

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas with its abundant reserves, largely distributed all around the world, and with its low environmental impacts, should assert its position since the beginning of the 21. century. However, the fundamentals of our world are changing more and more rapidly and some short term events can modify this long term optimistic vision of natural gas development. This was the topic debated during a round table of the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: the long term future of natural gas industry, the population need for a sustainable development, the potentialities of gas resources, the need for large scale interconnected energy networks, the new technologies favourable to the development of natural gas uses, the progressive 'decarbonization' of energy sources, the global warming and the role of R and D, the risks that could threat natural gas development. (J.S.)

  19. Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Natural Gas and Electrical Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    . Simulation on the test case illustrates the success of the modelling and the beneficial roles of the power-to-gas are analyzed. The proposed model can be used in the decision support for both planning and operation of the coordinated natural gas and electrical power systems.......This work focuses on the optimal operation of the integrated gas and electrical power system with bi-directional energy conversion. Considering the different response times of the gas and power systems, the transient gas flow and steady- state power flow are combined to formulate the dynamic...... optimal energy flow in the integrated gas and power systems. With proper assumptions and simplifications, the problem is transformed into a single stage linear programming. And only a single stage linear programming is needed to obtain the optimal operation strategy for both gas and power systems...

  20. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Ridepends on the water surface-characteristics.

  1. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  2. Effect of gas filling pressure and operation energy on ion and neutron emission in a medium energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, Rohit; Kaushik, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of gas filling pressure and operation energy on deuterium ions and neutrons have been studied in a medium energy plasma focus device, MEPF-12. The deuterium gas filling pressure was varied from 1 to 10 mbar at an operation energy of 9.7 kJ. Also, the operation energy was varied from 3.9 to 9.7 kJ at a deuterium gas filling pressure of 4 mbar. Time resolved emission of deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup. Simultaneously, time integrated and time resolved emissions of neutrons were measured using a silver activation detector and plastic scintillator detector, respectively. Various characteristics (fluence, peak density, and most probable energy) of deuterium ions were estimated using the Faraday cup signal. The fluence was found to be nearly independent of the gas filling pressure and operation energy, but the peak density and most probable energy of deuterium ions were found to be varying. The neutron yield was observed to be varying with the gas filling pressure and operation energy. The effect of ions on neutrons emission was observed at each operation condition.

  3. Natural gas: An essential source of energy in the Romanian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coconea, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Romanian natural gas industry has existed since the early 1900s. The share of natural gas in Romania's current energy consumption is around 40%. The state gas company Romgaz operates ca 150 gas fields and 3,600 producing wells, but only 20% of annual production is being replaced by new discoveries. Declining gas production is caused by such factors as improper well completion, delayed workovers, water encroachment, and sand consolidation. Romgaz also transports imported natural gas from Russia and provides transportation services to natural gas importers in neighboring countries. The gas transmission network comprises ca 11,000 km of pipelines and 82,800 kW of installed compressor capacity. The distribution system supplies gas to over 2.5 million customers over some 15,000 km of pipeline. Future projects include expansion of production and increasing recoverable reserves, modernization of equipment, constructing an interconnecting pipeline with the Ukraine, installing a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Black Sea, rehabilitating the gas transmission grid, and installing supervisory control and data acquisition systems. The gas consumption pattern of 1990 (57% industrial, 31% power generation, 8% households) is expected to change with a substantial increase in household and commercial supplies, as well as replacement of gas-fired generation with hydroelectric and nuclear generation. A governmental restructuring strategy is being implemented to enhance oil and gas production, to improve operational efficiency of the sector, and to address environmental pollution. Components of the strategy are outlined

  4. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  5. Replacement policy of residential lighting optimized for cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixi; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Saitou, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Accounting for 10% of the electricity consumption in the US, artificial lighting represents one of the easiest ways to cut household energy bills and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by upgrading to energy-efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and light emitting diodes (LED). However, given the high initial cost and rapidly improving trajectory of solid-state lighting today, estimating the right time to switch over to LEDs from a cost, primary energy, and GHG emissions perspective is not a straightforward problem. This is an optimal replacement problem that depends on many determinants, including how often the lamp is used, the state of the initial lamp, and the trajectories of lighting technology and of electricity generation. In this paper, multiple replacement scenarios of a 60 watt-equivalent A19 lamp are analyzed and for each scenario, a few replacement policies are recommended. For example, at an average use of 3 hr day-1 (US average), it may be optimal both economically and energetically to delay the adoption of LEDs until 2020 with the use of CFLs, whereas purchasing LEDs today may be optimal in terms of GHG emissions. In contrast, incandescent and halogen lamps should be replaced immediately. Based on expected LED improvement, upgrading LED lamps before the end of their rated lifetime may provide cost and environmental savings over time by taking advantage of the higher energy efficiency of newer models.

  6. Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Horie, Yuhta A.

    2006-01-01

    Although the last decade witnessed dramatic progress in refrigerator efficiencies, inefficient, outdated refrigerators are still in operation, sometimes consuming more than twice as much electricity per year compared with modern, efficient models. Replacing old refrigerators before their designed lifetime could be a useful policy to conserve electric energy and greenhouse gas emissions. However, from a life cycle perspective, product replacement decisions also induce additional economic and environmental burdens associated with disposal of old models and production of new models. This paper discusses optimal lifetimes of mid-sized refrigerator models in the US, using a life cycle optimization model based on dynamic programming. Model runs were conducted to find optimal lifetimes that minimize energy, global warming potential (GWP), and cost objectives over a time horizon between 1985 and 2020. The baseline results show that depending on model years, optimal lifetimes range 2-7 years for the energy objective, and 2-11 years for the GWP objective. On the other hand, an 18-year of lifetime minimizes the economic cost incurred during the time horizon. Model runs with a time horizon between 2004 and 2020 show that current owners should replace refrigerators that consume more than 1000 kWh/year of electricity (typical mid-sized 1994 models and older) as an efficient strategy from both cost and energy perspectives

  7. Natural gas facing the new energy disorders: opportunities and constraints of a waited economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies natural gas industry facing the new disorders on energy markets. Energy world-wide demand growth is the strong point of natural gas development. Natural gas supply is based on abundant resources, well geographically distributed, but more expensive. This paper describes international trade growth and economic constraints, the impact of economic growth reduction, Gulf crisis and USSR or East Europe disorders on natural gas market. In the last part, the influence of environmental policy, regulations and ecological anxiety are briefly approached. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    of the implementation programmes has been on development of technologies for joint biogas plants, where more than one farm supplies the animal slurry. The joint biogas plants are dependent on industrial organic wastes to obtain high biogas yields for making the biogas plant economical. The industrial organic waste will......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus......, however, be the scarce factor in a further development of the joint biogas plants in Denmark. The purpose of the present study is related to the discussion on the role of transportation in the biogas fuel chain. Transportation plays a central role in the assessment of environmental advantages of utilising...

