WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas effluent guidelines

  1. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  2. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  3. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  5. 78 FR 48159 - Preliminary 2012 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2011 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report, and solicits public comment on both. Clean Water Act (CWA... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of...-9744 Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 2822T, Attention Docket ID No. EPA...

  6. 40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas wet desulfurization systems, but only to the extent such systems generate process wastewaters. (2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the...

  7. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  8. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  9. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Die Casting Operations. BPT Effluent Limitations... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poured) for a specific plant. (c) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  16. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  17. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  19. 40 CFR 427.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 427.97 Section 427.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 427.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  20. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  1. 40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1,000 pounds of metal poured) for a specific plant. (b) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting...) Casting Quench Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  2. 40 CFR 423.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). 423.12 Section 423.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines...

  3. 40 CFR 423.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). 423.14 Section 423.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.14...

  4. 40 CFR 423.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 423.13 Section 423.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.13...

  5. 40 CFR 427.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 427.83 Section 427.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 427.82 Section 427.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  8. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  9. 40 CFR 415.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 415.163 Section 415.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... to this subpart and using the solar evaporation process must achieve the following effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 406.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 406.17 Section 406.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...] Effective Date Note: Section 406.17 was indefinitely suspended at 45 FR 45582, July 7, 1980. ...

  11. 40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.27 Section 406.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.22 of this subpart for the best practicable...

  12. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.47 Section 406.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.42 of this subpart for the...

  13. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.37 Section 406.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.32 of this subpart for the...

  14. 40 CFR 405.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For plants condensing 100,000 lb/day or less of milk equivalent (less... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For plants condensing...

  15. 40 CFR 415.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...—Aluminum Sulfate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily...

  16. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  17. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...-0209] RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power... proposed rule entitled, ``Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power....regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket in the EPA Docket Center, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334...

  18. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. The permit authority will obtain the average process water usage flow...

  19. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... average process water usage flow rate for the cleaning water processes from the permittee. ...

  20. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... technology, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the contact... usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  1. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... technology currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate... process water usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  2. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source...

  3. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus vanadium plus... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary...

  4. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  5. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  6. 40 CFR 430.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 5.6 2.8 1.9 TSS 12.0 6.0 3.6 pH... 12.5 6.25 3.57 pH (1) (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  7. 40 CFR 417.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  8. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  9. 40 CFR 417.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  10. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... and Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant... and Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  11. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Filtration of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations... Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  12. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for pH. 420.07 Section 420.07 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within this part shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be...

  13. Characterization of effluents from a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel refabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, M.S.; Bradley, R.A.; Olsen, A.R.

    1975-12-01

    The types and quantities of chemical and radioactive effluents that would be released from a reference fuel refabrication facility for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) have been determined. This information will be used to predict the impact of such a facility on the environment, to identify areas where additional development work needs to be done to further identify and quantify effluent streams, and to limit effluent release to the environment

  14. Effluent Gas Flux Characterization During Pyrolysis of Chicken Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. C.; Ryals, R.; Miller, D. J.; Mullen, C. A.; Pan, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Boateng, A. A.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a viable option for the production of agricultural resources from diverted organic waste streams and renewable bioenergy. This high temperature thermochemical process yields material with beneficial reuses, including bio-oil and biochar. Gaseous forms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are also emitted during pyrolysis. The effluent mass emission rates from pyrolysis are not well characterized, thus limiting proper evaluation of the environmental benefits or costs of pyrolysis products. We present the first comprehensive suite of C and N mass emission rate measurements of a biomass pyrolysis process using chicken manure as feedstock to produce biochar and bio-oil. Two chicken manure fast pyrolysis experiments were conducted at controlled temperature ranges of 450 - 485 °C and 550 - 585 °C. Mass emission rates of N2O, NO, CO, CO2, CH4 and NH3 were measured using trace gas analyzers. Based on the system mass balance, 23-25% of the total mass of the manure feedstock was emitted as gas, while 52-55% and 23% were converted to bio-oil and biochar, respectively. CO2 and NH3 were the dominant gaseous species by mass, accounting for 58 - 65% of total C mass emitted and 99% of total reactive N mass emitted, respectively. Our gas flux measurements suggest that 1.4 to 2.7 g NH3 -N would be produced from the pyrolysis of one kg of manure. Conservatively scaling up these NH3 pyrolysis emissions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, where an estimated 8.64 billion kg of poultry manure is applied to agricultural soils every year, as much as 1.2 x 107 kg of NH3 could be emitted into the atmosphere annually, increasing the potential impact of atmospheric N deposition without a mechanism to capture the gas exhaust during pyrolysis. However, this is considerably less than the potential emissions from NH3 volatilization of raw chicken manure applications, which can be 20-60% of total N applied, and amount to 3.4 x 107 - 1.0 x 108 kg NH3-N yr-1. Pyrolysis has the potential to

  15. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  16. Guidelines Gas Act. Information and Consultation Document 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groene, P.; Teljeur, E.; Verdonkschot, I.R.

    2001-06-01

    This Information and Consultation Document has been drawn up for the consultation period that will be held prior to the approval of the new Guidelines, in accordance with sections 13 and 18 of the Dutch Gas Act. In determining the topics for discussion in the consultation document, DTe has based its decision on the scope and aim of these Guidelines. In doing so, DTe's objective is to achieve these aims in a responsible manner, with limited interventions in the market. The Guidelines focus firstly on gas transport companies, in so far as they transport gas to supply eligible customers. In the year 2002, customers with an annual off-take of 1 million m 3 or more will be eligible. Secondly, the Guidelines focus on gas storage companies that have a dominant position or are deemed to have a dominant position, in accordance with section 18(2) of the Gas Act. In determining the Guidelines, in accordance with section 13(1) of the Gas Act, the Director of DTe has to take into account the promotion of trade and the promotion of the efficient operation of gas transport companies and users of the gas network. In addition, it appears from the Parliamentary Proceedings that the Guidelines also have the aim of preventing abuse of a dominant position. This document indicates the way DTe intends to achieve the statutory aims referred to above. Partly on the basis of experience in other countries, DTe assumes that realising these aims and creating a 'level playing field' on the Dutch gas market is a gradual process that may take several years. It will not be possible to realise all the conditions for achieving the above-mentioned objectives, as outlined by DTe in the Information and Consultation Document, in 2002. DTe therefore intends to limit the Guidelines for the year 2002 to the conditions that have priority. The aim of the consultation process and the responses of the various markets players is partly to determine the conditions that have priority. For the purposes of

  17. 40 CFR 421.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sand drying wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium...) Sand chlorination area-vent wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  18. 40 CFR 415.642 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.642 Effluent limitations....32 any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Subpart BL—Cadmium Pigments...

  19. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  1. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  2. 40 CFR 421.302 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (m) Scrap detergent wash water. BPT Limitations for the Primary...) Chlorination off-gas wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary and Secondary Titanium... Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (b) Chlorination area-vent wet air pollution control. BPT...

  3. 40 CFR 421.303 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Scrap detergent wash water. BAT Limitations for the Primary and Secondary Titanium Subcategory Pollutant...-gas wet air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Primary and Secondary Titanium Subcategory... 0.215 (b) Chlorination area-vent wet air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Primary and...

  4. 77 FR 112 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    .../L of TSS while the peak concentration discharged from the passive sand filter \\2\\ after the basin... two-day period. Effluent turbidity from one passive sand filter during this storm ranged from approximately 50 to 375 NTU, with 20 of the 24 data points below 200 NTU. For a second passive sand filter...

  5. Sulphur recovery guidelines for sour gas plants in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the decision of Alberta Environment (AE) and the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) on sulfur recovery guidelines for sour gas plants in Alberta. The report also includes a summary of the review process and the recommendations and views of the participants. AE and ERCB agree that generally, the sour gas industry operates well within Alberta's stringent standards for ambient air sulfur dioxide concentrations, and that there is no evidence to date that demonstrates that sulfur emissions from that industry have had a deleterioius effect on local health or environment. However, in the view that the long term objective must be to limit atmospheric loading of pollutants to the extent that is practical, AE and ERCB have concluded that some upward adjustment to the requirements would be in the public interest, particularly where the technlogy appears to be available and the cost is not prohibitive. Effective immediately, new plants sized at 2,000 tonnes/d or larger will be subject to sulfur recovery requirements which have increased from 99 to 99.8%, with lower requirements for plants of lower sizes. It is important to note that for individual plants, AE and ERCB would consider requiring sulfur recovery levels higher than set out in the guidelines if a site-specific need were shown to exist. In addition, it is believed that some degree of sulfur recovery should be required for plants in the 1 to 10 tonne/d range, at which sulfur recovery is not now required. The new requirements apply to all new plants, to existing plants with substantial capacity expansion or process modification, or in cases where substantial new sour gas volumes, not in the original plant approval, have occurred. 3 figs.

  6. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requiremen...

  8. Cultivation of marine microalgae using shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion effluent as the cultivation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racharaks, Ratanachat; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The potential of shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent to reduce the water and nutrient requirements for marine microalgae cultivation was evaluated with the following strains: Nannochloropsis salina, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Dunaliella salina. N. salina and D. tertiolecta achieved the highest biomass productivity in the medium composed of flowback water and AD effluent (6% v/v). Growth in the above unsterilized medium was found to be comparable to that in sterilized commercial media with similar initial inorganic nitrogen concentrations, salinity, and pH levels. Specific growth rates of 0.293 and 0.349 day(-1) and average biomass productivities of 225 and 275 mg L(-1)day(-1) were obtained for N. salina and D. tertiolecta, respectively. The lipid content and fatty acid profile of both strains in the medium were also comparable to those obtained with commercial nutrients and salts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comments on new technical and economic data available for EPA's proposed offshore oil and gas discharge guidelines and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide comments on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Notice in the Federal Register entitled, ''Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category, Offshore Subcategory; Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards; New Information and Request or Comments'' (53 FR 41356; October 21, 1988). This Notice announces the availability of new technical, economic and environmental assessment information relating to the development of Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) regulations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas facilities. The Notice is part of a rulemaking process which formally began with the initial release of rules in August 1985 and which incorporates numerous comments and additional data received subsequent to the release of the 1985 rules. The comments in this paper will concentrate on the following five issues: Estimated project impacts are misrepresented by assuming weighted-average incremental costs of regulation. Economic impacts are inaccurate, since annual compliance costs will likely affect the number of wells drilled, by the effect of compliance costs on project economics and the reduction in industry cash flows on capital available for drilling. Initial well productivity assumptions for various scenarios do not vary with field size. The assumed lease costs, which are based on historical data, do not accurately reflect the future value of leases. The experimental decline rates assumed for the Pacific are too high

  10. Summary of the technical guidelines used in the project: The economics of greenhouse gas limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    This document is a summary version of the technical guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Technical guidelines (UNEP 1998). The objectives of this project have been to support the development of a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au)

  11. A system for destroying mixed and hazardous wastes with no gas or liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.W.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1992-04-01

    We developed a conceptual design for a processing system in which the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste would be destroyed, while discharging virtually no gaseous or liquid effluents. Only solid products would be produced. For mixed waste feeds these could then be transported and disposed as low level waste. This system would oxidize the organics using any one of several destruction processes adapted to replace air with a mixture of O 2 and recycled CO 2 . Net production Of CO 2 , HC1, and H 2 O in the dosed recycle system would be scrubbed or reacted to solid products such as CaCO 3 , NaCl, and concrete. This no-effluent design may improve community acceptance of a waste destruction system

  12. The conceptual flowsheet of effluent treatment during total gelation of uranium process for preparing ceramic UO2 particles of high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ying; Chen Xiaotong; Wang Yang; Liu Bing; Tang Yaping; Tang Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more people pay attention to the environmental protection and ecological environment. Along with the development of nuclear industry, many radioactive effluents may be discharged into environment, which can lead to the pollutions of water, atmosphere and soil. So radioactive effluents including low-activity and medium-level wastes solution treatments have been becoming one of significant subjects. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) is one of advanced nuclear reactors owing to its reliability, security and broad application in which the fabrication of spherical fuel element is a key technology. During the production of spherical fuel elements, the radioactive effluent treatment is necessary. Referring to the current treatment technologies and methods, the conceptual flowsheet of low-level radioactive effluent treatment during preparing spherical fuel elements was summarized which met the 'Zero Emission' demand. (authors)

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Following Development of the Federal Effluent Guidelines for Metal Products and Machinery Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    sampling team will be interested in and areas that due to safety or other considerations should be avoided during the sampling event. • Assist...compounds in the activated sludge waste water treatment process produced the following conclusions: • The primary fate of d- limonene and terpinolene...clarifier solids and volatilization. • The activated sludge process typically produces d- limonene and terpinolene effluent concentrations below 10 µg/L

  14. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  15. 40 CFR 469.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... best available technology economically achievable (BAT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BAT Effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  18. Controlling the Effluent Chemistry of a CAP jet for Biomedical Applications: FTIR Diagnostics and Gas Phase Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Winter, Joern; Iseni, Sylvain; Duennbier, Mario; Barton, Annemarie; Bundscherer, Lena; Wende, Kristian; Masur, Kai; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    The use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) jets with shielding gas devices has proven to be a valuable tool for biomedical applications of plasmas. In order to understand which active components generated by the plasma source trigger desired biological effects, a deeper insight into the species output of CAP jets is necessary. In this work we investigate the effect of different shielding gas compositions using a CAP jet (kinpen) operated with argon. As shielding gas various mixtures of N2 and O2 are used with relative humidity ranging from 0 to 100%. For all conditions the densities of O3, NO2, HNO3, N2O5 and N2O in the far-field of the jet are determined using Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A kinetic model for the neutral species humid air chemistry is fitted to the experimental data. The model yields insight into the processes in the CAP jets effluent. It is used to extrapolate the measured data to 2D density maps for each species depending on the O2/(O2 + N2) ratio and the relative humidity. The 2D maps serve as a basis for the design of further biological and physical experiments. The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant number 03Z2DN11/12).

  19. Perspectives of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) on effluent management and siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.; Cardito, J.; Cunliffe, J.

    1989-07-01

    The MHTGR is an advanced reactor concept being developed under a cooperative program involving the US Government, the utilities and the nuclear industry. The programs objective is the development of an environmentally safe, reliable, and economic nuclear power option for the USA and other nations of the world. HTGR design features, such as the ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and graphite moderator, are incorporated into the MHTGR reference plant design which incorporates four 350 MW(t) reactor modules. This papers objective is to describe those plant features, which minimize the environmental impact of MHTGR operation through efficient energy production, management of normal plant non-radioactive/radioactive effluents, and inherent characteristics and passive safety features which ensure benign plant site suitability source terms. 16 refs

  20. Guidelines for Constructing Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines Through Areas Prone to Landslide and Subsidence Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines provide recommendations for the assessment of new and existing natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines subjected to potential ground displacements resulting from landslides and subsidence. The process of defining landslide and s...

