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Sample records for gas emission factor

  1. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  2. Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils may reduce GHG emissions and could also create suitable conditions for return of the carbon (C sink function characteristic of undrained organic soils. In this article we expand on the work relating to rewetted organic soils that was carried out for the 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Wetlands Supplement. We describe the methods and scientific approach used to derive the Tier 1 emission factors (the rate of emission per unit of activity for the full suite of GHG and waterborne C fluxes associated with rewetting of organic soils. We recorded a total of 352 GHG and waterborne annual flux data points from an extensive literature search and these were disaggregated by flux type (i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O and DOC, climate zone and nutrient status. Our results showed fundamental differences between the GHG dynamics of drained and rewetted organic soils and, based on the 100 year global warming potential of each gas, indicated that rewetting of drained organic soils leads to: net annual removals of CO2 in the majority of organic soil classes; an increase in annual CH4 emissions; a decrease in N2O and DOC losses; and a lowering of net GHG emissions. Data published since the Wetlands Supplement (n = 58 generally support our derivations. Significant data gaps exist, particularly with regard to tropical organic soils, DOC and N2O. We propose that the uncertainty associated with our derivations could be significantly reduced by the development of country specific emission factors that could in turn be disaggregated by factors such as vegetation composition, water table level, time since rewetting and previous land use history.

  3. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  4. How best management practices affect emissions in gas turbine power plants - an important factor to consider when strengthening emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinghai; Xing, Min; Hou, Min; England, Glenn C; Yan, Jing

    2018-04-27

    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) is considering strengthening the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Stationary Gas Turbines, originally published in 2011 (DB11/847-2011), with a focus on reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the current operation of twelve (12) existing combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and the design of two (2) new plants in Beijing and their emission reduction potential, in comparison with a state-of-the-art power plant in California, United States. The study found that Best Management Practices (BMPs) could potentially improve the emission level of the power plants, and should be implemented to minimize emissions under current design characteristics. These BMPs include (1) more frequent tuning of turbine combustors; (2) onsite testing of natural gas characteristics in comparison to turbine manufacturer's specifics and tuning of turbine to natural gas quality; (3) onsite testing of aqueous ammonia to ensure adequate ammonia concentration in the mixed solution, and the purity of the solution; (4) more careful inspection of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) during operation and maintenance; (5) annual testing of the catalyst coupon on the SCR to ensure catalyst effectiveness; and (6) annual ammonia injection grid (AIG) tuning. The study found that without major modification to the plants, improving the management of the Beijing gas turbine power plants may potentially reduce the current hourly-average NOx emission level of 5-10 parts per million (ppm, ranges reflects plant variation) by up to 20%. The exact improvement associated with each BMP for each facility requires more detailed analysis, and requires engagement of turbine, HRSG, and SCR manufacturers. This potential improvement is an important factor to consider when strengthening the emission standard. However it is to be noted that with the continuous

  5. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas

  6. Variation Trend and Driving Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Chinese Magnesium Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Yu; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Gong, Xianzheng; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-11-03

    As the largest magnesium producer in the world, China is facing a great challenge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. In this paper, the variation trend and driving factors of GHG emissions from Chinese magnesium production were evaluated and the measures of technology and policy for effectively mitigating GHG emissions were provided. First, the energy-related and process-oriented GHG inventory is compiled for magnesium production in China. Then, the driving forces for the changes of the energy-related emission were analyzed by the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition. Results demonstrated that Chinese magnesium output from 2003 to 2013 increased by 125%, whereas GHG emissions only increased by 16%. The emissions caused by the fuels consumption decline most significantly (from 28.4 to 6.6 t CO2eq/t Mg) among all the emission sources. The energy intensity and the energy structure were the main offsetting factors for the increase of GHG emissions, while the scale of production and the international market demand were the main contributors for the total increase. Considering the improvement of technology application and more stringent policy measures, the annual GHG emissions from Chinese primary magnesium production will be controlled within 22 million tons by 2020.

  7. Greenhouse gas emission factor development for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui-Chan; Myeong, Soojeong; Sa, Jae-Whan; Kim, Jinsu; Jeong, Jae-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate global warming. This study examined the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission from power plants, a major greenhouse gas source in Korea. The power plants examined use bituminous coal, anthracite, and sub-bituminous coal as fuel. The CO 2 concentration from power plants was measured using GC-FID with methanizer. The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and calorific values in the input fuel was measured using an elemental analyzer and calorimeter. For fuel analysis, CO 2 emission factors for anthracite, bituminous coal, and sub-bituminous coal were 108.9, 88.4, and 97.9 Mg/kJ, respectively. The emission factors developed in this study were compared with those for IPCC. The results showed that CO 2 emission was 10.8% higher for anthracite, 5.5% lower for bituminous coal, and 1.9% higher for sub-bituminous coal than the IPCC figures.

  8. Factors influencing pollutant gas emissions of VOC recuperative incinerators-Large-scale parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, S.; Commandre, J.-M.; Kara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work establishes quantitative links between the operation parameters-plus one geometrical parameter-and the gas pollutant emissions of a recuperative incinerator (RI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using experimental design methodology, and based on a large number of experiments carried out on a half-industrial-scale pilot unit, mathematical expressions are established to calculate each of the pollutant emissions from the value of all the operation and design parameters. The gas emissions concerned are total hydrocarbons, and CO and NO x emissions, while the control parameters are the flow rate of the treated air flow, the concentration of VOCs in the air flow, the preheating temperature of the flow, and the temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber. One design parameter-the aperture of the diaphragms-is also considered. We show that the constraining emissions are only that of CO and NO x . Polynomials to predict them with a high accuracy are established. The air preheating temperature has an effect on the natural gas consumption, but not on CO and NO x emissions. There is an optimal value for the aperture of the diaphragms, and this value is quantitatively established. If the concentration of VOCs in the air flow is high, CO and NO x emissions both decrease and a high rate of efficiency in VOC destruction is attained. This demonstrates that a pre-concentration of VOCs in the air flow prior to treatment by RI is recommended. (author)

  9. Exploring the assumed invariance of implied emission factors for forest biomass in greenhouse gas inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews of each nation's annual greenhouse gas inventory submissions including forestland are part of the ongoing reporting process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Goals of these reviews include improving quality and consistency within and among reports. One method of facilitating comparisons is the use of a standard index such as an implied emission factor (IEF), which for forest biomass indicates net rate of carbon emission or sequestration per area. Guidance on the use of IEFs in reviews is limited, but there is an expectation that values should be relatively constant both over time and across spatial scales. To address this hypothesis, we examine IEFs over time, derived from U.S. forests at plot-, state-, and national-levels. Results show that at increasingly aggregated levels, relative heterogeneity decreases but can still be substantial. A net increase in U.S. whole-forest IEFs over time is consistent with results from temperate forests of nations in the European Community. IEFs are better viewed as a distribution of values rather than one constant value principally because of sensitivities to productivity, disturbance, and land use change, which can all vary considerably across a nation's forest land.

  10. The factor 4 in France: dividing by 4 greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetiere, Jean-Rene; Alexandre, Sylvie; D'Aubreby, Marc; Debiesse, Georges; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Perret, Bernard; Schwartz, Dominique

    2013-02-01

    After a methodological presentation (reason for a sector-based approach, implemented method, global economic approaches and models), this voluminous report discusses the French commitments in terms of greenhouse gas emission and the monitoring system: commitment status and predictions, measurement sources and methods, emission levels and evolution trajectories, prospective approach. Then, the author address the different sectors: transports (current status of emissions, prospective studies, sub-sector issues), industry (current status of emissions and prospective, economic tools), agriculture, land uses and their changes and forest (emissions, prospective studies and emission evolution trajectories, specific issues), building (current status and objectives, issues related to housing and office building) and energy (prospective and choices for the future). A last chapter addresses inter-sector issues: biomass and CO 2 , land and urban planning, innovation or energy 2.0, evolution of behaviour (building use, mobility)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  12. Greenhouse gas emission factor for coal power chain in China and the comparison with nuclear power chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhonghai; Pan Ziqiang; He Huimin

    1999-01-01

    The Greenhouse Gas Emission for coal power chain in China is analyzed in detail and comprehensively by using the Life Cycle Analysis method. The Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors (GGEF) in each link and for the total power chain are calculated. The total GGEF for coal power chain is 1302.3 gCO 2 /kWh, about 40 times more than that for nuclear power chain. And consequently greenhouse effect could not be aggravated further by nuclear power. The energy strategy for nuclear power development is one of reality ways to retard the greenhouse effect, put resources into rational use and protect environment

  13. Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing emissions and methane oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Kjeldsen, Peter; Holst, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Field investigations of lateral gas transport and subsequent emissions in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark have been conducted during a one-year period. A significant seasonal variation in the emissions with high carbon dioxide and low methane fluxes in the summer (May to October......) was observed. This was attributed to methane oxidation. Diurnal measurements during a drop in barometric pressure showed that the fluxes of landfill gas changed dramatically within a very short time. The concentrations and the soil moisture content in the upper part of the soil profile had significant...... influence on the fluxes, as did the distance from the landfill border, temperature, barometric pressure and the pressure gradient. Statistical analyses proved that soil moisture described the largest part of the variation. No methane at all emitted during the summer. Calculations and isotope analyses showed...

  14. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  15. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusin...

  16. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  17. Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.; Dixon, S. D.; Artz, R. R. E.; Smith, T. E. L.; Evans, C. D.; Owen, H. J. F.; Archer, E.; Renou-Wilson, F.

    2015-09-01

    Drained peatlands are significant hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and may also be more vulnerable to fire with its associated gaseous emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands managed for extraction are reported on an annual basis. However, the Tier 1 (default) emission factors (EFs) provided in the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement for this land use category may not be representative in all cases and countries are encouraged to move to higher-tier reporting levels with reduced uncertainty levels based on country- or regional-specific data. In this study, we quantified (1) CO2-C emissions from nine peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were initially disaggregated by land use type (industrial versus domestic peat extraction), and (2) a range of GHGs that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Drainage-related methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as CO2-C emissions associated with the off-site decomposition of horticultural peat were not included here. Our results show that net CO2-C emissions were strongly controlled by soil temperature at the industrial sites (bare peat) and by soil temperature and leaf area index at the vegetated domestic sites. Our derived EFs of 1.70 (±0.47) and 1.64 (±0.44) t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1 for the industrial and domestic sites respectively are considerably lower than the Tier 1 EF (2.8 ± 1.7 t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) provided in the Wetlands Supplement. We propose that the difference between our derived values and the Wetlands Supplement value is due to differences in peat quality and, consequently, decomposition rates. Emissions from burning of the peat (g kg-1 dry fuel burned) were estimated to be approximately 1346 CO2, 8.35 methane (CH4), 218 carbon monoxide (CO), 1.53 ethane (C2H6), 1.74 ethylene (C2H4), 0.60 methanol (CH3OH), 2.21 hydrogen

  18. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  19. Carbon baseline as limiting factor in managing environmental sound activities in peatland for reducing greenhouse gas emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Saharjo BH (2011 Carbon baseline as limiting factor in managing environmental sound activities in peatland for reducing greenhouse gas emission. Biodiversitas 12: 182-186. The total carbon stock in Indonesia was estimated to be around 44.5 Gt or about 53.1% of the total carbon stock in tropical areas. Over 1990-2002, it was estimated that around 3.5 Gt of carbon was released in Sumatra and about 0.81-2.56 Gt was released in Central Kalimantan due to the 1997 fire alone. It was recognized that deforestation, high exploitation of peat and peat fire were behind the huge emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Indonesia. Results of a research conducted in Central Kalimantan peatland, showed that the total carbon stock at logged over area was estimated around 413.972 t ha-1 (0-30 cm depth of peat and at burnt area was 411.349 t ha-1 (0-30 cm depth of peat. Meanwhile it had been well recognized that most of opened peatlands had been occupied by Acacia crassicarpa and oil palms. Research carried out in East Kalimantan showed that the carbon stock of 25 years old oil palm planted on mineral soil was about 180 t ha-1, which is less than that of carbon stock produced by peatland clearance. This indicated that although plants occupied peatland, high Greenhouse Gas emissions were still produced, meaning that global climate change would continue and created high risk impacts.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  4. PBDE emission from E-wastes during the pyrolytic process: Emission factor, compositional profile, size distribution, and gas-particle partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, ChuanYang; Yu, ShuangYu; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu; Liu, WenXin

    2018-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) pollution in E-waste recycling areas has garnered great concern by scientists, the government and the public. In the current study, two typical kinds of E-wastes (printed wiring boards and plastic casings of household or office appliances) were selected to investigate the emission behaviors of individual PBDEs during the pyrolysis process. Emission factors (EFs), compositional profile, particle size distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs were explored. The mean EF values of the total PBDEs were determined at 8.1 ± 4.6 μg/g and 10.4 ± 11.3 μg/g for printed wiring boards and plastic casings, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between EFs and original addition contents of PBDEs. BDE209 was the most abundant in the E-waste materials, while lowly brominated and highly brominated components (excluding BDE209) were predominant in the exhaust fumes. The distribution of total PBDEs on different particle sizes was characterized by a concentration of finer particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 0.4 μm and 2.1 μm and followed by less than 0.4 μm. Similarly, the distribution of individual species was dominated by finer particles. Most of the freshly emitted PBDEs (via pyrolysis) were liable to exist in the particulate phase with respect to the gaseous phase, particularly for finer particles. In addition, a linear relationship between the partitioning coefficient (K P ) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L 0 ) of the different components indicated non-equilibrium gas-particle partitioning during the pyrolysis process and suggested that absorption by particulate organic carbon, rather than surface adsorption, governed gas-particle partitioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  6. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Sekimoto, Kanako; Gilman, Jessica B.; Selimovic, Vanessa; Coggon, Matthew M.; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Yuan, Bin; Lerner, Brian M.; Brown, Steven S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Krechmer, Jordan; Roberts, James M.; Warneke, Carsten; Yokelson, Robert J.; de Gouw, Joost

    2018-03-01

    Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF). We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC) pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR), broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES), and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of > 0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrous acid (HONO), and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  7. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF. We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR, broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES, and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I− CIMS where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of  >  0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, nitrous acid (HONO, and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  8. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  9. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  10. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  11. Works made by the working group on the division by four by 2050 of France's greenhouse gas emissions, named 'factor 4'. January 19, 2006 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A working group was created on September 8, 2005 by the French minister of ecology and sustainable development and the French minister of industry with the aim of exploring all possible paths allowing to reach the long term goal of dividing by a factor 4 the French greenhouse gas emissions from now to 2050. This paper gathers the transparencies of three presentations given at the January 19, 2006 meeting of the 'Factor 4' working group: behaviour of energy consumers; which public policies to reach the factor 4; macro-economics of the factor 4. (J.S.)

  12. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  13. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    the emissions exceed the regulated limit significantly. The high CO emissions are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can ¿ in origin ¿ be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) from natural gas engines, thus CO emissions from producer gas engines are a measure of fuel......High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...... passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are of similar order. When the environmental effect of the emissions is discussed, unburned hydrocarbons in the form of methane is a strong greenhouse gas (21 times higher...

  14. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  15. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Li, Yunju; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Wilkes, Andreas; Xu, Jianchu

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  17. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  20. Methodology for reporting 2011 B.C. public sector greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In order to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, British Columbia promulgated legislation under which the public sector is expected to become carbon neutral starting in 2010 and provincial public sector organizations (PSOs) must report their emissions annually. The aim of this report is to present the emission factors and methodology for calculating and reporting PSO emissions used in 2011. Emission factors represent the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from a specific activity. This document provides emission factors for all in scope categories: stationary sources, indirect emissions, mobile sources and business travel; it also presents a sample calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The government of British Columbia developed SMARTTool, a web-based program which calculates and reports emissions from stationary sources, indirect emissions and mobile sources. In addition the SMART Travel Emissions Calculator was created to report business travel greenhouse gas emissions through SMARTTool.

  1. The marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are on important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per ton of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9--23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO 2 and those of CH 4 and N 2 O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. The expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%

  2. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  3. Evaluation of green house gas emissions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the GHG emissions models used by transportation agencies and industry leaders. Factors in the vehicle : operating environment that may affect modal emissions, such as, external conditions, : vehicle fleet c...

  4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  5. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric methane (CH4) from the animals, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) from manure in housing facilities, during long-term storage and during field application, and N2O from...

  6. Australia's consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumption...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    Global climate change is recognised as one of the major current challenges to humanity. At the same time, climate change is human induced and we hold the opportunity to react accordingly. While global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise, emissions from agriculture and land-use change...

  8. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  9. Particle Emissions from Domestic Gas Cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Livbjerg, Hans; Wagner, Ayten Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions...... of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7 nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to ∼10 nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J M; Ostertag, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO 2 -eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California. (letter)

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  12. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units....... N2O emission factors ranged from general, measurement-based, site-specific CH4 and N2O emission factors for the five studied plants were in the upper range of the literature values and default emission factors applied...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emission Accounting 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.; Kroeze, C.; Janssen, L.H.J.M.; Olivier, J.G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here, a more detailed analysis is made of differences between national emission estimates, including the second National Communications and global inventories such as EDGAR 2.0 and atmospheric concentration data. This follow-up report provides background information for IPCC expert meetings held on

  14. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG...

  15. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  16. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  18. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  19. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for Australia's States and Territories. Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 amounted to 564.7 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 158.7 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 158.5 Mt; Victoria: 123.0 Mt; Western Australia: 68.5 Mt; South Australia: 27.6 Mt; Northern Territory: 15.6 Mt; Tasmania: 10.7 Mt; ACT: 1.2 Mt. The summary of State and Territory inventories presented in this document reports estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for each State and Territory for the period 1990 to 2004. It is the first time that a complete annual time-series has been reported

  20. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  1. Methane Gas Emissions - is Older Infrastructure Leakier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, L. P.; Caulton, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Golston, L.; Pan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large gains in natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing is reinvigorating the US energy economy. It is a clean burning fuel with lower emissions than that of coal or oil. Studies show that methane (CH4) leaks from natural gas infrastructure vary widely. A broader question is whether leak rates of methane might offset the benefits of combustion of natural gas. Excess methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas with a radiative forcing constant of 25 times that of CO2 when projected over a 100-year period. An extensive field study of 250 wells in the Marcellus Shale conducted in July 2015 examined the emission rates of this region and identifed super-emitters. Spud production data will provide information as to whether older infrastructure is responsible for more of the emissions. Quantifying the emission rate was determined by extrapolating methane releases at a distance from private well pads using an inverse Gaussian plume model. Wells studied were selected by prevailing winds, distance from public roads, and topographical information using commercial (ARCGIS and Google Earth), non-profit (drillinginfo), and government (State of PA) databases. Data were collected from the mobile sensing lab (CH4, CO2 and H2O sensors), as well as from a stationary tower. Emission rates from well pads will be compared to their original production (spud dates) to evaluate whether infrastructure age and total production correlates with the observed leak rates. Very preliminary results show no statistical correlation between well pad production rates and observed leak rates.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cohen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest, both in South Africa and globally, in the use of shale gas for electricity and energy supply. The exploitation of shale gas is, however, not without controversy, because of the reported environmental impacts associated with its extraction. The focus of this article is on the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas, which some literature suggests may be higher than what would have been expected as a consequence of the contribution of fugitive emissions during extraction, processing and transport. Based on some studies, it has been suggested that life-cycle emissions may be higher than those from coal-fired power. Here we review a number of studies and analyse the data to provide a view of the likely greenhouse gas emissions from producing electricity from shale gas, and compare these emissions to those of coal-fired power in South Africa. Consideration was given to critical assumptions that determine the relative performance of the two sources of feedstock for generating electricity � that is the global warming potential of methane and the extent of fugitive emissions. The present analysis suggests that a 100-year time horizon is appropriate in analysis related to climate change, over which period the relative contribution is lower than for shorter periods. The purpose is to limit temperature increase in the long term and the choice of metric should be appropriate. The analysis indicates that, regardless of the assumptions about fugitive emissions and the period over which global warming potential is assessed, shale gas has lower greenhouse gas emissions per MWh of electricity generated than coal. Depending on various factors, electricity from shale gas would have a specific emissions intensity between 0.3 tCO2/MWh and 0.6 tCO2/MWh, compared with about 1 tCO2/MWh for coal-fired electricity in South Africa.

  4. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  5. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  7. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  8. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  9. Greenhouse gas emission measurement and economic analysis of Iran natural gas fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahsavari Alavijeh, H.; Kiyoumarsioskouei, A.; Asheri, M.H.; Naemi, S.; Shahsavari Alavije, H.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the natural gas fired power plants in Iran. The required data from natural gas fired power plants were gathered during 2008. The characteristics of thirty two gas turbine power plants and twenty steam power plants have been measured. Their emission factor values were then compared with the standards of Energy Protection Agency, Euro Union and World Bank. Emission factors of gas turbine and steam power plants show that gas turbine power plants have a better performance than steam power plants. For economic analysis, fuel consumption and environmental damages caused by the emitted pollutants are considered as cost functions; and electricity sales revenue are taken as benefit functions. All of these functions have been obtained according to the capacity factor. Total revenue functions show that gas turbine and steam power plants are economically efficient at 98.15% and 90.89% of capacity factor, respectively; this indicates that long operating years of power plants leads to reduction of optimum capacity factor. The stated method could be implemented to assess the economic status of a country’s power plants where as efficient capacity factor close to one means that power plant works in much better condition. - Highlights: • CO 2 and NO x emissions of Iran natural gas fired power plants have been studied. • CO 2 and NO x emission factors are compared with EPA, EU and World Bank standards. • Costs and benefit as economic functions are obtained according to capacity factor. • Maximum economic profit is obtained for gas turbine and steam power plants. • Investment in CO 2 reduction is recommended instead of investment in NO x reduction

  10. Detecting gas leaks by ultrasonic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Henriksen, Eigil

    1997-01-01

    The emission of noise in the frequency range 10 kHz to 25.6 kHz from an experimental gas leak in a flanged joint has been experimentally investigated. The overall conclusion is that the emitted noise is almost frequency independent in level within the considered frequency range.A small PC program...

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available of CO2. These gases included 350 Tg CO2 (65.6% of the effect), 183 Tg CH4 (34.2%) and 1.2 Tg N2O (0.2%). The mining and burning of coal contributed more than 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions from South African territory....