  9. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner-Volpe, B.; Trapmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  10. The potential of domestic production and imports of oil and gas in China: an energy return on investment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yang Kong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerns about China’s energy security have escalated because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, so it is necessary to calculate the availability of domestic oil and gas resources and China’s ability to obtain foreign energy through trade. In this work, the calculation was done by using the energy return on investment (EROI method. The results showed that the EROIstnd (i.e., standard EROI of China’s oil and gas extraction decreased from approximately 17.3:1 in 1986 to 8.4:1 in 2003, but it increased to 12.2:1 in 2013. From a company-level perspective, the EROIstnd differed for different companies and was in the range of (8–12:1. The EROI2,d (EROI considering energy outputs after processed and direct energy inputs for different companies was in the range of (3–7:1. The EROI of imported oil (EROIIO declined from 14.8:1 in 1998 to approximately 4.8:1 in 2014, and the EROI of imported natural gas (EROIING declined from 16.7:1 in 2009 to 8.6:1 in 2014. In 2015, the EROIIO and EROIING showed a slight increase due to decreasing import prices. In general, this paper suggests that from a net energy perspective, it has become more difficult for China to obtain oil and gas from both domestic production and imports. China is experiencing an EROI decline, which demonstrates the risk in the use of unsustainable fossil resources.

  11. Effect of grain morphology on gas bubble swelling in UMo fuels – A 3D microstructure dependent Booth model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet

    2016-11-15

    A three dimensional microstructure dependent swelling model is developed for studying the fission gas swelling kinetics in irradiated nuclear fuels. The model is extended from the Booth model [1] in order to investigate the effect of heterogeneous microstructures on gas bubble swelling kinetics. As an application of the model, the effect of grain morphology, fission gas diffusivity, and spatially dependent fission rate on swelling kinetics are simulated in UMo fuels. It is found that the decrease of grain size, the increase of grain aspect ratio for the grain having the same volume, and the increase of fission gas diffusivity (fission rate) cause the increase of swelling kinetics. Other heterogeneities such as second phases and spatially dependent thermodynamic properties including diffusivity of fission gas, sink and source strength of defects could be naturally integrated into the model to enhance the model capability.

  12. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  13. Exact dynamics of a one dimensional Bose gas in a periodic time-dependent harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopa, Stefano; Unterberger, Jéremie; Karevski, Dragi

    2018-05-01

    We study the unitary dynamics of a 1D gas of hard-core bosons trapped into a harmonic potential which varies periodically in time with frequency . Such periodic systems can be classified into orbits of different monodromies corresponding to two different physical situations, namely the case in which the bosonic cloud remains stable during the time-evolution and the case where it turns out to be unstable. In the present work we derive in the large particle number limit exact results for the stroboscopic evolution of the energy and particle densities in both physical situations.

  14. Introduction to the Gas Hydrate Master Project of Energy National Science and Technology Program of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Research Team of Gas Hydrate Project of CGS of Taiwan

    2011-12-01

    Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs), which have been considered as one of major indicators of the gas hydrate in sub-seafloor, have been detected and widely distributed in offshore SW Taiwan. The Central Geological Survey of Taiwan launched a 4-year multidisciplinary gas hydrate investigation program in 2004 to explore the potential of gas hydrate resources in the area. The results indicate that enormous amounts of gas hydrate should occur beneath the seafloor, although none of solid gas hydrate samples have been found. Therefore, a second stage of another 4-year program started in 2008 to extend the studies/investigation. In the ongoing projects, some specific areas will be studied in detail to assess the components of gas hydrate petroleum system and provide a better assessment of the energy resource potential of gas hydrate in the target area. In addition to the field investigations, phase equilibrium of gas hydrate via experiment, theoretical modeling, and molecular simulations has also been studied. The results can provide insights into gas hydrate production technology. Considering the high potential energy resources, the committee of the energy national science and technology program suggests initiating a master project to plan the strategy and timeline for the gas hydrate exploration, exploitation and production in Taiwan. The plan will be introduced in this presentation.

  15. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J F [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L; Fayolle, J P [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  16. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L.; Fayolle, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C. [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  17. Continuum corrections to the level density and its dependence on excitation energy, n-p asymmetry, and deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    In the independent-particle model, the nuclear level density is determined from the neutron and proton single-particle level densities. The single-particle level density for the positive-energy continuum levels is important at high excitation energies for stable nuclei and at all excitation energies for nuclei near the drip lines. This single-particle level density is subdivided into compound-nucleus and gas components. Two methods are considered for this subdivision: In the subtraction method, the single-particle level density is determined from the scattering phase shifts. In the Gamov method, only the narrow Gamov states or resonances are included. The level densities calculated with these two methods are similar; both can be approximated by the backshifted Fermi-gas expression with level-density parameters that are dependent on A, but with very little dependence on the neutron or proton richness of the nucleus. However, a small decrease in the level-density parameter is predicted for some nuclei very close to the drip lines. The largest difference between the calculations using the two methods is the deformation dependence of the level density. The Gamov method predicts a very strong peaking of the level density at sphericity for high excitation energies. This leads to a suppression of deformed configurations and, consequently, the fission rate predicted by the statistical model is reduced in the Gamov method

  18. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Dijk, W van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Srivastava, M K [Institute Instrumentation Center, IIT, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2006-11-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system.

  19. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, R K; Dijk, W van; Srivastava, M K

    2006-01-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system

  20. An improved stochastic algorithm for temperature-dependent homogeneous gas phase reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, M

    2003-01-01

    We propose an improved stochastic algorithm for temperature-dependent homogeneous gas phase reactions. By combining forward and reverse reaction rates, a significant gain in computational efficiency is achieved. Two modifications of modelling the temperature dependence (with and without conservation of enthalpy) are introduced and studied quantitatively. The algorithm is tested for the combustion of n-heptane, which is a reference fuel component for internal combustion engines. The convergence of the algorithm is studied by a series of numerical experiments and the computational cost of the stochastic algorithm is compared with the DAE code DASSL. If less accuracy is needed the stochastic algorithm is faster on short simulation time intervals. The new stochastic algorithm is significantly faster than the original direct simulation algorithm in all cases considered.

  1. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  2. Energy Demodulation Algorithm for Flow Velocity Measurement of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurement was an important research of oil-gas-water three-phase flow parameter measurements. In order to satisfy the increasing demands for flow detection technology, the paper presented a gas-liquid phase flow velocity measurement method which was based on energy demodulation algorithm combing with time delay estimation technology. First, a gas-liquid phase separation method of oil-gas-water three-phase flow based on energy demodulation algorithm and blind signal separation technology was proposed. The separation of oil-gas-water three-phase signals which were sampled by conductance sensor performed well, so the gas-phase signal and the liquid-phase signal were obtained. Second, we used the time delay estimation technology to get the delay time of gas-phase signals and liquid-phase signals, respectively, and the gas-phase velocity and the liquid-phase velocity were derived. At last, the experiment was performed at oil-gas-water three-phase flow loop, and the results indicated that the measurement errors met the need of velocity measurement. So it provided a feasible method for gas-liquid phase velocity measurement of the oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  3. Gas flow dependence for plasma-needle disinfection of S. mutans bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Liu Bin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Drake, David [Dows Institute for Dental Research, Dept. of Endodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2006-08-21

    The role of gas flow and transport mechanisms are studied for a small low-power impinging jet of weakly-ionized helium at atmospheric pressure. This plasma needle produces a non-thermal glow discharge plasma that kills bacteria. A culture of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was plated onto the surface of agar, and spots on this surface were then treated with plasma. Afterwards, the sample was incubated and then imaged. These images, which serve as a biological diagnostic for characterizing the plasma, show a distinctive spatial pattern for killing that depends on the gas flow rate. As the flow is increased, the killing pattern varies from a solid circle to a ring. Images of the glow reveal that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons corresponds to the observed killing pattern. This suggests that a bactericidal species is generated in the gas phase by energetic electrons less than a millimetre from the sample surface. Mixing of air into the helium plasma is required to generate the observed O and OH radicals in the flowing plasma. Hydrodynamic processes involved in this mixing are buoyancy, diffusion and turbulence.