  1. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report documents design guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The report is designed to provide guidance, information on safe industry practices, applicable national codes and standards, and reference data that transit age...

  2. Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

  3. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  4. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 40 CFR 439.34 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439.34 Effluent limitations attainable by the...

  6. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole effluent toxicity (WET). As proposed... water quality standards. EPA obtained a draft certification from the Alaska Department of Environmental... business hours. Viewing and/or Obtaining Copies of Documents. A copy of the Permit re-proposal, the fact...

  7. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-31-5000 (Permit). The effluent limits subject to the final action are: mercury, copper, total...), pursuant to the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1251. The Permit...: This action is taken under the authority of Section 402 of the Clean Water Act as amended, 42 U.S.C...

  8. 40 CFR 440.105 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.105 Effluent limitations representing the...

  9. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439.33 Effluent limitations attainable by the...

  10. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  11. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies...... in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs...... of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge...

  12. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  13. CO2 Biofixation by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and the Green Alga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 Grown Using Gas Effluents and Solid Residues of Thermoelectric Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vaz, Bruna; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 400 ppm in the last 10 years, and the coal-fired power plants are responsible for approximately 22 % of these emissions. The burning of fossil fuel also produces a great amount of solid waste that causes serious industrial and environmental problems. The biological processes become interesting alternative in combating pollution and developing new products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO2 biofixation potential of microalgae that were grown using gaseous effluents and solid residues of thermoelectric origin. The microalgae Chlorella fusca LEB 111 presented higher rate of CO2 biofixation (42.8 %) (p Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The values for the CO2 biofixation rates and the kinetic parameters of Spirulina and Chlorella cells grown using combustion gas did not differ significantly from those of cells grown using CO2 and a carbon source in the culture media. These microalgae could be grown using ash derived from coal combustion, using the minerals present in this residue as the source of the essential metals required for their growth and the CO2 derived from the combustion gas as their carbon source.

  14. Determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in water and industrial effluent by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Manoel L; Donato, Filipe F; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2013-09-01

    Pollution of drinking water supplies from industrial waste is a result of several industrial processes and disposal practices, and the establishment of analytical methods for monitoring organic compounds related to environmental and health problems is very important. In this work, a method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in drinking and surface water as well as in industrial effluent. Optimization of the method was achieved by using a central composite design approach on parameters such as the sample pH and SPE eluent composition. A single SPE consisting of the loading on a polymeric sorbent of 100 mL of sample adjusted to pH 3 and elution with methanol/methylene chloride (10:90, v/v) permitted the obtaining of acceptable recoveries in most cases. The concentration factor associated with sensitivity of the chromatographic analysis permitted the achievement of the method limit of detection values between 0.01 and 0.25 μg L(-1). Recovery assays presented mean recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the compounds with very good precision, despite the different chemical nature of the compounds analyzed. The selectivity of the method, evaluated through the relative intensity of quantification and qualification ions obtained by GC-QqQ-MS/MS, was considered adequate. The developed method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in real samples. River water and treated industrial effluent samples presented residues of some compounds, but no detectable residues were found in the drinking water samples evaluated.

  15. Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Electricity sector analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The present report is the final electricity sector analysis report in the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds'. As part of the project a number of quantitative analyses have been carried out for the electricity sector. The report presents the results of those electricity sector analyses. The present project aims at: 1. Identifying major issues relating to the restructuring and liberalization process in the Polish electricity and the gas sector, 2. Setting up an overview of the Polish electricity and natural gas sector, 3. Setting up scenarios for development of electricity and gas markets in the period to 2020, 4. Updating the Balmorel model with recent data for the Polish electricity system, 5. Analyzing future consequences of liberalization of energy markets for the producers, consumers and the Polish economy and society as a whole, 6. Presenting the possibilities and preparing a practical guide for using EU funds and community programmes for large infrastructure projects in the energy sector. (BA)

  16. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  17. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  18. Guidelines for clockspeed acceleration in the US natural gas transmission industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the clockspeed analysis of a peer group comprising six major integrated US energy companies with substantial US interstate natural gas pipeline business activities: El Paso, Williams, NiSource, Kinder Morgan, MidAmerican and CMS Energy. For this peer group, the three clockspeed accelerators have been benchmarked at both corporate level and gas transmission business level, using time-series analysis and cross-sectional analysis over a 6-year period (2002-2007). The results are visualized in so-called clockspeed radargraphs. Overall corporate clockspeed winners - over the performance period studied - are: Williams, El Paso and Kinder Morgan; MidAmerican is a close follower. Corporate clockspeed laggards are: CMS Energy and NiSource. The peer group ranking for the natural gas transmission business segment shows similar clockspeed winners, but with different ranking in the following order: Kinder Morgan, MidAmerican and El Paso; Williams is a close follower. Clockspeed laggards for the natural gas transmission segments coincide with the corporate clockspeed laggards of the peer group: CMS Energy and NiSource (over the performance period studied); laggards of the past may become clockspeed leaders of the future if adjustments are made. Practical recommendations are formulated for achieving competitive clockspeed optimization in the US gas transmission industry as a whole. Recommendations for clockspeed acceleration at individual companies are also given. Although the US natural gas market is subject to specific regulations and its own geographical dynamics, this study also provides hints for improving the competitive clockspeed performance of gas transmission companies elsewhere, in other world regions. (author)

  19. Commandant’s International Technical Series. Volume 7. Regulations and Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    tank operationa (see 5.2, 5.5, 5. , 5.8 and 5.9); .3 pur=g tanks prior to gas-freeing (see 5.10); .4 top-up pressure in the carga tanks when necessaXy...Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor , Washington, D.C. MR. JOHN G. O’NEILL, Fire Detection and Control Systems Procram, Center for Fire

  20. Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Treating Wastewater Effluent from Gas Turbine Power Plants using the Statistical Method of Taguchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF membrane and reverse osmosis (RO membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars, oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm, and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (5, 6, 7 and 8 bar, oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm, total dissolved solids (TDS (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm, and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while it was temperature for RO process. It was noticed that more than 99% oil removal can be achieved and flux of 580 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was concluded that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 99% for the TDS rejection and flux of 76 L/m2.hr by RO process. The result shows fouling in RO process follows the standard pore blocking model. Process optimization was conducted with confirmation test. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics of that used as fresh water and it can be reused to the process to reduce the operation cost.

  1. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  2. Practical Design Guidelines for Fugitive Gas Detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, William D., Jr.

    Simulation, design, and analysis are combined in this effort to realize a UAV-scale instrument for fugitive gas detection. The contributing material to the industry begins by extending and correlating an integrated Gaussian plume model useful for instrument predictions and trade studies, regardless of the instrument type or molecule of interest. A variety of generally applicable plots are produced from this foundation, including receiver operator curves for leak rate detectability vs. wind speed, beam diameter vs. leak rate detectability, and plots for required scan densities. The atmospheric and instrument parameter trade studies are followed by hardware-specific analyses applicable to differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments. A synopsis of the lessons learned from hands-on experiences in the lab further define the design space for DIAL sensors. The dissertation culminates in the detailed design and analysis of two DIAL instrument concepts. The conclusion is that a DIAL instrument capable of reliably detecting a 50 SCFH plume in winds speeds up to 7 mph is on the threshold of being achievable on a quadcopter platform. Of special note is that the effort was funded by a Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration grant and performed in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies.

  3. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  4. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  5. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Early and Delayed-onset Ocular Injuries Due to Mustard Gas Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Moghadam, Mohammadreza Sedighi; Jadidi, Khosrow; Babaei, Mahmoud; Shirvani, Armin; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Ziaei, Hossein; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Baher, Siamak Delfaza; Naderi, Mostafa; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Hanjani, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Hassan; Salouti, Ramin; Pakbin, Mojgan; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ocular injuries caused by exposure to mustard gas. The clinical questions were designed by the guideline team. Websites and databases including National Guidelines Clearinghouse, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Cochrane, and PubMed were searched to find related CPGs and explore possible answers to the clinical questions. Since there were no relevant CPGs in the literature, related articles in Persian and English languages were extracted. Each article along with its level of evidence was summarized. Additionally, hand search was performed by looking the reference list of each article. Consequently, recommendations were developed considering the clinical benefits and side effects of each therapeutic modality. The recommendations were re-evaluated in terms of customization criteria. All recommendations along with the related evidence were scored from 1 to 9 by experts from all medical universities of Iran. The level of agreement among the experts was evaluated by analyzing the given scores. The agreement was achieved for all recommendations. The experts suggested a number of minor modifications which were applied to the recommendations. Finally, CPGs were developed with 98 recommendations under three major domains including prevention of injury, diagnosis and management of the acute and delayed-onset mustard gas ocular injuries. Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  7. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  8. Effects of a real-time exposure to an estrogenic effluent on reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a well-established point of convergence through which anthropogenic chemicals enter surface waters. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, effects-based approac...

  9. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to a...

  10. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  19. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from side-stream digester effluents using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus recovery was combined with ammonia recovery using gas-permeable membranes. In a first step, the ammonia and alkalinity were removed from municipal side-stream wastewater using low-rate aeration and a gas-permeable membrane manifold. In a second step, the phosphorus was removed using magne...

  20. Catalyst for the removal of hazardous effluents in flue gas. Final report. Katalysator til fjerning av skadelige forurensninger i roekgass. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrdal, R.; Oftedal, T.A.

    1987-11-03

    The report deals with a project on the testing and development of a suitable catalyst for the removal of hazardous pollutants and the decrease of NO/sub x/ in the flue gas from the combustion of charcoal. 2 drawings.

  1. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. ... The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, COD, Oil and Grease, Temperature, Cations (Pb2+, Fe (total), Cu2+ , Cr6+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and Anions (PO3-4, ...

  2. Method and means of monitoring the effluent from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, K.R.; Erickson, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is detected in the effluent cooling gas from a nuclear reactor or nuclear facility by passing the effluent gas through a continuously moving adsorbent filter material which is then purged of noble gases and conveyed continuously to a detector of radioactivity. The purging operation has little or no effect upon the concentration of radioactive iodine which is adsorbed on the filter material. 8 claims, 2 figures

  3. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  5. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2011-01-01

    To minimize confusion in the expression of measurement results of stable isotope and gas-ratio measurements, recommendations based on publications of the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are presented. Whenever feasible, entries are consistent with the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units), and the third edition of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM, 3rd edition). The recommendations presented herein are approved by the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights and are designed to clarify expression of quantities related to measurement of isotope and gas ratios to ensure that quantity equations instead of numerical value equations are used for quantity definitions. Examples of column headings consistent with quantity calculus (also called the algebra of quantities) and examples of various deprecated usages connected with the terms recommended are presented.

  6. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by generic radiation protection standards. (author)

  7. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by genetic radiation protection standards. (author)

  8. Risk management system in the natural gas distribution of Lima and Callao according guidelines “Recommendations on transmission and distribution practice” and risk management of the PMI Project (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Ruiz, Roger Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to analyze quantitative operational risk according to the guidelines of the practice recommendation “Recommendations on Transmission and Distribution Practice” , published by The Institution of Gas Engineers of Great Britain and the PMBOK . Chapter 11 , Managing Project Risk . This study was conducted in the Trunk pipeline system operated by Cálidda the Peru - Natural Gas from the City Gate located in Lurín , to Callao Terminal Station . The purpose of th...

  9. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    have applied the theory to water quality management studies and several modifications as well had been proposed ... other factors in a water body which affect the DO-BOD relationship. According to them these factors are: ... large breweries which also channel their effluent discharge into it. Also, along the river bank of this.

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  12. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  13. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  14. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  15. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  16. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  17. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  18. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  19. Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Protection Agency (FEPA) Guidelines and World Health Organization (WHO) tolerance limits for domestic uses. The study recommend the need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents by wastewater treatment facilities in selected villages of Kaduna.

  20. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  1. The management plan of liquid effluent in Korean advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, H. S.; Jeong, D. W.; Jeong, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Non-radioactive liquid effluent in Korean Advanced Light Water Reactor is transferred and treated in centralized waste treatment facility after the radioactivity in effluent is checked within power block. The liquid effluent from centralized waste treatment facility will be discharged by way of discharge canal in order to be in the sufficient condition. As a result of investigating the radiation monitoring design in accordance with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring design satisfies the regulatory guideline. In relation to sampling and analyses, most systems satisfy the regulatory guideline except for some effluents from turbine building. And, though sampling and analyses are performed after radioactivity is monitored at each system in turbine building, these exceptions in turbine building effluents are expected to cause no significant problems because radioactivity is monitored by direct or indirect methods prior to release from turbine building. Integrated monitoring on liquid effluent from the centralized waste water treatment facility is not necessary because radiation monitoring, sampling and analyses on each system within power block are performed, and operational effectiveness compared with cost according to adding the radiation monitoring equipment is too low. So, whether the radiation monitoring in this effluent is reflected on design or not is planned to be determined through discussion with regulatory authority

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Lavey, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  5. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontage, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  7. 40 CFR 412.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.32 Section 412.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  8. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brendel, D.F.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The Fuel Fabrication Facility in the Hanford 300 Area supported the production reactors from the 1940's until they were shut down in 1987. Prior to 1987 the Fuel Fabrication Facility released both airborne and liquid radioactive effluents. In January 1987 the emission of airborne radioactive effluents ceased with the shutdown of the fuels facility. The release of liquid radioactive effluents have continued although decreasing significantly from 1987 to 1990

  10. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  11. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Junping; Feng, Jia; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA). PMID:28045437

  12. Dose apportionment using statistical modeling of the effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on this data sets to generate the population which subsequently provide the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper describes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the

  13. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  15. Clinical practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis and management of early and delayed-onset ocular injuries due to mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  16. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Joshi, A. V.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Shinde, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m2, with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C2H2F4), isobutane (iC4H10) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  17. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Impacts on Humans and the Environment C. Updated Information on Wastewater Treatment and Solids Disposal... application of various types of control techniques, process changes, non-water quality environmental impact... generated, the length of the processing season, the proximity of facilities that could process the waste...

  18. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  19. OSART guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the operational safety of nuclear power plants. These OSART Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness

  20. Review of sulphur recovery guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-20

    This issue of the General Bulletin of the EUB (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board) gives notice of an update and clarification of Board policy regarding sulphur recovery requirements for grandfathered sour gas plants, the application of the sulphur recovery guidelines to other facilities, and small gas plant proliferation guidelines. The Board`s policy was first enunciated in EUB Information Letter IL 88-13, entitled ``Sulphur recovery guidelines for sour gas plants in Alberta`` which established revised sulphur recovery guidelines for new and/or expanding sour gas processing facilities. Increasing sour gas activity and age of the plants has given rise to questions regarding the adequacy of policies established in 1988. The EUB concurs with this concern and is advising operators that it intends to conduct a review of certain elements of the provincial sulphur recovery guidelines. The EUB also intends to examine how the current sulphur recovery guidelines might be applied to non-sour gas facilities such as production batteries, refineries and heavy oil upgraders. Consideration will also be given in the review to the potential risk of proliferation of new small gas plants emitting less than one ton/day of sulphur. These plants are not currently required to remove sulphur, and there is justifiable concern that large numbers of such plants within a given area could have significant cumulative sulphur emissions, effectively negating the sulphur emission targets specified in IL 88-13. A working draft of the review findings will be made available to industry for their examination and input. 3 tabs.

