WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas control center

  1. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  5. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  6. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  7. International Center for Gas Technology Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Based on an acknowledgement of the growing importance of natural gas, a number of European countries, USA, Japan and the Russian Federation have worked together in order to establish a common center of information on natural gas technology under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. Centers were to be established in Washington and in Denmark. The centers will concern themselves with establishing an international information center for gas technology, effecting natural gas technology transfer between global regions, carrying out analytical studies on the energy market and the development of technology within the field of natural gas. The structure of the decision-making processes that will be employed is explained in addition to the organization and economy. The centers should build up a global information network between the relevant countries, their gas companies, institutions etc. (AB)

  8. Gas injection system in the Tara center cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, K.; Post, R.S.; Sevillano, E.

    1985-11-01

    Precise control of the gas fueling is essential to the successful operation of tandem mirror plasmas. Improper choice of fueling location, magnetic geometry, and gas injection rates can prevent potential and thermal barrier formation, as well as reduce the energy confinement time. In designing the new gas injection configuration for the Tara center cell, the following issues were addressed: RF potential barriers, gas leakage, and charge exchange recombination. 2 refs., 6 figs

  9. Human reliability and the control of continuous processes: case study of TRANSPETRO gas control center room; A confiabilidade humana no controle de processos continuos: estudo de caso no centro de controle de gasodutos da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia; Zamberlan, Maria Cristina; Setti, Egle [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Figueiras, Luciana Heil; Marques, Arnaldo; Franca, Andre Guedes da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, Vaner; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    This review presents a study using data from the activities of control of operations into the Center of Control Operational of Gas pipelines from TRANSPETRO. These study used the methodology of Analysis Ergonomic of Work (AET). Twenty hours of systematic observation have been performed from the activities of the operators and the supervisors into the CCG in different shifts with different staffs. The data obtained reveals the dynamics from the activities of control facing the increase of automation as well the strategies and adjustments that are performed by the operators with the increase of complexity of the systems they shall control. With the treatment of data we verify that occurs an important increasing of the activities, that interferes on to another, and that generates the loss of cooperation between operators, errors on the exchanges of information and so on. The survey from real activity at work was fundamental for the apprehension of the existing risks and for the generation of proposals to the improvement of the control of the process in the CCG. (author)

  10. FFTF Work Control Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A centralized Work Control Center (WCC) is responsible for assuring that maintenance and modification of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is performed in accordance with written procedures that ensure design integrity, personnel and public safety, and equipment and system availability for the computerized Master Information Data Acquisition System (MIDAS). Each maintenance task is logged into MIDAS from a Work Request from that has been reviewed and prioritized by the WCC. Thereafter, MIDAS is used to track schedule, manpower and material requirements; authorize field work; and close out the maintenance activity

  11. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  12. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  14. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  16. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  17. Hydraulically centered control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlacher, W.R.; Sampson, W.T.; Schukei, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A control rod suspended to reciprocate in a guide tube of a nuclear fuel assembly has a hydraulic bearing formed at its lower tip. The bearing includes a plurality of discrete pockets on its outer surface into which a flow of liquid is continuously provided. In one embodiment the flow is induced by the pressure head in a downward facing chamber at the end of the bearing. In another embodiment the flow originates outside the guide tube. In both embodiments the flow into the pockets produces pressure differences across the bearing which counteract forces tending to drive the rod against the guide tube wall. Thus contact of the rod against the guide tube is avoided

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  2. Device provides controlled gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S. K.; King, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    Modified palladium leak device provides a controlled release /leak/ of very small quantities of gas at low or medium pressures. It has no moving parts, requires less than 5 watts to operate, and is capable of releasing the gas either continuously or in pulses at adjustable flow rates.

  3. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  4. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, James Richard [Madison, WI; Konkle, Kevin Paul [West Bend, WI; May, Andrew [Milwaukee, WI

    2012-01-31

    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  5. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  6. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  7. Device for controlling gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichioka, Atsushi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a controlling device for UF 6 gas recovery device, which can increase working efficiency and to discriminate normality and abnormality of the recovery device. Constitution: The gas recovery device comprises a plurality of traps, which are connected in series. The UF 6 gas is introduced into the first trap where adsorbing work is taken place to accumulate UF 6 gases, and the UF 6 gases partly flow into the succeeding trap. Even in this trap, when the adsorbing work begins, the succeeding trap is operated in series fashion. In this manner, two traps are continuously operated to recover the gases while performing the steps of adsorbing, waiting and regenerating in that order. The switching operation of the aforesaid steps is accomplished on the basis of concentration of the UF 6 detected between two traps, which are continuously driven. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  9. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  10. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. A New View of Molecular Gas in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth A.; Morris, M.; Güsten, R.; Requena Torres, M.; Lang, C. C.; Butterfield, N.; Ott, J.

    2013-01-01

    On average, the molecular gas in the center of our Galaxy is significantly hotter (T = 50-300 K), denser (n > 10^4 cm^-3), and more turbulent than gas in the rest of the disk. I will present results from a recent series of observations that indicate that our understanding of the Galactic center (GC) molecular gas is incomplete, and that conditions in some clouds are even more extreme than previously thought. Using the Green Bank telescope, we have measured a very hot molecular gas component (T = 400-500 K ) in three largely quiescent GC giant molecular clouds using metastable inversion lines of ammonia from (8,8) to (15,15) . We further detect the (9,9) line in seven other GC clouds, indicating that this hot gas component may be a common feature of GC clouds, potentially yielding insight into the heating source of the molecular gas in this region. In addition, I will present new density constraints for the circumnuclear disk (CND), a reservoir of gas and dust 1.5 parsecs in radius from the central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. Recent estimates of the CND density vary by four orders of magnitude, which makes its future evolution uncertain: gas in the CND could either accrete onto the black hole, dissipate, or, if the density is higher than 10^7 cm^-3, exist in gravitationally-stable clumps capable of forming stars. However, our APEX measurements of highly excited lines of HCN and HCO+ indicate that although the CND gas is denser than most other GC clouds, it is not likely to be tidally stable and thus is unlikely to host star formation. Finally, I will present early results from a new Very Large Array study of gas on sub-parsec scales in a sample of GC clouds, all of which exhibit unexpectedly abundant Class I methanol maser emission. The widespread distribution of these masers suggests shocks play an important role in driving cloud evolution throughout this unique region of our Galaxy.