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  13. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.-Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  14. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  15. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  16. 6.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Austria, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have increased by about 10 % between 1990 and 2001. This means that already in 2001 the emissions reached the level projected with current measures for 2010. Thus Austria is far from complying with the 13 % reduction required under the Kyoto Protocol, meaning that GHG emissions will have to be reduce annually by 1.4 million tons of CO 2 -equivalents to fulfill its protocol obligation. It is shown that 2001 GHG emissions had increased by 9.6 % since the base year 1990, the main reason for this increase is the growing use of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in CO 2 emissions. The highest growth rates can be observed in the transport sector by almost half (+ 49 %). Basically, greenhouse gas emission trends depend on a number of factors, about two thirds of them are caused by energy production, so the most important parameters affecting GHG are the trends of energy consumption, the energy mix and the following factors: population growth, economic growth, outdoor temperature and the resulting heating requirements, improvement of energy efficiency, the proportion of renewable energy sources such as electricity generation in hydroelectric power stations (which influences the need for supplementary power production in thermal power plants), the mix of fossil fuels, for example in caloric power plants (natural gas combustion produces about 40 % less CO 2 per energy unit than coal combustion), the structure and price effects of energy market liberalization, which influence the use of various fuels in electricity production and the import of electricity, world market prices for energy, structural changes in the economy and in the behavior of consumers. Changes in important driving forces and in GHG emissions, sector emissions trends and Austrian, European and global emissions projections are provided. (nevyjel)

  17. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  18. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  19. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  20. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions - a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarebrot, Eivind; Langvik, Sveinung

    2000-01-01

    The article describes some greenhouse gas emission challenges in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Some of the conclusions are that the national taxation policies are insufficient and that international co-operation is essential in order to obtain significant pollution abatement. The mechanisms for this are not yet in place. Some possible measures are mentioned. The main solution to the problems internationally seems to be international co-operation projects generally with quota trade in order to meet the Kyoto agreement obligations

  2. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  3. Stakeholder resource information on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the many measures which have already been taken by the petroleum industry to safeguard the air, land and water were described in a background paper produced by the Petroleum Communication Foundation. It is entitled 'Canada's oil and gas industry and our global environment'. This complementary report includes a brief review of greenhouse gases and related issues such as the nature of global warming, Canadian emissions in a global context, the relationship between the economy and the environment, mitigation possibilities and successes achieved by actions such as those undertaken by the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program. Also included are notes and quotes from authoritative sources regarding emissions, emissions control and success stories. A sample presentation was also provided that could be used to discuss global warming issues with general audiences and other communication activities. figs

  4. Edaphic factors controlling summer (rainy season) greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nóbrega, Gabriel N. [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ/USP, Av.Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.418-260 (Brazil); Ferreira, Tiago O., E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ/USP, Av.Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.418-260 (Brazil); Siqueira Neto, M. [Laboratório de Biogeoquímica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, Av. Centenário 303, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.400-970 (Brazil); Queiroz, Hermano M.; Artur, Adriana G. [Departamento de Ciências do Solo, Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Av. Mister Hull 2977, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, Ceará 60.440-554 (Brazil); Mendonça, Eduardo De S. [Departamento de Produção Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, UFES, Alto Universitário s/n, Alegre, Espírito Santo 29.500-000 (Brazil); Silva, Ebenezer De O. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agroindústria Tropical, Pós Colheita, Dra. Sara Mesquita Street, 2270, Planalto Pici, Fortaleza, Ceará 60.511-110 (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    The soil attributes controlling the CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} emissions were assessed in semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil) under different anthropogenic activities. Soil samples were collected from different mangroves under different anthropogenic impacts, e.g., shrimp farming (Jaguaribe River); urban wastes (Cocó River) and a control site (Timonha River). The sites were characterized according to the sand content; physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH); total organic C; soil C stock (SCS) and equivalent SCS (SCS{sub EQV}); total P and N; dissolved organic C (DOC); and the degree of pyritization (DOP). The CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes from the soils were assessed using static closed chambers. Higher DOC and SCS and the lowest DOP promote greater CO{sub 2} emission. The CH{sub 4} flux was only observed at Jaguaribe which presented higher DOP, compared to that found in mangroves from humid tropical climates. Semiarid mangrove soils cannot be characterized as important greenhouse gas sources, compared to humid tropical mangroves. - Highlights: • GHG emission was associated with different soil characteristics. • Highest CO{sub 2} emissions were found in mangroves with larger dissolved C and lower DOP. • Less CH{sub 4} flux was due to low DOP in semiarid mangrove soils.

  5. CO and PAH emissions from engines operating on producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can – in origin – be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), like the UHC emissions from natural gas engines, CO emissions producer gas engines are a measure of fuel passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip......High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from gas engine based power plants in most EU countries are so...... of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are similar, the slip is a measure for the amount of a fuel component that passes unburned through the combustion process. The measurements show that the emission of CO from the engine is an emission of unburned fuel similar to the emission of UHC...

  6. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  7. Architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Jiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Yong; Yao, Xifan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents the architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system, which uses computer, acquisition card and serial port communication card as hardware in the flue gas continuous emission monitoring system. In the CEMS, continuous emission monitoring system, it monitors dust in the flue gas, SO2, NOX, and some parameter on the flue gas emission, which includes mass flow, pressure, and temperature. For the software in the monitoring system, the research designs monitoring program in VC++, and realizes flue gas monitor with the architecture.

  8. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  9. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  10. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  11. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  13. New Tropical Peatland Gas and Particulate Emissions Factors Indicate 2015 Indonesian Fires Released Far More Particulate Matter (but Less Methane than Current Inventories Imply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Wooster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and draining of the peatlands in equatorial SE Asia has greatly increased their flammability, and in September–October 2015 a strong El Niño-related drought led to further drying and to widespread burning across parts of Indonesia, primarily on Kalimantan and Sumatra. These fires resulted in some of the worst sustained outdoor air pollution ever recorded, with atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations exceeding those considered “extremely hazardous to health” by up to an order of magnitude. Here we report unique in situ air quality data and tropical peatland fire emissions factors (EFs for key carbonaceous trace gases (CO2, CH4 and CO and PM2.5 and black carbon (BC particulates, based on measurements conducted on Kalimantan at the height of the 2015 fires, both at locations of “pure” sub-surface peat burning and spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat. PM2.5 are the most significant smoke constituent in terms of human health impacts, and we find in situ PM2.5 emissions factors for pure peat burning to be 17.8 to 22.3 g·kg−1, and for spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat 44 to 61 g·kg−1, both far higher than past laboratory burning of tropical peat has suggested. The latter are some of the highest PM2.5 emissions factors measured worldwide. Using our peatland CO2, CH4 and CO emissions factors (1779 ± 55 g·kg−1, 238 ± 36 g·kg−1, and 7.8 ± 2.3 g·kg−1 respectively alongside in situ measured peat carbon content (610 ± 47 g-C·kg−1 we provide a new 358 Tg (± 30% fuel consumption estimate for the 2015 Indonesian fires, which is less than that provided by the GFEDv4.1s and GFASv1.2 global fire emissions inventories by 23% and 34% respectively, and which due to our lower EFCH4 produces far less (~3× methane. However, our mean in situ derived EFPM2.5 for these extreme tropical peatland fires (28 ± 6 g·kg−1 is far higher than current emissions inventories assume, resulting in our total

  14. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requiremen...

  15. Meeting of November 10, 2005 of the working group about the division by 4 of greenhouse gas emissions of France at the 2050 prospects, named 'factor 4'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers 3 presentations given at this meeting of the 'factor 4' working group: the first presentation (P. Radanne) defines the bases of the problem of abatement of greenhouse gases emissions (economic growth, energy consumption in France, CO 2 emissions, sectoral analysis of solutions (residential, industry, transports), development of renewable energy sources, economical mechanisms). The second presentation (T. Salomon) gives the vision of the Negawatt association of what should be an efficient energy policy: better consuming thanks to energy savings and to a better energy efficiency, and development of renewable energy sources. An illustration of an efficient urban energy and environmental policy is given with the example of Freiburg-um-Brisgau city (Germany). The third presentation (J. Sivardiere) analyses the positive impact of modal transfers in the transportation sector (change of habits) and the need for strong incentives (taxes) to reach this goal. (J.S.)

  16. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  17. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At high leakage levels, these methane emissions could outweigh the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is asked to meet a specific CO2 reduction target and the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production. While the total CO2 emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total greenhouse gas emissions show an increase or no change when both natural gas availability and methane emissions from natural gas production are high. Article presents summary of results from an analyses of natural gas resource availability and power sector emissions reduction strategies under different estimates of methane leakage rates during natural gas extraction and production. This was study was undertaken as part of the Energy Modeling Forum Study #31:

  18. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Across California Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are needed to limit rising planetary temperatures that will otherwise limit Earth's capacity to support life, introducing geopolitical instability. To help mitigate this threat, California has legislated landmark reductions in state-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that set an example for broader action. Beginning with relatively assured reduction of current emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, future goals are much more challenging with 40% and 80% reductions below 1990 emissions by 2030 and 2050, respectively. While the majority of the reductions must focus on fossil fuels, inventory estimates of non-CO2 GHG emissions (i.e., CH4, N2O, and industrial compounds) constitute 15% of the total, suggesting reductions are required across multiple land use sectors. However, recent atmospheric inversion studies show methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 & N2O) emissions exceed current inventory estimates by factors of 1.2-1.8 and 1.6-2.6 (at 95% confidence), respectively, perhaps constituting up to 30% of State total emissions. The discrepancy is likely because current bottom-up models used for inventories do not accurately capture important management or biophysical factors. In the near term, process level experiments and sector-specific inversions are being planned to quantify the factors controlling non-CO2 GHG emissions for several of the dominant emission sectors. For biosphere carbon, California forests lands, which also depend on the combination of management, climate, and weather, lost above ground carbon from 2001-2010, and may be expected to lose soil and root carbon as a longer-term result. Here, it is important to identify and apply the best principles in forestry and agriculture to increase carbon stocks in depleted forest and agricultural areas, focusing on approaches that provide resilience to future climate and weather variations. Taken together, improved atmospheric, plant, and soil observations, together

  19. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  20. Meeting of October 20, 2005 of the working group about the division by 4 of greenhouse gas emissions of France at the 2050 prospects, named 'factor 4'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers 4 presentations given at this meeting of the 'Factor 4' working group: the first presentation (C. Parent) presents the 2050 prospective of transports demand and the transport offer variables (world context, specific European actions, French context and taxation, impact of the different scenarios on road traffic, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions). The second presentation (P. Aussourd) treats of the energy approaches of the transport prospective for 2050 (definition of 4 scenarios, global consequences in terms of fiscal income, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, lessons gained, possibility of an incremental scenario with chargeable hybrid vehicles, use of short crises for a long-term action in the change of life styles). The third presentation (R. Lavergne) deals with the energy prospective for the energy demand in France at the 2050 prospects (definition of a reference scenario, sectoral analysis, main hypotheses, critical points). The last presentation (H. Prevot) explains how it is possible for France to divide by 2 or 3 the CO 2 emissions with keeping the same energy consumption as for the year 2000 (optimum combination of energy sources, use of biomass and solar space heating, power generation by nuclear energy, coal with CO 2 sequestration and wind energy, evolution of fuel prices, role of the public action and of the government, convincing the decision makers). (J.S.)

  1. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  2. Quantifying and reporting greenhouse gas emissions at local level

    OpenAIRE

    Sόwka Izabela; Bezyk Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Cities as global centers of consumption and production often are a significant and growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, local authorities are increasingly taking action on climate change by focusing on reducing GHG emissions and efficiency improvement opportunities. To assess and reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission level from an urban area, it is necessary to identify all the activities and processes which generate these emissions. GHG inventory gives an ...

  3. A global gas flaring black carbon emission rate dataset from 1994 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    Global flaring of associated petroleum gas is a potential emission source of particulate matters (PM) and could be notable in some specific regions that are in urgent need of mitigation. PM emitted from gas flaring is mainly in the form of black carbon (BC), which is a strong short-lived climate forcer. However, BC from gas flaring has been neglected in most global/regional emission inventories and is rarely considered in climate modeling. Here we present a global gas flaring BC emission rate dataset for the period 1994–2012 in a machine-readable format. We develop a region-dependent gas flaring BC emission factor database based on the chemical compositions of associated petroleum gas at various oil fields. Gas flaring BC emission rates are estimated using this emission factor database and flaring volumes retrieved from satellite imagery. Evaluation using a chemical transport model suggests that consideration of gas flaring emissions can improve model performance. This dataset will benefit and inform a broad range of research topics, e.g., carbon budget, air quality/climate modeling, and environmental/human exposure. PMID:27874852

  4. Good practice in greenhouse gas emission inventories. Agricultural emissions of methane and nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Amstel, A.; Kroeze, C.; Van Aardenne, J.; Mosier, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Transparent reporting of internationally acceptable estimates of national greenhouse gas emissions will be essential for the success of the Kyoto Protocol. Review and quality control of annual reports of emissions is foreseen in this protocol. This is necessary, not only to check compliance, but also for the application of the flexible mechanisms, agreed in the protocol. The use of the IPCC 1996 Revised Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories is mandatory for reporting to the Climate Convention, but at the same time countries are encouraged to use best methodology available and country specific emission factors. To improve comparability across countries the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to the Climate Convention requested the IPCC to advise on improvements in the reporting framework by developing 'Good Practice Guidelines' preferably before the fifth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention at the end of 1999. Therefore in 1999 a series of IPCC expert meetings were scheduled with groups of experts for sources of greenhouse gas emissions from Agriculture, Industry, Energy, and Waste. In this paper a summary of results will be given from the meeting 'Good Practice in Inventory Preparation: Agricultural Sources of Methane and Nitrous Oxide', which was held in Wageningen, Netherlands, 24-26 February 1999

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from vegetation fires in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic carbon, and aerosols emitted as a result of the deliberate or accidental burning of natural vegetation constitute a large component of the greenhouse gas emissions of many African countries, but the data needed for calculating these emissions by the IPCC methodology is sparse and subject to estimation errors. An improved procedure for estimating emissions from fires in southern Africa has been developed. The proposed procedure involves reclassifying existing vegetation maps into one of eleven broad, functional vegetation classes. Fuel loads are calculated within each 0.5 x 0.5 o cell based on empirical relationships to climate data for each class. The fractional area of each class that bums is estimated by using daily low-resolution satellite fire detection, which is calibrated against a subsample of pre- and post-fire high-resolution satellite images. The emission factors that relate the quantity of gas released to the mass of fuel burned are based on recent field campaigns in Africa and are related to combustion efficiency, which is in turn related to the fuel mix. The emissions are summed over the 1989 fire season for Africa south of the equator. The estimated emissions from vegetation burning in the subcontinent are 0.5 Tg CH 4 , 14.9 Tg CO, 1.05 Tg NO x , and 1.08 Tg of particles smaller than 2.5μm. The 324 Tg CO 2 emitted is expected to be reabsorbed in subsequent years. These estimates are smaller than previous estimates. 5 tabs., 18 refs

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  7. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  8. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  9. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Fredenslund, Anders M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2018-04-04

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument and tracer gas combinations. Analytical instruments with a high detection frequency and good precision were established as the most suitable for successful TDM application. The application of an instrument with a poor precision could only to some extent be overcome by applying a higher tracer gas release rate. A sideward misplacement of the tracer gas release point of about 250m resulted in an emission rate comparable to those obtained using a tracer gas correctly simulating the methane emission. Conversely, an upwind misplacement of about 150m resulted in an emission rate overestimation of almost 50%, showing the importance of proper emission source simulation when applying the TDM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AP-42 Emissions Factors (WebFIRE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Emissions factors have long been the fundamental tool in developing national, regional, state, and local emissions inventories for air quality management decisions...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Norway 1990-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-07-01

    The report presents an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Norway from 1990 to 2001. Trends in total greenhouse gas emissions by UNFCCC's sources and gases are described for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}), hexafluoroethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and HFCs. The methodology used in the calculation of emissions from key sources in the Norwegian Emission Inventory is presented. Emissions are reported according to UNFCCC/IPCC common reporting format (CRF) (author)

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Norway 1990-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The report presents an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Norway from 1990 to 2001. Trends in total greenhouse gas emissions by UNFCCC's sources and gases are described for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ), hexafluoroethane (C 2 F 6 ), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and HFCs. The methodology used in the calculation of emissions from key sources in the Norwegian Emission Inventory is presented. Emissions are reported according to UNFCCC/IPCC common reporting format (CRF) (author)

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  14. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  15. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  16. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  17. Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arto, Inaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions.

  18. Evaluation of gas emission from closed mines surface to atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Tauziède, Christian

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The closed mines are likely to release into atmosphere polluting or/and dangerous gases. The detection and hazard evaluation of those emissions are a complex problem. In order to quantify and qualify these gas emissions and check gas migrations special measuring methods are required. The research done at INERIS resulted in a reliable and appropriate methodology using a flux chamber. This methodology is intended for detecting, quantifying and qualifying gas discharges, ...

  19. Methane Emissions from Leak and Loss Audits of Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2015-07-07

    As part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign, researchers completed leak and loss audits for methane emissions at three natural gas compressor stations and two natural gas storage facilities. Researchers employed microdilution high-volume sampling systems in conjunction with in situ methane analyzers, bag samples, and Fourier transform infrared analyzers for emissions rate quantification. All sites had a combined total methane emissions rate of 94.2 kg/h, yet only 12% of the emissions total resulted from leaks. Methane slip from exhausts represented 44% of the total emissions. Remaining methane emissions were attributed to losses from pneumatic actuators and controls, engine crankcases, compressor packing vents, wet seal vents, and slop tanks. Measured values were compared with those reported in literature. Exhaust methane emissions were lower than emissions factor estimates for engine exhausts, but when combined with crankcase emissions, measured values were 11.4% lower than predicted by AP-42 as applicable to emissions factors for four-stroke, lean-burn engines. Average measured wet seal emissions were 3.5 times higher than GRI values but 14 times lower than those reported by Allen et al. Reciprocating compressor packing vent emissions were 39 times higher than values reported by GRI, but about half of values reported by Allen et al. Though the data set was small, researchers have suggested a method to estimate site-wide emissions factors for those powered by four-stroke, lean-burn engines based on fuel consumption and site throughput.

  20. Emissions and efficiency of a domestic gas stove burning natural gases with various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungchang Ko; Tahui Lin

    2003-01-01

    The heating value of a fuel, which depends on its composition, strongly affects burner performance. Using the same gas stove to burn natural gas with various heating values is inappropriate and hazardous due to the possible occurrence of incomplete combustion (i.e. a great increase of CO emissions and/or soot formation), liftoff, flashback and inadequate heat input. In this study, we aim to assess the effects of changes in gas composition on burner performance and propose suitable design or operational factors of domestic gas stoves burning natural gas with various heating values. A single gas burner, originally designed for burning natural gas with low heating value, is adopted to investigate the effects of variations in gas composition on the burner performance. The influence of five significant parameters, including gas composition, primary aeration, gas flow rate (heat input), gas supply pressure, and loading height, on the thermal efficiency and CO emissions were reported and discussed. Using natural gas with high heating value instead of natural gas with low heating value results in a decrease in thermal efficiency (due to higher thermal input) and an increase in CO emission (caused by incomplete combustion). These problems can be significantly improved by decreasing the gas pressure to a suitable value, by enlarging the primary aeration to a favorable level, by selecting a proper thermal input, or by adjusting the optimized heating height. (Author)

  1. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, ESPECIALLY FROM TRAFFIC (Contribution to the analysis of greenhouse gas emissions, especially from traffic)

    OpenAIRE

    Brozović, Ivo; Regent, Aleksandar; Grgurević, Matea

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities, especially the emissions originating from transport. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution until today a steady increase has been recorded in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions which increase the concentration of greenhouse gases (imission values) in the troposphere and thereby increase the intensity of the greenhouse effect. This paper analyzes the impacts of anthropoge...

  3. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and management practices that impact them in US rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reviews have quantified factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Asian rice systems but not for US systems, which are different, particularly in practices that affect emissions (i.e. water and carbon management). Using meta-analytic and regression approaches, we analyzed existi...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  7. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  8. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their pop......To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ?wellbeing? is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective...

  9. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. In this study, the authors conducted a survey of carsharing members across the c...

  10. Are national greenhouse gas emissions reports scientifically valid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Bergamaschi, P.; Pulles, T.; Raes, F.

    2007-01-01

    While countries have recently been accused of misreporting greenhouse gas emissions for their benefit, internationally agreed procedures minimize such possibilities and allow for new scientific results to be taken into account in a stepwise manner.

  11. Are national greenhouse gas emissions reports scientifically valid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Pulles, M.P.J.; Raes, F.

    2007-01-01

    While countries have recently been accused of misreporting greenhouse gas emissions for their benefit, internationally agreed procedures minimize such possibilities and allow for new scientific results to be taken into account in a stepwise manner. © 2007 Earthscan.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  13. Gas Emission Prediction Model of Coal Mine Based on CSBP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the nonlinear characteristics of gas emission in a coal working face, a prediction method is proposed based on cuckoo search algorithm optimized BP neural network (CSBP. In the CSBP algorithm, the cuckoo search is adopted to optimize weight and threshold parameters of BP network, and obtains the global optimal solutions. Furthermore, the twelve main affecting factors of the gas emission in the coal working face are taken as input vectors of CSBP algorithm, the gas emission is acted as output vector, and then the prediction model of BP neural network with optimal parameters is established. The results show that the CSBP algorithm has batter generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy, and can be utilized effectively in the prediction of coal mine gas emission.

  14. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  15. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be op...

  16. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Quantifying Methane Emissions from Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiu O. Yusuf; Zainura Z. Noor; Ahmad H. Abba; Mohd Ariffin Abu Hassan; Mohd Fadhil Mohd Din

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The rearing of animals for domestic consumption and export invariably lead to the production of methane as a product of digestion. This study investigated the emission of methane from Malaysian livestock between 1980 and 2008. Approach: Seven categories of animals identified were camel, buffalo, sheep, goats, horse, pigs and poultry. The estimation of methane was based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. Methane emission from cattle rose by 44% within the period from 45....

  18. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  19. A whole farm model for quantifying total greenhouse gas emissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a model to quantify total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms. The model, which is based on a whole farm management approach, accounts for the variability that occurs in GHG emissions among farm production and management practices. The variation is accommodated in six dairy farm ...

  20. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  1. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  3. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...

  4. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  5. Combining policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for selected countries. To comply with these reduction requirements, decision-makers may use market-based instruments on a national or international basis. This paper advocates the combining of national emission taxes with international trade of emission permits. As a numerical application, this paper analyses macro-economic impacts of such a strategy for Switzerland. (Author)

  6. Quantifying and reporting greenhouse gas emissions at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities as global centers of consumption and production often are a significant and growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. At the same time, local authorities are increasingly taking action on climate change by focusing on reducing GHG emissions and efficiency improvement opportunities. To assess and reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission level from an urban area, it is necessary to identify all the activities and processes which generate these emissions. GHG inventory gives an opportunity to get wider knowledge for city’s community about spatial emission processes and emissions contribution of key sources categories at the local scale. Inventory is being used for decision-making purposes and strategic planning in emission reduction policy. The goal of this paper was to clarify the major methodological challenges of GHG monitoring at the urban level. The paper is based on the discussion of different methods and approaches to assessing GHG emissions at the local level. It is presented sectoral GHGs emission trends in selected urban areas and compared CO2 emission level in different countries and metropolises and variable European cities guidance. The study determines the inventory tools of GHGs emission taking into account the characteristics of main sources at local levels.