  4. Gas flow dependence for plasma-needle disinfection of S. mutans bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J; Liu Bin; Drake, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of gas flow and transport mechanisms are studied for a small low-power impinging jet of weakly-ionized helium at atmospheric pressure. This plasma needle produces a non-thermal glow discharge plasma that kills bacteria. A culture of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was plated onto the surface of agar, and spots on this surface were then treated with plasma. Afterwards, the sample was incubated and then imaged. These images, which serve as a biological diagnostic for characterizing the plasma, show a distinctive spatial pattern for killing that depends on the gas flow rate. As the flow is increased, the killing pattern varies from a solid circle to a ring. Images of the glow reveal that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons corresponds to the observed killing pattern. This suggests that a bactericidal species is generated in the gas phase by energetic electrons less than a millimetre from the sample surface. Mixing of air into the helium plasma is required to generate the observed O and OH radicals in the flowing plasma. Hydrodynamic processes involved in this mixing are buoyancy, diffusion and turbulence

  5. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis

  6. Accounting for time-dependent effects in biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas emissions calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Chang, Brenda; Sharpe, Benjamin

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a time correction factor (TCF) to properly account for the timing of land use change-derived greenhouse gas emissions in the biofuels life cycle. Land use change emissions occur at the outset of biofuel feedstock production, and are typically amortized over an assumed time horizon to assign the burdens of land use change to multiple generations of feedstock crops. Greenhouse gas intensity calculations amortize emissions by dividing them equally over a time horizon, overlooking the fact that the effect of a greenhouse gas increases with the time it remains in the atmosphere. The TCF is calculated based on the relative climate change effect of an emission occurring at the outset of biofuel feedstock cultivation versus one amortized over a time horizon. For time horizons between 10 and 50 years, the TCF varies between 1.7 and 1.8 for carbon dioxide emissions, indicating that the actual climate change effect of an emission is 70-80% higher than the effect of its amortized values. The TCF has broad relevance for correcting the treatment of emissions timing in other life cycle assessment applications, such as emissions from capital investments for production systems or manufacturing emissions for renewable energy technologies.

  7. Transition of Future Energy System Infrastructure; through Power-to-Gas Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Maroufmashat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power-to-gas is a promising option for storing interment renewables, nuclear baseload power, and distributed energy and it is a novel concept for the transition to increased renewable content of current fuels with an ultimate goal of transition to a sustainable low-carbon future energy system that interconnects power, transportation sectors and thermal energy demand all together. The aim of this paper is to introduce different Power-to-gas “pathways”, including Power to Hydrogen, Power to Natural Gas End-users, Power to Renewable Content in Petroleum Fuel, Power to Power, Seasonal Energy Storage to Electricity, Power to Zero Emission Transportation, Power to Seasonal Storage for Transportation, Power to Micro grid, Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Pipeline (“Methanation”, and Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Seasonal Storage. In order to compare the different pathways, the review of key technologies of Power-to-gas systems are studied and the qualitative efficiency and benefits of each pathway is investigated from the technical points of view. Moreover, different Power-to-gas pathways are discussed as an energy policy option that can be implemented to transition towards a lower carbon economy for Ontario’s energy systems.

  8. Energy Security prospects in Cyprus and Israel: A focus on Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Taliotis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global production of natural gas has increased from 1226 bcm in 1973 to 3282 bcm in 2010 and is projected to continue rising by an annual growth rate of 1.6% between 2010 to 2035. Cyprus and Israel have recently made major offshore discoveries of natural gas, which can supply to a great extent the two countries’ current domestic energy needs for the next few decades and still export a substantial volume. MESSAGE, a global optimization model was used to explore the possible interactions between the two countries’ energy systems. Scenarios are presented that assess the export potential for electricity (generated by gas-fired power plants, liquefied natural gas (LNG or gas-to-liquid products (GTL. The results are compared to a scenario without any available reserves to illustrate the financial benefits that will arise from the exploitation of the gas resources in the two countries.

  9. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  10. 75 FR 51990 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-80-000] CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing August 17, 2010. Take notice that on August 12, 2010, the applicant listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of Operating...

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rana@unifg.it; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP{sub 100} associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58 g CO{sub 2eq} MJ{sub e}{sup −1} and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly

  12. Talisman Energy Inc. progress on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Talisman Energy Inc., as the largest independent Canadian oil and gas producer, is committed to supporting the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. To this effect, voluntary measures have been implemented for achieving energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Some of those measures include a yearly electrical audit in each field, the establishment of facility design and equipment procurement practices, gas well deliverability testing, gas conservation and flare reduction, a new energy data management system, senior management monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and several others. Each of these measures was briefly described, and the base year quantification was included along with projections and target setting. Section 6 of the document introduced the measures to achieve targets, followed by section 7 containing results achieved. In section 8, the topic of education, training and awareness was discussed. A brief acknowledgements section was included at the end of the document. 10 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Energy dependence of the reaction rate constants of Ar+, Ar++ and N2+ ions with Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Holubcik, L.; Morva, I.; Lindinger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Dry etching processes using low temperature plasmas in Cl 2 and in Cl 2 -noble gas or nitrogen mixtures are common in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but their chemical mechanisms are often poorly understood. Results are given for the reaction rate constant measurements of Ar + , Ar ++ , N 2 + ions with chlorine as a function of mean relative kinetic energy. The experiments were performed by using the innsbruck flow drift tube (IFDT) apparatus. Measurements were done at various E/N values, where E is the electric field strength and N the buffer gas density in the drift section. The mean relative kinetic energy KE CM between the ions and the neutral chlorine Cl 2 was calculated using the Wanniers formula. It was found that The N 2 + , Ar + and Ar ++ positive ions react with chlorine Cl 2 very fast and the corresponding reaction rate coefficients depend on the mean relative kinetic energy. For the reaction of Ar - with Cl 2 , its reaction coefficient depends also on the buffer gas. It can imply the enhancement of Cl 2 + ions during etching of Si in the Ar/Cl 2 mixtures. (nevyjel)

  14. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  15. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  16. Temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient: An application to predict indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wenjuan, E-mail: Wenjuan.Wei@cstb.fr [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Mandin, Corinne [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); Blanchard, Olivier [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Mercier, Fabien [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Pelletier, Maud [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Le Bot, Barbara [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); and others

    2016-09-01

    The indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can be predicted from their respective concentrations in airborne particles by applying the particle/gas partitioning equilibrium. The temperature used for partitioning is often set to 25 °C. However, indoor temperatures frequently differ from this reference value. This assumption may result in errors in the predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentrations. To improve the prediction model, the temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient must be addressed. In this paper, a theoretical relationship between the particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature was developed based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. The SVOC particle/gas partition coefficients predicted by employing the derived theoretical relationship agree well with the experimental data retrieved from the literature (R > 0.93). The influence of temperature on the equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration was quantified by a dimensionless analysis of the derived relationship between the SVOC particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature. The predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration decreased by between 31% and 53% when the temperature was lowered by 6 °C, while it increased by up to 750% when the indoor temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. - Highlights: • A theoretical relationship between K{sub p} and temperature was developed. • The relationship was based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. • The temperature impact was quantified by a dimensionless analysis.