  1. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  3. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  4. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E; Kelderman, P; van der Kwast, J; Irvine, K

    2017-12-09

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  5. Radiation treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents for contaminant removal. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The Technical Meeting on Radiation Processing of Gaseous and Liquid Effluents conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-10 September 2004, discussed and evaluated issues related to the status and future trends in radiation application for environmental protection. Five experts from Bulgaria, India, the Republic of Korea, Poland, and the United States of America were invited to provide their experiences in this field. Twenty cost-free participants and observers - from Bulgaria, India, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine -joined the meeting, and 15 papers in total were presented. Research and development in radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents is undertaken in three fields: electron beam flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification and sewage sludge sterilization. Wastewater or sludge treatment and flue gas purification all differ from technological points of view, but they are common services and applications of environmental radiation technology applications, based mostly on electron accelerators. The technical meeting discussed new development in the field of radiation applications in environmental service, especially the status and prospects of radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents. Progress in the field of electron accelerators and gamma sources is crucial for routine application of the technology. Cost reduction and improvement of technical reliability are substantial especially for high power of accelerators and high activity of the sources needed for environmental applications. Environmental applications were carefully reviewed in accordance with the existing regulations and state of the art knowledge. The comparison with conventional commercial technologies was addressed as well. In flue gas treatment, applicability of the technology using different fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil, etc.) was reviewed. The elaborated materials cover the technical and economical evaluation of the technologies. The possible applications of

  6. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...

  7. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  8. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary

  9. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  10. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  11. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  12. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  13. Jogging Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Jogging guidelines are set forth under the following headings: a) What Is Jogging; c) Why One Should Jog; c) How To Begin; d) What To Wear (with the emphasis on proper shoes); e) When and Where To Jog; and f) How To Jog. A 16-week basic program, outlined for inactive adults, recommends for each week the number of days to exercise, the distance,…

  14. ASCOT guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines describe an approach used in conducting an Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) review. They are intended to assist the team members in conducting their reviews and at the same time provide guidance to hosts preparing to receive an ASCOT review. They may also be used by any organization wishing to conduct their own self-assessment of safety culture, independent of an ASCOT review

  15. Guidelines for selection and application of the most cost-effective NO sub x control technologies for gas, oil and coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, D.O.; Booth, R.B.; McDonald, B.L. (CARNOT, Tustin, CA (US)); Feenstra, D.R. (Allegheny Power Service, Inc., Greensburg, PA (US))

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the new Clean Air Act, lower NO{sub x} emissions from stationary sources will be required of utilities and independent power producers that burn all fuels including gas, oil and coal. This new legislation, as well as new and more stringent NO{sub x} reduction orders imposed by state and local regulatory agencies, will require rapid evaluation, purchase, installation and start-up of a variety of control technologies. There is substantial volume of literature available discussing NO{sub x} control technologies, their control effectiveness, costs, and chemical reaction mechanisms in forming NO{sub x}. This paper, however, presents more practical aspects of developing a NO{sub x} control strategy and implementing the appropriate cost-effective control technology on a utility or industrial boiler.

  16. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  17. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...

  18. Selective removal of carbon dioxide contained in the effluent from ion chromatography suppressors using a new non-vacuum device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new CO2 gas removal device optimized to selectively remove CO2 gas contained in the effluent from suppressors used in ion chromatography (IC) under non-vacuum conditions is described. This device consists of a closed vessel equipped with gas permeable tubing (GPT) and a CO2 adsorbent. During operation, the CO2 adsorbent adsorbs CO2 gas in the vessel, creating CO2 partial pressure difference between the inside of the GPT and the vessel. The CO2 gas contained in the effluent being pumped into the GPT is selectively removed from the effluent based on the diffusion of the CO2 associated with the CO2 partial pressure difference. The purpose of this study is to optimize the IC operating conditions with the aim of selectively removing HCO3(-) (CO3(2-)) contained in the effluent and reducing the electrical conductivity of the effluent under non-vacuum conditions. The electrical conductivity of the effluent and the signal intensity of the water dip is decreased by approximately 25 μS/cm (from 30 to 5 μS/cm) and by approximately twentieth, respectively, using the optimized CO2 remover. In addition, the anion detection limit achieved in IC instruments with a CO2 remover is on the order of a few ppb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. n-hexane, why is a separate guideline being developed and why is it being considered for oil and gas impacted sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knafla, A.L.; Carey, J.; Ranganathan, S. [Equilibrium Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) compounds are among the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and are notorious due to the contamination of soil and groundwater with these compounds. This presentation provided an overview of the F1 fraction and discussed F1 fraction toxicity. It discussed what drives the risk and why one of these compounds is being considered for removal from the mixture (such as BTEX). The focus of the presentation was on the inhalation route of exposure. Environmental data for F1 was presented with particular reference to unweathered product in terms of the mass percentage of F1 aliphatic vapours in breathing zone of gasoline station workers; and for weathered product in terms of soil vapour concentrations; and in upstream oil and gas condensate sites. Toxicity data for F1 aromatics and an exploration of commercial n-hexane (HX) toxicity were also presented. It was concluded that HX was a significant component of the F1 fraction; HX had a unique toxicity due to its mechanism of action; toxicity occurred in the presence of other F1 hydrocarbons; HX should not be used as a surrogate for F1 and should be separated and included with BTEX; HX could be detected as part of a F1; and some toxicity limit should be selected to represent HX. tabs., figs.

  20. Removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary effluents by an electro-peroxone process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weikun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Hongwei; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yujue

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by conventional ozonation and the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process, which involves electrochemically generating H2O2 in-situ from O2 in sparged O2 and O3 gas mixture (i.e., ozone generator effluent) during ozonation. Several pharmaceuticals with kO3 ranging from remove ozone reactive pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and gemfibrozil), while the E-peroxone process can considerably accelerate the removal of ozone-refractory pharmaceuticals (e.g., ibuprofen and clofibric acid) via indirect oxidation with OH generated from the reaction of sparged O3 with electro-generated H2O2. Compared with ozonation, the E-peroxone process enhanced the removal kinetics of ozone-refractory pharmaceuticals in the four secondary effluents by ∼40-170%, and the enhancement was more pronounced in secondary effluents that had relatively lower effluent organic matter (EfOM). Due to its higher efficiency for removing ozone-refractory pharmaceuticals, the E-peroxone process reduced the reaction time and electrical energy consumption required to remove ≥90% of all spiked pharmaceuticals from the secondary effluents as compared to ozonation. These results indicate that the E-peroxone process may provide a simple and effective way to improve existing ozonation system for pharmaceutical removal from secondary effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 430.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.0 4.0 TSS 10.0 5.0 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 at all... any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.7 4.35 TSS 11.0 5.5 pH (1) (1) 1... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi...

  2. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  3. Removal of radium-226 from uranium mining effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, D.W.; Moffett, D.; Webber, R.T.; Whittle, L.; Wood, J.A.

    1984-12-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations usually generate large quantities of solid and liquid waste materials. A slurry, consisting of waste rock and chemical solutions from the milling operation, is discharged to impoundment areas (tailings basins). Most of the radioactive material dissolved in tailings slurries is precipitated by the addition of lime and limestone prior to discharge from the mill. However, the activity of one radioisotope, radium-226, remains relatively high in the tailings basin effluents. In Canada, radium-226 is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate barium-radium sulphate [(Ba,Ra)SO 4 ]. Although dissolved radium-226 activities are generally reduced effectively, the process is considered to have two undesirable characteristics: the first related to suspended radium-226 in the effluents and the second to ultimate disposal of the (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludge. A government-industry mining task force established a radioactivity sub-group in 1974 to assist in the development of effluent guidelines and regulations for the uranium mining industry (Radioactivity Sub-group, 1974). The investigation of more effective removal methods was recommended, including the development of mechanical treatment systems as alternatives to settling ponds. Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) initiated a bench scale study in March, 1976 which was designed to assess the feasibility of using precipitation, coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation for the removal of radium-226. In 1977, the study was accelerated with financial assistance from the Atomic Energy Control Board. The results were favourable, with improved radium removals obtained in bench scale batch tests using barium chloride as the precipitant and either alum or ferric chloride as the coagulant. A more comprehensive bench scale and pilot scale process development and demonstration program was formulated. The results of the joint study

  4. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  5. ASSET guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Service provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the overall level of plant safety while dealing with the policy of prevention of incidents at nuclear power plants. The ASSET programme, initiated in 1986, is not restricted to any particular group of Member States, whether developing or industrialized, but is available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation or approaching commercial operation. The IAEA Safety Series publications form common basis for the ASSET reviews, including the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) and the Basic Safety Principles (Recommendations of Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3). The ASSET Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of their review of incident investigations. Additional guidance and reference material is provided by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the ASSET members. ASSET reviews accept different approaches that contribute to ensuring an effective prevention of incidents at plants. Suggestions are offered to enhance plant safety performance. Commendable good practices are identified and generic lessons are communicated to other plants, where relevant, for long term improvement

  6. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  7. Anaerobic bio-digestion of concentrate obtained in the process of ultra filtration of effluents from tilapia processing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alves de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the process of biodigestion of the protein concentrate resulting from the ultrafiltration of the effluent from a slaughterhouse freezer of Nile tilapia. Bench digesters were used with excrements and water (control in comparison with a mixture of cattle manure and effluent from the stages of filleting and bleeding of tilapias. The effluent obtained in the continuous process (bleeding + filleting was the one with highest accumulated population from the 37th day, as well as greatest daily production. Gases composition did not differ between the protein concentrates, but the gas obtained with the use of the effluent from the filleting stage presented highest methane gas average (78.05% in comparison with those obtained in the bleeding stage (69.95% and in the continuous process (70.02% or by the control method (68.59%.

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  9. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the Content  1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  11. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  12. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  13. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  14. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  15. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed

  16. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables

  17. The uranium recovery from UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaotong, E-mail: chenxiaotong@tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Linfeng; Liu, Bing; Tang, Yaping; Tang, Chunhe

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. Based on the above experimental results, the treating flow process in this study would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. - Highlights: • A flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. • The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. • The treating flow process would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. - Abstract: For the fabrication of coated particle fuel elements of high temperature gas cooled reactors, the ceramic UO{sub 2} kernels are prepared through chemical gelation of uranyl nitrate solution droplets, which produces radioactive effluent with components of ammonia, uranium, organic compounds and ammonium nitrate. In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the effluent treating. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced.

  18. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  20. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  1. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10–30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11–100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Micro

  2. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  3. 40 CFR 451.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.13 Section 451.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40...

  4. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except...

  5. 40 CFR 451.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.23 Section 451.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...

  6. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  7. The environmental impact in the production of petroleum and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, N. . E mail: norma@info.isctn.edu.cu.

    2004-01-01

    This work describe the situation of oil and gas wells as generators of environment impact. Describe the most important characteristics of the effluents (liquids), solids residuals and emissions. Give some advises to mitigate the impact

  8. Assessment of candidate sites for disposal of treated effluents at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    A rigidly defined evaluation process was used to recommend a preferred location to dispose of treated effluents from facilities in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. First, siting constraints were defined based on functional design considerations and siting guidelines. Then, criteria for selecting a preferred site from among several candidates were identified and their relative importance defined. Finally, the weighted criteria were applied and a site was selected for detailed characterization by subsurface investigations

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  10. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  11. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. The impact of such effluents on the water quality was studied in detail by monitoring selected physicochemical parameters monthly between January 2003 and December 2007. The combined ...

  12. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  13. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  15. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2004 to June 2005. Effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. This estimated maximum potential dose is less than 24% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The levels of tritium detected in groundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below both the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and Sydney Water limits for acceptance of trade wastewater to sewer. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of ∼1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  17. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  18. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)

  19. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  20. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2005 to June 2006. Estimated effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. The maximum potential dose was 23% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The median tritium concentrations detected in groundwater and surface waters at the LHSTC were typically less than 2% of those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of -1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  1. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  2. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  3. 76 FR 9534 - Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for Quantifying GHG Emissions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for... technical guidelines and scientific methods for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon...-based methods to measure the carbon benefits from conservation and land management activities. In...

  4. Filter case for separating out radioactive effluents from gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannakos, K.; Zabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated change of filter in a filter case can be done with an annular or cylindrical filter insert, where the contaminated air side remains separate from the clean air side. A lid is provided which can be divided into two parts, and by which the openings of the filter insert and also in the intermediate floor can be opened or closed using the double lid technique. When closing the filter case lid, the double lid closure is always opened. (DG) [de

  5. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  6. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  7. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource ...

  8. Evolved gas composition monitoring by repetitive injection gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert L

    2015-11-20

    Performance characteristics and applications of a small volume gas chromatograph oven are described. Heating and cooling properties of the apparatus are evaluated and examples are given illustrating the advantages of greatly reducing the air bath volume surrounding fused silica columns. Fast heating and cooling of the oven permit it to be employed for repetitive injection analyses. By using fast gas chromatography separations to achieve short assay cycle times, the apparatus can be employed for on-line species-specific gas stream composition monitoring when volatile species concentrations vary on time scales of a few minutes or longer. This capability facilitates repeated sampling and fast gas chromatographic separations of volatile product mixtures produced during thermal analyses. Applications of repetitive injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evolved gas analyses to monitoring purge gas effluent streams containing volatile acid catalyzed polymer cracking products are described. The influence of thermal analysis and chromatographic experimental parameters on effluent sampling frequency are delineated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pollution Prevention and Control Guidelines for the Coastal and Marine Environment of Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pollution is in the form of solid waste and effluent discharge is a major threat to the coastal and marine environment in Kenya. These guidelines have been developed to provide practical guidance to decision makers, managers, planners, developers, the community and other stakeholders to adopt best practices in their social and economic activities to enhance their level of compliance with set environmental standards. In developing the pollution prevention and control guidelines, it was realise...

  10. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  11. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  12. Evaluation of effluents from bench-scale treatment combinations for landfill leachate in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, Mkc

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pollutants in landfill leachate was investigated using constructed wetlands, a trickling filter, alum flocculation and coagulation, and a sequencing batch reactor in various combinations. Thirteen combined operations were investigated involving three out of the four unit treatment methods in series. The study was conducted because unit operations, though achieved reductions in pollutants concentrations had effluent values above the national regulatory guideline values. The suspended solids of effluents were permissible in most treatment processes, while reductions in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH3) of leachates ranged from 80% to 97%; 86% to 97% and 92% to 98% respectively. However, there were significant increases in nitrate (85%) and dissolved oxygen of treatment (218%). In addition, the characteristics of the recommended treatment sequence, involving constructed wetlands, alum and trickling filter produced effluents with reductions in colour (97%), alkalinity (97%), BOD (97%), COD (97%) and NH3 (98%), and in metals, except nickel (29% reduction from the influent values). The recommended treatment combination is suitable for effective leachate management at the landfill. The cost of constructing and operating the recommended treatment combination at the facility, for 5 years, would be NGN6,009,750.00 ($38,036.39). The performance should be monitored on site prior to full adoption if effluent characteristics remain consistently low over dry and wet seasons.