  7. Emission factors for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, particulates and black carbon for domestic shipping in Norway, revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joergen Bremnes; Stenersen, Dag

    2010-11-15

    In this report new and updated emission factors for diesel, HFO and gas fuelled ships are presented and discussed as follows; NO{sub x} reduction factors from ships with NO{sub x} reduction measures; NO{sub x} emission factor from gas operated vessels; Methane emission factors for gas operated vessels; Updated emission factors for particulate emissions (PM) with a specific factor for the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate emissions; A discussion on how low sulfur fuel will affect emissions of PM emissions and the BC fraction of PM is also included. (Author)

  8. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  9. Flue gas emissions from gas-fired cogeneration units <25 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Wit, J. de

    1997-01-01

    A total of 900 MW e gas driven combined heat and power (CHP) has now been established in Denmark based on gas engines and gas turbine units less than 25 MW e each. Of the 900 MW e approx. 750 MW e are based on gas engines. Biogas is used as fuel for some 32 MW e of these. Emission limits for NO x and CO are 650 mg/nm 3 (ref. 5% O 2 and electrical efficiency 30% LCV). There is at present no limit for unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) for gas engines or gas turbines. The average emission of unburned hydrocarbons for the Danish gas engine driven CHP units is equal to approx. 3,5% of the fuel used. It is the target of this report to provide the basis for evaluating the planned UHC limit and possible adjustments of the present limit for NO x emission. The average NO x emission from gas turbines slightly exceeds the NO x emission from gas engines. This is due to a number of older gas turbines. Modern gas turbines can achieve significantly lower NO x emission compared to engines. The NO x emission from biogas driven engines is significantly higher than that of natural gas driven units. This is mainly due to NO x -unfavourable engine settings and the use of older units, as there are no legislation concerning NO x emission for the majority of these biogas driven units. The emission of CO and UHC is lower from gas turbines than from gas engines. The NO x emission can be reduced by SCR Catalyst systems. In Denmark 3 gas engine installations use this commercially available technology. Oxidation catalyst for UHC reduction at modern gas engine installations has proven relatively unsuccesful in Denmark until now. Only limited reductions are achieved and many catalysts are toxificated in less than 100 hours of operation. However, long-term field testing of promising UHC reducing catalysts is now being made. UHC reduction by incineration is at the prototype stage. No such plant has yet been set up in Denmark. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from barn animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ninety six per cent of the carbon dioxide produced by barn animals is generated through the act of breathing, with the remainder generated through their droppings. The author examined various sources of carbon dioxide emissions associated with barn animals, including the animals themselves, their droppings and heating systems for barns. A similar review was conducted for emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The author proposed ways to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and methane by barn animals. 8 refs., 1 tab

  11. Energy strategies and greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-01-01

    Concern about the availability of energy resources has given way in recent years to increasing awareness of the environmental impacts of energy production, conversion and use. Future energy policies must be based on limiting and even reducing future emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, a number of national carbon dioxide reduction plans have been announced, which are aimed at stabilizing and in some cases even reducing further emissions.

  12. Assessment of methane emissions from oil and gas production pads using mobile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Halley L; Thoma, Eben D; Squier, William C; Guven, Birnur B; Lyon, David

    2014-12-16

    A new mobile methane emissions inspection approach, Other Test Method (OTM) 33A, was used to quantify short-term emission rates from 210 oil and gas production pads during eight two-week field studies in Texas, Colorado, and Wyoming from 2010 to 2013. Emission rates were log-normally distributed with geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.33 (0.23, 0.48), 0.14 (0.11, 0.19), and 0.59 (0.47, 0.74) g/s in the Barnett, Denver-Julesburg, and Pinedale basins, respectively. This study focused on sites with emission rates above 0.01 g/s and included short-term (i.e., condensate tank flashing) and maintenance-related emissions. The results fell within the upper ranges of the distributions observed in recent onsite direct measurement studies. Considering data across all basins, a multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship of methane emissions to well age, gas production, and hydrocarbon liquids (oil or condensate) production. Methane emissions were positively correlated with gas production, but only approximately 10% of the variation in emission rates was explained by variation in production levels. The weak correlation between emission and production rates may indicate that maintenance-related stochastic variables and design of production and control equipment are factors determining emissions.

  13. Attachment B: URS Shale Gas Emissions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data was provided in response to a request by ANGA for actual current data that could be compared to EPA's assumptions used in the newly proposed Oil and Natural Gas Air Pollution Standards, Subpart quad 0

  14. Development of Emission Factors for Polyethylene Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Anthony; Contos, Demise A; Holdren, Michael W; Garrison, Philip J; Harris, Lynne R; Janke, Brian

    1996-06-01

    Emission factors for selected volatile organic and particulate emissions were developed over a range of temperatures during extrusion of polyethylene resins. A pilot scale extruder was used. Polymer melt temperatures ranged from 500 °F to 600 °F for low density polyethylene (LDPE), 355 °F to 500 °F for linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and 380 °F to 430 °F for high density polyethylene (HOPE). An emission factor was calculated for each substance measured and reported as pounds released to the atmosphere per million pounds of polymer processed (ppm[wt/wt]). Based on production volumes, these emission factors can be used by processors to estimate emissions from polyethylene extrusion operations that are similar to the conditions used in this study.

  15. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Belhaj, Mohammed; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2006-12-01

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub-sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector. When setting up an emissions trading scheme there are a number of design parameters that have to be analysed in order to find an appropriate system, with limited administrative and transaction costs and as small distortions as possible to competitiveness

  17. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jane M.-F. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 803 Iowa Avenue, Morris, MN 56267 (United States)], E-mail: jane.johnson@ars.usda.gov; Franzluebbers, Alan J. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1420 Experiment Station Road, Watkinsville, GA 30677-2373 (United States); Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 803 Iowa Avenue, Morris, MN 56267 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O. It can also be a sink for CO{sub 2} through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH{sub 4} consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N{sub 2}O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. - Management options can be used to reduce agriculture's environmental impacts.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P.J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E.J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  1. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO 2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  2. Gas Emissions in Combustion of Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitázek Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biomass or more precisely biofuel is more and more being exploited as a substitute for fossil fuels for heating as well as for example for heating a drying environment. This contribution focuses on assessing a heat source by combusting various types of solid biofuels. It is a boiler VIGAS 25 with AK 2000 regulation for heating a family house. Gaseous emissions were measured using a device TESTO 330-2LL. Firewood, peat briquettes, bark briquettes and hardwood briquettes were burnt. Results of experimental measurements concerning the production of gaseous emissions are processed in tables and graphs depending on boiler performance and combustion time.

  3. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from Savanna ( Miombo ) woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural vegetation represents an important sink for greenhouse gases (GHGs); however, there is relatively little information available on emissions from southern African savannas. The effects of clearing savanna woodlands for crop production on soil fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were studied on clay (Chromic luvisol) and ...

  5. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate of...

  6. Accounting for time-dependent effects in biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas emissions calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Chang, Brenda; Sharpe, Benjamin

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a time correction factor (TCF) to properly account for the timing of land use change-derived greenhouse gas emissions in the biofuels life cycle. Land use change emissions occur at the outset of biofuel feedstock production, and are typically amortized over an assumed time horizon to assign the burdens of land use change to multiple generations of feedstock crops. Greenhouse gas intensity calculations amortize emissions by dividing them equally over a time horizon, overlooking the fact that the effect of a greenhouse gas increases with the time it remains in the atmosphere. The TCF is calculated based on the relative climate change effect of an emission occurring at the outset of biofuel feedstock cultivation versus one amortized over a time horizon. For time horizons between 10 and 50 years, the TCF varies between 1.7 and 1.8 for carbon dioxide emissions, indicating that the actual climate change effect of an emission is 70-80% higher than the effect of its amortized values. The TCF has broad relevance for correcting the treatment of emissions timing in other life cycle assessment applications, such as emissions from capital investments for production systems or manufacturing emissions for renewable energy technologies.

  7. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of termites (flagellate protozoa in lower termites and bacteria in higher termites) produce methane (CH4). Methane has been considered to be an important greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003). Termites may emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide and molecular.

  8. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  11. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  12. Investigating GHGs and VOCs emissions from a shale gas industry in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, L.; Weger, L.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The shale gas and shale oil production boom experienced in the US led the country to a significant reduction of foreign fuel imports and an increase in domestic energy security. Several European countries are considering to extract domestic shale gas reserves that might serve as a bridge in the transition to renewables. Nevertheless, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact local and regional air quality and climate. Results from numerous studies investigating greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from shale oil and shale gas extraction in North America can help in estimating the impact of such industrial activity elsewhere, when local regulations are taken into consideration. In order to investigate the extent of emissions and their distribution from a potential shale gas industry in Germany and the United Kingdom, we develop three drilling scenarios compatible with desired national gas outputs based on available geological information on potential productivity ranges of the reservoirs. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to wells under development, as well as to producing wells (from activities at the well site up until processing plants) to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different shale gas development pathways: 1) implementation of "high-technology" devices and recovery practices (low emissions); 2) implementation of "low-technology" devices and recovery practices (high emissions), and 3) intermediate scenarios reflecting assumptions on local and national settings, or extremely high emission events (e.g. super-emitters); all with high and low boundaries of confidence driven by uncertainties. A comparison of these unconventional gas production scenarios to conventional natural gas production in Germany and the United Kingdom is also planned. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to

  13. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellarby, Jessica; Tirado, Reyes; Leip, Adrian; Weiss, Franz; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also reviewed available mitigation options and estimated their potential. The focus of this review is on the beef and dairy sector since these contribute 60% of all livestock production emissions. Particular attention is paid to the role of land use and land use change (LULUC) and carbon sequestration in grasslands. GHG emissions of all livestock products amount to between 630 and 863 Mt CO2 e, or 12-17% of total EU27 GHG emissions in 2007. The highest emissions aside from production, originate from LULUC, followed by emissions from wasted food. The total GHG mitigation potential from the livestock sector in Europe is between 101 and 377 Mt CO2 e equivalent to between 12 and 61% of total EU27 livestock sector emissions in 2007. A reduction in food waste and consumption of livestock products linked with reduced production, are the most effective mitigation options, and if encouraged, would also deliver environmental and human health benefits. Production of beef and dairy on grassland, as opposed to intensive grain fed production, can be associated with a reduction in GHG emissions depending on actual LULUC emissions. This could be promoted on rough grazing land where appropriate. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Particle emission factors during cooking activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    Exposure to particles emitted by cooking activities may be responsible for a variety of respiratory health effects. However, the relationship between these exposures and their subsequent effects on health cannot be evaluated without understanding the properties of the emitted aerosol or the main parameters that influence particle emissions during cooking. Whilst traffic-related emissions, stack emissions and concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter frying as a function of the food, source, cooking temperature and type of oil. Emission factors, along with particle number concentrations and size distributions were determined in the size range 0.006-20 μm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field. Overall, increased emission factors were observed to be a function of increased cooking temperatures. Cooking fatty foods also produced higher particle emission factors than vegetables, mainly in terms of mass concentration, and particle emission factors also varied significantly according to the type of oil used.

  15. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  16. Health and exposure assessment of flare gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Byrne-Lewis, C.; Probert, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incomplete combustion of flare gases produces pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are cause for concern for public health. Some of the concerns relate to potential long-term cumulative health effects from exposure to hazardous air pollutants including benzene, styrene, naphthalene, and benzopyrene. This study demonstrated that several factors should be taken into account when considering the importance of flaring and human exposure to flare gas emissions. Most flare stacks are located in rural areas, but most time-availability studies have been done on urban populations where the majority of people spend their time indoors. It was recommended that more time-activity studies are needed to emphasize the behaviour of rural populations which are most susceptible to exposure from pollutants from flaring. It was concluded that higher indoor air concentrations exist for many VOCs and PAHs compared to outdoors, but in these instances, indoor sources are the major contributors to indoor air concentrations. It was recommended that health assessments of hazardous air pollutants emitted from gas flaring has to take into account the indoor setting and other background exposures in order to provide useful information for decision makers. 49 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  18. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  19. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  20. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-11-28

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  1. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  2. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  3. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    Materials and Methods. The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's National Inventory. Report (ANIR, 2010), which contains Australian country-specific and IPCC default methodologies and emission factors. Emission factors specific to South African conditions and management ...

  4. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  5. Deep greenhouse gas emission reductions in Europe: Exploring different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Hof, Andries F.; Pfluger, Benjamin; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Girod, Bastien; Ruijven, Bas J. van

    2013-01-01

    Most modelling studies that explore emission mitigation scenarios only look into least-cost emission pathways, induced by a carbon tax. This means that European policies targeting specific – sometimes relatively costly – technologies, such as electric cars and advanced insulation measures, are usually not evaluated as part of cost-optimal scenarios. This study explores an emission mitigation scenario for Europe up to 2050, taking as a starting point specific emission reduction options instead of a carbon tax. The purpose is to identify the potential of each of these policies and identify trade-offs between sectoral policies in achieving emission reduction targets. The reduction options evaluated in this paper together lead to a reduction of 65% of 1990 CO 2 -equivalent emissions by 2050. More bottom-up modelling exercises, like the one presented here, provide a promising starting point to evaluate policy options that are currently considered by policy makers. - Highlights: ► We model the effects of 15 climate change mitigation measures in Europe. ► We assess the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential in different sectors. ► The measures could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 1990 levels in 2050. ► The approach allows to explore arguably more relevant climate policy scenarios

  6. Gas and energy efficiency. The ''E'' factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, G.

    1992-06-01

    On 1 April 1992 a new gas tariff formula came into effect limiting the prices British Gas can charge to its 18 million -primarily domestic - tariff customers. A feature of the new formula is the ''E'' factor, designed to stimulate investment by British Gas in energy efficiency. This paper is intended to explain the thinking which lay behind the introduction of the ''E''factor, what statutory and other considerations need to be taken into account in considering ''E'' factor proposals and how the arrangements for the gas industry are likely to fit in with the creation of an Energy Savings Trust recently announced by the Government. In doing so, it is intended to give guidance to those who may have proposals for the more efficient use of energy and gas and wish to understand whether these could be eligible to be considered as ''E'' factor projects. (Author)

  7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Cities : Comparison of International Inventory Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Nadine; Sugar, Lorraine; Hoornweg, Dan; Kennedy, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Credibly and consistently reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities and urban areas enables policy-makers and practitioners to contribute to addressing the challenge of climate change by meeting mitigation targets, and is critical to overall good municipal management. Good reporting allows for transparency, verification, and replication over time. This study provides an understanding of the GHG emissions inventory protocols and methodologies as they apply to cities. Though the inve...

  10. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  11. Full of energy. A vision: The global factor-of-four strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and opting out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.; Hennicke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Here it is at last: A sustainable global energy system. Based on a ''factor-of- four'' approach, the authors, who are experts in all matters of energy systems, explain the evolution of their energy strategy which is fit for global implementation and realization. It is technically feasible, ecologically justifiable, and economically attractive, as it relies on enhanced energy efficiency and enhanced use of renewable energy sources. (orig./CB) [de

  12. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  13. Global initiatives to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helme, N.; Gille, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Joint implementation (JI) is a provision, included in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, that allows for two or more nations to jointly plan and implement a greenhouse gas or offsetting project. Joint implementation is important environmentally for two principal reasons: (1) it provides an opportunity to select projects on a global basis that maximize both greenhouse gas reduction benefits and other environmental benefits such as air pollution reduction while minimizing cost, and (2) it creates incentives for developing countries as well as multinational companies to begin to evaluate potential investments through a climate-friendly lens. While the debate on how to establish the criteria and institutional capacity necessary to encourage joint implementation projects continues in the international community, the US government is creating new incentives for US companies to develop joint implementation pilot projects now. While delegates to the United Nations' International Negotiating Committee (INC) debate whether to permit all Parties to the convention to participate in JI, opportunities in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet states abound. The US has taken a leadership role in joint implementation, establishing two complementary domestic programs that allow US companies to measure, track and score their net greenhouse gas reduction achievements now. With a financial investment by three US utilities, the Center for Clean Air Policy is developing a fuel-switching and energy efficiency project in the city of Decin in the Czech Republic which offers a concrete example of what a real-world JI project could look like. The Decin project provides an ideal test case for assessing the adequacy and potential impact of the draft criteria for the US Initiative on Joint Implementation, as well as for the draft criteria prepared by the INC Secretariat

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  16. Identification of decisive factors for greenhouse gas emissions in comparative life cycle assessments of food waste management – an analytical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstad, Anna; Wenzel, Henrik; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2016-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments on food waste management was made with two main aims. Firstly, to make an overview of the assessments of the global warming potential from the treatment alternatives incineration, landfill, anaerobic digestion and compost in studies reported in literature....... Secondly, to identify decisive factors in general and related to system boundary settings in particular, in reviewed studies. A number of criteria were constructed for identification of relevant comparative life cycle assessments, resulting in selection of nineteen studies, containing 103 different...... of the waste management system with the background energy system and/or bio-system were found to be decisive to the results. This highlights the importance of identification of induced and displaced marginal products in the modeling of system expansion, as well as need for increased transparency and use...

  17. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  18. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  19. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  20. Uncertainties in the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monni, Suvi; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2004-01-01

    Reliable uncertainty estimates are a tool for increasing the quality of national emission inventories which are essential for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The first detailed uncertainty assessment was performed for the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory considering the years 1990 and 2001 using Monte Carlo simulation to combine uncertainties. In this work, uncertainty estimates were based on available measurement data, domestic and international literature, expert judgement and the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Uncertainties were estimated at a more detailed level than in studies performed in many other countries, thus giving additional information on the most important emission sources in terms of uncertainty. The emissions of the most important greenhouse gas, CO 2 , are often well known, but the other gases contain higher uncertainties. The resulting total uncertainty in the year 2001 emissions was -5 to +6% and that of trend ±5%-points. The uncertainty range indicates that Finnish emissions were 75-84 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 2001. In countries with larger emissions the effect of uncertainty is even more significant. Countries which have performed an uncertainty estimate are able to use the information on most uncertain sources in allocation of resources for inventory improvements. In climate policy, information on uncertainty can be used in negotiations on the use of Kyoto mechanisms and in negotiations of inclusion of new sources or gases in future climate conventions. Integration of uncertainty aspects in decision making ensures that climate conventions are of real benefit in terms of mitigating climate change

  1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  2. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Currently CO2 from fossil fuel combustion accounts for 57% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the strong greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) contribute with 8% and 14%, respectively (IPCC, 2007). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is mainly...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  3. Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Zeqi; Guan, Dabo; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-03

    Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of nations is essential to understanding their importance to global climate change and help inform the policymaking on global GHG mitigation. Previous studies have made efforts to evaluate direct GHG emissions of nations (a.k.a. production-based accounting method) and GHG emissions caused by the final consumption of nations (a.k.a. consumption-based accounting method), but overlooked downstream GHG emissions enabled by primary inputs of individual nations and sectors (a.k.a. income-based accounting method). Here we show that the income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995-2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, and Brazil) during this period. The income-based accounting can support supply side policy decisions and provide additional information for determining GHG emission quotas based on cumulative emissions of nations and designing policies for shared responsibilities.

  4. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhala, Pekka; Bergström, Irina; Haaspuro, Tiina; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO 2 eq km −2 and 2.8 t CO 2 eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO 2 eq km −2 and 9.2 t CO 2 eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality. • Forest management policy can

  5. Reduction of NOx emissions when burning low heating value gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, R.; Oskarsson, J.; Waldheim, L.

    1993-09-01

    On the gasification of nitrogen-rich fuel the nitrogen from the fuel goes into the gas phase in the form of ammonia and hydrogen cyanide and also nitrogen containing tars. When the gas is combusted the nitrogen compounds are oxidized to a great extent to NO x and, therefore, high NO x emissions can be found on the combustion of low heating value gas produced from energy forest wood chips as is also the case with direct combustion of nitrogen rich fuels. An experimental study has been carried out where the important parameters for designing a combustion chamber for low heating value gases have been studied in order to obtain maximum reduction of NO x emissions. The effect of tar cracking using dolomite on these emissions and the effect of parameters such as the addition of steam has also been tested. The tests were carried out with energy forest wood chips with 0.3% nitrogen. The gasification was carried out in a pyrolysis reactor, operated to yield a low heating value gas, and which was coupled to a simplified gas turbine combustion chamber at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the main part of the nitrogen in the fuel is found as ammonia in the low heating value gas. With this type of gasification the conversion of fuel nitrogen to ammonia in the gas is equivalent to 500-600 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . Only very low amounts of hydrogen cyanide have been noted and no nitrogen containing tar components have been found. No apparent effect of steam additions has been noted. On the other hand the distribution of air in the combustion chamber and residence time during the under stoichiometric conditions are of great importance for the NO x reduction. Depending on the air distribution the emissions of NO 2 varied between 100 and 250 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Analysis of fifty year Gas Flaring Emissions from oil/gas companies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumbia, E. H. T.; Liousse, C.; Granier, L.; Granier, C.; Rosset, R.; Oda, T.; Hsu, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    Flaring is a process during which waste gases are burned in an open atmosphere. The quantification of gas flaring emissions represents a major scientific concern due to its magnitude and related uncertainties. In global/regional emission inventories, this source, though releasing large amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere, is still poorly quantified if not missing. It can represent the main emission source of gaseous compounds and particles in some areas, as observed during the AMMA project in the Gulf of Guinea. Our study focuses on Africa, and includes Nigeria, which is one of the largest natural oil and gas reserve in the world. Africa is an important gas flaring area, since technologies for the exploitation of this energy source and the reduction of flaring activities have been only recently implemented. We have developed an emission inventory for gases and particles from flaring in Africa. We have first compiled the few published available dataset of fuel consumption from flaring. The spatial distribution of CO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in 2011 is estimated using a methodology based on field reports and remote sensing (DMSP satellite data). Our results point out to the importance of flaring activities into the regional anthropogenic emissions in Africa over the period 1960-2011. Finally, the contribution of flaring to total anthropogenic emission can be large and needs to be accurately quantified.

  7. Electric vehicle greenhouse gas emission assessment for Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This study estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) compared to that of other popular and similar cars in Hawaii, by county over an assumption of 150,000 miles driven. The GHG benefits of EVs depend critically on the electr...

  8. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  9. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of

  10. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear

  11. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  13. Mitigating gas emissions at signalised intersections using wireless vehicle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kwasi Torkudzor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times and increases fuel consumption as well as gas emissions which are dangerous to human health. This has led to growing concern about environmental protection and energy conservation and a number of studies to increase fuel economy and reduce gas emissions. To increase travel times so as to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions, traffic signals at intersections must be well implemented. It is therefore necessary to employ the current technology of wireless sensor networks to enhance the optimisation of the signalised intersections so as to address such a concern. In this study, a vehicular traffic control model was developed to optimise a signalised intersection, using wireless vehicle detectors. Real-time traffic volume gathered were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak and evening peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths which result in the reduction of gas emissions, fuel consumption and delay at the intersection.

  14. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey ... The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of ... Environmental Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51245 Nigde, Turkey.

  15. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from Mexican intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to compare estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as CH4 (enteric-manure), N2O (manure), and CO2 (fuel and energy use), the use of water and soil, the excretion of nutrients in manure, and feed efficiency from Mexican intensive dairy farms. Data from 26 dairy farms were analysed ...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  17. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential greenhouse gas emission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal waste on potential greenhouse gas emission and inherent agronomic potentials. Sugar solution at 100g/l salt solution at 350g/l and oven-drying were the various faecal treatments examined using a completely randomized design.