  12. Intelligent tutors for control center operator training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Z.A. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Fernandes, M.F.; Marques, A. [Electricity of Portugal, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1995-12-31

    Power systems are presently remotely operated and controlled from control centers that receive on-line information about the power system state. Control center operators have very high-demanding tasks what makes their training a key issue for the performance of the whole power system. Simulators are usually used by electrical utilities for this purpose but they are very expensive applications and their use requires the preparation of the training sessions by qualified training staff which is a very time consuming task. Due to this, these simulators are only used a few times a year. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) provide some new possibilities for control center operator training making easier its use without much assistance of the teaching staff. On the other hand, an expert system in use in a control center can be adapted to an ITS to train operators without much effort. 18 refs

  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Page maintained by: Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public ...

  14. Conversion of gas into stars in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. N.

    2014-05-01

    The star formation rate in the central 500 pc of the Milky Way is lower by a factor of > 10 than expected for the substantial amount of dense gas it contains, which challenges current star formation theories. I discuss which physical mechanisms could be causing this observation and put forward a self-consistent cycle of star formation in the Galactic center, in which the plausible star formation inhibitors are combined. Their ubiquity suggests that the perception of a lowered central SFR should be a common phenomenon in other galaxies with direct implications for galactic star formation and also potentially supermassive black hole growth. I then describe a scenario to explain the presence of super star clusters in the Galactic center environment, in which their formation is triggered by gas streams passing close to the minimum of the global Galactic gravitational potential at the location of the central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. If this triggering mechanism can be verified, we can use the known time interval since closest approach to Sgr A* to study the physics of stellar mass assembly in an extreme environment as a function of absolute time. I outline the first results from detailed numerical simulations testing this scenario. Finally, I describe a study showing that in terms of the baryonic composition, kinematics, and densities, the gas in the Galactic center is indistinguishable from high-redshift clouds and galaxies. As such, the Galactic center clouds may be used as a template to understand the evolution (and possibly the life cycle) of high-redshift clouds and galaxies.

  15. Distribution control centers in the Croatian power system with particular consideration on ZAgreb distribution control center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupin, N.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion about control of Croatian Power system in the view of forthcoming free electricity market did not included do far distribution level. With this article we would like to clarify the role of distribution control centers pointing out importance of Zagreb Distribution control center, with controls one third of Croatian (HEP) consumption. (author)

  16. Molecular Gas Feeding the Circumnuclear Disk of the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Koch, Patrick M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Hsiang-Hsu [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Yen, Hsi-Wei [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hwang, Chorng-Yuan, E-mail: pyhsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No.300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-09-20

    The interaction between a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the surrounding material is of primary importance in modern astrophysics. The detection of the molecular 2 pc circumnuclear disk (CND) immediately around the Milky Way SMBH, SgrA*, provides a unique opportunity to study SMBH accretion at subparsec scales. Our new wide-field CS( J = 2 − 1) map toward the Galactic center (GC) reveals multiple dense molecular streamers that originated from the ambient clouds 20 pc further out, and that are connected to the central 2 pc of the CND. These dense gas streamers appear to carry gas directly toward the nuclear region and might be captured by the central potential. Our phase-plot analysis indicates that these streamers show a signature of rotation and inward radial motion with progressively higher velocities as the gas approaches the CND and finally ends up corotating with the CND. Our results might suggest a possible mechanism of gas feeding the CND from 20 pc around 2 pc in the GC. In this paper, we discuss the morphology and the kinematics of these streamers. As the nearest observable Galactic nucleus, this feeding process may have implications for understanding the processes in extragalactic nuclei.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  1. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S.; Ownby, F.M.; Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Bannister, M.E.; Liu, W.; Jeffery, D.J.; Stancil, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The principal mission of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center is the collection evaluation, and dissemination of atomic collision data relevant to fusion energy development. With the advent of the widespread use of the World Wide Web, the data center's resources are being placed on-line to facilitate their use by end-users (cf. http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/). As this development continues, initially disparate, individually compiled resources will be transformed into integrated tools for retrieving recommended data, or displaying and manipulating the information available. The data center's present capabilities, recent data production/evaluation efforts, and goals for future development are highlighted here

  2. Argon cover gas purity control on LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi [PNC (Japan); Ishiyama, Satoshi [Toshiba (Japan); Motonaga, Tetsuji [Hitachi (Japan)

    1987-07-01

    Various control methods on chemical impurities and radioactive materials (fission products) in the primary argon gas of LMFBRs' have been studied based on experiences in Joyo and results of research and development. These results are reflected on MONJU design. On-line gas chromatographs are installed both in the Primary and in the Secondary Argon Gas Systems in JOYO. Also, chemical analysis has been done by batch sampling in JOYO. Though the rise of impurity concentration had been measured after periodical fuel exchange operation, impurity concentration has been controlled sufficiently under target control limits. In MONJU detailed design, the Rare Gas Removal and Recovery System which consisted of cryogenic distillation equipment had been eliminated and the capacity of Charcoal Beds in the Primary Argon Gas System has been improved to keep the concentration of radioactive materials sufficient low levels. The necessity to control the impurities in fresh argon gas which is supplied to the Primary Argon Gas System is now considered to keep the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes in specified level, because their isotopes may make background rise for the Tagging Gas Failed Fuel Detection and Location System. Based on various investigations performed on sodium vapor trapping to obtain its detailed characteristics, design specifications and operating conditions of MONJU's Vapor Traps have been decided. To keep the level of radioactivity in gaseous effluents to the environment as low as reasonably achievable, the following means are now adopted in MONJU: the Primary Argon Gas System is composed of a closed recirculating path, but the exhaust gas discharged has different path after the Charcoal Beds; fresh argon gas is blown down to prevent Primary Argon Gas from releasing to the circumference during opening of the primary argon gas boundary, such as fuel exchange operations. (author)

  3. Trainer module for security control center operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained

  4. Feedforward Nonlinear Control Using Neural Gas Network

    OpenAIRE

    Machón-González, Iván; López-García, Hilario

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear systems control is a main issue in control theory. Many developed applications suffer from a mathematical foundation not as general as the theory of linear systems. This paper proposes a control strategy of nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics by means of a set of local linear models obtained by a supervised neural gas network. The proposed approach takes advantage of the neural gas feature by which the algorithm yields a very robust clustering procedure. The direct model of the ...