  13. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Oron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF and UltraFiltration (UF membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.

  14. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Upflow Evapotranspiration System for the Treatment of On-Site Wastewater Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Curneen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale willow evapotranspiration systems fed from the base with septic tank or secondary treated domestic effluent from single houses have been constructed and instrumented in Ireland in order to investigate whether the technology could provide a solution to the problem of on-site effluent disposal in areas with low permeability subsoils. Continuous monitoring of rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, effluent flows and water level in the sealed systems revealed varying evapotranspiration rates across the different seasons. No system managed to achieve zero discharge in any year remaining at maximum levels for much of the winter months, indicating some loss of water by lateral exfiltration at the surface. Water sampling and analysis however, showed that the quality of any surface overflow from the systems was similar to rainfall runoff. The performance results have then been used to formulate design guidelines for such systems in Ireland’s temperate maritime climate. The effect of varying different combinations of design parameters (plan area, soil depth, etc. has been evaluated with respect to the simulated number of overflow days over a five-year period using a water balance model. Design guidelines have then been based upon minimising the amount of runoff, in conjunction with other practical and financial considerations.

  16. 40 CFR 421.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....100 233.100 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (e) Spent electrowinning... suspended solids 688.800 327.600 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (f) Spent... technology currently available. 421.292 Section 421.292 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a cooling water recirculation system designed, constructed and operated to maintain a surge capacity equal... facility, operated separately or in combination with a water recirculation system, which is chemically...

  18. 40 CFR 422.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a cooling water recirculation system designed, constructed and operated to maintain a surge capacity equal... facility, operated separately or in combination with a water recirculation system, which is chemically...

  19. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Method 1654, Revision A, (specified at § 435.11(u)) entitled “PAH Content of Oil by HPLC/UV,” December 1992, which is published in Methods for the Determination of Diesel, Mineral, and Crude Oils in... biodegradability of organic compounds in digested sludge—Method by measurement of the biogas production (1995...

  20. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... units (q/sq m of products) Phosphorus 0.30 .30 English units (lb/1,000 sq ft of product) Phosphorus 0.06...

  1. 40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH...

  2. 40 CFR 418.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be discharged by a... exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 TSS 150 50 The total suspended solid limitation set...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus...

  3. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, which may be... pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be discharged by a point source subject to the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d...

  4. 40 CFR 422.52 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH...

  5. 40 CFR 418.13 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties which may be discharged by..., the following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus...

  6. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... units (g/kg of product) Phosphorus 0.05 .05 English units (lb/ton of product) Phosphorus 0.0001 .0001...

  7. 40 CFR 422.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 0.56 0.28...

  8. 40 CFR 422.53 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or properties, which may be discharged... section, the following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d) The concentration of pollutants...

  9. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by... Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— TSS 0.50 0.25 Total phosphorus (as P...

  10. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... silver smelted Lead 0.546 0.260 Mercury 0.325 0.130 Silver 0.533 0.221 Zinc 1.898 0.793 Gold 0.130 Oil....164 0.068 Zinc 0.584 0.244 Gold 0.040 Oil and grease 8.000 4.800 Total suspended solids 16.400 7.800 p... property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold refined electrolytically...

  11. 40 CFR 421.313 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detergent wash and rinse. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory Pollutant or... 976.300 Cobalt 45.984 20.160 Tungsten 57.980 25.820 (e) Tungsten carbide leaching wet air pollution... Tungsten 6.093 2.714 (f) Tungsten carbide wash water. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt...

  12. 40 CFR 421.312 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Tungsten detergent wash and rinse. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory... wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory Pollutant... water. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property...

  13. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the... consecutive days Concentration in mg/l Iron, total 7.0 3.5 Manganese, total 4.0 2.0 TSS 70 35 pH 1 1 1 Within...

  14. 40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt processes (A) 5 21. Hydrofining 3 Total lube processes (L) 3 8. Catalytic reforming 10 Total... 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055 Lube 1.055 0.257 Reforming and alkylation 0.377 0.092 Total chromium: Crude 0.030 0.011 Cracking and coking 0.340 0.118 Asphalt 0.183 0.064 Lube 0.855 0.297 Reforming and...

  15. 40 CFR 435.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consecutive days shall not exceed Residual chlorine minimum for any 1 day Produced water 72 48 NA Deck drainage (1) (1) NA Water-based: Drilling fluids (1) (1) NA Drill Cuttings (1) (1) NA Non-aqueous: Drilling fluids No discharge No discharge NA Drill Cuttings (1) (1) NA Well treatment fluids (1) (1) NA Sanitary...

  16. 40 CFR 435.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed Residual chlorine minimum for any 1 day Produced water 72 48 NA Deck drainage (1) (1) NA Water-based: Drilling fluids (1) (1) NA Drill Cuttings (1) (1) NA Non-aqueous: Drilling fluids No discharge No discharge NA Drill Cuttings (1) (1) NA Well treatment, workover...

  17. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2 Produced Sand No discharge. Deck Drainage Free Oil No discharge. 3 Sanitary Waste: Sanitary M10 Residual... control technology (BCT). 435.44 Section 435.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well treatment, completion and workover fluids Free oil No discharge. 2 Deck drainage Free oil No discharge. 3 Produced sand No discharge. Sanitary M10 Residual chlorine... control technology (BCT). 435.14 Section 435.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. 40 CFR 421.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....500 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at alltimes. (f) Gold solvent extraction raffinate... extraction Copper 1.197 0.630 Cyanide (total) 0.183 0.076 Zinc 0.920 0.384 Ammonia (as N) 83.980 36.920..., including silver, incinerated or smelted Copper 136.400 71.800 Cyanide (total) 20.820 8.616 Zinc 104.800 43...

  20. 40 CFR 421.263 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solvent extraction Copper 0.806 0.384 Cyanide (total) 0.126 0.050 Zinc 0.643 0.265 Combined metals 0.189... 1.020 0.420 Combined metals 0.300 Ammonia (as N) 133.300 58.600 (f) Gold solvent extraction..., incinerated or smelted Copper 5.760 2.745 Cyanide (total) 0.900 0.360 Zinc 4.590 1.890 Combined metals 1.350...

  1. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) Solvent extraction raffinate from... Copper 2,875.000 1,370.000 Cyanide (total) 449.200 179.700 Ammonia (as N) 299,400.000 131,600.000 Fluoride 78,610.000 44,700.000 (b) Solvent extraction raffinate from beryl ore. BAT Limitations for the...

  2. 40 CFR 421.323 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the refinery Chromium (total) 1.689 0.685 Copper 5.844 2.785 Nickel 2.511 1.689 Fluoride 159.800 90.860 (c) Solvent extraction raffinate filtrate. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium... Chromium (total) 27.14 11.00 Copper 93.88 44.74 Nickel 40.34 27.14 Fluoride 2,567.00 1,459.00 (b) Slag...

  3. 40 CFR 421.322 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... times. (c) Solvent extraction raffinate filtrate. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium Subcategory... refinery Chromium 32.270 13.200 Copper 139.300 73.340 Nickel 140.800 93.140 Fluoride 2,567.000 1,459.000... processed in the refinery Chromium (total) 2.009 0.822 Copper 8.675 4.566 Nickel 8.767 5.799 Fluoride 159...

  4. 40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a) Solvent Extraction... the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times (b) Solvent Extraction Raffinate from Beryl Ore. BPT Limitations... 404.300 Copper 4,267.000 2,246.000 Cyanide (total) 651.300 269.500 Ammonia (as N) 299,400.000 131,600...

  5. 40 CFR 407.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ingredients 0.95 0.55 0.36 Baby food 1.23 0.73 0.51 Chips: Corn 1.58 1.04 0.80 Potato 3.46 2.17 1.58 Tortilla... shall not exceed— Annual average shall not exceed— Added ingredients 0.00 0.00 0.00 Baby food 2.23 1.55... available. Any food specialty plant which continuously or intermittently discharges process waste water...

  6. 40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff which exceeds 15 mg/l oil and grease is not commingled or....0 TSS 15.8 10.1 Oil and Grease 6.9 3.7 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) BOD5 8.0 4.25 TSS 5.6 3.6 Oil and Grease 2.5 1.3 PH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The...

  7. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 15 mg/l oil and grease and 110... 23.7 COD 1 388.0 198.0 Oil and grease 17.1 9.1 Phenolic compounds 0.40 0.192 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6... (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) BOD 1 19.2 10.2 TSS 13.2 8.4 COD 1 136.0 70.0 Oil and grease 6.0 3.2...

  8. 40 CFR 407.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....01 0.71 0.57 Broccoli 3.83 2.21 1.47 Carrots 1.76 1.11 0.82 Corn: Canned 0.71 0.48 0.38 Frozen 1.45 0.84 0.56 Dehydrated onion/garlic 2.45 1.46 0.98 Dehydrated vegetables 2.98 1.76 1.21 Dry beans 2.50 1...— Annual average shall not exceed— Beets 1.88 1.47 1.12 Broccoli 6.78 4.57 2.65 Carrots 3.19 2.30 1.54 Corn...

  9. 40 CFR 421.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precipitation for the month that falls within the impoundment and either the evaporation from the pond water... precipitation for that month that falls within the impoundment and the mean evaporation from the pond water...

  10. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solids .000 .000 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (h) Subpart M—Battery Case... attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a) Subpart M—Battery... Lead .283 .135 Zinc .983 .411 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 Total suspended solids 27.600 13.130 pH (1) (1...

  11. Heavy metals in handloom-dyeing effluents and their biosorption by agricultural byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Chowdhury, Md Abul Khair; Chowdhury, Md Akhter Hossain; Rahman, Afzal; Mohiuddin, K M

    2018-03-01

    The Madhabdi municipality in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh is a well-known area for textile, handloom weaving, and dyeing industries. These textile industries produce a considerable amount of effluents, sewage sludge, and solid waste materials every day that they directly discharge into surrounding water bodies and agricultural fields. This disposal poses a serious threat to the overall epidemic and socio-economic pattern of the locality. This research entailed the collection of 34 handloom-dyeing effluent samples from different handloom-dyeing industries of Madhabdi, which were then analyzed to determine the contents of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Average concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn were 3.81, 1.35, 1.70, 0.17, 0.75, and 0.73 mg L -1 , respectively, whereas Cd content was below the detectable limit of the atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Mn exceed the industrial effluent discharge standards (IEDS) for inland surface water and irrigation water guideline values. A biosorption experiment of the heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn) was conducted without controlling for any experimental parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, or other compounds present in the effluent samples) by using four agricultural wastes or byproducts, namely rice husk, sawdust, lemon peel, and eggshell. Twenty grams of each biosorbent was added to 1 L of effluent samples and stored for 7 days. The biosorption capacity of each biosorbent is ranked as follows: eggshell, sawdust, rice husk, and lemon peel. Furthermore, the biosorption affinity of each metal ion was found in the following order: Cu and Cr (both had similar biosorption affinity), Zn, Fe, Mn. The effluents should not be discharged before treatment, and efficient treatment of effluents is possible with eggshell powder or sawdust at a rate of 20 g of biosorbent per liter of effluents.

  12. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Staff report on the Review of the Sulphur Recovery Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    A joint review by the staff of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB), Alberta Environment (AENV), and the Alberta Department of Resource Development (DRD) of the 'Sulphur Recovery Guidelines - Gas Processing Operations', described in Informational Letter (IL) 88-13, is presented. Stakeholder groups also participated in the review through an independent Sulphur Recovery Guidelines Review Advisory Group. The objectives of the review were to clarify sulphur recovery requirements for grandfathered sour gas plants, the application of the sulphur recovery guidelines to other facilities, and the proliferation guidelines for small gas plants. EUB, AENV, and DRD have concluded (after consideration of the individual stakeholder submissions ) that (1) grandfathered plants that continue to operate with sustained sulphur inlet rates should be required to comply with current sulphur recovery guidelines by September 30, 2005; (2) sour gas plants that experience significant declines in throughput should continue to be grandfathered; (3) no public funding will be provided to offset the cost of requiring older plants to meet higher sulphur recovery levels, although the province will continue to pay its share of the processing costs; (4) the sulphur recovery guidelines should be applied to facilities on the basis of sulphur contained in acid gas streams produced within the facilities; (5) greater rigour should be required of applicants to address facility proliferation issues; and (6) affected public should be consulted and included in the review of alternatives to new sour gas plants.

  14. Biological processes for environmental control of effluent streams in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Hancher, C.W.; Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrates and radioactive heavy metals need to be removed from aqueous effluent streams in the fuel cycle. Biological methods are being developed for reducing nitrate or nitrite to N 2 gas and for decreasing dissolved metal concentration to less than 1 g/m 3 . Fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactors are being tested. Removal of uranium from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied

  15. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerweg, D; Von Keudell, A; Benedikt, J

    2012-01-01

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O 2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O 3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O 2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O 2 * species of unknown identity with ground state O 2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  16. Evidence in dentistry guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rufino Macedo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines are suggestions for clinical practice based on the best available scientific evidence. Nevertheless, in drafting such guidelines, existing systematic reviews are often ignored and are replaced by general consensuses. This ends up compromising the quality of the instructions through bias. Our objective was to investigate whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present among the bibliographic references of prevention and treatment guidelines for dentistry that have been published in databases. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective, observational study was conducted at the Brazilian Cochrane Center. METHODS: The databases were searched for guidelines. Any guidelines obtained were then checked to find whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present in the bibliographic references of the guidelines. In their absence, we checked whether such reviews had not been included because no reviews existed yet, or because such reviews had not been consulted despite already existing. RESULTS: 223 studies were initially selected; of these, 77 were excluded. Of the 146 guidelines included, 46 could have made reference to existing systematic reviews, but only 13 studies did so. Among these 13 studies, eight were systematic reviews following Cochrane methodology. Thirty-three guidelines had not been drafted using published systematic reviews as references, and 100 guidelines had been unable to use Cochrane references because no reviews existed yet. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to increase awareness of the importance of using systematic reviews in drafting dentistry guidelines. Likewise, it is necessary to develop systematic reviews that answer questions on the various topics that remain unanswered.