  18. Health effects of soy-biodiesel emissions: mutagenicity-emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H; Matthews, Peggy P; King, Charly; Walsh, Leon; Kligerman, Andrew D; Schmid, Judith E; Janek, Daniel; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Linak, William P; Gilmour, M Ian; DeMarini, David M

    2015-01-01

    Soy biodiesel is the predominant biodiesel fuel used in the USA, but only a few, frequently conflicting studies have examined the potential health effects of its emissions. We combusted petroleum diesel (B0) and fuels with increasing percentages of soy methyl esters (B20, B50 and B100) and determined the mutagenicity-emission factors expressed as revertants/megajoule of thermal energy consumed (rev/MJ(th)). We combusted each fuel in replicate in a small (4.3-kW) diesel engine without emission controls at a constant load, extracted organics from the particles with dichloromethane, determined the percentage of extractable organic material (EOM), and evaluated these extracts for mutagenicity in 16 strains/S9 combinations of Salmonella. Mutagenic potencies of the EOM did not differ significantly between replicate experiments for B0 and B100 but did for B20 and B50. B0 had the highest rev/MJ(th), and those of B20 and B100 were 50% and ∼85% lower, respectively, in strains that detect mutagenicity due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroarenes, aromatic amines or oxidative mutagens. For all strains, the rev/MJ(th) decreased with increasing biodiesel in the fuel. The emission factor for the 16 EPA Priority PAHs correlated strongly (r(2 )= 0.69) with the mutagenicity-emission factor in strain TA100 + S9, which detects PAHs. Under a constant load, soy-biodiesel emissions were 50-85% less mutagenic than those of petroleum diesel. Without additional emission controls, petroleum and biodiesel fuels had mutagenicity-emission factors between those of large utility-scale combustors (e.g. natural gas, coal, or oil) and inefficient open-burning (e.g. residential wood fireplaces).

  19. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  20. Genetic control of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Garnsworthy, P.C.; Kuhla, B.; Negussie, E.; Pszczola, M.; Wall, E.; Lassen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. So far, within animal production, there is little or no concerted effort on long-term breeding strategies to mitigate against GHG from ruminants. In

  1. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  2. [VOC emission situation and control measures of gas station in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min-Jia; Hao, Ji-Ming; Wang, Li-Tao

    2006-08-01

    The emission factor is used to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission caused by gas station. After considering the economical, social and population factors, the activity rate was modified, and then the fuel consumption and VOC emission trend in the next 20 years can be predicted. The result shows the VOC emission from gas station in China 2002 was 187.6kt and this number will increase to 1196kt in 2030 if no further control measures will be implemented. And the economic loss caused by gasoline vapor arrived to 0.75 billion RMB in 2002 and will be 4.78 billion RMB in 2030. The cost-benefit approach of the commercially available gasoline vapor recovery technologies in China included Stage I, Stage II and on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) were analyzed, and the result shows introducing these three systems will bring larger reduce of VOC emission, and the combination of them can do a even better job. Compared with Stage II, ORVR is more efficient and cheaper, but it will take long time to implement ORVR. And it will take at least 11 years in China to convert to ORVR above 80%. So Stage II vapor recovery system may be a short term option while ORVR should be treated as the ultimate solution for controlling the vapor emission from gas stations in the future.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy R H; Brown, Sandra; Murray, Lara; Sidman, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  5. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  6. Greenhouse gas emission curves for advanced biofuel supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daioglou, Vassilis; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Stehfest, Elke; Müller, Christoph; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2017-12-01

    Most climate change mitigation scenarios that are consistent with the 1.5-2 °C target rely on a large-scale contribution from biomass, including advanced (second-generation) biofuels. However, land-based biofuel production has been associated with substantial land-use change emissions. Previous studies show a wide range of emission factors, often hiding the influence of spatial heterogeneity. Here we introduce a spatially explicit method for assessing the supply of advanced biofuels at different emission factors and present the results as emission curves. Dedicated crops grown on grasslands, savannahs and abandoned agricultural lands could provide 30 EJBiofuel yr-1 with emission factors less than 40 kg of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions per GJBiofuel (for an 85-year time horizon). This increases to 100 EJBiofuel yr-1 for emission factors less than 60 kgCO2e GJBiofuel-1. While these results are uncertain and depend on model assumptions (including time horizon, spatial resolution, technology assumptions and so on), emission curves improve our understanding of the relationship between biofuel supply and its potential contribution to climate change mitigation while accounting for spatial heterogeneity.

  7. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Timo A.; Varis, Olli; Scherer, Laura; Kummu, Matti

    2018-03-01

    The Mekong River Basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing extensive hydropower development, but the magnitudes of related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are not well known. We provide the first screening of GHG emissions of 141 existing and planned reservoirs in the basin, with a focus on atmospheric gross emissions through the reservoir water surface. The emissions were estimated using statistical models that are based on global emission measurements. The hydropower reservoirs (119) were found to have an emission range of 0.2-1994 kg CO2e MWh-1 over a 100 year lifetime with a median of 26 kg CO2e MWh-1. Hydropower reservoirs facilitating irrigation (22) had generally higher emissions reaching over 22 000 kg CO2e MWh-1. The emission fluxes for all reservoirs (141) had a range of 26-1813 000 t CO2e yr-1 over a 100 year lifetime with a median of 28 000 t CO2e yr-1. Altogether, 82% of hydropower reservoirs (119) and 45% of reservoirs also facilitating irrigation (22) have emissions comparable to other renewable energy sources (380 kg CO2e MWh-1). These results are tentative and they suggest that hydropower in the Mekong Region cannot be considered categorically as low-emission energy. Instead, the GHG emissions of hydropower should be carefully considered case-by-case together with the other impacts on the natural and social environment.

  9. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  10. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  11. A forward looking, actor based, indicator for climate gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Torgeir; Randers, Joergen

    2011-04-15

    The most commonly used Norwegian indicator for climate change displays historical emissions and compare with Norway's Kyoto target. This indicator says little about future emissions, about the ongoing Norwegian effort to reduce climate gas emissions, or about its effect on sustainability. In this paper we propose an indicator that improves on these weaknesses. We present a forward looking climate indicator that in addition to historic data includes business as usual scenarios, different proposals for future domestic emissions, and national or international commitments and agreements. This indicator presents - in one graph - a broad diversity of views on how the climate challenge should be handled from now and into the future. This indicator-graph may contribute to a more transparent discussion of available policy options. (Author)

  12. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen oxides emissions from the MILD combustion with the conditions of recirculation gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Shim, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Sang Hyun; Oh, Kwang-Joong; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2017-04-01

    The nitrogen oxides (NO x ) reduction technology by combustion modification which has economic benefits as a method of controlling NO x emitted in the combustion process, has recently been receiving a lot of attention. Especially, the moderate or intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion which applied high temperature flue gas recirculation has been confirmed for its effectiveness with regard to solid fuel as well. MILD combustion is affected by the flue gas recirculation ratio and the composition of recirculation gas, so its NO x reduction efficiency is determined by them. In order to investigate the influence of factors which determine the reduction efficiency of NO x in MILD coal combustion, this study changed the flow rate and concentration of nitrogen (N 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and steam (H 2 O) which simulate the recirculation gas during the MILD coal combustion using our lab-scale drop tube furnace and performed the combustion experiment. As a result, its influence by the composition of recirculation gas was insignificant and it was shown that flue gas recirculation ratio influences the change of NO x concentration greatly. We investigated the influence of factors determining the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) reduction efficiency in MILD coal combustion, which applied high-temperature flue gas recirculation. Using a lab-scale drop tube furnace and simulated recirculation gas, we conducted combustion testing changing the recirculation gas conditions. We found that the flue gas recirculation ratio influences the reduction of NO x emissions the most.

  14. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  15. A GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE BY INFRARED EMISSION-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  17. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  18. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  19. The Effect of Substrate Emissivity on the Spectral Emission of a Hot-Gas Overlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    anode exhaust was fed into a 10 cm gas cell and the absorbance was measured with an FTIR spectrometer (b). 4 H. D. Ladouceur, J. D...transform infrared ( FTIR ) emission spectroscopy, recently implemented for in operando testing of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes by Pomfret and...coworkers, has become a novel means to directly measure the radiative emission of hot gases within the volume over an anode surface. Ideally, the FTIR

  20. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  1. Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havranek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Mendez, Gara Villalba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  2. Works made by the working group on the division by four by 2050 of France's greenhouse gas emissions, named 'factor 4'. January 19, 2006 meeting; Les travaux du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France, a l'horizon 2050, dit 'facteur 4'. Reunion du 19 janvier 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A working group was created on September 8, 2005 by the French minister of ecology and sustainable development and the French minister of industry with the aim of exploring all possible paths allowing to reach the long term goal of dividing by a factor 4 the French greenhouse gas emissions from now to 2050. This paper gathers the transparencies of three presentations given at the January 19, 2006 meeting of the 'Factor 4' working group: behaviour of energy consumers; which public policies to reach the factor 4; macro-economics of the factor 4. (J.S.)

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from China's cities: Case study of Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunxia; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Rongrong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors driving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is crucial to mitigating China's anthropogenic emissions. In this paper, the main drivers increasing GHG emissions from the Chinese city of Suzhou between 2005 and 2010 were identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Kaya identity and the log-mean Divisia index method. We found that economy and population were the major drivers of GHG emissions in Suzhou, having contributed 162.20% and 109.04%, respectively, to the increase in emissions. A decline in carbon intensity, which was caused by the declining energy intensity and an adjustment to the mixture of power and industrial structures, was the major determinant and accounted for a reduction of 171.24% in GHG emissions. Slowing and maintaining healthy growth rates of economy and population could be the primary and most effective means if Suzhou tries to curb the total emissions over the short term. It may be more realistic for Suzhou to control emissions by optimizing the economic structure for low-carbon industrial development because of the city's relative high energy requirements and low potential to mitigate GHGs by adjusting the energy mixture. - Highlights: • Per capita carbon emissions in Suzhou kept stable at 15 tons/year during period 2005–2010. • Slowing down growth rates of GDP and population could effectively control Suzhou's emissions. • Low carbon development policies were also recommended for other Chinese cities

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  5. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961–2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961–2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO 2 yr −1 in 2010 (up to 5.4–5.8 Gt CO 2 yr −1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade

  6. Exergy analysis of waste emissions from gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas flaring produces a stream of waste gases at high temperature and pressure which contains carbon monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide etc. The resultant effect of which is detrimental to our planet and, consequently, to the life of both the living and the non-living things. It’s well known that gas flaring contributes in no small measure to the global warming. Exergy analysis is applied in this work to analyze waste emissions from gas flaring so as to have a model through which impact of gas flaring can be measured. The study considers both the thermo-mechanical exergy and the chemical exergy of these gases. Relevant data on gas flaring activities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria between the periods of fifteen (15 years was obtained from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC. A computer program (Exergy Calculator was developed based on the equations generated in the Model. Exergy associated with gas flaring activities in Nigeria between the periods of 1998 through 2012 was calculated. The results show that 1 mscf (in thousand cubic feet of flared gases generate 0.000041 MWh of energy leading to a value of 440158.607 MWh of energy for the period under review.The analysis provides important conclusions and recommendations for improving oil platforms operationsin in order to safeguard the environment, health of the populace, and maximize recovered exergy from gas flaring.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  8. Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water

  9. Full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    The field of work of the Advisory Group Meeting/Workshop, i.e. full-energy chain emissions of greenhouse gases, is defined, and its environment, i.e. the Earth Summit -the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio-, is discussed. It is inferred that countries that ratified the Earth Summit's Convention on Climate Change have committed themselves to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from their energy use, and that this can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy chain emissions of all greenhouse gases. The scatter in literature values of greenhouse gas emission factors of the full energy chain of individual energy sources is discussed. The scatter among others is due to different analytical methods, data bases and system boundaries, and due to neglect of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and professional biases. Generic values for greenhouse gas emission factors of energy and materials use are proposed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Policies around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Aagenes, Eirin Birgitte; Fergestad, Erling; Gaims, Adam; Grinde, Ragnar Mar; Heffeman, Kira Krokeide; Hollekim, Dag Petter Talleraas; Kotipalli, Sushmitha; Landmark, Birgitte Eitrem; Ogg, Willemijn; Presthaug, Erik; Rio, Tonje Karin; Rønnevik, John Sverre; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Selseng, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Country briefings provided by: Master Course GE_4_300 “Climate Change and Climate Policy”. Preparatory material for the climate change negotiation game "World Climate" This briefing provides an overview on major countries sumrnarizing their greenhouse gas emission profiles, economic and political situation, major societal challenges and national policies relevant to tackle global climate change. The countries are marked green in above map. In alphabetical order these are: Australia, Brazil...

  12. Analysis of uncertainties in the estimates of nitrous oxide and methane emissions in the UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E.; Glendining, Margaret J.; Bellamy, Pat; Misselbrook, Tom; Gilhespy, Sarah; Rivas Casado, Monica; Hulin, Adele; van Oijen, Marcel; Whitmore, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture uses a model based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods to estimate the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture. The inventory calculations are disaggregated at country level (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland). Before now, no detailed assessment of the uncertainties in the estimates of emissions had been done. We used Monte Carlo simulation to do such an analysis. We collated information on the uncertainties of each of the model inputs. The uncertainties propagate through the model and result in uncertainties in the estimated emissions. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that in England and Scotland the uncertainty in the emission factor for emissions from N inputs (EF1) affected uncertainty the most, but that in Wales and Northern Ireland, the emission factor for N leaching and runoff (EF5) had greater influence. We showed that if the uncertainty in any one of these emission factors is reduced by 50%, the uncertainty in emissions of nitrous oxide reduces by 10%. The uncertainty in the estimate for the emissions of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cows and sheep most affected the uncertainty in methane emissions. When inventories are disaggregated (as that for the UK is) correlation between separate instances of each emission factor will affect the uncertainty in emissions. As more countries move towards inventory models with disaggregation, it is important that the IPCC give firm guidance on this topic.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2006. National Inventory Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Ruyssenaars, P.G.; Van den Born, G.J.; Brandes, L.J.; Hoen, A.; Te Molder, R.; Nijdam, D.S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peek, C.J.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Vreuls, H.H.J.; Van den Berghe, G.; Baas, K.; Guis, B.

    2008-01-01

    This report represents the 2008 Netherlands' annual inventory submission under the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as well as the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. It has been prepared following the relevant guidelines, which also refer to Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice guidance and Uncertainty Management reports, provide a format for the definition of source categories and for calculation, documentation and reporting of emissions. The guidelines aim at facilitating verification, technical assessment and expert review of the inventory information by independent Expert Review Teams of the UNFCCC. Therefore, the inventories should be transparent, consistent, comparable, complete and accurate as elaborated in the UNFCCC Guidelines for reporting and be prepared using good practice as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This National Inventory Report (NIR) 2008 therefore provides explanations of the trends in greenhouse gas emissions, activity data and (implied) emission factors for the period 1990-2006. It also summarises descriptions of methods and data sources of Tier 1 assessments of the uncertainty in annual emissions and in emission trends; it presents an assessment of key sources following the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance; and describes Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities. This report provides no specific information on the effectiveness of government policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This information can be found in the annual Environmental Balance (in Dutch: 'Milieubalans') prepared by the Netherlands' Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the 4th National Communication (NC4) prepared by the government of the Netherlands. So-called Common Reporting Format (CRF) spreadsheet files, containing data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors, accompany this report. The complete set

  14. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The relevance of inland waters to global biogeochemical cycles is increasingly recognized, and of particular importance is their contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The latter remain largely unreported in African inland waters. Here we report dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O from 12 rivers in Sub-Saharan Africa acquired during >30 field expeditions and additional seasonally resolved sampling at >30 sites between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from reported gas transfer velocity values, and upscaled using available spatial datasets, with an estimated uncertainty of about ±19%. CO2 equivalent emissions ( 0.4±0.1 PgC yr-1) match 2/3 of the overall net carbon sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo, the putative total emission ( 0.9±0.1 PgC yr-1) is about half of the global oceanic or land carbon sinks. In-situ respiration supported <14% of riverine CO2 emissions, which must therefore largely be driven by mineralization in wetlands or uplands. Riverine CO2 and CH4 emissions were directly correlated to wetland coverage and aboveground vegetation biomass, implying that future changes in wetland and upland vegetation cover will strongly impact GHG emissions from African inland waters.

  15. Development of a life-cycle fugitive methane emissions model utilizing device level emissions and activity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    There has been numerous studies in quantifying the scale of fugitive emissions from across the natural gas value chain. These studies have typically focused on either specific types of equipment (such as valves) or on a single part of the life-cycle of natural gas production (such as gathering stations).1,2 However it has been demonstrated that average emissions factors are not sufficient for representing leaks in the natural gas system.3 In this work, we develop a robust estimate of fugitive emissions rates by incorporating all publicly available studies done at the component up to the process level. From these known studies, we create a database of leaks with normalized nomenclature from which leak estimates can be drawn from actual leak observations. From this database, and parameterized by meta-data such as location, scale of study, or placement in the life-cycle, we construct stochastic emissions factors specific for each process unit. This will be an integrated tool as part of the Oil production greenhouse gas estimator (OPGEE) as well as the Fugitive Emissions Abatement Simulation Toolkit (FEAST) models to enhances their treatment of venting and fugitive emissions, and will be flexible to include user provided data and input parameters.4,51. Thoma, ED et al. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions. J. Environ. Prot. 2017. 2. Marchese, AJ et al. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing. ES&T 2015. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02275 3. Brandt, AR et al. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04303 4. El-Houjeiri, HM et al. An open-source LCA tool estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics. ES&T 2013. doi: 10.1021/es304570m 5. Kemp, CE et al. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source `Virtual Gas Field' Simulator. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b

  16. Influence of economic factors on future global emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Poehnell, T.G.; Miller, A.I.; Tamm, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The climate change debate is really about economics, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change potential at a reasonable and acceptable cost for everyone. In this paper, we examine the major economic factors behind defining climate change policies that relate to reducing GHG emissions, and the value to be placed on CO 2 . We examine the impacts and the 'cost of carbon' based on the studies of GHG reduction strategies in the US and the European Union (EU). We show that a series of self-defeating assumptions have been used in the latest analyses regarding relative future energy and power costs, and hence future GHG emissions. We estimate: the 'natural value' of GHG emissions based on world economic factors, the value of electricity and energy based on world data, the cost advantage of using a given new technology, and the value of avoided GHG emissions in future global and national climate change projections. The use of electricity is shown to be key in aiding economic growth for the entire world. Using the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2000 climate change projections as a base, we reflect the impacts of differing energy prices on future global climate conditions and GHG reductions. We conduct a similar analysis for Canada using the latest 'Energy in Canada 2000' projections. We show how the use of advanced technology for the traditional production of electricity, and for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, can stabilize global emissions and assist in managing adverse climate change conditions without causing economic penalties. The method we develop is sufficiently general that it can be used for valuing the economic impact of the emission reductions for any technology. We estimate the embedded value and potential economic benefit of nuclear technology and electric contribution for both the world economy to 2100, and for the latest projections for Canada to 2020. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  18. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  19. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  20. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This document is a summary of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for the States and Territories. They are taken from the national inventory and show emissions for 2002, the latest year for which national statistics on fuel and electricity consumption are available. The report shows that Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2002 amounted to 541.8 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 151.5 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 145.1 Mt; Victoria: 117.0 Mt; Western Australia: 70.4 Mt; South Australia: 30.9 Mt; Northern Territory: 17.7 Mt; Tasmania: 7.2 Mt; ACT: 1.3 Mt. The State and Territory inventories are the first of what will be an annual series. The national inventory and State and Territory inventories are all prepared according to the international rules and procedures applicable to Australia's Kyoto 108% emissions target. The national inventory undergoes regular independent international review

  1. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. NOAA Mobile Laboratory Measures Oil and Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J. D.; Petron, G.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Patrick, L.; Crepinsek, S.; Chen, H.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Lang, P. M.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Wolter, S.; Williams, J.; Jordan, A.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    A van capable of continuous real time measurements of CH4 , CO2, CO, Water Vapor, Ozone, NO, NO2, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs including aromatics and other traces gases was driven in the oil and gas fields of the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Compressor Stations, processing plants, oil and gas well heads. Separators, condensate tanks, evaporation pond disposal facilities, holding tanks, hydraulic fracturing sites, gas pipelines and more were studied using the van. The mobile measurements provide a powerful tool to get to the source of the emissions and reveal the unique chemical signature of each of the stages and components of oil and gas production as well as the overall basin and background gas concentrations. In addition to a suite of gas analyzers, the van includes a meteorological system (temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction), GPS tracking, flask sampling system and a batter power system. Aspects of the vans hardware, sampling methods and operations are discussed along with a few highlights of the measurements.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week -1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 o C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH 4 Mg -1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N 2 O Mg -1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH 4 and N 2 O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH 4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH 4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg -1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  5. Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions: gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Albert J; Ni, Ji-Qin; Lim, Teng T; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Beasley, David B; Hoff, Steven J; Nicolai, Richard E; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2006-10-01

    Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter sensors. Three-way solenoids were used to automatically switch between multiple gas sampling lines with > or =10 min sampling intervals. Inside and outside gas sampling probes were between 10 and 115 m away from the analyzers. Analyzers used chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photoacoustic infrared, and photoionization detectors for NH3, H2S, CO2, CH4, and NMHC, respectively. Data were collected using personal computer-based data acquisition hardware and software. This paper discusses the methodology of gas concentration measurements and the unique challenges that livestock barns pose for achieving desired accuracy and precision, data representativeness, comparability and completeness, and instrument calibration and maintenance.

  6. The relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and the intensity of milk production in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J W; Holden, N M

    2005-01-01

    European Union agri-environmental schemes aim to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural production, but were developed before consideration of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Life cycle assessment methodology provided a framework for comparing emissions as kg CO2 equivalent per kg of energy corrected milk (ECM) (kg CO2 kg(-1) ECM yr(-1)) and per hectare (kg CO2 ha(-1) yr(-1)) for farms both within and outside the Irish agri-environmental scheme. The agri-environmental scheme farms operate extensive systems from 40 to 120 cows producing between 3032 and 5946 kg ECM cow(-1) lactation(-1). The cows are fed on grass, conserved silage, and concentrates. Supplementation ranged between 250 and 620 kg cow(-1) yr(-1). The conventional farms had between 30 and 77 milking cows producing 4736 to 6944 kg ECM cow(-1) lactation(-1). Supplementation ranged from 400 to 1000 kg cow(-1) yr(-1). The emissions from each unit were estimated using published emissions factors and possible error was evaluated by using ranges for each factor. Calculated emissions ranged from 0.92 to 1.51 kg CO2 kg(-1) ECM yr(-1) and 5924 to 8323 kg CO2 ha(-1). On average, total emissions from conventional farms were around 18% (p = 0.01) greater than the agri-environmental scheme farms and emissions per hectare (total area required) were 17% greater (p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.335) in terms of emission per unit milk produced. To evaluate greenhouse gas emissions for each farm in terms of the system intensity it was necessary to define a measure of intensification and area per liter of milk produced that was best.