  5. Off-gas control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Smith, I.M.

    1978-06-01

    A program to develop and study off-gas abatement techniques has recently been initiated at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). This report provides information on the properties and expected behaviour of reprocessing plant off-gases, and outlines the experimental program to be undertaken. (author)

  6. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buses Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  10. Control apparatus for hot gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

  11. Gas Control System for HEAO-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B.; Brissette, R.; Humphrey, A.; Morris, J.; Luger, J.; Swift, W.

    1978-01-01

    The HEAO-B Gas Control System consists of a high pressure gas storage supply together with distribution and regulation assemblies and their associated electronics for management of gas required for HEAO-B X-ray counter experiments. The Gas Control System replenishes a gas mixture (82 percent argon, 12.3 percent carbon dioxide, 5.7 percent xenon) in the counter volumes which is lost by: diffusion through controlled leakage plugs, diffusion through counter windows, and consumption resulting from periodic purges. The gas density in each counter volume is maintained constant to within 0.25 percent by comparison with a sealed reference volume. The system is fully redundant, capable of operating at atmospheric pressure as well as in a vacuum, contains interlocks which shut down gas flow in the event of either leakage or excessive pressure, and is able to shut down counter high voltage if counter pressure is abnormally low. The system is electronically controlled by ground command and self-sustaining in orbit for a period of at least one year.

  12. Feedforward Nonlinear Control Using Neural Gas Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Machón-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear systems control is a main issue in control theory. Many developed applications suffer from a mathematical foundation not as general as the theory of linear systems. This paper proposes a control strategy of nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics by means of a set of local linear models obtained by a supervised neural gas network. The proposed approach takes advantage of the neural gas feature by which the algorithm yields a very robust clustering procedure. The direct model of the plant constitutes a piece-wise linear approximation of the nonlinear system and each neuron represents a local linear model for which a linear controller is designed. The neural gas model works as an observer and a controller at the same time. A state feedback control is implemented by estimation of the state variables based on the local transfer function that was provided by the local linear model. The gradient vectors obtained by the supervised neural gas algorithm provide a robust procedure for feedforward nonlinear control, that is, supposing the inexistence of disturbances.

  13. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  14. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  15. Control characteristics of inert gas recovery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Kato, Yomei; Kamiya, Kunio

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulator and the control characteristics for a radioactive inert gas recovery plant which uses a cryogenic liquefying process. The simulator was developed to analyze the operational characteristics and is applicable to gas streams which contain nitrogen, argon, oxygen and krypton. The characteristics analysis of the pilot plant was performed after the accuracy of the simulator was checked using data obtained in fundamental experiments. The relationship between the reflux ratio and krypton concentration in the effluent gas was obtained. The decontamination factor is larger than 10 9 when the reflux ratio is more than 2. 0. The control characteristics of the plant were examined by changing its various parameters. These included the amount of gas to be treated, the heater power inside the evaporator and the liquid nitrogen level in the condenser. These characteristics agreed well with the values obtained in the pilot plant. The results show that the krypton concentration in the effluent gas increases when the liquid nitrogen level is decreased. However, in this case, the krypton concentration can be minimized by applying a feed forward control to the evaporator liquid level controller. (author)

  16. Xingo`s control center; Centro de controle de Xingo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Benedito; Souza, Antonio; Ferraz, Adelson; Florentino, Luiz; Costa, Carlos [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the development activities of the Xingo`s Control Center, since its production until its commissioning. It emphasizes the applicative programs developed by the CHESF`s, an electric power utility of Brazil (Northeast and Southeast of Brazil, team together with the furnisher`s team. The results of factory and field tests are commented 7 refs.

  17. 21 CFR 870.4300 - Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit. 870.4300... bypass gas control unit. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit is a device used to control and measure the flow of gas into the oxygenator. The device is calibrated for a specific...

  18. 75 FR 68607 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-80-001] CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 28, 2010, CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company submitted a revised...

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  20. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  1. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  2. [The development of market centers for gas transactions] The center of attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, B.

    1994-01-01

    When Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 placed new competitive demands on the buyers, sellers and traders of natural gas, the industry realized it needed to find new faster ways of making transactions. It has, and they are called hubs. With Order 636 and the advent of greater open-market trading, new hubs--so-called market centers--began sprouting throughout the nation's market and end-use regions, as well as in the supply regions. Local distribution companies (LDCs) began to see a market for selling such services as wheeling and balancing--often performed as part of a pipeline's tariff in the capacity-rich producing regions--to customers in end-use areas, where capacity is at more of a premium. Developing a marketing hub could also be considered a defensive move: Despite today's competitive market, LDCs must still serve their ratepayers at a reasonable cost, and a successful market hub can help keep rates low. The paper discusses the development of hubs in various regions of the US, the types of services being offered, and the start-up problems that they are overcoming

  3. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  4. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  5. Radio-controlled automatic gas meter-reading system; Releve automatique de compteur par radio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, M. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Ishikawa, K.; Fujiwara, J. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichihashi, T. [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, an automatic gas meter-reading system is in operation, also incorporating the functions of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff. This system has been realized by linking microcomputer-controlled gas meters(It's called 'Intelligent gas mater') equipped with automatic shutoff mechanism to the gas utility company operation center via communication lines. While the present system uses cable communication lines, we of Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Toho Gas Co., Ltd., have jointly developed a new system based on radio communication. This paper introduces this new system. While radio-controlled meter-reading systems are used in many countries around the world solely for automatic meter reading, our recently developed system is also capable of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff, thanks to its almost real-time two-way communication function. The new system can serve for a period of ten years without recharging. It is also characterized by its applicability as different systems according to purposes: 1) conventional automatic meter-reading system (terminal network control unit or T-NCU), 2) large-scale radio-controlled meter-reading system, and 3) portable terminal-type radio-controlled meter-reading system. (authors)