  17. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and gas pains Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. Effect of inoculum-substrate ratio on acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent in an anaerobic batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, B; Saravanane, R; Lavanya, M; Sivacoumar, R

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment has gained tremendous success over the past two decades for treatment of industrial effluents. Over the past 30 years, the popularity of anaerobic wastewater treatment has increased as public utilities and industries have utilized its considerable benefits. Low biomass production, row nutrient requirements and the energy production in terms of methane yield are the significant advantages over aerobic treatment process. Due to the disadvantages reported in the earlier investigations, during the past decade, anaerobic biotechnology now seems to become a stable process technology in respect of generating a high quality effluent. The objective of the present experimental study was to compare the biodegradability of recalcitrant effluent (pharmaceutical effluent) for various inoculum-substrate ratios. The batch experiments were conducted over 6 months to get effect of ratio of inoculum-substrate on the acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent. The tests were carried out in batch reactors, serum bottles, of volume 2000 mL and plastic canes of 10000 mL. Each inoculum was filled with a cow dung, sewage and phosphate buffer. The batch was made-up of diluted cow dung at various proportions of water and cow dung, i.e., 1:1 and 1:2 (one part of cow dung and one part of water by weight for 1:1). The bottles were incubated at ambient temperature (32 degrees C-35 degrees C). The bottles were closed tightly so that the anaerobic condition is maintained. The samples were collected and biodegradability was measured once in four days. The bottles were carefully stirred before gas measurement. The substrate was added to a mixture of inoculum and phosphate nutrients. The variations in pH, conductivity, alkalinity, COD, TS, TVS, VSS, and VFA were measured for batch process. The biogas productivity was calculated for various batches of inoculum-substrate addition and conclusions were drawn for expressing the biodegradability of pharmaceutical effluent on

  19. Water feed and effluent treatment for hydrogen sulfide-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This invention provides a feed and effluent treatment system for improving the recovery of a gas (e.g. H 2 S) from solution in a liquid (e.g. water) when the liquid also contains dissolved nonvolatile components (e.g. the salts of sea water) at low temperatures. In a gas/liquid contact process in which the gas is at least partially soluble in the liquid, a portion of the liquid is extracted after it passes through a hot zone, the pressure of the liquid is reduced by flashing it through pressure reduction means to remove a portion of the dissolved gas, and the gas thus recovered is returned to the process

  20. Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

  1. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  2. Reduction of releases of radioactive effluents from light-water-power-reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Itakura, T.; Kanai, T.

    1977-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Commission established the dose objectives to the population around the light-water-reactors in May, 1975, based on the ''ALAP'' concept. These values are respectively, 5 mrems per year for total body and 15 mrems per year for thyroid of an individual in the critical group in the environs, due to both gaseous and liquid effluents from LWRs in one site. The present paper describes the implications of the dose objective values, control measures which have been adopted to reduce releases of radioactive materials and related technical developments in Japan. The main control measures for reduction of radioactive gaseous effluents are an installation of a charcoal gas holdup system for decay of noble gases and a supply of clean steam for the gland seal of a turbine in BWR, and a storage tank system allowing decay of noble gases in PWR. For liquid effluents are taken measures to re-use them as the primary coolant. Consequently, the amounts of radioactivity released to the environment from any LWR during normal operation have been maintained under the level to meet the above dose objective values. For research reactors, reduction of release of effluents has also been carried out in a similar way to LWRs. In order to establish the techniques applicable for further reduction, studies are being made on the control measures to reduce leakage of radioiodine, an apparatus for removal of krypton, the treatment of laundry waste and measures to remove the crud in the primary coolant. Presentation is also made on the energy-integrated gas monitor for gaseous effluent and systems of measuring γ dose from radioactive cloud descriminating from natural background, which have been developed for effective monitoring thus reduced environmental dose

  3. 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility: Delisting petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Waste water has been generated for over 40 years as a result of operations conducted on the Hanford Site. This waste water previously was discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. An example of such waste water includes process condensate that might have been in contact with dangerous waste or mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). This petition presents the treatment technologies that are designed into the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility to eliminate the dangerous characteristics of the waste and to delist the effluent in accordance with the requirements found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 260.20 and 260.22. The purpose of this petition is to demonstrate that the 242-A Evaporator process condensate will be treated adequately so that the effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will no longer require management as a regulated dangerous waste. This demonstration was performed by use of a surrogate (synthetic) waste, designed by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to include species that represent all organic and inorganic constituents (but not radionuclide species) expected to be found on the Hanford Site. Thus, the surrogate will encompass not only the expected 242-A Evaporator process condensate characteristics, but those of other potential 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility waste streams and additional 40 CFR Appendix VIII constituents

  4. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  6. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  7. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  8. Process parametric study for COD removal of electroplating industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigated the effects of parameters, like inoculum size (15, 10 and 5% of the working volume of the reactor), gas velocities (0.0027, 0.00342 and 0.0068 m/s), bed heights (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), static bed heights (4.85 and 2.43 cm), sizes of solid media particles (12, 4 mm), and the height to diameter ratio ( H / D : 0.25 and 0.5) onto COD reduction process for electroplating effluent (initial COD values: 1140 ppm) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida . The authors derived simple mathematical correlations representing the entire COD reduction process. The correlation between the inoculum volume and gas velocities was in the form of an equation Y  =  ax 2  +  bx  +  c , as deduced from nonlinear regressions. The correlations were validated, and percentage errors were found out to infer the effects of all parameters in the COD reduction process. The maximum COD reduction was achieved to 28.30 ppm (97.52%), in a batch mode, at 10% inoculum size, 0.0027 m/s low gas velocity and a static bed height of 2.43 cm.

  9. Microbiological quality of a waste stabilization pond effluent used for restricted irrigation in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Peña, M R; Mara, D D

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of effluent reuse in agriculture after treatment in a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. The WSP system is located in Ginebra municipality, a small town in southwest Colombia. The total HRT is 12 days. Several samples of the final effluent were taken over a 55 day period and were analysed for E. coli, Streptococcus spp. and helminth eggs. Some additional grab samples were taken to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The results showed that the system was able to remove 4 log units of E. coli, 1 log unit of Streptococcus spp. and 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella spp. were detected in the effluent of the facultative pond whilst Shigella spp. were not detected in any sample. The main species of helminth eggs encountered were Taenia spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Enterobius vermicularis. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory despite the relatively short HRT. Nevertheless, WHO guidelines were slightly surpassed in the case of E. coli for unrestricted irrigation. The helminth egg value was always below the maximum WHO limit. Hence, this effluent can be safely used for restricted irrigation provided that field workers are protected from direct contact with wastewater given the presence of Salmonella spp. in the facultative pond effluent.

  10. Plankton and water quality variability in an estuary before and after the shrimp farming effluents: possible impacts and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bauer

    Full Text Available Abstract Water quality, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, proto and mezo-zooplankton abundance were spatiotemporally evaluated in an estuary receiving effluents from a Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm in Patos Lagoon estuary, Southern Brazil. Samples were taken before (BD and; 1 day (1 PD 5 days (5 PD, 10 days (10 PD, 20 days (20 PD and 30 days (30 PD after the effluents discharge. Some water quality parameters were affected by the effluents discharge; however, these changes were restricted to a distance of 20 m from the effluent discharge channel for a period of 5 days. The microbial community was dominated by chlorophyceae, followed by diatoms, cyanobacteria and ciliates. There was an increase in the abundance of different groups on the 1 PD sampling compared to BD. The zooplankton abundance was low in practically all sites, except for 30 PD sampling. The meso-zooplanktonic organisms were represented by copepods, mostly Acartia tonsa. Despite some effects on water quality and phytoplankton and protozooplankton abundance until 5 PD sampling, these alterations dissipated in a short period of time. We conclude that the environment quickly assimilated the effluents discharge, and the water quality parameters remained within the limits stipulated by standard guidelines.

  11. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  12. Site selection for effluent discharge along the coast using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Hiteshkumar, V.; Om, P.D.

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to select a site for industrial effluent discharge along the coastal region. The system is developed to deal with the behavior of the discharged effluent in the coastal waters and it affects on coastal...

  13. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the ability of utilizing various chlorophenolic compounds and demonstrates its potentials of degrading high concentration of phenol in industrial effluents. Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, industrial effluent, chlorophenols. INTRODUCTION. Chlorinated phenols are important chemicals ...

  14. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  15. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  16. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  17. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kassas, Hala Yassin; Mohamed, Laila Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  19. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  20. Guidelines for Media Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Donald P.

    Presented are: (1) guidelines for the selection of appropriate and feasible media; (2) criteria for production in each media format; and (3) guidelines for evaluation of each medium. This is designed for grantees or contractors who will be producing audiovisual materials for the EPA, or as part of a related activity. The level of sophistication…

  1. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  2. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  3. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  4. D 59 Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Lamberti, Alberto

    The present guidelines are specifically dedicated to Low Crested Structures on attempt to provide methodological tools both for the engineering design of structures and for prediction of performance and environmental impacts. It is anticipated that the guidelines will provide valuable inputs to c...

  5. 40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fill, or Fill and Dump. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...) Subpart C—Truck Wash. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  6. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BPT...

  7. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  8. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  9. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of getting quality drinking water is increasing as untreated effluents are discharged into surface water bodies. The impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir, the biggest abattoir in Ibadan, western. Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and ...

  10. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  11. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    Abstract. The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected ...

  12. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Effluent Discharge and Stream Pollution by a Rubber Factory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    State (including the rubber factory of Pamol (Nigeria) Limited discharge their effluents into rivers, streams, ... Nigeria hinterland aquatic systems including the Field 20 Stream where rubber effluents are discharge into .... substantial heat pollution (the temperature of the effluent is sometimes as high as 500C ) have made the ...

  14. Global Imaging referral guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.

    2010-01-01

    The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement

  15. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  16. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yılmaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast effluent is a major source of pollution with a high organic load and dark colour. It can be treated by using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. AOPs, such as ultrasonic irradiation, are ambient temperature processes involving the generation of free radicals. We have investigated sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent by using ultrasound. TiO2–ZnO composites were used as sonocatalysts to increase the efficiency of the ultrasonic irradiation. The TiO2/ZnO composite was prepared by two different methods. Ultrasonic irradiation or mechanical stirring was used to prepare the TiO2–ZnO composite, and an ultrasonic homogenizer with a 20 kHz frequency was used to treat the baker's yeast effluent. We studied the effects of several parameters, including the molar ratio of TiO2/ZnO, calcination temperature, calcination time and catalyst amount, on the sonocatalytic treatment of the effluent. According to the results, the decolorization rate was 25% when using the composite TiO2/ZnO prepared at a 4:1 molar ratio and treated at 700 °C for 60 min, and the optimum catalyst amount was 0.15 g/l.

  18. Magnetically supported zeolite adsorbents for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaydardjiev, S.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to remove heavy metal ions from metallurgical effluents by means of magnetically supported fluidized bed column employing zeolite-magnetite complexes as adsorbents. The natural sorptive properties of acid modified clinoptilolite were used instead of synthetic beads. X-ray diffraction and DTA studies on the raw material confirmed that the main zeolite mineral was clinoptilolite. (author)

  19. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... monitoring is required when using anaerobic filter effluent from a DEWATS for irrigating banana and taro. Keywords: banana, intercrop, nitrogen, ... and anaerobic filter (AF) of the DEWATS degrade blackwater and greywater to produce biogas and ...... Passive Approaches. Intech Open Science Online ...

  20. Simulation of ammoniacal nitrogen effluent using feedforward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammoniacal nitrogen in domestic wastewater treatment plants has recently been added as the monitoring parameter by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. It is necessary to obtain a suitable model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in the effluent stream of sewage treatment plant in order to meet the new ...

  1. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. The quality of effluent discharges from a vegetable oil processing company, located in Anambra State –. South east Nigeria, was evaluated relative to regulatory body – Federal Environmental Protection. Agency (FEPA) standard. Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),.

  2. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) can provide a potential sanitation solution to residents living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. This paper reports on a first step to assess the technical viability of this concept. To do so a pilot DEWATS plant was ...

  3. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  4. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  5. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  6. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  7. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or ... breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

  8. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  9. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  11. Closing the global atmospheric N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle; OECD/IPCC/IEA Phase II Development of IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosier, A.; Kroeze, C.; Nevison, C.; Oenema, O.; Seitzinger, S.; Cleempu., van O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 a working group was assembled at the request of OECD/IPCC/IEA to revise the methodology for N2O from agriculture for the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Methodology. The basics of the methodology developed to calculate annual country level nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural

  12. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Surface Coating BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum... 0.051 (d) Subpart A—Solution Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant...—Extrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  13. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  14. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  15. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  16. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  18. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  19. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Radiological impact of airborne effluents of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.P.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Blanco, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    Radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in airborne effluents of a model coal-fired steam plant is evaluated assuming a release to the atmosphere of 1 percent of the ash in the coal burned and compared with the impact of radioactive materials in the airborne effluents of model light-water reactors. The principal exposure pathway for radioactive materials released from both types of plants is ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. For nuclear plants immersion in the airborne effluents is also a significant factor in the dose commitment. Assuming that the coal burned contains 1 ppM uranium and 2 ppM thorium together with their decay products and using the same impact analysis methods used in evaluating nuclear facilities, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant for the whole body and most organs (except the thyroid) are shown to be greater than those from a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and, with the exception of the bone and kidney doses, less than those from a boiling-water reactor (BWR). With the exception of the bone dose, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant are less than the numerical design guideline limits listed for light-water reactors (LWRs). Population dose commitments from the coal plant are higher than those from either nuclear plant

  1. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  2. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda

    2009-07-01

    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  3. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  4. Nitrogen recovery from wastewater using gas-permeable membranes: Impact of inorganic carbon content and natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes coupled with low-rate aeration are useful to recover ammonium from livestock effluents. In this study, the role of inorganic carbon (bicarbonate) to enhance the nitrogen (N) recovery process was evaluated using synthetic effluents with various ammonium to bicarbonate molar ra...

  5. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  6. OSART guidelines. 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as a guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness. Additional guidance and reference material has been prepared by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the OSART members

  7. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  8. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  9. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  10. IRSN's expertise about nuclear medicine hospital effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This brief note aims at presenting the radioactivity follow up of hospital effluents performed by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). This follow up concerns the radioactive compounds and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, and principally technetium 99 and iodine 131. The IRSN has developed a network of remote measurement systems for the monitoring of sewers and waste water cleaning facilities. Data are compiled in a data base for analysis and subsequent expertise. (J.S.)

  11. Biological treatment of effluent containing textile dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Amorim, M. T. P.; Porter, R. S.; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Ferra, M. I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Colour removal of textile dyes from effluent was evaluated using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Several commercial dyes were selected to study the effect of dye structure on colour removal. The anaerobic reactor was fed with glucose, an easily biodegradable organic matter and selected individual dyes. Results show that some of the dyes are readily reduced under anaerobic conditions even at high concentration of 700 mg/l. The average removal efficiency for acid dyes usin...

  12. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the...

  13. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  14. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  15. Design guideline to prevent the pipe rupture by radiolysis gases in BWR steam piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Miyagawa, M.; Ota, T.; Sato, T.; Sakata, K.