  17. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; O'Connor, William K [Lebanon, OR

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  18. International perspective on energy recovery from landfill gas. A joint report of the IEA Bioenergy Programme and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report presents a review of the current status of energy recovery from landfill gas. Utilisation, collection and treatment technologies are examined, and ten case studies of landfill gas utilisation are given. Non-technical issues such as barrier to energy recovery from landfill gas, landfill gas generation, and landfill gas emissions are addressed, and recommendations are outlined. The potential market for landfill gas, and market opportunities are considered. Details of the objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the IEA Bioenergy Programme, and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme are included in appendices. (UK)

  19. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  20. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  1. Performance evaluation of gas-power strategies for building energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Runge, Jason; Bondarenko, Daniel; Bower, Lowell; Pandya, Devarsh; Musharavati, Farayi; Pokharel, Shaligram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of natural gas and hydrogen fuels for energy conservation in buildings. • Comparison between hydrogen and natural gas fuel cell is performed. • Simulations of building energy supply. • Performance evaluation of two potential gas-power supply scenarios in buildings. • Natural gas fuel cell showed better performance over hydrogen fuel cell. - Abstract: The work provided herein involves a comparison of natural gas and hydrogen fuels for the purpose of energy conservation for buildings via alternative energy generation methodologies. A case study simulation was developed for an average type of commercial building, a nine storey hotel located in Toronto. The two alternative energy source case studies involved the generation of hydrogen via the wind turbine for the fuel cell, and the use of natural gas directly in the steam reforming fuel cell. The simulations for both scenarios were run and the recorded results were compared to the original case study, as well as between the scenarios. To supply for the base load of the building the fuel cells were given the same kW rating for both scenarios. The identification of all existing technologies for hydrogen gas and natural gas has been carried out, and the similar technologies between the two gases were found. For the purpose of realism, only existing purchasable technologies were considered in this paper. Due to the lack of commercially available technologies for hydrogen gas, only a comparison of fuel cell systems could be accomplished. Over the course of the investigative work it was found that when there is no direct supply of hydrogen to the site of utilization, the natural gas fuel cell is beneficial to the building due to its greater efficiency and lower cost. The major drawback for the hydrogen gas fuel cell, when the on-site generation is involved, is that no thermal power extraction systems currently exist for purchase and utilization in the buildings

  2. Is there dependence and systemic risk between oil and renewable energy stock prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets using copulas to characterize the dependence structure and to compute the conditional value-at-risk as a measure of systemic risk. We found significant time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence between oil returns and several global and sectoral renewable energy indices. Our evidence on systemic risk indicates that oil price dynamics significantly contributes around 30% to downside and upside risk of renewable energy companies. These results have important implications for risk management and renewable energy policies. - Highlights: • We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets. • Dependence and conditional value-at-risk is obtained through copulas. • Oil and renewable energy displayed time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence. • Oil price contribution to the downside and upside risks of renewable energy companies was around 30%

  3. PERHITUNGAN HARGA POKOK PRODUK COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS DARI LANDFILL GAS SEBAGAI ENERGI ALTERNATIF PADA TPST BANTAR GEBANG, BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilarakasuri P Ardiagarini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pergeseran konsumsi bahan bakar minyak ke bahan bakar berbasis gas, sebagai alternatif energi untuk sektor transportasi di Indonesia diperlukan. Salah satu renewable energy yang saat ini populer adalah biogas. Landfill gas (LFG yaitu biogas yang dihasilkan dari timbunan sampah domestik dalam jumlah yang besar pada suatu lahan. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan tujuan menghitung harga pokok untuk memproduksi CNG yang terbuat dari LFG yang dihasilkan oleh TPST Bantar Gebang. CNG dapat digunakan untuk menggerakkan mesin-mesin industri dan juga kendaraan mobil. TPST Bantar Gebang termasuk sebagai salah satu institusi yang dapat mengelola sampah dengan baik memiliki 95 area aktif Ha yang dapat menghasilkan gas TPA (LFG dengan kapasitas 5.971 Nm3/hour. Kandungan utama dari gas yang terbentuk adalah metana (CH4 dan karbondioksida (CO2 diikuti dengan gas-gas lainnya dengan komposisi yang relatif kecil. LFG dapat dikonversi ke CNG menggunakan Acrion CO2 WASH yang melepaskan CH4 dari gas lainnya. Hasil penelitian menggunakan 2 skenario jangka waktu, yaitu selama 5 tahun dan 10 tahun, didapatkan kapasitas LFG yang digunakan saat ini untuk memproduksi CNG hanya 5% dari kapasitas LFG, yaitu sebesar 7,500 Nm3/hari, dan menghasilkan CNG sebanyak 3,570 Nm3/hari. Harga pokok produksi produk CNG yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rp 160,00/ liter dengan perhitungan jangka waktu selama 5 tahun dan Rp 150,00 /liter dengan perhitungan jangka waktu selama 10 tahun. Kata kunci: renewable energy, biogas, TPST bantar gebang, LFG, CNG, harga pokok produksi Abstract In light of shifting fuel consumption from oil-based to gas-based fuel, researches on renewable energy as an alternative energy for trasportation sector in Indonesia are needed. Meanwhile, TPST Bantar Gebang has 95 Ha active area which can produce landfill gas (LFG with the capacity of 5,971 Nm3/hour. Landfill gas is biogas produced as a result of anaerob decomposition on organic material from piled

  4. Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Succar, Samir; Denkenberger, David C.; Williams, Robert H.; Socolow, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The economic viability of producing baseload wind energy was explored using a cost-optimization model to simulate two competing systems: wind energy supplemented by simple- and combined cycle natural gas turbines ('wind+gas'), and wind energy supplemented by compressed air energy storage ('wind+CAES'). Pure combined cycle natural gas turbines ('gas') were used as a proxy for conventional baseload generation. Long-distance electric transmission was integral to the analysis. Given the future uncertainty in both natural gas price and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, we introduced an effective fuel price, p NGeff , being the sum of the real natural gas price and the GHG price. Under the assumption of p NGeff =$5/GJ (lower heating value), 650 W/m 2 wind resource, 750 km transmission line, and a fixed 90% capacity factor, wind+CAES was the most expensive system at cents 6.0/kWh, and did not break even with the next most expensive wind+gas system until p NGeff =$9.0/GJ. However, under real market conditions, the system with the least dispatch cost (short-run marginal cost) is dispatched first, attaining the highest capacity factor and diminishing the capacity factors of competitors, raising their total cost. We estimate that the wind+CAES system, with a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rate that is one-fourth of that for natural gas combined cycle plants and about one-tenth of that for pulverized coal plants, has the lowest dispatch cost of the alternatives considered (lower even than for coal power plants) above a GHG emissions price of $35/tC equiv. , with good prospects for realizing a higher capacity factor and a lower total cost of energy than all the competing technologies over a wide range of effective fuel costs. This ability to compete in economic dispatch greatly boosts the market penetration potential of wind energy and suggests a substantial growth opportunity for natural gas in providing baseload power via wind+CAES, even at high natural gas prices

  5. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  6. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS—THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J.; Jachowicz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  7. Gas Pixel Detectors for low energy X-ray polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spandre, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Gas Pixel Detectors are position-sensitive proportional counters in which a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics has been reached. Various generation of Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) have been designed in deep submicron CMOS technology to realize a monolithic device which is at the same time the charge collecting electrode and the analog amplifying and charge measuring front-end electronics. The experimental response of a detector with 22060 pixels at 80 μm pitch to polarized and un-polarized X-ray radiation is shown and the application of this device for Astronomical X-ray Polarimetry discussed

  8. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source pursuant...