  6. Power control system for a hot gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntell, John O.

    1986-01-01

    A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

  7. Fabrication Of Control Rod System Of The RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirdjo, Hari; Setyono; Prasetya, Hendra

    2001-01-01

    Eight units of control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS has been fabricated. The control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS consist of guide tube and lifting rod. Complete construction of the control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS are guide tube, lifting rod, absorber, and absorber casing. The eight units of the control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS has been fabricated according to the mechanical engineering design

  8. Control device for combustible gas concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yasuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To control the concentration of combustible gases such as hydrogen evolved in a reactor container upon loss-of-coolant accidents. Constitution: Combustible gases evolved from the lower area of a drywell in which a combustible atmosphere is liable to be formed locally are taken out through a take-out pipeway to the outside of a reactor container and processed by a hydrogen-oxygen recombiner. Combustible gases in other areas of the drywell are also introduced to the lower area of the drywell and then taken-out externally for procession. Further, combustible gases in the suppression chamber are introduced by the opening of a vacuum breaking valve through a gas supply pipe to the lower area of the drywell and fluids in the drywell are stirred and diluted with fluids exhausted from the gas supply pipe. Disposition of such take-out pipeway and gas supply pipe can reduce the possibility of forming local combustible atmosphere to improve the integrity of the reactor container. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices

  10. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Schempf, H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  11. A control center design revisited: learning from users’ appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Cordeiro, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the lessons learned during a control center design project by revisiting another control center from the same company designed two and a half years before by the same project team. In light of the experience with the first project and its analysis, the designers and res...

  12. Customizing graphical user interface technology for spacecraft control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Edward; Giancola, Peter; Gibson, Steven; Mahmot, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    The Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) project is applying the latest in graphical user interface technology to the spacecraft control center environment. This project of the Mission Operations Division's (MOD) Control Center Systems Branch (CCSB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an architecture for control centers which makes use of a distributed processing approach and the latest in Unix workstation technology. The TPOCC project is committed to following industry standards and using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components wherever possible to reduce development costs and to improve operational support. TPOCC's most successful use of commercial software products and standards has been in the development of its graphical user interface. This paper describes TPOCC's successful use and customization of four separate layers of commercial software products to create a flexible and powerful user interface that is uniquely suited to spacecraft monitoring and control.

  13. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  14. ORNL's Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Gregory, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Data Center maintains a detailed bibliography of atomic data measurements and calculations for processes of interest to the fusion community. One hundred nineteen journals are regularly searched for papers of interest, including back issues to 1950. Entries are categorized by author, process, reactants, energy range, and theory/experiment. Complete bibliographies have been published since 1978 and a computerized data retrieval system is available. In addition, an updated and extended multi-volume critical compilation of cross sections (the ORNL Redbooks) is under way

  15. B Complex Test Control Center (TCC) #4210

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TCC is a dual control room facility for the B-1 and B-2 Test Positions on the B-Stand. The TCC houses continually-updated, state-of-the-art Data Acquisition and...

  16. Assessing consumer benefits of selected gas appliance technology center tasks. Topical report, April-December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Bournakis, A.D.; Worek, W.M.; Kalensky, D.C.; Dombrowski, L.P.

    1992-12-01

    The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) was created in 1983 to assist the gas industry in bringing about a new generation of reasonably priced, advanced gas appliances. The objective of the report is to evaluate consumer benefits of sixteen selected GATC tasks for the time period between 1983 and 1990. Tasks were selected for review based upon their degree of industry impact and how well they represented activities in the four targeted research areas of Space Conditioning, Commercial Appliances, Residential Appliances, and Codes and Standards

  17. Gas-Jet Meniscus Control in Ribbon Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Vonroos, O.

    1983-01-01

    Gas jet used to control shape of meniscus and thus to regulate ribbon thickness in vertical silicon-ribbon growth. Gas jet also cools ribbon, increasing maximum possible pull speed for silicon, contact angle of 11 degrees plus or minus 1 degree required for constant thickness ribbon growth. Cooling effect of gas jet increases maximum possible pull speed.

  18. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... add poison control as a contact in your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of the conversation by following #PreventPoison and #NPPW2017 on social media, and check out AAPCC's NPPW webpage and press ...

  19. Training Center for Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Yezhov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the application of embedded microcontrollers and industrial controllers with built-in operating systems.With the development of embedded operating systems and technology of open standard IEC 61131-3 product developer can write their own program management and support staff – to modernize management program.

  20. 75 FR 30409 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... applications received in response to ``Workplace Health Research Network (WHRN)--Coordinating Center, SIP 10-031 and WHRN--Collaborating Centers, SIP 10-032, initial review.'' Contact Person for More Information..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Workplace Health Research...

  1. 75 FR 51990 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-80-000] CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Baseline Filing August 17, 2010. Take notice that on August 12, 2010, the applicant listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of Operating...

  2. The Air Force Center for Optimal Design and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, John

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a summary and highlights of the research funded by the Air Force under AFOSR URI Grant F49620-93-1-0280, titled 'Center for Optimal Design and Control of Distributed Parameter Systems' (CODAC...

  3. Modelling of Rotor-gas bearings for Feedback Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which ca...... and are shown to accurately describe the dynamical behaviour of the rotor-gas bearing. Design of a controller using the identied models is treated and experiments verify the improvement of the damping properties of the rotor-gas bearing.......Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which can...... be designed from suitable models describing the relation from actuator input to measured shaft position. Current state of the art models of controllable gas bearings however do not provide such relation, which calls for alternative strategies. The present contribution discusses the challenges for feedback...