    2009-01-01

    In late 2001, pipe rupture accidents due to fast combustion of radiolysis gas occurred in Japan and elsewhere's BWR power plants. TENPES began to set up the guideline as action to such a new problem to prevent accumulation and combustion of radiolysis gas in BWR steam piping. And then, the first edition of guideline was published in October 2005. Afterwards, the experimental study about combustion/detonation of radiolysis gas have been continued. And in March 2007, TENPES published a revised edition of the guideline. This is the report of the revised edition of that guideline. According to this guideline, it became possible to design BWR's steam piping to prevent accumulation of radiolysis gas. (author)

  16. Dam safety guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.; Raska, C.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this report are (1) to define the requirements and outline the guidelines so that the safety of existing dams can be investigated and identified in a consistent and adequate manner across Canada, (2) to enable the consistent evaluation of dam safety deficiencies leading to the construction of improvements which contribute to dam safety, and (3) to provide a basis for dam safety legislation and regulation. The document contains statements of safety requirements, explanatory guidelines and commentaries. These clarify and expand upon some of the requirements and guidelines, and discuss alternative approaches to meeting the safety requirements. The report is divided into 12 sections which address criteria for earthquakes, floods and emergency preparedness. Geotechnical considerations and the effects of the reservoir environment are also discussed. These guidelines are not intended as design specifications for dam safety evaluation, design, construction or rehabilitation. From time to time, portions of these guidelines will be updated and issued to CDSA members. The user is responsible for ensuring that the most up-to-date version is being used. refs, tabs

  17. Are BTS guidelines followed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study's aim was to determine the level of adherence to these guidelines at a London teaching hospital. A retrospective case note audit of 59 episodes was performed. In patients undergoing intervention, the initial procedure was simple aspiration in 32 (73 per cent) and chest tube insertion in 12 (27 per cent) cases, contrasting with the BTS recommendation that aspiration should be attempted first in all such patients. Simple aspiration was successful on 34 per cent of occasions. Successful aspiration was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (median 3, range 1-11 days) than either failed aspiration (7, 3-66 days) or chest tube insertion without aspiration (9, 3-16 days). Other areas where practice differed from the BTS guidelines were clamping of chest tubes and use of a pursestring suture for wound closure. A follow up questionnaire suggested a lack of familiarity with the guidelines. These findings indicate that current management of spontaneous pneumothorax deviates from the BTS guidelines in potentially important respects.

  18. Guidelines for safety system in the plant for photovoltaic solar cells applications feeded poisonous H{sub 2}Se; Linee guida per la realizzazione di un sistema di sicurezza per un impianto di selenizzazione impiegante gas tossico H{sub 2}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, M.; Agati, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Portici. Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-12-01

    The report aims at the description of safety system which has been realized and provided at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment)`s Research Center, located in Portici, to the plant for the formation of the dyselenide and/or dysulphide of copper and indium CuIn (Se,S){sub 2} for photovoltaic solar cells applications. The plant is a diffusion furnace that has to be feeded with gases such as poisonous H{sub 2}S or the very toxic H{sub 2}Se, whose Threshold Level Values are respectively of 10-p.p.m. (parts per millions) and 50 p.p.b. (parts per billions), as well as the flammable and explodible H{sub 2}; the TLV is the maximum concentration value of a gas to which a worker can be exposed during its working shift, i.e., eight hours a day for five days a week for thirty five years, without any any adverse effects on his health. The description of the scientific results obtained on the field of the research with the use of that facility is beyond the scope of the report, as well as it has been intended as an handbook for the safe toxic gas handling, some example of which may be found on the specialized literature, but only to provide some guidelines for the realization of such a system.

  19. Anaesthesia gas supply: gas cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-09-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment.

  20. Anaesthesia gas supply: Gas cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment.

  1. Guideline Implementation: Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Because radiologic technology is used in a variety of perioperative procedures and settings, it is essential for perioperative RNs to be knowledgeable of the risks related to radiation and the ways to adequately protect patients and health care providers from unintended radiation exposure. The updated AORN "Guideline for radiation safety" provides guidance on preventing injury from ionizing radiation exposure during therapeutic, diagnostic, and interventional procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel practice radiation safety. The key points address the requirements for an organization's radiation safety program, measures used to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, proper handling and testing of radiation protection devices, and considerations for protecting employees and patients who are pregnant and who will be exposed to radiation. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guideline implementation: local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    It is not uncommon in perioperative settings for patients to receive local anesthesia for a variety of procedures. It is imperative for patient safety that the perioperative RN has a comprehensive understanding of best practices associated with the use of local anesthesia. The updated AORN "Guideline for care of the patient receiving local anesthesia" provides guidance on perioperative nursing assessments and interventions to safely care for patients receiving local anesthesia. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel become knowledgeable regarding best practice as they care for this patient population. The key points address patient assessment, the importance of having an overall understanding of the local agent being used, recommended monitoring requirements, and potential adverse events, including life-threatening events. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning ho...... the result is inspiring and instructive for all those who want to wrap their minds around experimental co-creative approaches to urban governance and city development.......These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning how...... to create more sustainable and inclusive cities. Policy-makers and urban development stakeholders may struggle to implement urban labs, and seek guidance for further development. Evidence-based guidelines and design principles are needed to decide for which types of challeng- es urban labs are most suited...

  4. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovira, Àlex; Wattjes, Mike P; Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has advanced markedly over the past few years. Technical improvements and continuously emerging data from clinical trials and observational studies have contributed to the enhanced performance of this tool for achieving a prompt...... diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal...... of MRI in clinical practice for the diagnosis of MS....

  5. Data Qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.; Shine, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    Data Qualification (DQ) is a formal, technical process whose objective is to affirm that experimental data are suitable for their intended use. Although it is not possible to develop a fixed recipe for the DQ process to cover all test situations, these general guidelines have been developed for the Nuclear Engineering Section to establish a framework for qualifying data from steady-state processing. These guidelines outline the role of the DQ team providing insight into the planning and conducting of the DQ process

  6. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  7. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  8. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  9. OSART guidelines. 1994 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines have been prepared to provide a basic structure and common reference both across the various areas covered by an OSART mission and across all the missions in the programme. As such, they are addressed, principally, to the team members of OSART missions but they will also provide guidance to a host nuclear plant preparing to receive a mission. The guidelines are intended to help each expert to formulate his review in the light of this own experience. They are not all inclusive and should not limit the expert's investigations, but are better considered as illustrating the adequate requirements for his review

  10. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  11. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  12. Order of 21 October 1988 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 1 and 2 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. The annual limits are 1650 terabecquerels for gas and 55 gigabecquerels for gaseous halogens and aerosols. The Order specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible. (NEA) [fr

  13. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  14. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  18. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  19. 78 FR 34431 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Health XV. Non-Water Quality Environmental Impacts A. Energy Requirements B. Air Pollution C. Solid Waste... Power Generating Point Source Category AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... Generating Point Source Category (TDD), Document No. EPA-821-R-13-002. Environmental Assessment for the...

  20. 76 FR 66286 - Notice of Final 2010 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Association, American Water Works Association, and the National Mining Association. Six environmental groups..., as required under the Clean Water Act (CWA), identifies any new or existing industrial dischargers, both those discharging directly to surface waters and those discharging to publicly owned treatment...

  1. 78 FR 19434 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... briefs. In April 2010, the Small Business Administration (SBA) filed with EPA a petition for..., building products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides... products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, detergents...

  2. 77 FR 29167 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Airport Deicing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... (K\\+\\, Na\\+\\), BOD 5 , and COD load as the acetate or formate ion degrades into carbon dioxide (CO 2... Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations K. Congressional Review Act Appendix A to the... rule, in addition to CDPs and GCVs, EPA described plug-and-pump technology with GCVs as a possible BAT...

  3. Phase 1 Testing Results of Immobilization of WTP Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottoms Core Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, Alex D.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate, along with entrained, volatile, and semi-volatile metals, such as Hg, As, and Se. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate that get recycled to the melter, and is a key objective of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of earlier tasks was to formulate and prepare a

  4. Synergistic erosion/corrosion of superalloys in PFB coal combustor effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.; Lowell, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Two Ni-based superalloys were exposed to the high velocity effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor. Targets were 15 cm diameter rotors operating at 40,000 rpm and small flat plate specimens. Above an erosion rate threshold, the targets were eroded to bare metal. The presence of accelerated oxidation at lower erosion rates suggests erosion/corrosion synergism. Various mechanisms which may contribute to the observed oxide growth enhancement include erosive removal of protective oxide layers, oxide and subsurface cracking, and chemical interaction with sulfur in the gas and deposits through damaged surface layers.

  5. Phase 1 Testing Results of Immobilization of WTP Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottoms Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, Alex D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-05

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate, along with entrained, volatile, and semi-volatile metals, such as Hg, As, and Se. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate that get recycled to the melter, and is a key objective of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of earlier tasks was to formulate and prepare a

  6. Guidelines for Authors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Please follow the instructions given below while preparing the manuscript. Articles which do not conform to the guidelines will not be considered. Authors are encouraged to submit their article in ASCII/MS Word/Latex version in a CD or by email to resonanc@ias.ernet.in. Title: Authors are requested to provide a) first title ...

  7. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  8. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    ) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Afterwards the healthy diet were changed further to reduce CF. CF from the diet was reduced by 4...

  9. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  11. Guidelines for Authors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    general readers' attention). Author(s): A photograph and a brief biographical sketch (in less than 30 words) should be provided. The author's name and mailing address should also be given. Author's phone number and email address will help in expediting the processing of manuscripts. Guidelines for Authors. Resonance ...

  12. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  13. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    urban lab initiatives from five different European cities: Antwerp (B), Graz and Leoben (A), Maastricht (NL) and Malmö (S). We do not pretend that these guidelines touch upon all possible challenges an urban lab may be confronted with, but we have incorporated all those we encountered in our...

  14. Inspector qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, A.C.; Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Ericsson, P.O.; Fisher, J.C.; Geiger, P.; Grandame, M.; Grimes, B.K.; Joode, A. de; Kaufer, B.; Kinoshita, M.; Klonk, H.; Koizumi, H.; Maeda, N.; Maqua, M.; Perez del Moral, C.; Roselli, F.; Warren, T.; Zimmerman, R.

    1994-07-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) has a Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The WGIP provides a forum for the exchange of Information and experience on the safety Inspection practices of regulatory authorities In the CNRA member countries. A consistent qualification process and well defined level of training for all Inspectors who participate In the safety Inspections are needed to provide consistent Inspections and reliable Inspection results. The WGIP organized in 1992 a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the US NRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In the connection of workshop the WGIP identified a need to develop guidance for inspector qualification which could be used as a model by those who are developing their qualification practices. The inspector qualification journals of US NRC provided a good basis for the work. The following inspector qualification guideline has been developed for guidance of qualification of a new inspector recruited to the regulatory body. This guideline has been developed for helping the supervisors and training officers to give the initial training and familiarization to the duties of a new inspector in a controlled manner. US NRC inspector qualification journals have been used to define the areas of attention. This guideline provides large flexibility for application in different type organizations. Large organizations can develop separate qualification journals for each inspector positions. Small regulatory bodies can develop individual training programmes by defining the necessary training topics on case by case basis. E.g. the guideline can be used to define the qualifications of contracted inspectors used in some countries. The appropriate part would apply. Annex 1 gives two examples how this guideline could be applied

  15. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  16. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Removal or reduction of tritium content in a wide variety of effluent streams has been extensively studied in the United States. This paper specifically reviews three processes involving tritium separation in the gaseous phase and the aqueous phase. Diffusion through a selective Pd-25Ag alloy membrane at temperatures up to 600 0 C and at pressures up to 700 kg/cm 2 has resulted in successful separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures with an associated separation factor of 1.65 (and gives a calculated separation factor for hydrogen-tritium mixtures of 2.0). Use of a single palladium bipolar membrane in an electrolysis system has been found to yield a hydrogen-deuterium separation factor of 4 and a hydrogen-tritium factor of 6 to 11 without the production of gaseous hydrogen. Finally, countercurrent catalytic exchange between tritium-containing hydrogen gas and water has yielded a separation factor of 6.3. The specific advantages of each of these systems will be discussed in terms of their potential applications. In all cases, further investigations are necessary to scale the systems to handle large quantities of feed material in a continuous mode and to minimize energy requirements. Such separative systems must necessarily be cascaded to yield gaseous or aqueous product streams suitable for recycling to the tritium producing systems, for storage or for discharge to the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Activated sludge and activated carbon treatment of a wood preserving effluent containing pentachlorophenol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, P. H. M

    1980-01-01

    ...; however, PCP removal averaged only 35% and the effluent was toxic to rainbow trout. Treatment of the activated sludge effluent by carbon adsorption resulted in effective PCP removal and non-toxic effluents...

  18. Effects of tertiary treatment by fungi on organic compounds in a kraft pulp mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipe; Silva, Lurdes; Freitas, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Diniz, Mário; Castro, Luísa; Peres, Isabel; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2010-05-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate a plethora of pollutants depending upon the type of pulping process. Efforts to mitigate the environmental impact of such effluents have been made by developing more effective biological treatment systems in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, colour and lignin content. This study is the first that reports an evaluation of the effects of a tertiary treatment by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Rhizopus oryzae) on individual organic compounds of a Eucalyptus globulus bleached kraft pulp and paper mill final effluent after secondary treatment (final effluent). The tertiary treatment with P. sajor caju, T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium and R. oryzae was performed in batch reactors, which were inoculated with separate fungi species and monitored throughout the incubation period. Samples from effluent after secondary and after tertiary treatment with fungi were analysed for both absorbance and organic compounds. The samples were extracted for organic compounds using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The efficiencies of the SPE procedure was evaluated by recovery tests. A total of 38 compounds (carboxylic acids, fatty alcohols, phenolic compounds and sterols) were identified and quantified in the E. globulus bleached kraft pulp mill final effluent after secondary treatment. Recoveries from the extraction procedure were between 98.2% and 99.9%. The four fungi species showed an adequate capacity to remove organic compounds and colour. Tertiary treatment with R. oryzae was able to remove 99% of organic compounds and to reduce absorbance on 47% (270 nm) and 74% (465 nm). P. sajor caju, T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium were able to remove 97%, 92% and 99% of organic compounds, respectively, and reduce 18% (270 nm) to 77% (465 nm), 39% (270 nm) to 58% (465 nm) and 31% (270 nm) to 10% (465 nm) of absorbance

  19. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  20. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment......-hatched eggs, nauplii and copepodites was determined in controls as well as in samples and the effect was calculated as the ratio between the number of copepodites and the sum of the numbers of nauplii and copepodites. Ratios below or above 1 significantly (t-test) differing from the control group...