  7. Enhanced greenhouse gas emissions from the Arctic with experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Lind, Saara E.; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Biasi, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures in the Arctic are projected to increase more rapidly than in lower latitudes. With temperature being a key factor for regulating biogeochemical processes in ecosystems, even a subtle temperature increase might promote the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. Usually, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the GHGs dominating the climatic impact of tundra. However, bare, patterned ground features in the Arctic have recently been identified as hot spots for nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a potent greenhouse gas, which is almost 300 times more effective in its global warming potential than CO2; but studies on arctic N2O fluxes are rare. In this study we examined the impact of temperature increase on the seasonal GHG balance of all three important GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from three tundra surface types (vegetated peat soils, unvegetated peat soils, upland mineral soils) in the Russian Arctic (67˚ 03' N 62˚ 55' E), during the course of two growing seasons. We deployed open-top chambers (OTCs), inducing air and soil surface warming, thus mimicking predicted warming scenarios. We combined detailed CO2, CH4 and N2O flux studies with concentration measurements of these gases within the soil profile down to the active layer-permafrost interface, and complemented these GHG measurements with detailed soil nutrient (nitrate and ammonium) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements in the soil pore water profile. In our study, gentle air warming (˜1.0 ˚ C) increased the seasonal GHG release of all dominant surface types: the GHG budget of vegetated peat and mineral soils, which together cover more than 80 % of the land area in our study region, shifted from a sink to a source of -300 to 144 g CO2-eq m-2 and from -198 to 105 g CO2-eq m-2, respectively. While the positive warming response was governed by CO2, we provide here the first in situ evidence that warming increases arctic N2O emissions: Warming did not only enhance N2O emissions from

  8. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P. [Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, M.S. 6205, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rubin, J. [Margaret Chase Smith Center for Public Policy, Department of Resource, Economics and Policy, The University of Maine, 5715 Coburn, Orono, Maine (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs.

  9. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrill, C; Liverman, D; Boykoff, M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO 2 e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO 2 e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO 2 e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  12. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  13. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  14. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  15. Emission factor ratios, SOA mass yields, and the impact of vehicular emissions on SOA formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensberg, J. J.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Jathar, S.; Robinson, A. L.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    The underprediction of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) levels by current atmospheric models in urban areas is well established, yet the cause of this underprediction remains elusive. Likewise, the relative contribution of emissions from gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles to the formation of SOA is generally unresolved. We investigate the source of these two discrepancies using data from the 2010 CalNex experiment carried out in the Los Angeles Basin (Ryerson et al., 2013). Specifically, we use gas-phase organic mass (GPOM) and CO emission factors in conjunction with measured enhancements in oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) relative to CO to quantify the significant lack of closure between expected and observed organic aerosol concentrations attributable to fossil-fuel emissions. Two possible conclusions emerge from the analysis to yield consistency with the ambient data: (1) vehicular emissions are not a dominant source of anthropogenic fossil SOA in the Los Angeles Basin, or (2) the ambient SOA mass yields used to determine the SOA formation potential of vehicular emissions are substantially higher than those derived from laboratory chamber studies.

  16. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory of Natural Gas Production and Distribution over Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Omara, M.; Adams, P. J.; Presto, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas after Carbon Dioxide. The natural gas production and distribution accounts for 23% of the total anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States. The boost of natural gas production in U.S. in recent years poses a potential concern of increased methane emissions from natural gas production and distribution. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (Edgar) v4.2 and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) are currently the most commonly used methane emission inventories. However, recent studies suggested that both Edgar v4.2 and the EPA GHGI largely underestimated the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution in U.S. constrained by both ground and satellite measurements. In this work, we built a gridded (0.1° Latitude ×0.1° Longitude) methane emission inventory of natural gas production and distribution over the contiguous U.S. using emission factors measured by our mobile lab in the Marcellus Shale, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Uintah Basin, and emission factors reported from other recent field studies for other natural gas production regions. The activity data (well location and count) are mostly obtained from the Drillinginfo, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results show that the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution estimated by our inventory is about 20% higher than the EPA GHGI, and in some major natural gas production regions, methane emissions estimated by the EPA GHGI are significantly lower than our inventory. For example, in the Marcellus Shale, our estimated annual methane emission in 2015 is 600 Gg higher than the EPA GHGI. We also ran the GEOS-Chem methane simulation to estimate the methane concentration in the atmosphere with our built inventory, the EPA GHGI and the Edgar v4.2 over the nested North American Domain. These simulation results showed differences in

  17. Emissions of trace gases from Australian temperate forest fires: emission factors and dependence on modified combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérette, Elise-Andrée; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Smith, Thomas E. L.; Volkova, Liubov; Weston, Christopher J.; Meyer, Carl P.

    2018-03-01

    We characterised trace gas emissions from Australian temperate forest fires through a mixture of open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) measurements and selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and White cell FTIR analysis of grab samples. We report emission factors for a total of 25 trace gas species measured in smoke from nine prescribed fires. We find significant dependence on modified combustion efficiency (MCE) for some species, although regional differences indicate that the use of MCE as a proxy may be limited. We also find that the fire-integrated MCE values derived from our in situ on-the-ground open-path measurements are not significantly different from those reported for airborne measurements of smoke from fires in the same ecosystem. We then compare our average emission factors to those measured for temperate forest fires elsewhere (North America) and for fires in another dominant Australian ecosystem (savanna) and find significant differences in both cases. Indeed, we find that although the emission factors of some species agree within 20 %, including those of hydrogen cyanide, ethene, methanol, formaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene, others, such as acetic acid, ethanol, monoterpenes, ammonia, acetonitrile and pyrrole, differ by a factor of 2 or more. This indicates that the use of ecosystem-specific emission factors is warranted for applications involving emissions from Australian forest fires.

  18. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  19. A Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cattle Feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Flesch, Thomas K; McGinn, Sean M; Chen, Deli

    2015-11-01

    Beef cattle feedlots emit large amounts of the greenhouse gases (GHG) methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH), which contributes to NO emission when NH is deposited to land. However, there is a lack of simultaneous, in situ, and nondisturbed measurements of the major GHG gas components from beef cattle feedlots, or measurements from different feedlot sources. A short-term campaign at a beef cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia, quantified CH, NO, and NH emissions from the feedlot pens, manure stockpiles, and surface run-off pond. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers and open-path lasers (OP-Laser) were used with an inverse-dispersion technique to estimate emissions. Daily average emissions of CH, NO, and NH were 132 (± 2.3 SE), 0, and 117 (± 4.5 SE) g animal d from the pens and 22 (± 0.7 SE), 2 (± 0.2 SE), and 9 (± 0.6 SE) g animal d from the manure stockpiles. Emissions of CH and NH from the run-off pond were less than 0.5 g animal d. Extrapolating these results to the feedlot population of cattle across Australia would mean that feedlots contribute approximately 2% of the agricultural GHG emissions and 2.7% of livestock sector emissions, lower than a previous estimate of 3.5%. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  1. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  2. Non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions associated with food production: methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the agriculture and livestock sectors are large contributors of N 2 O and CH 4 emissions in countries with agricultural activities and that remedial measures are needed in these sectors in order to curb contributions to global warming. This study examines non- CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of food. Methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are the most relevant greenhouse gases in this category, and they are emitted mainly in the agricultural sector. These greenhouse gases have a Global Warming Potential much higher than CO 2 itself (25- and 298-fold higher, respectively, in a 100-year perspective). Emission intensities and the corresponding uncertainties were calculated based on the latest procedures and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and used to facilitate calculations comparing greenhouse gas emissions for food products and diets. When the proposed emission intensities were applied to agricultural production, the results showed products of animal origin and the cultivation of rice under water to have high emissions compared with products of vegetable origin cultivated on upland soils, such as wheat and beans. In animal production the main source of greenhouse gas emissions was methane from enteric fermentation, while emissions of nitrous oxides from fertilisers were the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions for cereal and legume cultivation. For rice cultivation, methane emissions from flooded rice fields contributed most. Other significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions during animal production were manure storage and management. We suggest that the proposed emission factors, together with the associated uncertainties, can be a tool for better understanding the potential to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases through changes in the diet

  3. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  4. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, Marianne; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  5. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2009 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2010-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  6. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Nielsen, Malene; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2011-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  7. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne [DMU-AU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  8. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  9. Towards a Novel Integrated Approach for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Support of International Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Manning, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Dunse, B. L.; DeCola, P.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recently adopted Paris Agreement the community of signatory states has agreed to limit the future global temperature increase between +1.5 °C and +2.0 °C, compared to pre-industrial times. To achieve this goal, emission reduction targets have been submitted by individual nations (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Inventories will be used for checking progress towards these envisaged goals. These inventories are calculated by combining information on specific activities (e.g. passenger cars, agriculture) with activity-related, typically IPCC-sanctioned, emission factors - the so-called bottom-up method. These calculated emissions are reported on an annual basis and are checked by external bodies by using the same method. A second independent method estimates emissions by translating greenhouse gas measurements made at regionally representative stations into regional/global emissions using meteorologically-based transport models. In recent years this so-called top-down approach has been substantially advanced into a powerful tool and emission estimates at the national/regional level have become possible. This method is already used in Switzerland, in the United Kingdom and in Australia to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and independently support the national bottom-up emission inventories within the UNFCCC framework. Examples of the comparison of the two independent methods will be presented and the added-value will be discussed. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and partner organizations are currently developing a plan to expand this top-down approach and to expand the globally representative GAW network of ground-based stations and remote-sensing platforms and integrate their information with atmospheric transport models. This Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) initiative will help nations to improve the accuracy of their country-based emissions inventories and their ability to evaluate the

  10. Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adger, W.N.; Moran, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies

  11. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of anesthetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jodi; Le, Cathy; Lamers, Vanessa; Eckelman, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Anesthesiologists must consider the entire life cycle of drugs in order to include environmental impacts into clinical decisions. In the present study we used life cycle assessment to examine the climate change impacts of 5 anesthetic drugs: sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and propofol. A full cradle-to-grave approach was used, encompassing resource extraction, drug manufacturing, transport to health care facilities, drug delivery to the patient, and disposal or emission to the environment. At each stage of the life cycle, energy, material inputs, and emissions were considered, as well as use-specific impacts of each drug. The 4 inhalation anesthetics are greenhouse gases (GHGs), and so life cycle GHG emissions include waste anesthetic gases vented to the atmosphere and emissions (largely carbon dioxide) that arise from other life cycle stages. Desflurane accounts for the largest life cycle GHG impact among the anesthetic drugs considered here: 15 times that of isoflurane and 20 times that of sevoflurane on a per MAC-hour basis when administered in an O(2)/air admixture. GHG emissions increase significantly for all drugs when administered in an N(2)O/O(2) admixture. For all of the inhalation anesthetics, GHG impacts are dominated by uncontrolled emissions of waste anesthetic gases. GHG impacts of propofol are comparatively quite small, nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of desflurane or nitrous oxide. Unlike the inhaled drugs, the GHG impacts of propofol primarily stem from the electricity required for the syringe pump and not from drug production or direct release to the environment. Our results reiterate previous published data on the GHG effects of these inhaled drugs, while providing a life cycle context. There are several practical environmental impact mitigation strategies. Desflurane and nitrous oxide should be restricted to cases where they may reduce morbidity and mortality over alternative drugs. Clinicians should avoid

  12. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei

    2018-02-27

    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p gas emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p gas emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  13. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  15. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  16. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  17. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  18. Effects of gasoline property on exhaust emission; Gasoline sosei ga haishutsu gas ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameoka, A.; Tsuruga, F.; Hosoi, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    In order to clarify the impact factors of gasoline property on emission gas, continuous measurement and behavior analysis of emission gas were carried out during running of vehicles. Two passenger vehicles of 2L (A) and 2.5L (B) in total displacement, catalyst aged for hours equivalent to 10,000km running and dummy catalyst with no catalytic effects were used for the experiment. A learning control system was also adopted only for the vehicle A. In 11 mode running, CO, THC and NOx emissions increased with aromatic content in gasoline in No.1 trip. In 10/15 mode running, although CO and THC emissions increased with aromatic content in gasoline, the amount of NOx emission was dependent on the kind of vehicles. On the vehicle B with no learning control system, it was probably derived from the fact that an air excess rate increases with an increase in fuel mass by supplying high-density high-aromatic gasoline. CO, THC and NOx increased with sulfur content in gasoline. In particular, the sulfur content had a large effect on NOx emission. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drainage of peatlands leads to the decomposition of peat, resulting in substantial losses of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. The conservation and restoration of peatlands can provide a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change. Improvements to guidance and capacity for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands will be valuable in the context of the current negotiations towards a post-2012 climate agreement. This article evaluates IPCC approaches to greenhouse gas emissions from managed organic (peat soils and presents a summary table comparing IPCC default values with best estimates based on recent literature. Inconsistencies are pointed out with regard to the IPCC definitions of organic soils and climate zones. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines use a definition of organic soil that is not totally consistent with FAO definitions, use climate zones that are not fully compatible, present default CO2 values that are substantially (often an order of magnitude too low, and present a default N2O value for tropical cropland that is also an order of magnitude too low. An update of IPCC default values is desirable. The IPCC Emission Factor Database offers a platform for establishing more accurate emission factors, but so far contains little information about emissions from peat soils.

  20. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  1. Global change could amplify fire effects on soil greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niboyet, Audrey; Brown, Jamie R; Dijkstra, Paul; Blankinship, Joseph C; Leadley, Paul W; Le Roux, Xavier; Barthes, Laure; Barnard, Romain L; Field, Christopher B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. We took advantage of an accidental, low-severity wildfire that burned part of a long-term global change experiment to investigate the interactive effects of a fire disturbance and increases in CO(2) concentration, precipitation and nitrogen supply on soil nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in a grassland ecosystem. We examined the responses of soil N(2)O emissions, as well as the responses of the two main microbial processes contributing to soil N(2)O production--nitrification and denitrification--and of their main drivers. We show that the fire disturbance greatly increased soil N(2)O emissions over a three-year period, and that elevated CO(2) and enhanced nitrogen supply amplified fire effects on soil N(2)O emissions: emissions increased by a factor of two with fire alone and by a factor of six under the combined influence of fire, elevated CO(2) and nitrogen. We also provide evidence that this response was caused by increased microbial denitrification, resulting from increased soil moisture and soil carbon and nitrogen availability in the burned and fertilized plots. Our results indicate that the combined effects of fire and global environmental changes can exceed their effects in isolation, thereby creating unexpected feedbacks to soil greenhouse gas emissions. These findings highlight the need to further explore the impacts of ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning in the context of global change if we wish to be able to model future soil greenhouse gas emissions with greater confidence.

  2. Mobil emission reduction credits for natural gas vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, there has been increasing interest among regulators and business interests alike in innovative, market-based strategies to air quality control. In particular, larger metropolitan areas have begun to examine marketable emission reduction credit (ERC) programs. These programs limit the total allowable emissions in a non-attainment area, allocate these emission open-quotes creditsclose quotes among sources in the region, and allow the sources to redistribute their allowances through trading. This approach provides for the most cost-effective distribution of control burdens among affected sources, taking advantage of the differences in marginal control costs. Some control measures applied to mobile sources may be significantly less expensive than those applied to stationary sources, making mobile sources an excellent candidate for inclusion in an ERC program. However, there are several potential problems involving quantification, enforcement, and credit trading issues that hinder the development of mobile source ERC programs. This paper will evaluate those obstacles and discuss how they are being addressed in a Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) program currently under development for the Houston ozone non-attainment area. Specifically, the study will outline the credit validation (i.e., quantification) procedure, including baseline emission determination and emission testing for each NGV in the program. In addition, the study will describe the vehicle/fuel consumption tracking system, and discuss issues related to credit trading with stationary sources. Finally, observations are made concerning the applicability of mobile ERC programs for other emission control measures such as old vehicle scrappage and vehicle Inspection and Maintenance programs

  3. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  4. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  5. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  6. Structural decomposition analysis of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A complex system of production links our greenhouse gas emissions to our consumer demands. Whilst progress may be made in improving efficiency, other changes in the production structure may easily annul global improvements. Utilising a structural decomposition analysis, a comparative-static technique of input-output analysis, over a time period of around 30 years, net greenhouse emissions are decomposed in this study into the effects, due to changes in industrial efficiency, forward linkages, inter-industry structure, backward linkages, type of final demand, cause of final demand, population affluence, population size, and mix and level of exports. Historically, significant competing forces at both the whole of economy and industrial scale have been mitigating potential improvements. Key sectors and structural influences are identified that have historically shown the greatest potential for change, and would likely have the greatest net impact. Results clearly reinforce that the current dichotomy of growth and exports are the key problems in need of address.

  7. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, A.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Elias, T. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  10. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  11. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Southwest Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneck, T.

    1992-01-01

    At present this study does not give any scientific propositions which could be used in managing structural changes in the economy and social life. Therefore only the basic assumptions of the frame of reference used in analysis are explained. The first stage of the study concentrates on three propositions which can be used in analyzing the human aspects related to climate change. These propositions are based on the assumption that no international pacts on carbon equivalent rights will be agreed on. This assumption is taken because the aim is to propose principles for cooperation between education, R and D activities and industry which automatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions of industry and social life

  12. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the level...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  13. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from a small and shallow temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Schmiedeskamp, Marcel; Broder, Tanja; Hüttemann, Caroline; Jansen, Laura; Metzelder, Ulrike; Wallis, Ronya; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Small inland waters (measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes with different techniques across the sediment/water and water/atmosphere interface. Atmospheric exchange was measured using mini-chambers equipped with CO2 sensors and with an infra-red greenhouse gas analyzer for high temporal resolution flux measurements. Ebullition of CH4 was quantified with funnel traps. Sediment properties were examined using pore-water peepers. All measurements were carried out along a transect covering both littoral and central parts of the lake. Moreover, a weather station on a floating platform in the center of the lake recorded meteorological data as well as CO2 concentration in different depths of the water column. So far, Lake Windsborn seems to be a source for both CO2 and CH4 on an annual scale. CO2 emissions generally increased from spring to summer. Even though CO2 uptake could be observed during some periods in spring and fall, CO2 emissions in the summer exceeded the uptake. CO2 and CH4 emissions also appeared to be spatially variable between littoral areas and the inner lake. Shallow areas turned out to be "hot spots" of CO2 emissions whereas CH4 emissions were - against our expectations - highest in the center of the lake. Moreover, CH4 ebullition contributed substantially to total CH4 emissions. Our results show the importance of spatially and temporally highly resolved long-term measurements of greenhouse gas emissions and of potential controlling factors to address diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual variability as well as possible feedbacks to climate change.

  15. Communicating the Uncertainty in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication of the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions is important. It allows an individual, whether they are a scientist, policy maker or member of the public, to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. Communicating uncertainty is challenging, however. There is no single best method for communicating uncertainty and the success of a particular method will depend on the subject matter and the target audience. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from a national inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: calibrated phrases such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely'; probabilities, whereby the probability of being within a defined range of values is given; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots and shaded arrays. We asked 64 individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory for their opinions on how successfully these methods communicated uncertainty. We analysed the results to see which methods were preferred and to see whether this preference was affected either by the professional group to which individuals belonged or the level of mathematics to which they were educated. The professional groups represented in our study were categorised as (i) those who influence policy (ii) research scientists (iii) those representing the environment and (iv) those representing the agricultural industry. The responses to our questionnaire were varied but some clear messages came through. Our analysis showed that although calibrated phrases were thought to be a good method of communication they did not convey enough information and were open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticized for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best indication of uncertainty when individuals were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2002. National Inventory Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Goldewijk, K.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Vreuls, H.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the 2004 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. These guidelines, which also refer to Revised 1997 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance reports, provide a format for the definition of source categories and for calculation, documentation and reporting of emissions. The guidelines aim at facilitating verification, technical assessment and expert review of the inventory information by independent Expert Review Teams by the UNFCCC. Therefore, the inventories should be transparent, consistent, comparable, complete and accurate as elaborated in the UNFCCC Guidelines for reporting and be prepared using good practice as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This National Inventory Report (NIR) 2004 therefore provides explanations of the trends in greenhouse gas emissions for the 1990-2001 period and summary descriptions of methods and data sources of (a) Tier 1 assessments of the uncertainty in annual emissions and in emission trends; (b) a preliminary assessment of key sources following the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance; and (c) Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities. This report gives no specific information on the effectiveness of government policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; this information can be found in RIVM's Environmental Balance 2003. Please note that the emissions presented in this dataset for 2002, i.e. for the most recent year, have been compiled using sometimes estimated activity data and may therefore have been calculated somewhat differently than the emissions of other years (see Annexes 2.1 and 3). So-called Common Reporting Format (CRF) spreadsheet files, containing data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors, accompany this report. The

  17. The importance of economies of scale for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions and are forecast to increase by 150%–250% by 2050, due to increased freight volumes (). Fulfilling anticipated climate requirements () could require the sector to reduce emissions per freight unit by a factor of five or six. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating technical, operational and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper also investigates the effects of economies of scale on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport. We compared emissions from the current fleet (2007), with what can be achieved by increasing average vessel size. The comparison is based on the 2007 levels of trade and predictions for 2050. The results show that emissions can be reduced by up to 30% at a negative abatement cost per ton of CO 2 by replacing the existing fleet with larger vessels. Replacing the whole fleet might take as long as 25 years, so the reduction in emissions will be achieved gradually as the current fleet is renewed. - Highlights: ► We investigate the effects of economy of scale for reduction of GHG emissions from shipping. ► Model includes both cost and emission as function of vessel size and type. ► Model is based on operational patterns as of today for the different vessel types and sizes. ► Comparison is based on actual 2007 tonnages and foreseen 2050 levels of trading. ► Results shows that emissions can be reduced by 25%–30% at a negative abatement cost.

  18. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  19. Political influences on greenhouse gas emissions from US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Frank, Kenneth A; Whitley, Cameron T; Kelly, Jennifer; Kelly, Rachel

    2015-07-07

    Starting at least in the 1970s, empirical work suggested that demographic (population) and economic (affluence) forces are the key drivers of anthropogenic stress on the environment. We evaluate the extent to which politics attenuates the effects of economic and demographic factors on environmental outcomes by examining variation in CO2 emissions across US states and within states over time. We find that demographic and economic forces can in part be offset by politics supportive of the environment--increases in emissions over time are lower in states that elect legislators with strong environmental records.

  20. Political influences on greenhouse gas emissions from US states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Frank, Kenneth A.; Whitley, Cameron T.; Kelly, Jennifer; Kelly, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Starting at least in the 1970s, empirical work suggested that demographic (population) and economic (affluence) forces are the key drivers of anthropogenic stress on the environment. We evaluate the extent to which politics attenuates the effects of economic and demographic factors on environmental outcomes by examining variation in CO2 emissions across US states and within states over time. We find that demographic and economic forces can in part be offset by politics supportive of the environment—increases in emissions over time are lower in states that elect legislators with strong environmental records. PMID:26080396

  1. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  2. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  3. CO and PAH Emissions from Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from producer gas engine based power plants in most EU countrie...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2018-01-01

    prediction and mitigation. Although more representative emission factors may be determined at country level, this is both challenging and costly, and effects of management changes for GHG mitigation are not easily quantified. An empirical model of CH4 emissions during storage is discussed that is based......The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more...... efficient recycling of manure nutrients for crop production. Opportunities for GHG mitigation will depend on the baseline situation with respect to handling and storage, and therefore prediction and mitigation at the farm level requires a dynamic description of housing systems and storage conditions...