  4. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  5. On-line optimal control improves gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors' companies jointly funded the first phase of a gas processing liquids optimization project that has the specific purposes to: Improve the return of processing natural gas liquids, Develop sets of control algorithms, Make available a low-cost solution suitable for small to medium-sized gas processing plants, Test and demonstrate the feasibility of line control. The ARCO Willard CO 2 gas recovery processing plant was chosen as the initial test site to demonstrate the application of multivariable on-line optimal control. One objective of this project is to support an R ampersand D effort to provide a standardized solution to the various types of gas processing plants in the U.S. Processes involved in these gas plants include cryogenic separations, demethanization, lean oil absorption, fractionation and gas treating. Next, the proposed solutions had to be simple yet comprehensive enough to allow an operator to maintain product specifications while operating over a wide range of gas input flow and composition. This had to be a supervisors system that remained on-line more than 95% of the time, and achieved reduced plant operating variability and improved variable cost control. It took more than a year to study various gas processes and to develop a control approach before a real application was finally exercised. An initial process for C 2 and CO 2 recoveries was chosen

  6. The Effectiveness of Yoga on Spiritual Intelligence in Air Traffic Controllers of Tehran Flight Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safara, Maryam; Ghasemi, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yoga on spiritual intelligence in air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. This was a quasi-experimental research and the study population includes all air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. The sample consisted of 40 people of the study population that were…

  7. Regimes of spray formation in gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, D.; Kulkarni, V. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2011-09-15

    Spray formation in ambient atmosphere from gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers is described by carrying out experiments in a spray test facility. The atomizer discharges a circular air jet and an axisymmetric swirling water sheet from its coaxially arranged inner and outer orifices. A high-speed digital imaging system along with a backlight illumination arrangement is employed to record the details of liquid sheet breakup and spray development. Spray regimes exhibiting different sheet breakup mechanisms are identified and their characteristic features presented. The identified spray regimes are wave-assisted sheet breakup, perforated sheet breakup, segmented sheet breakup, and pulsation spray regime. In the regime of wave-assisted sheet breakup, the sheet breakup shows features similar to the breakup of two-dimensional planar air-blasted liquid sheets. At high air-to-liquid momentum ratios, the interaction process between the axisymmetric swirling liquid sheet and the circular air jet develops spray processes which are more specific to the atomizer studied here. The spray exhibits a periodic ejection of liquid masses whose features are dominantly controlled by the central air jet. (orig.)

  8. New Emergency control center of Slovenske Elektrarne Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecko, E.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency preparedness of nuclear power plant and operation assurance in case of a possible emergency calls to have devices for emergency response with equipment for rapid detection and continuous evaluation of anticipated events. Chief executive body designated to manage a nuclear power plant during major events is the emergency committee (EC). Emergency Committee is a part of the Emergency Response Organization (ERO). The following centers are on alert to ensure the activities of the ERO - Emergency Response office: - control room (CR) and emergency control room (ECR); - emergency management center (EMC); - Monitoring Centre (MC); - emergency backup control center (EBCC); - congregations of civil protection (CP) and CP shelters; - communications with warning and notification system (VARVYR). From a historical and practical point of view in the vicinity of Jaslovske Bohunice has been set up a joint emergency control center. The center was located on the territory of the former already inoperative V1 NPP. V1 NPP is currently integrated into the organizational structure of JAVYS. Operating Bohunice V2 NPP plant is a designated part of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s., whose majority owner is an Italian operator ENEL. In terms of various relevant factors, it was decided to build a new emergency management center on the territory of operating V2 NPP, meet the current standards.

  9. Modelling and Identification for Control of Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    Gas bearings are popular for their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation, but suffer from poor damping, which poses challenges for safe operation in presence of disturbances. Enhanced damping can be achieved through active lubrication techniques using feedback control laws....... Such control design requires models with low complexity, able to describe the dominant dynamics from actuator input to sensor output over the relevant range of operation. The mathematical models based on first principles are not easy to obtain, and in many cases, they cannot be directly used for control design...... to industrial rotating machinery with gas bearings and to allow for subsequent control design. The paper shows how piezoelectric actuators in a gas bearing are efficiently used to perturb the gas film for identification over relevant ranges of rotational speed and gas injection pressure. Parameter...

  10. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  11. Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    when using highly efficient microporous thermal insulation packages. An easily implemented method of H2 gas removal from vendor thermal batteries is... microporous thermal insulation packages (1, 4, 5) or reduce volume requirements significantly. More rigorous gas control methods combined with...measured from the DCM pressures and known internal volumes of the 3 GHS that were measured using the ideal gas law with a 10-cc internal volume SS

  12. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  13. Increasing the operational efficiency and safety in operation control centers: the TRANSPETRO experience; Aumentando a seguranca e eficiencia operacional em centros de controle: a experiencia da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicio, Marco Aurelio Fierro; Frisoli, Caetano [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The increase in operational efficiency and safety in operation control centers has been traditionally obtained through direct actions in the operational activity itself and on the resources and systems used for that. Modern supervisory and control systems, sophisticated simulation software, cutting-edge last generation equipment and installations, clear and comprehensive procedures definitions and intensive and constant training of the operation teams are, usually, the chosen paths followed by control centers in their incessant quest for increased operational efficiency and safety. This paper presents the path followed by the TRANSPETRO's National Operational Control Center - Natural Gas (Centro Nacional de Controle Operacional - CNCO-Gas) - that has not only focused with the traditional aspects above, but has also made intensive investments in systems and data base integrations, aiming at eliminating data inconsistencies and redundancies and at including automation, standardization and systematization of non-operational and complementary operational activities. These investments allowed TRANSPETRO CNCO-Gas face the big challenge of growing that TRANSPETRO's gas transportation activity is facing now and will be facing in the near future: from 2,600 km to 7,000 km of gas pipelines, and a volume of transported natural gas from 35 MMm{sup 3}/day to 100 MMm{sup 3}/day. (author)

  14. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H. Jr.; Hunt, A.L.; Clower, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  15. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    protection technique as a method of controlling corrosion in oil and gas pipelines is effective and efficient when compared to ... In the field of crude oil production and associated engineering .... Industrial/Mechanical Systems, Joen Printing and.