  9. AlintaGas perspective on evolving competition in the Western Australian energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the evolving competition in the Western Australian energy market, with a clear focus on gas. Before considering the future energy market, he puts today's market in perspective and set the framework within which the development of the future markets should be considered. What is a competitive market? It is a market where there are enough producers and enough users for competition between them to determine prices, which are set prices, not costs. An example of a competitive gas market in Western Australia is the Pilbara. There are enough producers and enough users in the Pilbara area that gas prices are set by the normal forces of supply and demand and transport costs are essentially negligible. There is no need for regulation or any external price setting - the forces of supply and demand determine prices. In the south west gas market there are the same gas suppliers, but a different and larger group of customers. This market differs from the Pilbara market because now there are transport costs involved. The transport element is a natural monopoly - and it is important to ensure transport prices do not distort the competitive market established between producers and users. Hence, third party access to the Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline (DBNGP), under properly regulated access arrangements to ensure there is no market distortion, allows the forces of competition to set prices in the south west gas market. Western Australia is fortunate - and unique among the Australian states - in that it has a number of gas producers keen to sell into Western Australian gas markets. Hence, gas on gas competition - as well as inter-fuel competition - is setting prices. For historic reasons - and they are good reasons - energy markets in Western Australia are not yet completely open. There is however a program of market deregulation that commenced on I January 1995 and will be completed on July 2002, which means that all gas customers, even residential

  10. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  11. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs.

  12. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  13. The energy sector abroad. Part 17. Italy. ENI dominates the Italian natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    For more than 25 years the Netherlands and Russia have supplied Italy with natural gas. Consequently, Italy was the first importer that did not receive natural gas from a neighbouring country, but from sources located more than a thousand kilometers away. These gas import pipelines, among other things, made it possible for Italy to grow into one of the largest gas countries in Europe. Today, natural gas accounts for well over a quarter of primary energy consumption and it is expected to reach a 37% peak by the year 2010. Since the 1950s, almost the entire oil and gas industry is owned by the state-owned holding company ENI ('Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi'). Although privatisation has gained momentum, it seems as if this holding will continue to dominate the gas market in the short term, because, in addition to large-scale import, ENI also controls the logistical elements, transmission and storage

  14. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider second-quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions at zero temperature. We discuss the energy-momentum spectrum of the Bose gas and its physical significance. We review various rigorous and heuristic results as well as open conjectures about its...

  15. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  16. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...

  17. Leak detection for city gas pipelines based on instantaneous energy distribution characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigang, Chen [Deijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, (China)

    2010-07-01

    Many natural gas pipelines are used in our cities. The development of efficient leakage detection systems is fundamental for safety issues avoidance. This paper investigated a new solution to the leak detection problem in city gas pipelines based on instantaneous energy distribution. In a theoretical approach, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was used to provide the instantaneous energy distribution feature of an unstable pressure signal. The signal noise was eliminated thanks to the instantaneous energy contribution. A leakage detection model with instantaneous energy distribution (IED) was then established. The correlation coefficients of instantaneous energy distribution were through correlation analysis. It was found that in different pipeline states, the instantaneous energy distribution characteristics are different. A strong correlation of IED signal characteristics was found of the two ends of a city gas pipeline in the same operation. The test results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the method.

  18. Energy and greenhouse gas profile of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region. Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Alain; Poitevin, Lionel; Loeb, Amandine; Philippot, Herve; Rebouillat, Lea; Jacquelin, Antoine

    2017-06-01

    This publication first proposes graphs and comments characterising final energy consumption of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region: regional situation in 2015 (analysis per sector and per energy), primary resources, social-economic analysis (energy bill, level of energy poverty, burden due to old housing and commuting for households), evolution of energy consumption between 2005 and 2015 (per sector, per source of energy, evolution of energy intensity and of the energy bill). The next part addresses greenhouse gas emissions: regional situation in 2015 (distribution in terms of emission type and per gas), evolutions between 1990 and 2015, evolutions per sector. The third part addresses renewable energies: regional situation for the different types of renewable energy, comparison with final energy consumption, comparison with national data, production evolutions, focus per sector (wood and wood by-products, heat pumps in the housing sector, urban waste valorisation units, biogas valorisation, bio-fuels, wind energy, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic). The last part recalls national objectives related to energy, to greenhouse gas emissions for France and for the region, in relationship with the law on energy transition and for a green growth

  19. Convergence of gas and electricity. Annual conference of the association of energy economists, october 26., 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, N.

    2000-01-01

    The annual conference of the Association of Energy Economists held on October 26. in Paris, has focused on the convergence of gas and electricity. The main themes, as well as the debates which followed are introduced in this article. (authors)

  20. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : first assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and preliminary analysis of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations TIGGER Program. TIGGER, which stands for Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Redu...

  1. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : second assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report is the second assessment of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations Transit Investments for : Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program. The TIGGER Program provides capital funds to transit age...

  2. New energy equation: the geopolitical impact of US shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas exploitation in the US has renewed the industrial landscape and should bring about major geopolitical changes, in particular in the Middle East. This document is a reprint of a paper published in the April-June issue of 'Confrontations Europe' journal

  3. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  4. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  5. Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1999-12-01

    Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.

  6. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  7. Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases.

  8. Energy resolution in X-ray detecting micro-strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Mir, J A; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the energy resolution available from a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC) are presented. The effect of factors such as bias potential, gas filling and strip geometry on the energy resolution are examined in detail and related to a simple model. The geometry of the MSGC is adapted to permit 'wall-less' detection of X-rays and this results in useful improvements in the pulse height spectra.

  9. Eleventh CERI [Canadian Energy Research Inst.] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At a conference on international oil and gas markets, papers were presented on world oil and gas markets; energy policies; regulatory policies; supply and demand scenarios; environmental issues; the markets and industries in individual countries such as the former Soviet Union, USA, Canada, and the United Kingdom; business strategies; geopolitics of energy; and coalbed methane supplies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 22 papers from this conference

  10. The role of BNDES' Energy Department (DEENE) on natural gas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.; Abreu Filho, J. de

    1988-01-01

    This work describes the activities of BNDES' Energy Department (DEENE) as the main financing agent of the brazilian energy sector, with particular emphasis on natural gas - which has not played an important role yet, despite DEENE's disposition and expectancy in participating of projects in this area. The work also outlines the department's plan at short and medium term concerning natural gas, and presents the Bank's financing conditions to this sector. (author)

  11. Dependence of wavelength of Xe ion-induced rippled structures on the fluence in the medium ion energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion-beam eroded self-organized nanostructures on semiconductors offer new ways for the fabrication of high density memory and optoelectronic devices. It is known that wavelength and amplitude of noble gas ion-induced rippled structures tune with the ion energy and the fluence depending on the energy range, ion type and substrate. The linear theory by Makeev predicts a linear dependence of the ion energy on the wavelength for low temperatures. For Ar{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +} it was observed by different groups that the wavelength grows with increasing fluence after being constant up to an onset fluence and before saturation. In this coarsening regime power-law or exponential behavior of the wavelength with the fluence was monitored. So far, investigations for Xe ions on silicon surfaces mainly concentrated on energies below 1 keV. We found a linear dependence of both the ion energy and the fluence on the wavelength and amplitude of rippled structures over a wide range of the Xe{sup +} ion energy between 5 and 70 keV. Moreover, we estimated the ratio of wavelength to amplitude to be constant meaning a shape stability when a threshold fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} was exceeded.