  5. Rice Cultivation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review and Conceptual Framework with Reference to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi K. Boateng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an essential crop in Ghana. Several aspects of rice have been studied to increase its production; however, the environmental aspects, including impact on climate change, have not been studied well. There is therefore a gap in knowledge, and hence the need for continuous research. By accessing academic portals, such as Springer Open, InTech Open, Elsevier, and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology’s offline campus library, 61 academic publications including peer reviewed journals, books, working papers, reports, etc. were critically reviewed. It was found that there is a lack of data on how paddy rice production systems affect greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, particularly emissions estimation, geographical location, and crops. Regarding GHG emission estimation, the review identified the use of emission factors calibrated using temperate conditions which do not suit tropical conditions. On location, most research on rice GHG emissions have been carried out in Asia with little input from Africa. In regard to crops, there is paucity of in-situ emissions data from paddy fields in Ghana. Drawing on the review, a conceptual framework is developed using Ghana as reference point to guide the discussion on fertilizer application, water management rice cultivars, and soil for future development of adaptation strategies for rice emission reduction.

  6. Development of odorous gas model using municipal solid waste emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar bin Othman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2010-01-01

    The impact of ambient odour in the vicinity of the Semenyih MSW processing plant, commonly known as RDF plant, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the business operation and sustainability of the plant. The precise source of the odour, types, emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the ambient standards. To develop the odour gas model for the purpose of treatment is very compulsory because in MSW odour it contain many component of chemical that contribute the smell. Upon modelling using an established package as well as site measurements, the odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant was deduced and found to be marginally high, above the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a study was made to model odour using Ausplume Model. This paper will address and discuss the measurement of ambient gas odour, the dispersion modelling to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as experimental validation using a simulated odour. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ausplume modelling to develop the pattern of odour concentrations for various condition and times, as well as adapting the model for MSW odour controls. (author)

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Arctic Freshwaters: Approaches for Scaling UP

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, S.; Cortés, A.; Cooke, M.; Sadro, S.; Kushner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence moderates emissions of greenhouse gases on a number of scales, and it, in turn, is moderated by processes which govern the stability of boundary layers. On the smallest scale, it mediates the fluxes of gases across the air-water interface; at intermediate scales, that is, the size of within lake eddies, it brings gases to the air-water interface; on a larger scale, eddies in the unstable atmospheric boundary layers transport gases away from water bodies and maintain concentration gradients and further, help sustain fluxes by inducing within lake turbulence. The winds and cooling which induce within-lake turbulence and over-lake boundary layers are moderated by weather patterns dependent on even larger scale physical processes. Using time series measurements of lake temperatures, surface meteorology, and profiles of temperature-gradient microstructure in Alaskan arctic lakes ranging from 0.1 to 150 ha in surface area, we quantify the dependency of turbulence in the water column and at the air-water interface on surface meteorology and lake size. We show the lake size dependent variability in the stability of atmospheric boundary layers. We illustrate the resulting lake-size and weather dependent variability in gas transfer coefficients and within lake mixing. Using cluster analysis, we identify dominant weather patterns in the Alaskan Arctic Region and link them to within lake mixing dynamics. We then illustrate the dependency of greenhouse gas emissions on variability in local weather, lake size, and weather patterns.

  8. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  9. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: some unexplored variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the so-called "carbon debt") has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt due to land use change and begin providing cumulative greenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the "payback period" and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: "direct" land use change, in which the land use change occurs as part of a specific supply chain for a specific biofuel production facility, and "indirect" land use change, in which market forces act to produce land use change in land that is not part of a specific biofuel supply chain, including, for example, hypothetical land use change on another continent. Existing land use change studies did not consider many of the potentially important variables that might affect the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. We examine here several variables that have not yet been addressed in land use change studies. Our analysis shows that cropping management is a key factor in estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use change. Sustainable cropping management practices (no-till and no-till plus cover crops) reduce the payback period to 3 years for the grassland conversion case and to 14 years for the forest conversion case. It is significant that no-till and cover crop practices also yield higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in corn fields derived from former grasslands or forests than the SOC levels that result if these grasslands or forests are allowed to continue undisturbed. The United States currently does not hold any of its domestic industries responsible for its greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the greenhouse gas standards established for renewable fuels such as corn ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set a

  10. Effect of land use on greenhouse gas emission in tropical ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Tropical ecosystems play an important role for the regional and global climate system through the exchange of greenhouse gases and provide important ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration, produce, and biodiversity. Human activities have, however, resulted in intensive transformation of tropical ecosystems impacting the cycling of nutrients, water and carbon underlying the greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, best-bet agricultural practices can reduce greenhouse gas emission, those directly emitted from the agricultural fields, but also indirectly through less demand on new land and hence forest conservation. Here, I will provide some insights into the main factors affecting the exchange of greenhouse gases from the plot to continental scale through some specific case studies. Experimental data, stable isotopes and modeling results will be presented.

  11. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  12. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  13. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  14. Biochar Impacts on Soil Physical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a co-product of a controlled pyrolysis process, can be used as a tool for sequestering C in soil to offset greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and as a soil amendment. Whereas the impacts of biochar application on soil chemical properties are widely known, the research information on soil physical properties is scarce. The objectives of this review are to (i synthesize available data on soil physical properties and GHG emissions, (ii offer possible mechanisms related to the biochar-amended soil processes, and (iii identify researchable priorities. Application rates of 1%–2% (w/w of biochar can significantly improve soil physical quality in terms of bulk density (BD, and water holding capacity (WHC. However, little data are available on surface area (SA, aggregation stability, and penetration resistance (PR of biochar-amended soil. While biochar amendment can initially accentuate the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2, the emission of GHGs may be suppressed over time. A 2-phase complexation hypothesis is proposed regarding the mechanisms of the interaction between soil and biochar.

  15. Gas emission from anaerobic decomposition of plant resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of gases resulting from the anaerobic decomposition of different plant resources under conditions usually found in sediments of tropical aquatic systems and drained organic soils. Methods Incubations were prepared with green leaves, bark, twigs, plant litter, sugarcane stalks and leaves, soybean leaves, grasses, forest leaves and an aquatic macrophyte (Typha domingensis. Over 10 months, the daily volume of gas evolved from decay was measured and a kinetic model was used to describe the anaerobic mineralization. Results Using the mathematical model, it can be observed that the composition of the plant resources is heterogeneous. The temporal variation of the gas rates indicated that the mineralization of the labile fractions of detritus varied, on a carbon basis, from 16.2 (bark to 100% (samples composed of leaves, grasses and sugar cane stalks. High gas emissions were observed during the mineralization of grasses, sugar cane stalks, leaves and plant litter, while low volumes of gases were measured during the mineralization of bark, twigs, forest leaves and T. domingensis, which are the most fibrous and recalcitrant resources (carbon content: 83.8, 78.2, 64.8 and 53.4%, respectively. The mineralization of labile carbon presented half-life values, which varied from 41 (twigs to 295 days (grasses. Conclusions Considering the high amount of remaining recalcitrant fraction, the anaerobic decomposition of these plant resources showed a strong trend towards accumulating organic matter in flooded soils. Despite the higher temperatures found in the tropical environment, these environments represent a sink of particulate detritus due to its slow decomposition.

  16. Emission factors for smouldering peat megafires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Rory; Santamaria, Simon; Pironi, Paolo; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Smouldering wildfires occur in large deposits of peat across the globe in boreal and temperate regions. These fires are the most persistent fires on earth and consume large quantities of biomass which can take centuries or longer to regenerate. Recently large peat fires in Indonesia have caused significant health issues across a large geographic area in south east Asia. A similar event that occurred in 1997 was estimated to have released up to 13.7Gt of carbon to the atmosphere. Globally, the carbon stored in peatlands is greater than that stored in vegetation and is similar to that stored in the atmosphere. One of the major threats to these ecosystems is smouldering megafires which can be ignited easily in peat with the resulting fire persisting for extended periods of time (often many weeks or months). Given the potential impact on global carbon balances, it is essential to have accurate estimates of carbon emitted from these fires. Is is established that the emissions from any combustion process are strongly dependent on the combustion conditions these include the temperature (energy balance), availability of oxygen and the fuel composition. Because smouldering is a persistent form of combustion, it can occur over a wide range of conditions. This necessitates an understanding of emission factors linked to the burning dynamics. To allow for controlled, repeatable burning conditions across this range of conditions, a series of laboratory scale experiments were undertaken to identify the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane flux from samples of smouldering sphagnum moss peat. This peat is used as it has been extensively studied experimentally and numerically. By using repeatable experimental conditions delivered by the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus, the flux of CO, CO2 and methane can be linked to the smouldering fire dynamics. Smouldering in shallow fronts is represented by burning in ambient oxygen concentration while deep fronts are simulated using

  17. Sustainable development relevant comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chains of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Vate, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is emphasized that sustainable energy planning should account for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the whole energy chain, hence accounting not only carbon dioxide as the greenhouse gas and not only for the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions from the worldwide energy use can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of all GHGs. Only energy sources with similar output can be compared. This study investigates electricity generating technologies, which are compared in terms their GHG emission factors to be expressed in CO 2 -equivalents per kW.h(e). Earlier IAEA expert meetings are reviewed. A general meeting made general recommendations about methods and input data bases for FENCH-GHG analysis. Two more recent meetings dealt with the energy chains of nuclear and hydropower. The site-specific character of the emission factors of these energy sources is discussed. Both electricity generators have emission factors in the range of 5-30 g CO 2 -equiv./kW.h(e), which is very low compared to the FENCH-GHG emission factors of fossil-fueled power generation and of most of the renewable power generators. (author)

  18. Climate change science : high quality greenhouse gas emissions data are a cornerstone of programs to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    This testimony focuses on (1) the importance of quality data on emissions in the context of a program intended to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) key considerations in developing reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions. This testimony is ba...

  19. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Wells, J.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  2. Can fire regimes in savannas be managed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: evidence from northern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Garry; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Reisen, Fabienne; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Maier, Stefan; Liedloff, Adam; Schatz, Jon; Yates, Cameron; Watt, Felicity

    2010-05-01

    Burning of savannas and grasslands consumes more than one third of the total annual biomass burning globally while in Australia, savanna burning comprises 2% to 4% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This national significance of this has led to efforts to reduce savanna burning emissions by better managing the extensive fires that burn across northern Australia each year. The approach is to use early dry season fires to create burnt fire breaks and reduce the frequency of late dry season fire and fires overall. Underpinning these mitigation programs is a requirement for robust GHG accounting. While extensive field programs have addressed some of the issues, including fuel loads and combustion properties within some of the potential project areas, other assumptions have not been rigorously analyzed. These include the seasonality in fuel dynamics and fuel moisture and their effect on emission processes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) argues that as fuel dries progressively through the dry season combustion efficiency increases and consequently methane (CH4) emission factor (EF) can decrease by 50% to 75%. If this was indeed the case, it would invalidate the approach to managing savanna burning for greenhouse gas abatement in northern Australia. Australian savanna differs substantially from the African savannas from which the IPCC advice was drawn. In Australian savanna woodlands a large fraction of the fuel is comprised of tree leaf litter and associated twigs and branches in contrast to African savannas where grasses assume a more dominant role. In this paper we analyze how variation in fuel composition across the northern Australian savanna plant communities influences combustion and GHG emission properties and conclude that fuel dynamics and composition can explain most of the observed variation in emission properties. The implications of this for greenhouse gas accounting in northern Australia is assessed.

  3. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  5. Emission Spectroscopy of the 4X Source Discharge With and Without N2 Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Horace Vernon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-14

    This tech note summarizes the December, 1988 emission spectroscopy measurements made on the 4X source discharge with and without N₂ gas added to the H + Cs discharge. This study is motivated by the desire to understand why small amounts of N₂ gas added to the source discharge results in a reduction in the H⁻ beam noise. The beneficial effect of N₂ gas on H⁻ beam noise was first discovered by Bill Ingalls and Stu Orbesen on the ATS SAS source. For the 4X source the observed effect is that when N2 gas is added to the discharge the H⁻ beam noise is reduced about a factor of 2.

  6. Evaluating Gas Emissions From Landfills – Which Methodologies Can Be Used?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Many methodologies exist to measure whole landfill methane emission as alternatives to imprecise estimation of the methane emission using existing landfill gas generation models. An overview of the different measurement methodologies is given, and suggestions to the most promising methodologies...

  7. U.S. Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: State of the Practice and Recommendations for Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document presents highlights from five research reports on airport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories. It presents the most salient findings for policy makers and U.S. airports seeking to better understand and inventory airport GHG emiss...

  8. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  9. Describing and compensating gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Ajtay, Delia

    Instantaneous emission measurements on chassis dynamometers and engine test benches are becoming increasingly usual for car-makers and for environmental emission factor measurement and calculation, since much more information about the formation conditions can be extracted than from the regulated bag measurements (integral values). The common exhaust gas analysers for the "regulated pollutants" (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide) allow measurement at a rate of one to ten samples per second. This gives the impression of having after-the-catalyst emission information with that chronological precision. It has been shown in recent years, however, that beside the reaction time of the analysers, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement system last significantly longer than 1 s. This paper focuses on the compensation of all these dynamics convoluting the emission signals. Most analysers show linear and time-invariant reaction dynamics. Transport dynamics can basically be split into two phenomena: a pure time delay accounting for the transport of the gas downstream and a dynamic signal deformation since the gas is mixed by turbulence along the way. This causes emission peaks to occur which are smaller in height and longer in time at the sensors than they are after the catalyst. These dynamics can be modelled using differential equations. Both mixing dynamics and time delay are constant for modelling a raw gas analyser system, since the flow in that system is constant. In the exhaust system of the car, however, the parameters depend on the exhaust volume flow. For gasoline cars, the variation in overall transport time may be more than 6 s. It is shown in this paper how all these processes can be described by invertible mathematical models with the focus on the more complex case of the car's exhaust system. Inversion means that the sharp emission signal at the catalyst out location can be

  10. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  11. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Albert H.; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  12. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both corn and cellulosic ethanol will inform the on-going debate concerning their magnitudes and sources of variability. Results In our study, we estimate LUC GHG emissions for ethanol from four feedstocks: corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus. We use new computable general equilibrium (CGE) results for worldwide LUC. U.S. domestic carbon emission factors are from state-level modelling with a surrogate CENTURY model and U.S. Forest Service data. This paper investigates the effect of several key domestic lands carbon content modelling parameters on LUC GHG emissions. International carbon emission factors are from the Woods Hole Research Center. LUC GHG emissions are calculated from these LUCs and carbon content data with Argonne National Laboratory’s Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) model. Our results indicate that miscanthus and corn ethanol have the lowest (−10 g CO2e/MJ) and highest (7.6 g CO2e/MJ) LUC GHG emissions under base case modelling assumptions. The results for corn ethanol are lower than corresponding results from previous studies. Switchgrass ethanol base case results (2.8 g CO2e/MJ) were the most influenced by assumptions regarding converted forestlands and the fate of carbon in harvested wood products. They are greater than miscanthus LUC GHG emissions because switchgrass is a lower-yielding crop. Finally, LUC GHG emissions for corn stover are essentially negligible and insensitive to changes in model assumptions. Conclusions This research provides new insight into the influence of key carbon content modelling variables on LUC GHG emissions

  13. Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulidou, Marina; Fontaras, Georgios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Bonnel, Pierre; Samaras, Zissis; Dilara, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and validation of passenger car emission factors, using real world operation data. In total, six passenger cars of different technologies were studied. The tested vehicles were operated under various driving conditions and over two different routes in the region of Lombardia, Italy. These routes were specifically defined in order to provide a range of driving conditions, including urban, rural and highway driving. Tailpipe emissions and exhaust gas flows were measured on-board the vehicle, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). In addition, all vehicles were tested over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) with the same PEMS equipment. The testing of gasoline vehicles showed that emissions are well below the emission standards and do not raise any concern. However, the testing of diesel vehicles both under real-world driving conditions and over the NEDC brought to the surface important concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern diesel vehicles, since they seem to comply with the corresponding emission standard over the type-approval cycle, but they constantly exceed the specified limit when tested under real-world driving conditions. Results from real-world operation revealed that there is a significant deviation from the NOx emission standard limit (especially for the newly introduced Euro 5 technology). These observations raise concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern vehicles and their impact on urban air-quality. The emission factors originally measured on the road are also compared to the corresponding COPERT average speed emission factors. In general, emissions of CO2, THC and CO correlate fairly well with COPERT, for all vehicles. In the case of NOx emissions, emission levels of the two tested Euro 5 diesel passenger cars are consistently higher in urban, rural, and highway driving compared to the corresponding COPERT emission factor. Thus, leading to the conclusion that

  14. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  15. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Miao; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO(2) from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eagle Ford Shale BTEX and NOx concentrations are dominated by oil and gas industry emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, G. W.; Roest, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    US shale oil and gas exploration has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions to the atmosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of 2015 air quality data acquired by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) at an air quality monitoring station in Karnes County, TX, central to Texas' Eagle Ford shale area. Data include time series of hourly measured NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) alongside meteorological measurements. The monitor was located in Karnes City, and thus affected by various anthropogenic emissions, including traffic and oil and gas exploration sources. Highest mixing ratios measured in 2015 included nearly 1 ppm ethane, 0.8 ppm propane, alongside 4 ppb benzene. A least-squares minimization non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis, tested with prior data analyzed using standard PMF-2 software, showed six major emission sources: an evaporative and fugitive source, a flaring source, a traffic source, an oil field source, a diesel source, and an industrial manufacturing source, together accounting for more than 95% of data set variability, and interpreted using NMHC composition and meteorological data. Factor scores strongly suggest that NOx emissions are dominated by flaring and associated sources, such as diesel compressor engines, likely at midstream facilities, while traffic in this rural area is a minor NOx source. The results support, but exceed existing 2012 emission inventories estimating that local traffic emitted seven times fewer NOx than oil and gas exploration sources in the county. Sources of air toxics such as the BTEX compounds are also dominated by oil and gas exploration sources, but are more equally distributed between the associated factors. Benzene abundance is only 20-40% associated with traffic sources, and may thus be 2.5-5 times higher now than prior to the shale boom in this area. Although the monitor was located relatively

  18. Evaluation of a Fuel-Based Oil and Gas Inventory of Nitrogen Oxides with Top-Down Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Gorchov Negron, A.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Gilman, J.; Ahmadov, R.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thompson, C. R.; Trainer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted overestimates in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the U.S., with particular attention on the mobile source sector. In this study, we explore whether there could be overestimates in the emissions of NOx from oil and gas production regions. We construct a bottom-up inventory using publicly available fuel use records of the industry and emission factors reported in the literature. We compare both the NEI 2011 and the fuel-based inventory with top-down emission fluxes derived by aircraft and ground-based field measurement campaigns by NOAA that occurred in 2012-13, including for basins located in Uintah, Haynesville, Marcellus, and Fayetteville. Compared to the top-down fluxes, the NEI overestimates NOx by a factor of 2 across the four basins. However, the discrepancies are not uniform, reflecting variability in oil and gas engine activity and NOx emission factors. We explore this variability with our fuel-based inventory and perform a Monte Carlo analysis to assess uncertainties in emissions. We find that on average the fuel-based inventory improves the agreement with the top-down emissions, and that the top-down emissions are within the uncertainties of our analysis.

  19. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  20. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  1. The Nature of Temporally Variable Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Stirm, B. H.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Mayfield, M.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current state of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas operations, policy makers refer to national inventories and reporting programs, and therefore, it is imperative that these reports are accurate and representative. Many studies exist that investigate the reliability of current monitoring methods, however, to our knowledge the temporal variability of the magnitude and source of methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas facilities has not been reported in the literature. We present results from a field campaign conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas to assess the temporal variability of emissions from a variety of facilities using data obtained through four different methods. The variability of total CH4 emission rate from individual facilities was investigated by repeated measurement of emissions from five gathering facilities using two aircraft-based mass balance approaches. Basin-wide emissions variation was examined by conducting a series of eight four hour afternoon aerial surveys of two 35 x 35 km areas, with transects oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. The emission source-type and magnitude were further investigated using helicopter-based FLIR camera observations conducted repeatedly at eight oil wells, one gas well, and four gathering facilities. Results indicate a high degree of variability in day-to-day and sometimes hour-to-hour CH4 emissions magnitude. FLIR camera observations suggest that the component-level source of facility emissions is also highly variable over time, with both storage tank vent stacks and tank hatches representing important components of the observed day-to-day variability. While some emissions were due to scheduled maintenance, others appeared to occur due to faulty and/or aging equipment. Here we discuss what was learned in terms of factors that explain the observed emission rate variability.

  2. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, H; Havlík, P; Mosnier, A; Obersteiner, M; Herrero, M; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  3. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  4. Greenhouse gas emission offsets: A global warming insurance policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    While scientists work to define the nature and extent of potential climate change, policy makers debate the appropriateness of different responses. One voluntary initiative has pursued a possible response: greenhouse gas offsets. This article describes a program undertaken by The AES Corporation to attempt to offset CO 2 emissions from cogeneration facilities run by the corporation. Independent investigations indicated that an extensive reforestation program might be a practical way to create sinks for CO 2 . This article describes some of the practical concerns of this project. It also describes efforts made to locate areas to carry out a reforestation program, groups worked with, and effort devoted to finding ways to quantify the success of any effort undertaken

  5. Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990-2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy open lot and manure stockpile in northern China: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Luyu; Lu, Qikun; Xie, Lina; Liu, Jie; Cao, Wei; Shi, Zhengxiang; Li, Baoming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ren, Shixi

    2016-03-01

    The open lots and manure stockpiles of dairy farm are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in typical dairy cow housing and manure management system in China. GHG (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) emissions from the ground level of brick-paved open lots and uncovered manure stockpiles were estimated according to the field measurements of a typical dairy farm in Beijing by closed chambers in four consecutive seasons. Location variation and manure removal strategy impacts were assessed on GHG emissions from the open lots. Estimated CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from the ground level of the open lots were 137.5±64.7 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), 0.45±0.21 kg hd(-1) yr(-1) and 0.13±0.08 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively. There were remarkable location variations of GHG emissions from different zones (cubicle zone vs. aisle zone) of the open lot. However, the emissions from the whole open lot were less affected by the locations. After manure removal, lower CH(4) but higher N(2)O emitted from the open lot. Estimated CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from stockpile with a stacking height of 55±12 cm were 858.9±375.8 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), 8.5±5.4 kg hd(-1) yr(-1) and 2.3±1.1 kg hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively. In situ storage duration, which estimated by manure volatile solid contents (VS), would affect GHG emissions from stockpiles. Much higher N(2)O was emitted from stockpiles in summer due to longer manure storage. This study deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from open lots and stockpiles. It's an increasing area of concern in some livestock producing countries. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology is commonly used for estimation of national GHG emission inventories. There is a shortage of on-farm information to evaluate the accuracy of these equations and default emission factors. This work provides valuable information for improving accounting practices within China or for similar manure management practice in other countries.