  16. Control of the geomorphology and gas hydrate extent on widespread gas emissions offshore Romania (Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboulot, V.; Cattaneo, A.; Sultan, N.; Ker, S.; Scalabrin, C.; Gaillot, A.; Jouet, G.; Marsset, B.; Thomas, Y.; Ballas, G.; Marsset, T.; Garziglia, S.; Ruffine, L.; Boulart, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Romanian sector of the Black Sea deserves attention because the Danube deep-sea fan is one of the largest sediment depositional systems worldwide and is considered the world's most isolated sea, the largest anoxic water body on the planet and a unique energy-rich sea. Due to the high sediment accumulation rate, presence of organic matter and anoxic conditions, the Black sea sediment offshore the Danube delta is rich in gas and thus show BSR. The cartography of the BSR over the last 20 years, exhibits its widespread occurrence, indicative of extensive development of hydrate accumulations and a huge gas hydrate potential. By combining old and new datasets acquired in 2015 during the GHASS expedition, we performed a geomorphological analysis of the continental slope north-east of the Danube canyon that reveals the presence of several landslides inside and outside several canyons incising the seafloor. It is a complex study area presenting sedimentary processes such as seafloor erosion and instability, mass wasting, formation of gas hydrates, fluid migration, gas escape, where the imprint of geomorphology seems to dictate the location where gas seep occurs. . Some 1409 gas seeps within the water column acoustic records are observed between 200 m and 800 m water depth. No gas flares were detected in deeper areas where gas hydrates are stable. Overall, 93% of the all gas seeps observed are above geomorphological structures. 78% are right above escarpment induced by sedimentary destabilizations inside or outside canyons. The results suggest a geomorphological control of degassing at the seafloor and gas seeps are thus constrained by the gas hydrates stability zone. The stability of the gas hydrates is dependent on the salinity gradient through the sedimentary column and thus on the Black Sea recent geological history. The extent and the dynamics of gas hydrates have a probable impact on the sedimentary destabilization observed at the seafloor.

  17. MOD control center automated information systems security evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rich

    1991-01-01

    The role of the technology infusion process in future Control Center Automated Information Systems (AIS) is highlighted. The following subject areas are presented in the form of the viewgraphs: goals, background, threat, MOD's AISS program, TQM, SDLC integration, payback, future challenges, and bottom line.

  18. Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: basic objectives of the NASA-wide AI program; inhouse research program; constraint-based scheduling; learning and performance improvement for scheduling; GEMPLAN multi-agent planner; planning, scheduling, and control; Bayesian learning; efficient learning algorithms; ICARUS (an integrated architecture for learning); design knowledge acquisition and retention; computer-integrated documentation; and some speculation on future applications.

  19. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  20. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  1. A source-controlled data center network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS.

  2. A source-controlled data center network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS. PMID:28328925

  3. A minimum attention control center for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Control Centers for Nuclear Power Plants have characteristically been designed for maximum attention by the operating staffs of these plants. Consequently, the monitoring, control and diagnostics oriented cognitive activities by these staffs, were mostly ''data-driven'' in nature. This paper addresses a control center concept, under development by Combustion Engineering, that promotes a more ''information-driven'' cognitive interaction process between the operator and the plant. The more ''intelligent'' and therefore less attentive nature of such interactive process utilizes computer implemented cognitive engineered algorithms. The underlying structure of these algorithms is based upon the Critical Function/Success Path monitoring principle. The paper highlights a typical implementation of the minimum attention concept for the handling of unfamiliar safety related events. (author)

  4. Combustible gas concentration control facility and operation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Yamanari, Shozo; Moriya, Kimiaki; Karasawa, Hidetoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a hydrogen gas-control facility by using a fuel battery-type combustible gas concentration reducing device as a countermeasure for controlling a hydrogen gas in a reactor container. Namely, a hydrogen electrode adsorb hydrogen by using an ion exchange membrane comprising hydrogen ions as a charge carrier. An air electrode adsorb oxygen in the air. A fuel battery converts recombining energy of hydrogen and oxygen to electric energy. Hydrogen in this case is supplied from an atmosphere in the container. Oxygen in this case is supplied from the air outside of the container. If hydrogen gas should be generated in the reactor, power generation of is performed by the fuel battery by using hydrogen gas, as a fuel, on the side of the hydrogen electrode of the fuel battery and using oxygen, as a fuel, in the air outside of the container on the side of the air electrode. Then, the hydrogen gas is consumed thereby controlling the hydrogen gas concentration in the container. Electric current generated in the fuel battery is used as an emergency power source for the countermeasure for a severe accident. (I.S.)

  5. Combustible gas concentration control facility and operation method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Yamanari, Shozo; Moriya, Kimiaki; Karasawa, Hidetoshi

    1998-09-25

    The present invention provides a hydrogen gas-control facility by using a fuel battery-type combustible gas concentration reducing device as a countermeasure for controlling a hydrogen gas in a reactor container. Namely, a hydrogen electrode adsorb hydrogen by using an ion exchange membrane comprising hydrogen ions as a charge carrier. An air electrode adsorb oxygen in the air. A fuel battery converts recombining energy of hydrogen and oxygen to electric energy. Hydrogen in this case is supplied from an atmosphere in the container. Oxygen in this case is supplied from the air outside of the container. If hydrogen gas should be generated in the reactor, power generation of is performed by the fuel battery by using hydrogen gas, as a fuel, on the side of the hydrogen electrode of the fuel battery and using oxygen, as a fuel, in the air outside of the container on the side of the air electrode. Then, the hydrogen gas is consumed thereby controlling the hydrogen gas concentration in the container. Electric current generated in the fuel battery is used as an emergency power source for the countermeasure for a severe accident. (I.S.)

  6. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Technology Control Center, report to the Steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report describes test for air pollution control of flue gas and mercury as a result of coal combustion. The NYSEG Kintigh Station provided flue gas to the Center 100% of the time during this performance period. As the Kintigh Station operated with a variety of coals, fluctuations in the Center`s inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations were experienced. Safety training for the month was conducted by the O&M Superintendent, Maintenance Supervisor and Shift Supervisors. {open_quotes}Personal Protective Equipment{close_quotes} was the topic of the month. Inspections of the ECTC Facility and safety equipment (SCR air-packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) were completed and recorded this month. All systems were found to be in good condition. By continuing to emphasize safe work habits at the Center, we have raised the total number of days without a lost time injury to 1426 as of 4/30/96. The monthly safety meeting with the NYSEG Kintigh Station was held on April 30, 1996 with both NYSEG and ECTC representatives. The topics of discussion included an overview of NYSEG`s upcoming alternate fuel burn, an update on plant staffing changes, and a discussion of future safety training activities.