  12. Potensi Energi Listrik Pada Gas Buang Sepeda Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Latif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fossil energy sources dwindling due to the many needs, especially in industrial and automotive sectors which are the largest energy users and the highest waste heat-producing. This causes many alternative energy sources are developing, included thermal energy utilization. The research utilized waste heat energy from motorcycle exhaust pipe into electrical energy with using Thermo Electric Generator (TEG. By using the thermocouple principle, difference of temperature between hot and cold side of TEG resulted voltage. Testing was conducted with three points are on head, body and mouth of the exhaust pipe. The maximum output voltage is generated in the head is greater than the other positions. At the head of exhaust, the maximum output voltage which is generated by 1 modul, 2 modules and 3 modules of TEG on each other is 1.26 V, 2.27 V and 3.43 V respectively.

  13. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, K.; Alamsyah, R.; Ichwana; Sholihati; Tou, S. B.; Siregar, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis, and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactor were 900 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The method used here were the design the Detailed Engineering Design (DED), assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 hours with performance engine of 84% and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kWh-electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2eq/MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about Rp.1.500,/kWh which is cheaper than Solar Power Generation which is about of Rp. 3.300,-/kWh.

  14. Multiplicity dependence of matrix-induced frequency shifts for atomic transitions of the group 12 metals in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, S.L.; Cartland, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic resonances of the group 12 metal atoms, Hg, Cd, and Zn, undergo frequency shifts from the gas phase atomic line when trapped in rare gas matrices of Ar, Kr, and Xe at 12 K. As expected, the shifts are approximately linear in polarizability of the rare gas, but the slope of this line depends on whether the transition in question is 1 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 or 3 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 . Thus the matrix-induced frequency shift is dependent on the singlet or triplet nature of the excited state as well as on the matrix material. This dependence on multiplicity is discussed in terms of interactions between the excited-state atomic orbitals and the matrix. The results are compared to matrix studies of other metals and to related gas-phase work on diatomic van der Waals complexes of group 12 metals with rare gases

  15. Pressure-dependent electron attachment and breakdown strengths of unitary gases, and synergism of binary gas mixtures: a relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between the pressure-dependent electron attachment rate constants (k/sub a/) which have been observed in 1-C 3 F 6 and in several perfluoroalkanes, and the uniform field breakdown strengths (E/N)/sub lim/ in these gases is discussed. Measurements of the pressure dependence of k/sub a/ of OCS in a buffer gas of Ar are presented and the possible pressure dependence of (E/N)/sub lim/ in OCS is discussed. Uniform field breakdown measurements have been performed in C 3 F 8 , n-C 4 F 10 , and SO 2 over a range of gas pressures (3 less than or equal to P/sub T/ less than or equal to 290 kPa) and are reported. All three molecules have been found to possess pressure-dependent (E/N)/sub lim/ values. The various types of synergistic behavior which have been observed in binary gas dielectric mixtures are summarized and discussed. A new mechanism is outlined which can explain the synergism observed in several gas mixtures where the (E/N)/sub lim/ values of the mixutres are greater than those of the individual gas constituents. Model calculations are presented which support this mechanism, and can be used to explain the pressure-dependent synergistic effects which have been reported in 1-C 3 F 6 /SF 6 gas mixture

  16. Temperature effects on the nuclear symmetry energy and symmetry free energy with an isospin and momentum dependent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hong-Ru; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, we investigate the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) and symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) for hot, isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) generally decreases with increasing temperature while the symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) exhibits opposite temperature dependence. The decrement of the symmetry energy with temperature is essentially due to the decrement of the potential energy part of the symmetry energy with temperature. The difference between the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy is found to be quite small around the saturation density of nuclear matter. While at very low densities, they differ significantly from each other. In comparison with the experimental data of temperature dependent symmetry energy extracted from the isotopic scaling analysis of intermediate mass fragments (IMF's) in heavy-ion collisions, the resulting density and temperature dependent symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) is then used to estimate the average freeze-out density of the IMF's

  17. Cascading of fluctuations in interdependent energy infrastructures: Gas-grid coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fracturing and low cost of gas stimulated significant recent expansion of the natural gas networks. • Power system operators transition to gas as the main supply, also facing new reliability challenges. • Natural gas-fired generators vary burn-rates to balance fluctuating output of wind generation. • Impact of the gas-generator variations is seen in diffusive jitter of pressure within the gas network. • Fluctuating pressure impacts both reliability of natural gas deliveries and safety of pipeline operations. - Abstract: The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  18. Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-07

    Mar 7, 2014 ... The IMF production increases with the stiffness of symmetry energy. .... to clusterization using minimum spanning tree MST(M) method .... To understand the direct role of Coulomb interactions, we display in figure 4 the mean.

  19. Natural gas prices force businesses to strategic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors which force businesses to think about a strategic energy policy: energy prices, supply security, regulations in the Netherlands and the European Union, technological developments with regard to fuels, etc. By using a decision making model several criteria can be assessed for different scenarios [nl

  20. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  1. Determining greenhouse gas balances of biomass fuel cycles. Results to date from task 15 of IEA bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Spitzer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Selected activities of IEA Bio-energy Task 15 are described. Task 15 of IEA Bio-energy, entitled 'Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bio-energy Systems', aims at investigating processes involved in the use of bio-energy systems on a full fuel-cycle basis to establish overall greenhouse gas balances. The work of Task 15 includes, among other things, a compilation of existing data on greenhouse gas emissions from various biomass production and conversion processes, a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bio-energy systems, a bibliography, and recommendations for selection of appropriate national strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. (K.A.)

  2. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, L.

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to β decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  3. An Energy Bridge Too Far? Unconventional Natural Gas Innovations and Eurasia’s Energy Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    known as hydraulic fracturing or “ fracking ” and poses possible environmental risks, including poisoning groundwater and increased greenhouse gas...these fissures open while the wellbore delves into the shale rock to extract the gas. This extraction method, known as hydraulic fracturing or “ fracking ...global gas reserves were estimated to last only seventy more years, but recent advances in hydraulic fracturing, enabling natural gas to be

  4. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  5. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Doug [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  6. Precise atomic-scale investigations of material sputtering process by light gas ions in pre-threshold energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, A L

    2002-01-01

    Foundation and prospects of the new original technique of the sputtering yield determination of electro-conducting materials and sub-atomic layers on their surface by light gas ions the pre-threshold energy region (from 10 to 500 eV) are considered. The technique allows to identify individual surface vacancies, i.e., to count individual sputtered atoms directly. A short review of the original results obtained by using the developed techniques is given. Data are presented and analyzed concerning energy thresholds of the sputtering onset and energy dependences of sputtering yield in the threshold energy region for beryllium, tungsten, tungsten oxide, alternating tungsten-carbon layers, three carbon materials as well as for sub-atomic carbon layers on surface of certain metals at their bombardment by hydrogen, deuterium and/or helium ions

  7. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-01-01

    Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects. European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels. From a lega...