  1. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  2. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  3. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  4. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  5. Primary care guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional telephone survey. SETTING: All municipal health centres in Finland. SUBJECTS: Health centres where both the head physician and the senior nursing officer responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement in views of the senior executives on the adoption of clinical practices as recommended in the Hypertension...... that no agreements on recording target blood pressure in patient records existed. A similar discrepancy was seen in recording cardiovascular risk (64% vs. 44%, p executives agreed best on the calibration of sphygmomanometers and the provision of weight-control group counselling. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Paralympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for the benefit of all authorised users. These guidelines apply to LOCOG and IPC creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only.

  7. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  8. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  9. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and temperature were determined weekly on effluent samples, for a period of 12 weeks, using standard methods. The effluent data were ...

  10. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical ...

  11. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  12. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  13. Fate and Effect of Dissolved Silicon within Wastewater Treatment Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2017-07-05

    In large rivers, the ratios of silicon (Si)/nitrogen (N)/phosphorus (P) have changed dramatically as anthropogenic additions of N or P are not matched by Si. Wastewater effluent is a recognized source of N and P to coastal environments. Few previous studies, however, have examined the Si load of a large wastewater plant's effluent or the molar ratios of Si/N and Si/P in effluent. We examine the annual flux of dissolved silicon (DSi) carried by effluent from the second largest treatment plant by flow in the United States (Deer Island Treatment Plant, DITP, Boston, MA). We compare treatment plant nutrient fluxes to local urban river nutrient fluxes and trace the impact of the DITP DSi loading on receiving waters. Estimates (±95% confidence interval) of treated effluent (67 800 ± 1500 kmol DSi year -1 ) compared to untreated (69 500 kmol DSi year -1 ) indicate that the process of sewage treatment at DITP likely does not remove DSi. DITP effluent was Si-limited and this Si-limitation is reflected in the receiving waters (Massachusetts Bay). However, Si-limitation appears only in the area immediately surrounding the effluent discharge. We use these results to explain phytoplankton patterns in Massachusetts Bay and to provide the first estimate of DSi loading (3.6 Gmol SiO 2 year -1 ) from wastewater effluent across the US.

  14. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  15. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos,. Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra.

  16. Physiochemical study of NSSC effluents and assessment of principal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Waste effluents collected from different processing units of a pulp-mill were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters i.e. appearance, pH, conductance, total dissolved and suspended solids (TDS and TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5- days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/). Various ions with reference to pulping process were investigated in these effluents which include Cr, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, SO/sub 3/sup 2-/, CO/sub 3/sup 2-/HCO/sub 3/sup 1-/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Mg/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/. Heavy metals like Hg, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn was also determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards for industrial effluents. Most of the parameters were found outside the permissible limits except the temperature, pH and few cations. Effluents from NSSC process exhibited highest values of TDS, TSS, COD and BODs (these are 103174, 31866, 23340, 6864 mg/l respectively). Chief polluting characteristics of these effluents were found to be the dissolved chemicals and suspended organic matter, which are responsible for very high COD and BODs values. This study was: an effort to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in the waste effluents of pulp and paper industry with special emphasis on NSSC effluents and their contribution in environmental pollution. The hazardous effects of these effluents and different treatment methodologies have also been discussed. (author)

  17. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  18. Overexpression of antibiotic resistance genes in hospital effluents over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will P M; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Ryan, Jim J; Micallef, Christianne; Maskell, Duncan J; Pearce, Gareth P

    2017-06-01

    Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital ( ρ  = 0.9, two-tailed P  resistance genes ( bla GES and bla OXA ) were overexpressed in all hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  19. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  20. The effects of hair dressing effluent irrigation on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hair dressing effluent on soil chemical properties, germination and growth of maize and cowpea were investigated in pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of 3 effluent treatments (100 ml, 200 ml and 400 ml) and control with 5 replications at University of Port Harcourt ...

  1. Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three Commercial Fish Species from Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. IKE Ekweozor, NOK Bobmanuel, UU Gabriel. Abstract. Sublethal effects of various concentrations of fertilizer effluents on the tail beat frequency per minute (TBF min.-1) and opercular beat frequency per ...

  2. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  3. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents.

  4. Spatial Variation in Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir Effluents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study therefore concluded that the water in Groups A and B, was not fit for drinking unless adequately treated. It was recommended that there is the need for the treatment of the abattoir effluents before discharging them into the environment. Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water ...

  5. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  6. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  7. Effects of abattoir effluent on composition and distribution of insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological impacts of abattoir effluents discharge into Lower Ogun River were assessed by studying the composition, distributions and diversity of insect fauna of the river both in lsheri-Olofin(abattoir effluents discharge/downstream) and lshasi (upstream/control) areas for 24months (January 2006 to December 2007).

  8. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  9. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  10. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water | Ehiagbonare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. The physico-chemical analysis showed that the characteristics of water analysed varied ...

  11. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  12. Guidelines on oncologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present issue of European Journal of Radiology is devoted to guidelines on oncologic imaging. 9 experts on imaging in suspected or evident oncologic disease have compiled a broad survey on strategies as well as techniques on oncologic imaging. The group gives advice for detecting tumours at specific tumour sites and use modern literature to emphasize their recommendations. All recommendations are short, comprehensive and authoritative. (orig./MG)

  13. Guideline for Early Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-134 6 - 1 Guideline for Early Interventions Maaike de Vries Impact Foundation, Dutch Knowledge & Advice Centre for Post...assistance, also referred to as ‘ early interventions ’ or ‘debriefing’, is offered following shocking events. These may be large scale disasters or...calamities, but also military deployment and individual incidents. During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing

  14. Some scholarly communication guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly communication describes the process of sharing and publishing of research findings. This report provides some useful guidelines for improving a key scholarly communication aspect: the writing of scientific documents (e.g. journal articles, conference papers, Doctor of Philosophy thesis). The goal is to have a written text to complement both a two hour seminar, given under the same subject and that was presented to Computer Science students, and the ``Scholarly Communicat...

  15. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  16. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  17. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  18. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  19. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  20. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Y.N.; Islam, A.; Quraishi, S.B.; Mustafa, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  1. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 100 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, D.E.

    1991-11-01

    The determination for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans arose from evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 100 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plant determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). Ten Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 100 Areas were evaluated: N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, 1706 KE Laboratory, and the Surplus Reactors (B, C, D, DR, F, and H). The N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, and 1706 KE Laboratory Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared by Columbia Energy and Environmental Services of Richland, Washington. The determination for the Surplus Reactors was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of the 10 facilities evaluated, two will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan: N Reactor and the active spent fuel storage facilities and their contiguous support facilities at 100 KE and 100 KW

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  4. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from liquid manures. In this study, phosphorus (P) recovery via magnesium chloride precipitation was enhanced by combining it with ammonia recovery through gas-permeable membranes. Anaerobically digested swine effluent containing approx...

  6. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  7. The effluent problem in a plutonium production centre; Probleme des effluents d'un centre de production de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, R.; Cantel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to generalities: the geographical situation of the Marcoule Centre, the sources of radio-active effluent, methods of treating this effluent. In the second part the authors gives a detailed description of the various installations in the Radio-active Effluent Treatment Station at the Marcoule Centre, and outline the conditions governing the rejection of treated effluent into the Rhone. A few lines are given to comparisons between the results obtained from the use of these installations up till may 1959 and the expected results published by the same authors at the Brussels Conference (1956). In conclusion the authors lay down some of the essential principles, applicable to the study of new installations. (author) [French] La premiere partie du rapport est consacree a quelques generalites: situation geographique du Centre de Marcoule, provenance des effluents radioactifs, methodes de traitement de ces effluents. Dans la seconde partie, les auteurs presentent une description detaillee des diverses installations de la Station de Traitement des Effluents radioactifs du Centre de Marcoule et precisent les conditions de rejet dans le Rhone des effluents radioactifs traites. Quelques lignes sont consacrees aux comparaisons entre les resultats de l'exploitation des installations jusqu'en mai 1959 et les previsions publiees par les memes auteurs a l'occasion de la Conference de Bruxelles (1956). En conclusion, les auteurs donnent quelques principes essentiels, applicables a l'etude de nouvelles installations. (auteur)

  8. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation... 9.0. (2) Recirculation—multiple stands. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... times. Subpart L [BPT effluent limitations for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven papers... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average...

  10. 40 CFR 468.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (p) Subpart A—Surface Coating BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... Treatment BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for... (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (e) Subpart A—Extrusion Heat Treatment BPT...

  11. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  12. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 1. Guidelines for guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the first of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on guidelines for the development of guidelines. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers We found no experimental research that compared different formats of guidelines for guidelines or studies that compared different components of guidelines for guidelines. However, there are many examples, surveys and other observational studies that compared the impact of different guideline development documents on guideline quality. What have other organizations done to develop guidelines for guidelines from which WHO can learn? • Establish a credible, independent committee that evaluates existing methods for developing guidelines or that updates existing ones. • Obtain feedback and approval from various stakeholders during the development process of guidelines for guidelines. • Develop a detailed source document (manual that guideline developers can use as reference material. What should be the key components of WHO guidelines for guidelines? • Guidelines for guidelines should include information and instructions about the following components: 1 Priority setting; 2 Group composition and consultations; 3 Declaration and avoidance of conflicts of interest; 4 Group processes; 5

  13. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131 I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41 Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  14. A review of clinical guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are increasingly used in patient management but few clinicians are familiar with their origin or appropriate application. METHODS: A Medline search using the terms \\'clinical guidelines\\' and \\'practice guidelines\\' was conducted. Additional references were sourced by manual searching from the bibliographies of articles located. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical guidelines originated in the USA in the early 1980s, initially as a cost containment exercise. Significant improvements in the process and outcomes of care have been demonstrated following their introduction, although the extent of improvement varies considerably. The principles for the development of guidelines are well established but many published guidelines fall short of these basic quality criteria. Guidelines are only one aspect of improving quality and should be used within a wider framework of promoting clinical effectiveness. Understanding their limitations as well as their potential benefits should enable clinicians to have a clearer view of their place in everyday practice.

  15. Interim directive ID 2001-3 : sulphur recovery guidelines for the province of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    The regulatory responsibility for many of the facilities covered by sulphur recovery guidelines rest with the Alberta Energy Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV). More stringent sulphur dioxide emission limits for specific facilities may be set by Alberta Environment. A review of the sulphur recovery guidelines for sour gas plants in Alberta was conducted, and this interim directive contains the guidelines and provides details on the implementation of the findings of the review by EUB and AENV. It details how the revised sulphur recovery guidelines will be applied to sour gas plants, other upstream petroleum facilities, and downstream petroleum operations such as refineries and heavy oil and bitumen upgraders. Effective January 1, 2002, these guidelines replace IL 88-13 : Sulphur recovery guidelines - gas processing operations. Some definitions are provided, before the details of the application of the guidelines are presented. The application of the guidelines to various grandfather approvals was presented. Variance of guidelines and enhanced performance credits are discussed. A chapter on enforcement was included, with a specific section dealing exclusively with AENV enforcement. 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Tinnitus guidelines and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dalia Gustaityté; Ovesen, Therese

    2014-01-01

    In this study literature search was performed on tinnitus guidelines and treatment. Tinnitus can be described as the perception of sound in the absence of external acoustic stimulation, and validated questionnaires, oto-neurological examination, audiometry tests, MRI and angiography are necessary...... as diagnostic tools. Antidepressants, melatonin and cognitive behavioural therapy have no effect on tinnitus, whereas sound generators, hearing aids and tinnitus retraining therapy show some but limited improvement. National recommendations are required to ensure a homogenous and optimum offer for all patients....

  17. CAD-guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Lang-Lendorff, G.

    1982-10-01

    The CAD-guidelines (CAD = Computer Aided Design) contain rules for programming, structuring and documentation of programs. The standard deals with the structure of CAD-programs, their components, the programming-methods, the language etc. It describes what documents and references are necessary for a CAD-program. In order to gain a broad application of CAD criteria like portability and completeness of the documentation for an effective maintenance are as important as a transparent way of producing CAD-software. (orig.) [de

  18. Hospital effluents management: Chemical, physical, microbiological risks and legislation in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bertino, C; Lorenzi, E; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens and radioisotopes. Due to these substances, hospital wastewater can represent a chemical, biological and physical risk for public and environmental health. In particular, several studies demonstrate that the main effects of these substances can't be neutralised by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These substances can be found in a wide range of concentrations due to the size of a hospital, the bed density, number of inpatients and outpatients, the number and the type of wards, the number and types of services, the country and the season. Some hazardous substances produced in hospital facilities have a regulatory status and are treated like waste and are disposed of accordingly (i.e., dental amalgam and medications). Legislation is quite homogeneous for these substances in all industrial countries. Problems that have emerged in the last decade concern substances and microorganisms that don't have a regulatory status, such as antibiotic residues, drugs and specific pathogens. At a global level, guidelines exist for treatment methods for these effluents, but legislation in all major industrial countries don't contain limitations on these parameters. Therefore, a monitoring system is necessary for these effluents as well as for substances and pathogens, as these elements can represent a risk to the environment and public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  20. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  1. Salmonellae in sewage sludge and abattoir effluent in south-east Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, K. A.; Graham, M. M.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey into the prevalence of salmonella organisms in sewage in the Borders Region of South-east Scotland is described. A total of 317 isolates representing 34 different serotypes were made, of which only 5 serotypes appeared in animals, supporting the view that the spreading of sewage sludge on to pastureland presents little risk to livestock provided the recommended guidelines are followed. Nevertheless, Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12, identified in sewage, was also recovered from animals in incidents on 11 farms, including 4 which had received sludge from this source. A further 48 isolates (13 serotypes) were obtained from the parallel monitoring of abattoir effluents, indicating that the background level of salmonella infection in the animal population appears to be low in comparison to that in humans. PMID:3891848

  2. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues; Necrotizing soft tissue infection ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by ...

  3. Sulphur recovery guidelines review -- advisory group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    Sulphur recovery at sour gas plants were revised in 1988. At that time it was decided on the basis of perceived environmental benefits relative to associated costs, and because of the anticipated short life expectancy of many of these plants, to exempt existing sour gas plants from meeting the new sulphur recovery guidelines. However, as a result of many of these plants having been upgraded since 1988 resulting in much longer life expectancies, it was determined that it was appropriate to review the regulations issued in 1988 and set out in EUB Information Letter 88-13. The newly revised regulations recommends that all sour gas plants be 'degrandfathered' in accordance with a 7.5 per cent decline from the 1999 base year sulphur inlet rates. All sulphur inlet above this decline line would have to meet IL 88-13 sulphur recovery requirements. The document sets out details of the the degrandfathering proposal, application of the regulations to upstream, industrial and downstream petroleum facilities, the structure and enforcement of the regulations, and a detailed discussion of the the factors considered in the recommendation for degrandfathering. Appendices provides data on the cost of degrandfathering by categories of plants affected, the impact of the gas plant degrandfathering proposal on stranded reserves, and examples of the application of the degrandfathering proposal. tabs., figs.