  8. Infrared imaging spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Distribution and motions of the ionized gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T. M.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Forrest, W. J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    High spatial spectral resolution IR images of the Galactic center in the Br-gamma recombination line of hydrogen were taken. A coherent filament of gas extending from north of IRS 1, curving around IRS 16/Sgr A complex, and continuing to the southwest, is seen. Nine stellar sources have associated Br-gamma emission. The total Br-gamma line flux in the filament is approximately 3 x 10 exp -15 W/sq m. The distribution and kinematics of the northern arm suggest orbital motion; the observations are accordingly fit with elliptical orbits in the field of a central point of mass.

  9. Simulation modelling for new gas turbine fuel controller creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendland, L. E.; Pribylov, V. G.; Borisov, Yu A.; Arzamastsev, M. A.; Kosoy, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    State of the art gas turbine fuel flow control systems are based on throttle principle. Major disadvantage of such systems is that they require high pressure fuel intake. Different approach to fuel flow control is to use regulating compressor. And for this approach because of controller and gas turbine interaction a specific regulating compressor is required. Difficulties emerge as early as the requirement definition stage. To define requirements for new object, his properties must be known. Simulation modelling helps to overcome these difficulties. At the requirement definition stage the most simplified mathematical model is used. Mathematical models will get more complex and detailed as we advance in planned work. If future adjusting of regulating compressor physical model to work with virtual gas turbine and physical control system is planned.

  10. Parameters control in GAs for dynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Jebari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Control of Genetic Algorithms parameters allows to optimize the search process and improves the performance of the algorithm. Moreover it releases the user to dive into a game process of trial and failure to find the optimal parameters.

  11. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  12. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H 2 S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO 2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO 2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O 2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H 2 S followed by direct oxidation of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out

  13. Method of controlling weld chamber purge and cover gas atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1992-01-01

    A method of controlling the gas atmosphere in a welding chamber includes detecting the absence of a fuel rod from the welding chamber and, in response thereto, initiating the supplying of a flow of argon gas to the chamber to purge air therefrom. Further, the method includes detecting the entry of a fuel rod in the welding chamber and, in response thereto, terminating the supplying of the flow of argon gas to the chamber and initiating the supplying of a flow of helium gas to the chamber to purge argon gas therefrom and displace the argon gas in the chamber. Also, the method includes detecting the withdrawal of the fuel rod from the welding chamber and, in response thereto, terminating the supplying of the flow of helium gas to the chamber and initiating the supplying of argon to the chamber to purge the air therefrom. The method also includes detecting the initiation of a weld cycle and, in response thereto, momentarily supplying a flow of argon gas to the welding electrode tip for initiating the welding arc. (Author)

  14. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  15. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  16. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  17. Analysis of gob gas venthole production performances for strata gas control in longwall mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2015-10-01

    Longwall mining of coal seams affects a large area of overburden by deforming it and creating stress-relief fractures, as well as bedding plane separations, as the mining face progresses. Stress-relief fractures and bedding plane separations are recognized as major pathways for gas migration from gas-bearing strata into sealed and active areas of the mines. In order for strata gas not to enter and inundate the ventilation system of a mine, gob gas ventholes (GGVs) can be used as a methane control measure. The aim of this paper is to analyze production performances of GGVs drilled over a longwall panel. These boreholes were drilled to control methane emissions from the Pratt group of coals due to stress-relief fracturing and bedding plane separations into a longwall mine operating in the Mary Lee/Blue Creek coal seam of the Upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin, Alabama. During the course of the study, Pratt coal's reservoir properties were integrated with production data of the GGVs. These data were analyzed by using material balance techniques to estimate radius of influence of GGVs, gas-in-place and coal pressures, as well as their variations during mining. The results show that the GGVs drilled to extract gas from the stress-relief zone of the Pratt coal interval is highly effective in removing gas from the Upper Pottsville Formation. The radii of influence of the GGVs were in the order of 330-380 m, exceeding the widths of the panels, due to bedding plane separations and stress relieved by fracturing. Material balance analyses indicated that the initial pressure of the Pratt coals, which was around 648 KPa when longwall mining started, decreased to approximately 150 KPa as the result of strata fracturing and production of released gas. Approximately 70% of the initial gas-in-place within the area of influence of the GGVs was captured during a period of one year.

  18. Maintenance cost control at the Pacific Missile Test Center.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenson, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Pacific Missile Test Center (PMTC) is the Navy's largest Major Range and Test Facility Base, with an investment of over one billion dollars. The majority of this investment is in range test equipment and facilities including radar, telemetry, communication and command/ control systems. Concern is growing over the "excessively obsolete condition of PMTC technical equipment." Improvement of factors concerned with...

  19. CAMMESA control center controllers qualification; Habilitacion de operadores del centro de control de CAMMESA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaller, Daniel J [CAMMESA, Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The safety and quality of the Interconnection Argentine System (IAS) operation, basically depend on the personnel performance in the CAMMESA Operation Control Center (COC), which is the IAS maximum operative hierarchy, and whose mission is to coordinate the IAS and the dispatch of the AWEM (Argentine Wholesale Electric Market) in real time. With the goal of improving the COC controllers' qualification in order to prevent critical situations and to solve the emergences based on an efficient way, in 1999 the process of 'Habilitation of OCC Controllers' was accomplished according to the resolution number 208/98 from the Energy General Office. This technical contribution describes the executed stages and the acquired experiences when applying the mentioned procedure indicating the main found difficulties, reached results and obtained benefits.

  20. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  1. Gas management of measurement system; Sistema informatizado de programacao e controle integrado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedersberg, Luis Carlos [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programacao e Controle Integrado; Gomes, Lea Visali [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia Executiva de Logistica de Operacoes

    2008-07-01

    This paper has for objective to present the software developed for control of measurement of natural gas in the Gas Company of the Rio Grande do Sul State - Sulgas. This paper will be presented the previous control system, developed as Microsoft Excel and the new system developed in Company's ERP. This software automated great part of the process, reducing possible mistakes, reducing the reverse-work index and improving the quality of the measurements considerably and of the revenue of the Company. (author)

  2. Spacecraft control center automation using the generic inferential executor (GENIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Luczak, Ed; Stump, Doug

    1996-01-01

    The increasing requirement to dramatically reduce the cost of mission operations led to increased emphasis on automation technology. The expert system technology used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) is currently being applied to the automation of spacecraft control center activities. The generic inferential executor (GENIE) is a tool which allows pass automation applications to be constructed. The pass script templates constructed encode the tasks necessary to mimic flight operations team interactions with the spacecraft during a pass. These templates can be configured with data specific to a particular pass. Animated graphical displays illustrate the progress during the pass. The first GENIE application automates passes of the solar, anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft.