  8. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA's modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes

  9. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  10. Integrated energy, air quality and greenhouse gas management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report outlines the measures that the Resort Municipality of Whistler has taken to become a sustainable community. In 2000, the Municipality adopted the Natural Step, a tool developed by international scientists to integrate ecological principles into the practices of communities, organizations and individuals. In 2001, the Municipality adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. This report describes the efforts to manage energy, air quality, and greenhouse gases (GHG). More than 90 per cent of the common air contaminants that contribute to air quality problems in Whistler come from the combustion of fossil fuels. The community can reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter by managing energy and GHG emissions. This report is divided into several sections dealing with corporate and community energy use. It presents a community profile for Whistler, its energy and emissions inventory from 2000, and an integrated energy plan. An energy and emissions forecast for 2000 to 2020 was also included along with an implementation strategy for a sustainable energy future for Whistler. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO2-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO 2 -free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits

  12. Breakdown Voltage of CF3CHCl2 gas an Alternative to SF6 Gas using HV Test and Bonding Energy Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliandhy, Tedy; Haryono, T.; Suharyanto; Perdana, Indra

    2018-04-01

    For more than two decades of Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) gases is used as a gas insulation in high voltage equipment especially in substations. In addition to getting an advantage as an insulating gas. SF6 gas is recognized as one of the greenhouse effect gases that cause global warming. Under the Kyoto Protocol, SF6 gas is one of those gases whose use is restricted and gradually reduced to the presence of a replacement gas for SF6 gas. One of the alternative gas alternatives which have the potential of replacing SF6 gas as an insulating gas in Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) equipment in the substation is Dichlorotrifluoroethane (CF3CHCl2) gas. The purpose of this paper is to enable a comparison of breakdown voltage with high voltage test and method of calculating Bonding energy to Dichlorotrifluoroethane gas as substitute gas for SF6 gas. At 0.1 bar gas pressure obtained an average breakdown voltage of 18.68 kV / mm at 25oC chamber temperature and has the highest breakdown voltage at 50oC with a breakdown voltage of 19.56 kV / mm. The CF3CHCl2 gas has great potential as an insulating gas because it has more insulation ability high of SF6 gas, and is part of the gas recommended under the Kyoto Protocol. Gas CF3CHCl2 has the capacity to double the value of electronegativity greater than SF6 gas as a major requirement of gas isolation and has a value of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Ozone Depleting lower than from SF6 gas.

  13. Substituting natural gas heating for electric heating: assessment of the energy and environmental effects in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.; Sy, E.; Gharghouri, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to find practical ways to reduce Ontario's energy consumption and environmental emissions. A major portion of the study focused on the advantages of cogeneration in certain regions and sectors of Ontario. Substituting direct fuel heating with natural gas for electric heating was the principal recommendation. Results of a technical analysis of the effects of substituting electric heating with natural gas heating were described. One of the benefits of this substitution would be reduced fuel energy requirements for direct heating, relative to the two-step process of electricity generation followed by electric heating. It was suggested that natural gas should still be used for electricity generation because natural gas has many advantages as an electricity supply option including reductions in coal and uranium use and related emissions. It was recommended that developers and designers of energy systems seriously consider this option. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Study of the radiated energy loss during massive gas injection mitigated disruptions on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y. M.; Hao, Z. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wang, L.; Xu, P.; Xu, L. Q.; Zhuang, H. D.; EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    The MGI mitigated disruption experiments were carried out on EAST with a new fast gas controlling valve in 2012. Different amounts of noble gas He or mixed gas of 99% He + 1% Ar are injected into plasma in current flat-top phase and current ramp-down phase separately. The initial results of MGI experiments are described. The MGI system and the radiation measurement system are briefly introduced. The characteristics of radiation distribution and radiation energy loss are analyzed. About 50% of the stored thermal energy Wdia is dissipated by radiation during the entire disruption process and the impurities of C and Li from the PFC play important roles to radiative energy loss. The amount of the gas can affect the pre-TQ phase. Strong poloidal asymmetry of radiation begins to appear in the CQ phase, which is possibly caused by the plasma configuration changes as a result of VDE. No toroidal radiation asymmetry is observed presently.

  15. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  16. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  17. An asymptotic preserving unified gas kinetic scheme for frequency-dependent radiative transfer equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenjun, E-mail: sun_wenjun@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Jiang, Song, E-mail: jiang@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Xu, Kun, E-mail: makxu@ust.hk [Department of Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Li, Shu, E-mail: li_shu@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an extension of previous work (Sun et al., 2015 [22]) of the unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gray radiative transfer equations to the frequency-dependent (multi-group) radiative transfer system. Different from the gray radiative transfer equations, where the optical opacity is only a function of local material temperature, the simulation of frequency-dependent radiative transfer is associated with additional difficulties from the frequency-dependent opacity. For the multiple frequency radiation, the opacity depends on both the spatial location and the frequency. For example, the opacity is typically a decreasing function of frequency. At the same spatial region the transport physics can be optically thick for the low frequency photons, and optically thin for high frequency ones. Therefore, the optical thickness is not a simple function of space location. In this paper, the UGKS for frequency-dependent radiative system is developed. The UGKS is a finite volume method and the transport physics is modeled according to the ratio of the cell size to the photon's frequency-dependent mean free path. When the cell size is much larger than the photon's mean free path, a diffusion solution for such a frequency radiation will be obtained. On the other hand, when the cell size is much smaller than the photon's mean free path, a free transport mechanism will be recovered. In the regime between the above two limits, with the variation of the ratio between the local cell size and photon's mean free path, the UGKS provides a smooth transition in the physical and frequency space to capture the corresponding transport physics accurately. The seemingly straightforward extension of the UGKS from the gray to multiple frequency radiation system is due to its intrinsic consistent multiple scale transport modeling, but it still involves lots of work to properly discretize the multiple groups in order to design an asymptotic preserving (AP

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Roberto; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP100 associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58gCO2eqMJe(-1) and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly adopted for cultivation of energy

  19. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  20. FY 1998 result report. Research/development on the energy overall development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Gas haidoreto shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study is aimed at studying for survey of gas hydrate (GH) deposit required for GH resource development and gathering of it, and further at studying for industrial utilization technology development of GH which is different in formation condition depending on kind of gas with which it reacts. The results of FY 1998 are as follows. In the study of the situation of existence of gas hydrate in the tundra, the sedimentary environment of the tundra where natural gas hydrate exists was simulated in laboratory to measure thermal conductivity of the sediments including GH. In this fiscal year, design/fabrication/calibration were conducted of the GH synthesizer and thermal analyzer. In the study of GH gathering technology in the tundra, a technology is discussed for recovering gas from GH layer and at the same time substituting CO2 hydrate for GH by blowing CO2 into the geologic layer. In FY 1998, formation/dissociation behaviors were first studied of methane/CO2 mixture hydrate. For the overall energy development of GH resource and promotion of R and D of the utilization technology, studies were made on physical properties of GH and development of the usage. (NEDO)

  1. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  2. LNG [liquefied natural gas]: Fueling energy demand in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the supply and demand outlook for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the far east, and the basic elements of an LNG supply project in Japan. Power generation is the primary market for LNG in the far east, due to a preference for energy supply diversity, large undeveloped gas resources, drastic improvements in power generation technology, and environmental advantages of natural gas. India and mainland China represent huge potential markets, and projects are under discussion to bring gas by pipeline from Iran or Qatar to both Pakistan or India. The economics of LNG plant development in Japan, including large ($4 billion for field and plant development) capital costs, long-term contracts, government involvement, and gas prices are discussed. Falling yen/dollar exchange rates have substantially bettered the Japanese economy in terms of gas prices. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000-February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003. (author)