  4. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  5. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  6. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  7. Postdoctoral program guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Miller, Andrew W.; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Liu, Yanli; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Hall, Lisa Michelle; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Ekoto, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    We, the Postdoc Professional Development Program (PD2P) leadership team, wrote these postdoc guidelines to be a starting point for communication between new postdocs, their staff mentors, and their managers. These guidelines detail expectations and responsibilities of the three parties, as well as list relevant contacts. The purpose of the Postdoc Program is to bring in talented, creative people who enrich Sandia's environment by performing innovative R&D, as well as by stimulating intellectual curiosity and learning. Postdocs are temporary employees who come to Sandia for career development and advancement reasons. In general, the postdoc term is 1 year, renewable up to five times for a total of six years. However, center practices may vary; check with your manager. At term, a postdoc may apply for a staff position at Sandia or choose to move to university, industry or another lab. It is our vision that those who leave become long-term collaborators and advocates whose relationships with Sandia have a positive effect upon our national constituency.

  8. S1 guidelines: Lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Schmeller, Wilfried; Brauer, Wolfgang Justus; Cornely, Manuel E; Faerber, Gabriele; Ludwig, Malte; Lulay, Gerd; Miller, Anya; Rapprich, Stefan; Richter, Dirk Frank; Schacht, Vivien; Schrader, Klaus; Stücker, Markus; Ure, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The present, revised guidelines on lipedema were developed under the auspices of and funded by the German Society of Phlebology (DGP). The recommendations are based on a systematic literature search and the consensus of eight medical societies and working groups. The guidelines contain recommendations with respect to diagnosis and management of lipedema. The diagnosis is established on the basis of medical history and clinical findings. Characteristically, there is a localized, symmetrical increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue in arms and legs that is in marked disproportion to the trunk. Other findings include edema, easy bruising, and increased tenderness. Further diagnostic tests are usually reserved for special cases that require additional workup. Lipedema is a chronic, progressive disorder marked by the individual variability and unpredictability of its clinical course. Treatment consists of four therapeutic mainstays that should be combined as necessary and address current clinical symptoms: complex physical therapy (manual lymphatic drainage, compression therapy, exercise therapy, and skin care), liposuction and plastic surgery, diet, and physical activity, as well as psychotherapy if necessary. Surgical procedures are indicated if - despite thorough conservative treatment - symptoms persist, or if there is progression of clinical findings and/or symptoms. If present, morbid obesity should be therapeutically addressed prior to liposuction. © 2017 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  10. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without an external source. More than 50 million people in the United States have reported experiencing tinnitus, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 10% to 15% in adults. Despite the high prevalence of tinnitus and its potential significant effect on quality of life, there are no evidence-based, multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines to assist clinicians with management. The focus of this guideline is on tinnitus that is both bothersome and persistent (lasting 6 months or longer), which often negatively affects the patient's quality of life. The target audience for the guideline is any clinician, including nonphysicians, involved in managing patients with tinnitus. The target patient population is limited to adults (18 years and older) with primary tinnitus that is persistent and bothersome. The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians managing patients with tinnitus. This guideline provides clinicians with a logical framework to improve patient care and mitigate the personal and social effects of persistent, bothersome tinnitus. It will discuss the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the effect of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. The development group made a strong recommendation that clinicians distinguish patients with bothersome tinnitus from patients with nonbothersome tinnitus. The development group made a strong recommendation against obtaining imaging studies of the head and neck in patients with tinnitus, specifically to evaluate tinnitus that does not localize to 1 ear, is nonpulsatile

  11. [Planning guidelines for prosthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hiroshi; Terada, Yoshihiro; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Ikebe, Kazunori; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Nagadome, Hatsumi; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2008-01-01

    In recent years "practice guidelines" based on EBM techniques have even been attracting attention at a societal level, and guidelines modeled after the procedure for preparing practice guideline (described at http://www.niph.go.jp/glgl-4.3rev.htm) have begun to be drafted and made public. With the aim of ensuring the quality and presenting the basic concepts of prosthodontic therapy, the Japan Prosthodontic Society, which bears a great obligation and responsibility toward society and the Japanese public, has decided to undertake the formulation of guidelines related to prosthodontic therapy, and decided to first undertake the formulation of "Practice guideline for denture relining and rebasing", and to prepare a guideline model. We tried to prepare the guidelines according to the "Procedure for preparing practice guidelines", but because of the scientific uniqueness of prosthodontic treatment and dentistry, research to elucidate the basis of treatment has been insufficient, and we ultimately reconfirmed the current state of affairs in which it is difficult to perform. We therefore prepared the guidelines based on the limited evidence obtained in a search of the scientific literature and on the consensus of experts. The Japan Prosthodontic Society has investigated and prepared a Society guideline "model" to the extent possible at the present time, and it has prepared "Guidelines for adhesion bridge" and "Practice guidelines for denture prosthodontics" based on it. Nevertheless, the fact of the matter is that we are faced with numerous problems, and we think that in the future new bases and clinical knowledge will be accumulated by promoting scientific clinical research, and that the guidelines should be revised regularly based on them.

  12. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  14. Guide for effluent radiological measurements at DOE installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Corbit, C.D.

    1983-07-01

    Effluent monitoring and reporting programs are maintained at all US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that may: (1) discharge significant concentrations of radioactivity in relation to applicable standards, or (2) discharge quantities of radioactivity that have potential health and safety or other environmental significance. This Guide is intended to provide supplemental guidance to DOE Orders on methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring more comparable rationale to DOE facility effluent measurement programs and promote compliance with applicable standards and provide the DOE Office of Operational Safety (OOS) and Operations Offices with an additional tool for evaluating effluent measurement programs at DOE facilities

  15. A downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya Beas, Rosa Elena; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; van Lier, Jules B; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous laboratory-scale DHS reactors, i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges, were studied. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), 0.53 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) and 0.24 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m(-2) d(-1), 2.97 m3 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.32 m3 m(-2) d(-1), respectively (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The 1989 WHO guidelines standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C, is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops.

  16. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-10-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams from nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these calculations, each medium was ranked for a given nuclide/effluent pathway combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  17. Characteristics of liquid effluents and treatment systems; Caracteristicas dos efluentes liquidos e sistemas de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the liquid effluents characteristics and the treatment systems, approaching the following subjects: the hydrological cycle; physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the liquid effluents; biological, chemical and physical characteristics; records on industrial effluents; treatment processes of industrial effluents.

  18. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  19. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence. This paper is about Ru...

  20. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence.

  1. Harnessing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Nigeria produces almost two million barrels of oil a day from its oil fields in the Niger Delta area. Most of the oil comes from reservoirs containing gas, which is produced with the oil. This associated gas is separated from the oil at flow stations and more than 95 per cent of it is flared-currently a total of some two billion standard cubic feet per day (scf/d), which is estimated to be about a quarter of the gas the world flares and vents. The energy available from Nigeria's flared gas is prodigious, equivalent to one quarter of France's gas requirements. The company recognises that flaring wastes a valuable resource and is environmentally damaging. It aims to stop necessary flaring as soon as possible through a series of projects to harness or conserve this gas. Several gas gathering and conservation projects are already underway in response to emerging markets while other plans await new markets. The company is committed to reduce gas flaring as soon as is feasible to the minimum needed to maintain safe operations. But why are solutions being found only now? why has Nigeria been flaring gas for so long? These question lie at the crux of the debate about Nigeria and gas flaring and the answers, which continue to have a major impact on associated gas development today, are rooted in history, economics and geography

  2. Control of dissolved CH4 in a municipal UASB reactor effluent by means of a desorption - Biofiltration arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A; de Los Cobos-Vasconcelos, D; Gómez-Borraz, T; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2017-07-09

    The direct anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater represents an adapted technology to the conditions of developing countries. In order to get an increased acceptance of this technology, a proper control of dissolved methane in the anaerobic effluents should be considered, as methane is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, a pilot-scale system was operated for 168 days to recover dissolved methane from an effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and then oxidize it in a compost biofilter. The system operated at a constant air (0.9 m 3 /h ±0.09) and two air-to anaerobic effluent ratio (1:1 and 1:2). In both conditions (CH 4 concentration of 2.7 ± 0.87 and 4.3% ± 1.14, respectively) the desorption column recovered 99% of the dissolved CH 4 and approximately 30% ± 8.5 of H 2 S, whose desorption was limited due to the high pH (>8) of the effluent. The biofilter removed 70% ± 8 of the average CH 4 load (60 gCH 4 /m 3 h ± 13) and 100% of the H 2 S load at an empty bed retention time of 23 min. The average temperature inside the biofilter was 42 ± 9 °C due to the CH 4 oxidation reaction, indicating that temperature and moisture control is particularly important for CH 4 removal in compost biofilters. The system may achieve a 54% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from dissolved CH 4 in this particular case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  5. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattjes, Mike P; Rovira, Àlex; Miller, David

    2015-01-01

    The role of MRI in the assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) goes far beyond the diagnostic process. MRI techniques can be used as regular monitoring to help stage patients with MS and measure disease progression. MRI can also be used to measure lesion burden, thus providing useful information...... for the prediction of long-term disability. With the introduction of a new generation of immunomodulatory and/or immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of MS, MRI also makes an important contribution to the monitoring of treatment, and can be used to determine baseline tissue damage and detect subsequent repair....... This use of MRI can help predict treatment response and assess the efficacy and safety of new therapies. In the second part of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network's guidelines on the use of MRI in MS, we focus on the implementation of this technique in prognostic and monitoring tasks. We...

  6. SARIS Guidelines. 2014 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA fundamental safety principles provide the basis for IAEA safety standards and IAEA related programmes. IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment, and therefore represent what all regulators should achieve. These standards, in particular IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, provide the basics for establishing, maintaining and continuously improving the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. Additional IAEA requirements and guidance, such as the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, and IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, are also used to establish and develop the national infrastructure for safety and for establishing and implementing a management system. Assessment of the regulatory framework for safety with respect to the IAEA safety standards can be made either through an external review or through internal self-assessment. Self-assessment offers a mechanism by which an organization can assess its performance against established standards and models and thereby identify areas for improvement. The IAEA has developed a methodology and tool for Self-assessment of the Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety (SARIS), to assist States in undertaking self-assessment of their national safety framework in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards, and to develop an action plan for improvement. The IAEA self-assessment methodology and the associated tools are fully compatible with the IAEA safety standards and are also used in the preparation for regulatory review missions, such as the Integrated Regulatory Review Service and advisory missions. These guidelines have been developed to

  7. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  8. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  9. Natural gas deregulation: have the handcuffs really been removed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The natural gas market in New York State was reviewed and characterized as being very competitive. A brief description of the New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) was given. As regards recent developments, in October 1993, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) instituted a proceeding (93-G-0932) on the restructuring of the gas market. Several guidelines for market restructuring were established as a result. The guidelines were in respect to service to consumers, safety of distribution, environmental implications, consumer concerns, gas rates, regulation, and access for core customers. The speaker noted that these guidelines did not promote deregulation. Competitive issues faced by local gas distributors were enumerated. Among these were (1)service to core and non-core customers (2)transition costs, (3)streaming, (4)unbundling and repackaged services, (5)price differentiation, and (6)small customer aggregation. It was expected that marketers would oppose the Public Service Commission giving local gas distributors additional pricing flexibility

  10. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.

  11. Concepts, tools, and strategies for effluent testing: An international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole effluent testing (also called Direct Toxicity Assessment) remains a critical long-term assessment tool for aquatic environmental protection. Use of animal alternative approaches for wastewater testing is expected to increase as more regulatory authorities routinely require ...

  12. Radiation-adsorption purification of effluents containing pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Shubin, V.N.; Nikonorova, G.K.; Zorin, D.M.; Sosnovskaya, A.A.; Petryaev, E.P.; Vlasova, V.I.; Edimicheva, I.P.; Subbotina, N.N.; Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-adsorption purification is one of the new direction in the radiation purification of natural wastes and effluents containing pesticides. This method combines the conventional adsorption purification with radiation treatment of the sorbent, and the result the protection time of the sorbent increases due to the radiation regeneration of carbon. In present work the method was used for purification of effluents from pesticides, such as 4,4'Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane /DDT/, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane /HCCH/, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate /DDVF/ and petroleum products (a mixture of kerosene and xylene in ratio 7:1). Such effluents are formed at factories producing an insecticide aerosol 'Prime-71'. Three investigations were carried out on model with a solution similar composition to industrial effluents. (author)

  13. Electrochemical Corrosion Investigations on Anaerobic Treated Distillery Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    Present study is focused on the corrosivity of anaerobic treated distillery effluent and corrosion performance of mild steel and stainless steels. Accordingly, electrochemical polarization tests were performed in both treated distillery and synthetic effluents. Polarization tests were also performed in synthetic solutions and it was observed that Cl- and K+ increase whereas SO4 -, PO4 -, NO3 -, and NO2 - decrease the corrosivity of effluent at alkaline pH. Further, comparison in corrosivity of distillery and synthetic effluents shows the former to be less corrosive and this is assigned due to the presence of amino acids and melanoidins. Mild steel experienced to have the highest corrosion rate followed by stainless steels—304L and 316L and lowest in case of SAF 2205. Relative corrosion resistance of stainless steels is observed to depend upon Cr, Mo, and N content.

  14. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... and some physicochemical parameters such as conductivity, solids, chloride, chromium, alkalinity, sulphide, chemical oxygen demand, COD, and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, of the waste water were determined. ... Keywords: tannery, effluent, pollution, environment

  15. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  16. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  17. The effluent problem in a plutonium production centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, R.; Cantel, J.

    1960-01-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to generalities: the geographical situation of the Marcoule Centre, the sources of radio-active effluent, methods of treating this effluent. In the second part the authors gives a detailed description of the various installations in the Radio-active Effluent Treatment Station at the Marcoule Centre, and outline the conditions governing the rejection of treated effluent into the Rhone. A few lines are given to comparisons between the results obtained from the use of these installations up till may 1959 and the expected results published by the same authors at the Brussels Conference (1956). In conclusion the authors lay down some of the essential principles, applicable to the study of new installations. (author) [fr

  18. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1988-09-13

    A process is described for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel, which process comprises injecting into the effluent ammonia and an enhancer selected from the group consisting of hexamethylenetetramine, a lower carbon alcohol, a hydroxyl amino hydrocarbon, sugar, furfural, furfural derivatives, an amino acid, a protein-containing composition, mixtures of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl phenols, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, calcium cyanamide, biuret, 1,1'-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, and mixtures thereof, at an effluent temperature above about 1300/sup 0/F and a molar ratio of nitrogen in the ammonia and enhancer to the baseline nitrogen oxides level of about 1:5 to about 6:1 wherein the excess of oxygen in the effluent is no greater than about 6%.

  19. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, parameters investigated includes, growth, photosynthetic pigment content, lipid peroxidation, and metal accumulation. The results showed that treated textile effluent from Nichemtex Company, affected the growth, dry biomass, root development and photosynthetic pigment content of C. argentea.

  20. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.