  7. How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, M.; Steinmann, Z. J. N.; Laurenzi, I. J.; Karuppiah, R.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2014-07-01

    This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions.

  8. How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, M; Steinmann, Z J N; Huijbregts, M A J; Laurenzi, I J; Karuppiah, R

    2014-01-01

    This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions. (letter)

  9. A missing link? The case of Norway and Sweden: Does increased renewable energy production impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blindheim, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the EU's RES directive will impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions in Norway and Sweden by 2020. The directive aims for a higher RES share in the energy consumption mix, and Norway and Sweden have established a common electricity certificate scheme to help achieve these RES goals. In terms of how these two national RES plans will impact domestic emissions by 2020, factors such as nuclear power, consumption changes and the energy balance must be considered. The most practical approach to evaluate the plans’ impact on emissions is to focus on changes in carbon-based consumption within the three directive sectors. The Norwegian RES action plan will not affect domestic emissions unless the electricity surplus generated by the certificate market is used to phase out fossil fuels in domestic sectors beyond the scope of the RES directive. The use of electricity to phase out fossil fuel consumption in the offshore sector would substantially reduce Norwegian emissions figures. The Swedish plan would positively impact Swedish greenhouse gas emissions; however, this impact is limited, primarily because a substantial increase in energy consumption is expected. - Highlights: • Implementation of the EU directive on use of energy from renewable sources (RES). • A comparison between Norway and Sweden. • The common green certificate market. • Does increased share of renewable energy impact on greenhouse gas emissions. • Calculations indicate that increased RES share has limited impact on emissions

  10. Taming of the few-The unequal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from personal travel in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Christian; Boardman, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from personal transport have risen steadily in the UK. Yet, surprisingly little is known about who exactly is contributing to the problem and the extent to which different groups of the population will be affected by any policy responses. This paper describes an innovative methodology and evaluation tool for profiling annual greenhouse gas emissions from personal travel across all modes of travel. A case study application of the methodology involving a major survey of UK residents provides an improved understanding of the extent to which individual and household travel activity patterns, choice of transport mode, geographical location, socio-economic and other factors impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Air and car travel dominate overall emissions. Conversely, land-based public transport accounts for a very small proportion of emissions on average. There is a highly unequal distribution of emissions amongst the population, independent of the mode of travel, location and unit of analysis. The top 10% of emitters are responsible for 43% of emissions and the bottom 10% for only 1%. Income, economic activity, age, household structure and car availability significantly influence emissions levels. Key policy implications of the results are discussed. The paper concludes by suggesting potential applications of the methodology and evaluation tool

  11. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO2eq MJ−1 RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences...

  12. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  13. Valuing the greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear power: A critical survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2008-08-15

    This article screens 103 lifecycle studies of greenhouse gas-equivalent emissions for nuclear power plants to identify a subset of the most current, original, and transparent studies. It begins by briefly detailing the separate components of the nuclear fuel cycle before explaining the methodology of the survey and exploring the variance of lifecycle estimates. It calculates that while the range of emissions for nuclear energy over the lifetime of a plant, reported from qualified studies examined, is from 1.4 g of carbon dioxide equivalent per kWh (g CO{sub 2}e/kWh) to 288 g CO{sub 2}e/kWh, the mean value is 66 g CO{sub 2}e/kWh. The article then explains some of the factors responsible for the disparity in lifecycle estimates, in particular identifying errors in both the lowest estimates (not comprehensive) and the highest estimates (failure to consider co-products). It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning.

  14. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

  15. Marginal Emissions Factors for Electricity Generation in the Midcontinent ISO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Maninder P S; Wilson, Elizabeth J; Azevedo, Inês L; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-12-19

    Environmental consequences of electricity generation are often determined using average emission factors. However, as different interventions are incrementally pursued in electricity systems, the resulting marginal change in emissions may differ from what one would predict based on system-average conditions. Here, we estimate average emission factors and marginal emission factors for CO 2 , SO 2 , and NO x from fossil and nonfossil generators in the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) region during years 2007-2016. We analyze multiple spatial scales (all MISO; each of the 11 MISO states; each utility; each generator) and use MISO data to characterize differences between the two emission factors (average; marginal). We also explore temporal trends in emissions factors by hour, day, month, and year, as well as the differences that arise from including only fossil generators versus total generation. We find, for example, that marginal emission factors are generally higher during late-night and early morning compared to afternoons. Overall, in MISO, average emission factors are generally higher than marginal estimates (typical difference: ∼20%). This means that the true environmental benefit of an energy efficiency program may be ∼20% smaller than anticipated if one were to use average emissions factors. Our analysis can usefully be extended to other regions to support effective near-term technical, policy and investment decisions based on marginal rather than only average emission factors.

  16. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  17. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  18. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO 2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating measurements of carbon dioxide emissions using a precision source--A natural gas burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rodney; Bundy, Matthew; Zong, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    A natural gas burner has been used as a precise and accurate source for generating large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate emissions measurements at near-industrial scale. Two methods for determining carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources are considered here: predicting emissions based on fuel consumption measurements-predicted emissions measurements, and direct measurement of emissions quantities in the flue gas-direct emissions measurements. Uncertainty for the predicted emissions measurement was estimated at less than 1%. Uncertainty estimates for the direct emissions measurement of carbon dioxide were on the order of ±4%. The relative difference between the direct emissions measurements and the predicted emissions measurements was within the range of the measurement uncertainty, therefore demonstrating good agreement. The study demonstrates how independent methods are used to validate source emissions measurements, while also demonstrating how a fire research facility can be used as a precision test-bed to evaluate and improve carbon dioxide emissions measurements from stationary sources. Fossil-fuel-consuming stationary sources such as electric power plants and industrial facilities account for more than half of the CO2 emissions in the United States. Therefore, accurate emissions measurements from these sources are critical for evaluating efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study demonstrates how a surrogate for a stationary source, a fire research facility, can be used to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of CO2 emissions.

  20. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  1. The role of process intensification in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David

    2008-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1955 the average rate of global energy use rose from about 1 TW to 2 TW. Between 1955 and 1999 energy use rose from 2 TW to about 12 TW, and to 2006 a further 16% growth in primary energy use was recorded world-wide. There are recommendations by the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, subsequently supported by others in the UK, that we need to reduce CO 2 emissions by over 50% in order to stabilise their impact on global warming (CO 2 being the principal gas believed to be contributing to this phenomenon). One way in which we can address this is by judicious use of process intensification technology. Process intensification may be defined as: 'Any engineering development that leads to a substantially smaller, cleaner, safer and more energy-efficient technology.' It is most often characterised by a huge reduction in plant volume - orders of magnitude - but its contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. Potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification were studied by several UK organisations in the mid 1990s, to assist the UK Government in formulating a strategy on intensification. It is relevant to the themes of the PRES 07 Conference that process integration features in these analyses. Overall plant intensification in the UK was identified as having a technical potential of 40 PJ/year (about 1 million tonnes of oil equivalent/annum). The total potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification in a range of process unit operations were predicted to be over 74 PJ/year (1 PJ = 10 15 J). Projections for The Netherlands suggest that savings of 50-100 PJ/year should be achieved across chemicals and food processing by 2050. Substantial benefits to industry in the USA are highlighted by US Department of Energy studies. This paper relates by discussion and example process intensification to the main themes of the PRES 07 Conference, including process integration. It also

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, E.S.; Heath, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO 2 -eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO 2 -eq/kWh by 2050.

  5. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  6. Environmental Controls on Wildfire Emission Factors in Alaska during the Summer of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests contain significant reservoirs of organic carbon and are subject to severe wildfires. Boreal fire emissions are important to quantify with respect to climate and ecosystem dynamics, especially within the rapidly changing climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The amount and composition of emissions from fires is highly variable and dependent on environmental conditions such as local weather, soil moisture, and land cover type. Emission factors are regularly used to estimate the composition of fire emissions. We investigated environmental controls on boreal forest fire emission factors in Alaska during the summer of 2015. A high-resolution fire emissions inventory was combined with an atmospheric transport model to estimate fire contribution to trace gas variability at an in-situ observational tower. Periods of high fire influence at the tower were identified, and emission ratios for CO, CO2, and CH4 were calculated for these times. Individual fire contributions to the trace gas signals observed at the tower were isolated utilizing the fire emissions inventory combined with an atmospheric transport model. Environmental conditions including soil moisture, meteorology, land and tree cover, fire type (smoldering vs. flaming), and burn severity were associated with individual fires that contributed to the trace gas signal at the tower. We found that soil moisture derived from the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite was correlated with burned area and that local daily meteorological variables, including vapor pressure deficit and temperature, explained some of the variance in emission factors. The results from this study may enable improved estimates of boreal fire emissions during a period of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  7. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-03-10

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P endogenous iron played a regulatory role in greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  8. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  9. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  10. Decomposing the Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia Based on the LMDI Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Wu; Jiquan Zhang; Yuhai Bao; Quan Lai; Siqin Tong; Youtao Song

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the influencing factors of industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions is essential to reduce natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition method based on the extended Kaya identity to analyze the changes in industrial carbon dioxide emissions resulting from 39 industrial sectors in Inner Mongolia northeast of China over the period 2003–2012. The factors were divided into five types of eff...

  11. AERMOD as a Gaussian dispersion model for planning tracer gas dispersion tests for landfill methane emission quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matacchiera, F.; Manes, C.; Beaven, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    that measurements are taken where the plumes of a released tracer-gas and landfill-gas are well-mixed. However, the distance at which full mixing of the gases occurs is generally unknown prior to any experimental campaign. To overcome this problem the present paper demonstrates that, for any specific TDM......, and was benchmarked against the experimental data obtained. The model was used to investigate the impact of different factors (e.g. tracer cylinder placements, wind directions, atmospheric stability parameters) on TDM results to identify appropriate experimental set ups for different conditions. The contribution......The measurement of methane emissions from landfills is important to the understanding of landfills' contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The Tracer Dispersion Method (TDM) is becoming widely accepted as a technique, which allows landfill emissions to be quantified accurately provided...

  12. LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (LANDGEM) VERSION 3.02 USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) is an automated estimation tool with a Microsoft Excel interface that can be used to estimate emission rates for total landfill gas, methane, carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from municipal soli...

  13. 75 FR 45112 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... information and viewpoints from interested parties on approaches to accounting for greenhouse gas emissions... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0560; FRL-9184-4] Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources AGENCY...

  14. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  15. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  16. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers,...

  17. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangarajan, Ramya, E-mail: thary008@mymail.unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Bolan, Nanthi S. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Tian, Guanglong [Environmental Monitoring and Research Division, Monitoring and Research Dep., Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, 6001, Pershing Road, Cicero, IL 60804 (United States); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, Anitha [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science,10 Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr), biosolids (10 × 10{sup 7} Mg/yr), and animal manures (7 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide— CO{sub 2}, methane— CH{sub 4}, and nitrous oxide— N{sub 2}O). Though CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are emitted in less quantity than CO{sub 2}, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10 × 10{sup 7} Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH{sub 4} and 60 Gg of N{sub 2}O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive overview for the first time on GHG emission from

  18. An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, David J; Hepburn, Cameron, E-mail: david.frame@smithschool.ox.ac.u [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Climate change is increasingly seen to raise difficult normative issues. To date, cumulative emissions have been disproportionately from the developed world, while the consequences of climate change are anticipated to hit poorer countries hardest. For this reason, amongst others, it is suggested that more economically developed countries with high greenhouse gas emissions ought to transfer resources to less economically developed, lower emissions countries. Some proponents would justify these resource transfers by ethical or justice-based arguments, often based on some function of the emissions per capita of each country, such that rights of some sort are created and those nations which are emitting more (per capita) than some amount are to compensate those who are emitting less. In this letter we show that national emissions per capita, scaled by economic output, show a systematic negative correlation with state corruption. We discuss this result in the context of justice-based arguments for per capita climate mitigation transfers, and suggest that it would be beneficial for the climate mitigation community to consider state corruption as a relevant factor in the development of mitigation policy.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, David J; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly seen to raise difficult normative issues. To date, cumulative emissions have been disproportionately from the developed world, while the consequences of climate change are anticipated to hit poorer countries hardest. For this reason, amongst others, it is suggested that more economically developed countries with high greenhouse gas emissions ought to transfer resources to less economically developed, lower emissions countries. Some proponents would justify these resource transfers by ethical or justice-based arguments, often based on some function of the emissions per capita of each country, such that rights of some sort are created and those nations which are emitting more (per capita) than some amount are to compensate those who are emitting less. In this letter we show that national emissions per capita, scaled by economic output, show a systematic negative correlation with state corruption. We discuss this result in the context of justice-based arguments for per capita climate mitigation transfers, and suggest that it would be beneficial for the climate mitigation community to consider state corruption as a relevant factor in the development of mitigation policy.

  1. Effects of mass airflow rate through an open-circuit gas quantification system when measuring carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Bradford, James A; Moffet, Corey A

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) represent 11 and 81%, respectively, of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural CH emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic CH emissions. Most agricultural CH emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock; hence, the heightened interest in quantifying and mitigating this source. The automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS; GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD) evaluated here can be placed in a pasture with grazing cattle and can measure their CH and CO emissions with spot sampling. However, improper management of the GQS can have an erroneous effect on emission estimates. One factor affecting the quality of emission estimates is the airflow rates through the GQS to ensure a complete capture of the breath cloud emitted by the animal. It is hypothesized that at lower airflow rates this cloud will be incompletely captured. To evaluate the effect of airflow rate through the GQS on emission estimates, a data set was evaluated with 758 CO and CH emission estimates with a range in airflows of 10.7 to 36.6 L/s. When airflow through the GQS was between 26.0 and 36.6 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were not affected ( = 0.14 and 0.05, respectively). When airflow rates were less than 26.0 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were lower and decreased as airflow rate decreased ( emissions are underestimated. Maintaining mass airflow through a GQS at rates greater than 26 L/s is important for producing high quality CO and CH emission estimates.

  2. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Emmaline; Risk, David; Fougère, Chelsea; Lavoie, Martin; Marshall, Alex; Werring, John; Williams, James P.; Minions, Christina

    2017-10-01

    North American leaders recently committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, but information on current emissions from upstream oil and gas developments in Canada are lacking. This study examined the occurrence of methane plumes in an area of unconventional natural gas development in northwestern Canada. In August to September 2015 we completed almost 8000 km of vehicle-based survey campaigns on public roads dissecting oil and gas infrastructure, such as well pads and processing facilities. We surveyed six routes 3-6 times each, which brought us past over 1600 unique well pads and facilities managed by more than 50 different operators. To attribute on-road plumes to oil- and gas-related sources we used gas signatures of residual excess concentrations (anomalies above background) less than 500 m downwind from potential oil and gas emission sources. All results represent emissions greater than our minimum detection limit of 0.59 g s-1 at our average detection distance (319 m). Unlike many other oil and gas developments in the US for which methane measurements have been reported recently, the methane concentrations we measured were close to normal atmospheric levels, except inside natural gas plumes. Roughly 47 % of active wells emitted methane-rich plumes above our minimum detection limit. Multiple sites that pre-date the recent unconventional natural gas development were found to be emitting, and we observed that the majority of these older wells were associated with emissions on all survey repeats. We also observed emissions from gas processing facilities that were highly repeatable. Emission patterns in this area were best explained by infrastructure age and type. Extrapolating our results across all oil and gas infrastructure in the Montney area, we estimate that the emission sources we located (emitting at a rate > 0.59 g s-1) contribute more than 111 800 t of methane annually to the atmosphere. This value exceeds reported bottom

  3. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atherton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available North American leaders recently committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, but information on current emissions from upstream oil and gas developments in Canada are lacking. This study examined the occurrence of methane plumes in an area of unconventional natural gas development in northwestern Canada. In August to September 2015 we completed almost 8000 km of vehicle-based survey campaigns on public roads dissecting oil and gas infrastructure, such as well pads and processing facilities. We surveyed six routes 3–6 times each, which brought us past over 1600 unique well pads and facilities managed by more than 50 different operators. To attribute on-road plumes to oil- and gas-related sources we used gas signatures of residual excess concentrations (anomalies above background less than 500 m downwind from potential oil and gas emission sources. All results represent emissions greater than our minimum detection limit of 0.59 g s−1 at our average detection distance (319 m. Unlike many other oil and gas developments in the US for which methane measurements have been reported recently, the methane concentrations we measured were close to normal atmospheric levels, except inside natural gas plumes. Roughly 47 % of active wells emitted methane-rich plumes above our minimum detection limit. Multiple sites that pre-date the recent unconventional natural gas development were found to be emitting, and we observed that the majority of these older wells were associated with emissions on all survey repeats. We also observed emissions from gas processing facilities that were highly repeatable. Emission patterns in this area were best explained by infrastructure age and type. Extrapolating our results across all oil and gas infrastructure in the Montney area, we estimate that the emission sources we located (emitting at a rate > 0.59 g s−1 contribute more than 111 800 t of methane annually to the atmosphere

  4. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  5. Assessing Emissions of Volatile Organic Componds from Landfills Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biogas is obtained by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes buried materials used to produce electricity, heat and biofuels. Biogas is at the second place for power generation after hydropower and in 2000 about 6% of the world power generation was allocated to biogas. Biogas is composed of 40–45 vol% CO2, 55–65 vol% CH4, and about 1% non-methaneVOCs, and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Emission rates are used to evaluate the compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. BTEX comounds affect the air quality and may be harmful to human health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers that are generally called BTEX compounds are the most abundant VOCs in biogas. Methods: Sampling of VOCs in biogas vents was operated passively or with Tedlar bags. 20 samples were collected from 40 wells of old and new biogas sites of Shiraz’ landfill. Immediately after sampling, the samples were transferred to the laboratory. Analysis of the samples was performed with GC-MS. Results: The results showed that in the collection of the old and new biogas sites, the highest concentration of VOCs was observed in toluene (0.85ppm followed by benzene (0.81ppm, ethylbenzene (0.13ppm and xylene (0.08ppm. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that in all samples, most available compounds in biogas vents were aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.These compounds’ constituents originate from household hazardous waste materials deposited in the landfill or from biological/chemical decomposition processes within the landfill.

  6. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  7. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  8. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  9. Australia's Greenhouse Challenge is a positive step towards abatement of gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Australian industry has responded favourably to the Federal Government's Greenhouse Clallenge Program (GCP) which has focused on curbing greenhouse gas emission from the manufacturing, mining and energy sector. It is a carefully shaped program which prompts companies and groups to thoroughly review their individual operations and identify areas where credible new or addition emission control can be employed. There are now 42 companies and associations that have signed agreements in GCP. Together they account for some 15 % of Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions. It is expected that by 2000 the emission increase will be cut to 7 % and the total emissions cut by 16 million tonnes for the 42 companies concerned

  10. Most effective combustion technologies for reducing Nox emissions in aero gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ommi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in air transportation volume has important global environmental impacts associated with the potential for climate change. Jet aircraft emissions are deposited directly into the upper atmosphere and some of them have a greater warming effect than gases emitted closer to the surface. One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every aero gas turbine application is emissions, particularly Nox emissions. There are different technologies for nitrogen oxide emission control in aircraft gas turbines. In this paper, we have briefly reviewed the technologies with the greatest potential to reduce Nox emissions in aero engines.

  11. Development of a method for estimating emissions from oil and gas production sites utilizing remote observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information on emissions of ozone precursors, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases from oil and gas production operations, and measurement of these emissions presents many challenges. Assessment is complicated by the fugitive nature ofthe emissions, v...

  12. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil

  14. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

  15. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  18. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  19. Methane emissions from the global oil and gas supply chain: recent advances and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Knighton, W. B.; Johnson, M.; Tyner, D. R.; Hamburg, S.

    2017-12-01

    A wide body of research has characterized methane emissions from the oil and gas system in the US. In contrast, empirical data is limited for other significant oil and gas producing regions across the world. As a consequence, measuring and characterizing methane emissions across global oil and gas operations will be crucial to the design of effective mitigation strategies. Several countries have announced pledges to reduce methane emissions from this system (e.g., North America, Climate and Clean Air Coalition [CCAC] ministers). In the case of Canada, the federal government recently announced regulations supporting a 40-45% reduction of methane emissions from the oil and gas production systems. For these regulations to be effective, it is critical to understand the current methane emission patterns. We present results from a coordinated multiscale (i.e., airborne-based, ground-based) measurement campaign in Alberta, Canada. We use empirically derived emission estimates to characterize site-level emissions and derive an emissions distribution. Our work shows that many major sources of emissions are unmeasured or underreported. Consistent with previous studies in the US, a small fraction of sites disproportionately account for the majority of emissions: roughly 20% of sites accounted for 75% of emissions. An independent airborne-based regional estimate was 40% lower than the ground-based regional estimate, but not statistically different. Finally, we summarize next steps as part of the CCAC Oil and Gas Methane Study: ongoing work that is targeting oil and gas sectors/production regions with limited empirical data on methane emissions. This work builds on the approach deployed in quantifying methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain in the US, underscoring the commitment to transparency of the collected data, external review, deployment of multiple methodologies, and publication of results in peer-reviewed journals.

  20. Atmospheric Observations and Models of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    McKain, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission magnitudes, trends, and source contributions are highly uncertain, particularly at sub-national scales. As the world becomes increasingly urbanized, one potential strategy for reducing these uncertainties is to focus atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements in urban areas, where a multitude of emission processes occur, imposing a strong and persistent gradient in the local atmosphere, and contributing a significant fraction of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissio...

  1. Estimating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in 2050 from New Buildings in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, K.; Thorne, J. H.; Quinn, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    A major contributor to global warming is Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO2) as the lead constituent. While the United States has failed to take a leadership role in worldwide efforts to reduce global warming, California has implemented some of the strictest reduction goals in the country. Recent legislation in California requires significant GHG emission reductions in the coming decades to meet state-mandated targets. To better understand the relative contribution of urban growth to these emissions, we applied an Energy and GHG Impacts Calculator (referred to as “GHG Calculator”) to estimate GHG contributions for two statewide population growth scenarios for the year 2050. Implemented as part of the UPlan urban growth model, the GHG Calculator allows users to predict and compare GHG output from new development. In this paper, two scenarios, differing only in the spatial allocation of housing among zoning categories, are developed and tested for the year 2050 in California. The difference in total GHG emissions between these scenarios was less than 1%. Thus, while “smart growth” may be desirable for a variety of other reasons, the policy impact of the sprawl footprint per se on fixed-source GHG emissions is likely to be far less than effects from other factors, such as insulation and household energy efficiency. The GHG Calculator allows alternative emission-reducing measures to be tested, including modified energy mixes (e.g. a greater percent of renewable sources and lower carbon-based fuels) and conservation measures. The goal is to approximate 2050 emissions and determine what measures are needed to achieve the 2050 goal set by the Governor of California to help decrease the State’s overall contribution to global warming.