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  5. Inventory of Green House Gas Emissions from the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N

    1998-01-01

    The presentation highlighted two features of Kenya's energy sector namely: imported petroleum fuel for modern sector and wood fuel for domestic and informal sectors. The main objectives was to evaluate the amount and type of Green House emitted between 1989 and 1992 from the total national fuel wood consumption, the charcoal production, total charcoal consumption and the generation of possible recommendations on possible options available in the energy sector to mitigate against adverse effects of human induced climate change impacts. Under fossil fuels, the paper looked at emissions resulting from combustion of liquid fossil fuels, burning coal for energy, crude oil refining, storage and handling, whilst under traditional biomass fuels, fuel wood burned from energy, charcoal production and consumption, Nitrous Oxides were targeted

  6. Energy from Landfill Gas as an Example of Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuła, Józef; Gaska, Krzysztof; Generowicz, Agnieszka; Hajduga, Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    Landfill biogas becomes an important factor in elimination of fossil fuels as a result of fast- growing use of renewable energy sources. The article presents an analysis of operation of the plant where landfill biogas was utilized for energy production. The average annually (gross) productions of electric energy and heat at the plant were 1217 MWh and 1,789 MW, respectively. The average calorific value of biogas was 17 MJ/m3, which corresponds to 4,8 kW/m3. According to the measurements and actual readings acquired during operation of a cogeneration unit, it can be stated that the CHP system has been working within its average operation limits and still has some power reserves to utilize. Therefore, the authors concluded that a landfill can be operated both as a producer and a supplier of prosumer energy.

  7. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2013-08-20

    Climate sensitivity measures the response of Earth's surface temperature to changes in forcing. The response depends on various climate processes that feed back on the initial forcing on different timescales. Understanding climate sensitivity is fundamental to reconstructing Earth's climatic history as well as predicting future climate change. On timescales shorter than centuries, only fast climate feedbacks including water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, and snow/sea ice albedo are usually considered. However, on timescales longer than millennia, the generally higher Earth system sensitivity becomes relevant, including changes in ice sheets, vegetation, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, etc. Here, I introduce the time-dependent climate sensitivity, which unifies fast-feedback and Earth system sensitivity. I show that warming projections, which include a time-dependent climate sensitivity, exhibit an enhanced feedback between surface warming and ocean CO2 solubility, which in turn leads to higher atmospheric CO2 levels and further warming. Compared with earlier studies, my results predict a much longer lifetime of human-induced future warming (23,000-165,000 y), which increases the likelihood of large ice sheet melting and major sea level rise. The main point regarding the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is that, even if the fast-feedback sensitivity is no more than 3 K per CO2 doubling, there will likely be additional long-term warming from slow climate feedbacks. Time-dependent climate sensitivity also helps explaining intense and prolonged warming in response to massive carbon release as documented for past events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  8. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. Image Dependent Energy-Constrained Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we consider and propose two extensions to an optimization-based image dependent backlight dimming algorithm. The first extension introduces error weighting based on human perception of luminance, aiming to improve the perceived image quality; the second extension adds an adjustable ...

  10. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    follows a parabolic behaviour unlike a power-law dependence seen in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. ..... SP thanks Department of Science of Technology, India and SDK thanks. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India for financial support.

  11. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  12. Contact angle dependence on the fluid-wall dispersive energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, M.; Heitzig, M.; Dan, C.M.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Menisci of the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid between parallel planar walls are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Thereby, the characteristic energy of the unlike dispersive interaction between fluid molecules and wall atoms is systematically varied to determine its influence

  13. Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements are reported of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe 2 + impact in the energy range 1 to 50 keV. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)

  14. Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe + 2 impact in the energy range 1-50 keV are given. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)

  15. Energy dependence of the emittance of damping ring beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.

    1985-01-01

    The energy at which the SLC damping rings are operated was chosen to be 1.21 GeV. At the time that that specification was made, the repetition rate of the SLC was expected to be 180 Hz. It is now anticipated that the repetition rate during the initial year of operation of the SLC will be 120 Hz. The following curves which show the output emittance of the damping rings as a function of input emittance and energy suggest that there is a range of energies over which the rings can be operated without changing the SLC luminosity. It should be noted that in the era of polarized beams, the damping ring energy will be fixed at the design value on account of the spin precession required in the LTR and RTL transport lines. The SLC design output emittance of the damping rings is 3 x 10 -5 radian-meters. Because of space charge disruption and quantum emission downstream of the damping rings, much lower values than the design value may not have a large beneficial effect on the luminosity. 3 figures

  16. Generating energy dependent neutron flux maps for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For activation analysis and irradiation scheme of miniature neutron source reactor, designers or engineers usually require information on thermal neutron flux levels and other energy group flux levels (such as fast, resonance and epithermal). A methodology for readily generating such flux maps and flux profiles for any ...

  17. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues; Dependance en energie des spectres isotopiques de residus de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to {beta} decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  18. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  19. SDSS-IV MaNGA: modelling the metallicity gradients of gas and stars - radially dependent metal outflow versus IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Rong, Yu; Tang, Baitian; Yan, Renbin

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work, we found that only two scenarios are capable of reproducing the observed integrated mass-metallicity relations for the gas and stellar components of local star-forming galaxies simultaneously. One scenario invokes a time-dependent metal outflow loading factor with stronger outflows at early times. The other scenario uses a time-dependent initial mass function (IMF) slope with a steeper IMF at early times. In this work, we extend our study to investigate the radial profile of gas and stellar metallicity in local star-forming galaxies using spatially resolved spectroscopic data from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We find that most galaxies show negative gradients in both gas and stellar metallicity with steeper gradients in stellar metallicity. The stellar metallicity gradients tend to be mass dependent with steeper gradients in more massive galaxies while no clear mass dependence is found for the gas metallicity gradient. Then we compare the observations with the predictions from a chemical evolution model of the radial profiles of gas and stellar metallicities. We confirm that the two scenarios proposed in our previous work are also required to explain the metallicity gradients. Based on these two scenarios, we successfully reproduce the radial profiles of gas metallicity, stellar metallicity, stellar mass surface density, and star formation rate surface density simultaneously. The origin of the negative gradient in stellar metallicity turns out to be driven by either radially dependent metal outflow or IMF slope. In contrast, the radial dependence of the gas metallicity is less constrained because of the degeneracy in model parameters.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: A panel cointegration analysis from Canadian industrial sector perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamit-Haggar, Mahamat

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run and the causal relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for Canadian industrial sectors over the period 1990–2007. The empirical findings suggest that in the long-run equilibrium, energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions whereas a non-linear relationship is found between greenhouse gas emissions and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve. The short-run dynamics conveys that there is a unidirectional Granger causality running from energy consumption to greenhouse gas emissions; from economic growth to greenhouse gas emissions and a weak unidirectional causality running from greenhouse gas emissions to energy consumption; from economic growth to energy consumption. In the long-run however, there seems to be a weak one way causality flowing from energy consumption and economic growth to greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: ► A long-run and a causal relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth is investigated. ► Energy consumption has a positive impact on greenhouse gas emissions in the long run. ► Unidirectional causality runs from energy consumption and economic growth to greenhouse gas emissions. ► A weak unidirectional causality runs from greenhouse gas emissions and economic growth to energy consumption.