  2. Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

  3. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  4. Emission evaluation of CO 2 and CH4 gases in the selected gas pressure booster station in the Bangestan field of the National Iranian Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran is located in the seventh rank in terms of CO2 emissions resulting from the fuel combustion in the world. Gas compressor booster stations, due to the several sources of contaminants, are causing the release of large amounts of CO2 and CH4, which will cause climate change; therefore, estimating the emissions of the gases from oil and gas, different processing units are necessary. Methods: In this study, the emissions factor method, provided by various organizations, was used for determining emissions of CO2 and CH4 from different sources. Results: According to the results obtained, the total amount of CO2 emissions in selected units is from the selected unit and is a significant contribution to the CH4 emissions, so that the whole amount of CO2 emissions is equal to 7739.027 tons per day and the total amount of CH4 emissions is 4 tons per day. Conclusion: Burner has the highest amount of CO2 emissions among the sources of pollutants in the fixed combustion sources; and, the highest emissions of CH4, among the exit gas sources, belong to the process of removing water. Among the exit gas sources-compressors maintenance activities the highest emissions belong to CH4. The amount of CO2 emissions from indirect sources, including electrical equipment in the studied units, are from natural gas fuel which are much more than those from fuel oils for burning. CH4 gas from volatile sources in the gas compressors have the highest emissions compared to other sources.

  5. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Christine; Davis, Steven J; Bistline, John; Inman, Mason

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO 2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall electricity use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013–55 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO 2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable electricity, abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies. (letter)

  6. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors for Semiconductor... the public draft default emission factors for semiconductor manufacturing refined process categories... reporting, EPA proposed semiconductor manufacturers estimate emissions using default emission factors for...

  7. Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions inventories, modeling, and monitoring are the basis for understanding, controlling and tracking stationary sources of air pollution. This technical site provides access to tools and data to support those efforts.

  8. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  9. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  10. Characterization of emissions from portable household combustion devices: particle size distributions, emission rates and factors, and potential exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cheng-Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    A series of source tests were conducted to characterize emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), and total hydrocarbon (THC ) from five types of portable combustion devices. Tested combustion devices included a kerosene lamp, an oil lamp, a kerosene space heater, a portable gas range, and four unscented candles. All tests were conducted either in a well-mixed chamber or a well-mixed room, which enables us to determine emission rates and emission factors using a single-compartment mass balance model. Particle mass concentrations and number concentrations were measured using a nephelometric particle monitor and an eight-channel optical particle counter, respectively. Real-time CO concentrations were measured with an electrochemical sensor CO monitor. CO 2, CH 4, and THC were measured using a GC-FID technique. The results indicate that all particles emitted during steady burning in each of the tested devices were smaller than 1.0 μm in diameter with the vast majority in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 μm. The PM mass emission rates and emission factors for the tested devices ranged from 5.6±0.1 to 142.3±40.8 mg h -1 and from 0.35±0.06 to 9.04±4.0 mg g -1, respectively. The CO emission rates and emission factors ranged from 4.7±3.0 to 226.7±100 mg h -1 and from 0.25±0.12 to 1.56±0.7 mg g -1, respectively. The CO 2 emission rates and emission factors ranged from 5500±700 to 210,000±90,000 mg h -1 and from 387±45 to 1689±640 mg g -1, respectively. The contributions of CH 4 and THC to emission inventories are expected to be insignificant due both to the small emission factors and to the relatively small quantity of fuel consumed by these portable devices. An exposure scenario analysis indicates that every-day use of the kerosene lamp in a village house can generate fine PM exposures easily exceeding the US promulgated NAAQS for PM 2.5.

  11. Feeding and fertilization practices and greenhouse gas emissions in specialized dairy farms of Dos Pinos in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Wattiaux

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O based on the feeding systems of 104 dairy farms in Costa Rica were estimated using IPCC procedures. This study indicated that farmers’ decisions, which determine the feeding strategies for lactating cows, have a substantial impact on CH4 emissions per kg of milk. Lower CH4 emissions per kg milk were estimated on farms with high-producing cows consuming rations with lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations and higher amounts of concentrates. Hours spent in pasture did not influence estimated grass intake or CH4 emissions. However, higher feed efficiency appeared to be a key factor in reducing CH4 emissions per kg of milk. The study also showed that higher N2O emissions were associated with higher amounts of commercial nitrogen fertilizer application; however, the main source of N2O emissions was from the manure deposited during the grazing period. Future approaches to reduce farm gate emissions of CH4 per kg of milk in specialized dairy farms could include incorporating dietary fats in rations, feeding adequate amounts of concentrates and feeding forage at a more digestible stage. These findings are strongly influenced by the assumptions made in calculating CH4 and N2O emissions but do highlight the critical areas which affect greenhouse gas emissions.Keywords: Feed efficiency, fertilization, forage, manure, methane, nitrous oxide.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4146-158

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

  13. Study on geochemistry discriminate method of gas emission in goaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianhe; Liu, Huihu; Sang, Shuxun; Xu, Hongjie

    2017-06-01

    In order to effectively distinguish the source of gas gush in the goaf of the coal mine, Sihe coal mine was chosen as the studied object. Carbon isotope of methane, ethane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen isotope of methane in gas from the desorbed gas of the working coal seam and the near coal seam, and gas in the goaf were tested, by systemic sampling coal samples and gas samples of the goaf. Combined with gas component from the goaf, the working coal seam and the near coal seam, the proportion of gas gush in the goaf were determined by the numerical calculation on separate source of isotopes. The results show that the difference of gas component, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes of gas from the different coal seams is obvious. And the methane concentration in gas increase along with the increase of coal seam depth, carbon and hydrogen isotopes in gas become heavier along with the deepen of burial depth of coal seam depth. The results of the numerical calculation on separate source indicate that the proportion of the gushed gas in the lagged traverse No.1 from the desorbed gas of coal seam No.3∼No.8-2 is 38%, 37%, 12%, 8%, 5%, the proportion of the gushed gas in the lagged traverse No.2 from the desorbed gas of coal seam No.3∼No.8-2 is 22%, 36%, 24%, 12%, 6%.

  14. Influence of the gas mixture radio on the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature in dielectric barrier discharge lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Jin Zhou; Ren Zhao Xing

    2002-01-01

    For dielectric barrier discharge lamps filled with various gas mixture ratios, the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature have been founded, and a qualitative explication is presented. For gas mixture with chlorine larger than 3%, the emission intensity increases with the sealed gas temperature, while with chlorine about 2%, the emission intensity decreases with the increasing in the gas temperature, and could be improved by cooling water. However, if chlorine is less than 1.5%, the discharge appears to be a mixture mode with filaments distributed in a diffused glow-like discharge, and the UV emission is independent on the gas temperature

  15. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgan, A.; Gugele, B.; Haider, S. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available. The results can be summarized as: 1) Overall GHG emission trends. EU GHG emissions were reduced between 1990 and 2008. Most of the reductions took place in the 1990s, but emissions have also been decreasing every year from 2003 until the last year considered in this report, 2008. 2) Predominant drivers. For the most part, the GHG emission trends observed in the EU between 1990 and 2008 resulted from economic factors. However, EU policies, some of which were not directly targeting GHG emissions, as well as national policies by some front runner countries, also played a role in these trends. 3) Impacts of EU policies. Between 2000 and 2008, emission trends were more directly targeted by a range of energy and climate policies, e.g. the implementation of the European Climate Change programme. However, the steady increase in energy demand during this period - particularly electricity - outweighed the considerable EU-wide savings generated by energy efficiency improvements and the development of renewable energy. 4) Co-benefits. Taking example from the positive benefits on GHG emissions that resulted from the implementation of non

  17. A Top-Down Regional Assessment of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotullio, Peter J.; Sarzynski, Andrea; Albrecht, Jochen; Schulz, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an account of urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 40 countries in Europe and examines covariates of emissions levels. We use a “top-down” analysis of emissions as spatially reported in the Emission Dataset for Global Atmospheric Research supplemented by Carbon Monitoring for Action from 1153 European cities larger than 50 000 population in 2000 (comprising >81 % of the total European urban population). Urban areas are defined spatially and demographically by the Glob...

  18. CFD Modeling of Syngas Combustion and Emissions for Marine Gas Turbine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Nader R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants will probably be adopted in the near future. One of the measures which can be considered to reduce exhaust gases emissions is the use of alternative fuels. Synthesis gases are considered competitive renewable gaseous fuels which can be used in marine gas turbines for both propulsion and electric power generation on ships. The paper analyses combustion and emission characteristics of syngas fuel in marine gas turbines. Syngas fuel is burned in a gas turbine can combustor. The gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The analysis is performed numerically using the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS FLUENT. Different operating conditions are considered within the numerical runs. The obtained numerical results are compared with experimental data and satisfactory agreement is obtained. The effect of syngas fuel composition and the swirl number values on temperature contours, and exhaust gas species concentrations are presented in this paper. The results show an increase of peak flame temperature for the syngas compared to natural gas fuel combustion at the same operating conditions while the NO emission becomes lower. In addition, lower CO2 emissions and increased CO emissions at the combustor exit are obtained for the syngas, compared to the natural gas fuel.

  19. Comparing embodied greenhouse gas emissions of modern computing and electronics products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teehan, Paul; Kandlikar, Milind

    2013-05-07

    Information and communications technology (ICT) contributes substantially to global greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutant emissions, but it is time-consuming to estimate the environmental impacts caused by the production of ICT devices, and the literature lacks coverage for newer products. Using a process-sum life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, we estimate and compare the embodied GHG emissions of 11 ICT products, including large- and small-form-factor desktop and laptop personal computers, a thin client device, an LCD monitor, newer mobile devices (an Apple iPad, an iPod Touch, and an Amazon Kindle), a rack server, and a network switch. Full bills of materials are provided via hand disassembly and weighing and are mapped to processes in the ecoinvent v2.2 database to produce impact estimates. Results are analyzed to develop simplified impact estimation models using linear regressions based on product characteristics. A simple and robust linear relationship between mass and embodied emissions is identified; a more sophisticated linear model using display mass, battery mass, and circuit board mass as inputs is slightly more accurate. Embodied GHG emissions for newer products are 50-60% lower than corresponding older products with similar functionality, largely due to decreased material usage, especially reductions in integrated circuit content.

  20. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  1. An inexact two-stage stochastic energy systems planning model for managing greenhouse gas emission at a municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy management systems are highly complicated with greenhouse-gas emission reduction issues and a variety of social, economic, political, environmental and technical factors. To address such complexities, municipal energy systems planning models are desired as they can take account of these factors and their interactions within municipal energy management systems. This research is to develop an interval-parameter two-stage stochastic municipal energy systems planning model (ITS-MEM) for supporting decisions of energy systems planning and GHG (greenhouse gases) emission management at a municipal level. ITS-MEM is then applied to a case study. The results indicated that the developed model was capable of supporting municipal energy systems planning and environmental management under uncertainty. Solutions of ITS-MEM would provide an effective linkage between the pre-regulated environmental policies (GHG-emission reduction targets) and the associated economic implications (GHG-emission credit trading).

  2. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO 2 emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO 2 emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m 2 room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions trading: Cogen case studies in the early trading market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, Mary Jean

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are interested in opportunities to trade their reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration on the emerging greenhouse gas emissions market. Only the UK and Denmark currently have emissions trading schemes, but they are under development in other European countries. Two frameworks currently exist for trading. Baseline-and-credit trading is used in Canada where companies can take part in two voluntary schemes (Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Pilot or Clean Air Canada Inc). An example project from the CHP unit at DuPont's Maitland chemical production facility is given, with details of the baselines and calculations used. The other option is company-wide emissions trading. The example given here features the CHP units at BP's refinery and chemicals operations in Texas. The potential revenue from emission reduction projects could help to boost the economics of cogeneration projects

  4. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical wheat field under different nitrogen fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Jim J; Tian, Zhou; Wang, Xudong; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Minimizing soil ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EFs) has significant implications in regional air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions besides nitrogen (N) nutrient loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments of conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, ammonia sulfate, urease inhibitor (NBPT, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide)-treated urea, and nitrification inhibitor (DCD, dicyandiamide)-treated urea on emissions of NH 3 and GHGs from subtropical wheat cultivation. A field study was established in a Cancienne silt loam soil. During growth season, NH 3 emission following N fertilization was characterized using active chamber method whereas GHG emissions of N 2 O, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and methane (CH 4 ) were by passive chamber method. The results showed that coated urea exhibited the largest reduction (49%) in the EF of NH 3 -N followed by NBPT-treated urea (39%) and DCD-treated urea (24%) over conventional urea, whereas DCD-treated urea had the greatest suppression on N 2 O-N (87%) followed by coated urea (76%) and NBPT-treated urea (69%). Split fertilization of ammonium sulfate-urea significantly lowered both NH 3 -N and N 2 O-N EF values but split urea treatment had no impact over one-time application of urea. Both NBPT and DCD-treated urea treatments lowered CO 2 -C flux but had no effect on CH 4 -C flux. Overall, application of coated urea or urea with NPBT or DCD could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing NH 3 and N 2 O emissions in subtropical wheat production in Southern USA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  6. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  7. Unilateral regulation of bilateral trade in greenhouse gas emission permits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the coordination of domestic markets for tradable emission permits where countries determine their own emission reduction targets, using a two-country model. Linking such schemes is beneficial to both countries but may cause the exporting country to decrease its emission

  8. New estimates of direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands from 1980 to 2007 using localized emission factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is a long-lived greenhouse gas with a large radiation intensity and it is emitted mainly from agricultural land. Accurate estimates of total direct N2O emissions from croplands on a country scale are important for global budgets of anthropogenic sources of N2O emissions and for the development of effective mitigation strategies. The objectives of this study were to re-estimate direct N2O emissions using localized emission factors and a database of measurements from Chinese croplands. We obtained N2O emission factors for paddy fields (0.41 ± 0.04% and uplands (1.05 ± 0.02% from a normalization process through cube root transformation of the original data. After comparing the results of normalization from the original values, Logarithmic and cube root transformations were used because the frequency of the original data was not normally distributed. Direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands from 1980 to 2007 were estimated using IPCC (2006 guidelines combined with separate localized emission factors for paddy fields and upland areas. Direct N2O emissions from paddy fields showed little change, increasing by 10.5% with an annual rate of increase of 0.4% from 32.3 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 35.7 Gg N2O-N in 2007. In contrast, emissions from uplands changed dramatically, increasing by 308% with an annual rate of 11% from 68.0 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 278 Gg N2O-N in 2007. Total direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands increased by 213% with an annual rate of 7.6% from 100 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 313 Gg N2O-N in 2007, and were determined mainly by upland emissions (accounting for 67.8–88.6% of total emissions from 1980 to 2007. Synthetic N fertilizers played a major role in N2O emissions from agricultural land, and the magnitude of the contributions to total direct N2O emissions made by different amendments was synthetic N fertilizer > manure > straw, representing about 78, 15, and 6% of total direct N2O emissions, respectively, between

  9. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  10. An estimate of gas emissions and magmatic gas content from Kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Rose, William I.; Stokes, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Emission rates of CO2 have been measured at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in the east-rift eruptive plume and CO2 and SO2 have been measured in the plume from the noneruptive fumaroles in the summit caldera. These data yield an estimate of the loading of Kilauean eruptive gases to the atmosphere and suggest that such estimates may be inferred directly from measured lava volumes. These data, combined with other chemical and geologic data, suggest that magma arrives at the shallow summit reservoir containing (wt.%) 0.32% H2O, 0.32% CO2 and 0.09% S. Magma is rapidly degassed of most of its CO2 in the shallow reservoir before transport to the eruption site. Because this summit degassing yields a magma saturated and in equilibrium with volatile species and because transport of the magma to the eruption site occurs in a zone no shallower than the summit reservoir, we suggest that eruptive gases from Kilauea characteristically should be one of two types: a 'primary' gas from fresh magma derived directly from the mantle and a carbon-depleted gas from magma stored in the summit reservoir. ?? 1995.

  11. Analysis on Storage Off-Gas Emissions from Woody, Herbaceous, and Torrefied Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off‑gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas‑collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO2, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO2 is highest for switchgrass and CH4 is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  12. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  14. Key factors for assessing climate benefits of natural gas versus coal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Caldeira, Ken; Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2014-01-01

    Assessing potential climate effects of natural gas versus coal electricity generation is complicated by the large number of factors reported in life cycle assessment studies, compounded by the large number of proposed climate metrics. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas versus coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiencies and methane leakage rates as the factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. Thus, we focus on the role of these factors in determining the relative merits of natural gas versus coal power plants. We develop a simple model estimating CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from natural gas and coal power plants, and resulting temperature change. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we focus our analysis on the time evolution of global mean temperature. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial methane leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than coal plants with the same power output. However, if methane leakage rates are low and power plant efficiency is high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. In the long term, natural gas power plants produce less warming than would occur with coal power plants. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. (letter)

  15. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions implications of power and hydrogen production for oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, J.M.; Bergerson, J.A.; MacLean, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' The Alberta Oil Sands represent a major economic opportunity for Canada, but the industry is also a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the sources of these emissions is the use of natural gas for the production of electricity, steam and hydrogen. Due to concerns around resource availability and price volatility, there has been considerable discussion regarding the potential replacement of natural gas with an alternative fuel. While some of the options are non-fossil and could potentially reduce GHG emissions (e.g., nuclear, geothermal, biomass), others have the potential to increase emissions. A comparative life cycle assessment was completed to investigate the relative GHG emissions, energy consumption and financial implications of replacing natural gas with coal, coke, asphaltenes or bitumen for the supply of electricity, steam and hydrogen to oil sands operations. The potential use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) was also investigated as a means of reducing GHG emissions. Preliminary results indicate that, without CCS, the natural gas systems currently in use have lower life cycle GHG emissions than gasification systems using any of the alternative fuels analysed. However, when CCS is implemented in both the coke gasification and natural gas systems, the coke systems have lower GHG emissions and financial costs than the natural gas systems (assuming a 30-year project life and a natural gas price of 6.5 USD/gigajoule). The use of CCS does impose a financial penalty though, indicating that it is unlikely to be implemented without some financial incentive. While this study has limitations and uncertainties, the preliminary results indicate that although the GHG emissions of oil sands development pose a challenge to Canada, there are opportunities available for their abatement. (author)

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. liquefied natural gas exports: implications for end uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Leslie S; Samaras, Constantine; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2015-03-03

    This study analyzes how incremental U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We find that exported U.S. LNG has mean precombustion emissions of 37 g CO2-equiv/MJ when regasified in Europe and Asia. Shipping emissions of LNG exported from U.S. ports to Asian and European markets account for only 3.5-5.5% of precombustion life cycle emissions, hence shipping distance is not a major driver of GHGs. A scenario-based analysis addressing how potential end uses (electricity and industrial heating) and displacement of existing fuels (coal and Russian natural gas) affect GHG emissions shows the mean emissions for electricity generation using U.S. exported LNG were 655 g CO2-equiv/kWh (with a 90% confidence interval of 562-770), an 11% increase over U.S. natural gas electricity generation. Mean emissions from industrial heating were 104 g CO2-equiv/MJ (90% CI: 87-123). By displacing coal, LNG saves 550 g CO2-equiv per kWh of electricity and 20 g per MJ of heat. LNG saves GHGs under upstream fugitive emissions rates up to 9% and 5% for electricity and heating, respectively. GHG reductions were found if Russian pipeline natural gas was displaced for electricity and heating use regardless of GWP, as long as U.S. fugitive emission rates remain below the estimated 5-7% rate of Russian gas. However, from a country specific carbon accounting perspective, there is an imbalance in accrued social costs and benefits. Assuming a mean social cost of carbon of $49/metric ton, mean global savings from U.S. LNG displacement of coal for electricity generation are $1.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of gaseous natural gas exported as LNG ($.028/kWh). Conversely, the U.S. carbon cost of exporting the LNG is $1.80/Mcf ($.013/kWh), or $0.50-$5.50/Mcf across the range of potential discount rates. This spatial shift in embodied carbon emissions is important to consider in national interest estimates for LNG exports.

  17. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  18. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from swine operations: evaluation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approaches through meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Liu, H

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to provide a systematic review of the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine operations, with a meta-analysis that integrates results of independent studies. A total of 53 studies that measured GHG emissions from swine operations were included in the analyses. Results showed that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approaches were effective in estimating the overall CH4 and N2O emission levels from swine operations, but the variation of the measured emissions is not adequately captured. An overestimation by the IPCC approaches for CH4 emissions was observed for swine buildings with pit systems in European studies and the average percentage relative difference (PRD) between the measured and the IPCC values is -21.1%. The observed CH4 emissions from lagoons were lower than the IPCC estimated values and the average PRD is -33.9%. In North American studies the observed N2O emission factors for swine buildings with pit systems were significantly lower than the IPCC default values whereas in European studies they were significantly greater than the IPCC default values. The measured CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by stage of production (P = 0.05 and <0.01, respectively) and geographic regions (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The IPCC approaches were effective in simulating the effect of temperature on CH4 emissions from outdoor slurry storage facilities whereas they could overestimate CH4 emissions from lagoons at low temperatures. The CH4 emissions from pits inside swine buildings were not significantly affected by average ambient temperatures. A positive relationship between diet CP content and CH4 emissions was confirmed in the meta-analysis. The obtained knowledge can be helpful in efforts to improve estimation of GHG emissions from swine operations.

  1. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  2. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  3. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vinasse through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Petersen, Søren O.; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    , and from fertirrigated soils. This study assessed GHG emissions in experiments simulating this vinasse management system, and the potential for reducing emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from vinasse via anaerobic digestion (AD) in biogas plants. During 21 days’ storage of untreated...... vinasse, 29% of dry matter (DM) and 40% of volatile solids (VS) were lost, which resulted in cumulative CH4 emissions of up to 43.8 kg CO2eq kg−1 C-vinasse. In contrast, there were no CH4 emissions from AD-treated vinasse (digestate) during storage. GHG emission was related to the biochemical...... characteristics of the untreated and digested vinasse. The accumulation of oxidised nitrogen (N) compounds was up to four-fold higher in soil amended with untreated vinasse than from digestate-amended soil. The N2O emissions from soil amended with untreated vinasse were also higher than from soil amended...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  5. How conservation agriculture can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enhance soil carbon storage in croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture can mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture by enhancing soil carbon sequestration, improving soil quality, N-use efficiency and water use efficiencies, and reducing fuel consumption. Management practices that increase carbon inputs and while reducing carbo...

  6. An Adaptive Chemistry Approach to Modeling Emissions Performance of Gas Turbine Combustors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed SBIR project, we seek to implement the Adaptive Chemistry methodology in existing CFD codes used to investigate the emissions performance of gas...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  8. Ecodriving and carbon footprinting : understanding how public education can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Ecodriving is a collection of changes to driving behavior and vehicle maintenance designed to impact fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing vehicles. Because of its promise to improve fuel economy within the existing fleet, e...

  9. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate averag