  3. Evaluation of completeness of selected poison control center data fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jeanie E; Marchbanks, Brenda; Willis, Branch; Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-08-01

    Poison control center data are used in research and surveillance. Due to the large volume of information, these efforts are dependent on data being recorded in machine readable format. However, poison center records include non-machine readable text fields and machine readable coded fields, some of which are duplicative. Duplicating this data increases the chance of inaccurate/incomplete coding. For surveillance efforts to be effective, coding should be complete and accurate. Investigators identified a convenience sample of 964 records and reviewed the substance code determining if it matched its text field. They also reviewed the coded clinical effects and treatments determining if they matched the notes text field. The substance code matched its text field for 91.4% of the substances. The clinical effects and treatments codes matched their text field for 72.6% and 82.4% of occurrences respectively. This under-reporting of clinical effects and treatments has surveillance and public health implications.

  4. Model-based dynamic control and optimization of gas networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsten, Kai

    2001-07-01

    This work contributes to the research on control, optimization and simulation of gas transmission systems to support the dispatch personnel at gas control centres for the decision makings in the daily operation of the natural gas transportation systems. Different control and optimization strategies have been studied. The focus is on the operation of long distance natural gas transportation systems. Stationary optimization in conjunction with linear model predictive control using state space models is proposed for supply security, the control of quality parameters and minimization of transportation costs for networks offering transportation services. The result from the stationary optimization together with a reformulation of a simplified fluid flow model formulates a linear dynamic optimization model. This model is used in a finite time control and state constrained linear model predictive controller. The deviation from the control and the state reference determined from the stationary optimization is penalized quadratically. Because of the time varying status of infrastructure, the control space is also generally time varying. When the average load is expected to change considerably, a new stationary optimization is performed, giving a new state and control reference together with a new dynamic model that is used for both optimization and state estimation. Another proposed control strategy is a control and output constrained nonlinear model predictive controller for the operation of gas transmission systems. Here, the objective is also the security of the supply, quality control and minimization of transportation costs. An output vector is defined, which together with a control vector are both penalized quadratically from their respective references in the objective function. The nonlinear model predictive controller can be combined with a stationary optimization. At each sampling instant, a non convex nonlinear programming problem is solved giving a local minimum

  5. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  6. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  7. Cascade fuzzy control for gas engine driven heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuze; Zhang Wugao; Zhang Rongrong; Lv Dexu; Huang Zhen

    2005-01-01

    In addition to absorption chillers, today's gas cooling technology includes gas engine driven heat pump systems (GEHP) in a range of capacities and temperature capacities suitable for most commercial air conditioning and refrigeration applications. Much is expected from GEHPs as a product that would help satisfy the air conditioning system demand from medium and small sized buildings, restrict electric power demand peaks in summer and save energy in general. This article describes a kind of control strategy for a GEHP, a cascade fuzzy control. GEHPs have large and varying time constants and their dynamic modeling cannot be easily achieved. A cascade control strategy is effective for systems that have large time constants and disturbances, and a fuzzy control strategy is fit for a system that lacks an accurate model. This cascade fuzzy control structure brings together the best merits of fuzzy control and cascade control structures. The performance of the cascade fuzzy control is compared to that of a cascade PI (proportional and integral) control strategy, and it is shown by example that the cascade fuzzy control strategy gives a better performance, reduced reaction time and smaller overshoot temperature

  8. Detailed analysis for a control rod worth of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Tetsuo; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    GTHTR300 is composed of a simplified and economical power plant based on an inherent safe 600 MWt reactor and a nearly 50% high efficiency gas turbine power conversion cycle. GTHTR300 core consist of annular fuel region, center and outer side reflectors because of cooling it effectively in depressurized accident conditions, and all control rods are located in both side reflectors of annular core. As a thermal neutron spectrum is strongly distorted in reflector regions, an accurate calculation is especially required for the control rod worth evaluation. In this study, we applied the detailed Monte Carlo calculations of a full core model, and confirmed that our design method has enough accuracy. (author)

  9. Reactive gas control of non-stable plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido-Gonzalez, V.; Daniel, B.; Counsell, J.; Monaghan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Most industrial plasma processes are dependant upon the control of plasma properties for repeatable and reliable production. The speed of production and range of properties achieved depend on the degree of control. Process control involves all the aspects of the vacuum equipment, substrate preparation, plasma source condition, power supplies, process drift, valves (inputs/outputs), signal and data processing and the user's understanding and ability. In many cases, some of the processes which involve the manufacturing of interesting coating structures, require a precise control of the process in a reactive environment [S.J. Nadel, P. Greene, 'High rate sputtering technology for throughput and quality', International Glass Review, Issue 3, 2001, p. 45. ]. Commonly in these circumstances the plasma is not stable if all the inputs and outputs of the system were to remain constant. The ideal situation is to move a process from set-point A to B in zero time and maintain the monitored signal with a fluctuation equal to zero. In a 'real' process that's not possible but improvements in the time response and energy delivery could be achieved with an appropriate algorithm structure. In this paper an advanced multichannel reactive plasma gas control system is presented. The new controller offers both high-speed gas control combined with a very flexible control structure. The controller uses plasma emission monitoring, target voltage or any process sensor monitoring as the input into a high-speed control algorithm for gas input. The control algorithm and parameters can be tuned to different process requirements in order to optimize response times

  10. Control systems for condensing flue-gas coolers related to natural-gas-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krighaar, M.; Paulsen, O.

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of the enthalpy-efficiency for a water-cooled heat exchanger added to a natural gas-fired boiler. Under varying conditions of both water flow and temperature and flue-gas flow and temperature, both in condensing and non-condensing mode, the efficiency seems to be constant. The result is very useful for comparison between two different working conditions. The efficiency is used to calculate the savings achieved for a district heating plant by using a heat exchanger. The energy economic calculations are also helpful for estimating the most appropriate size of heat exchanger. The annual savings are calculated by means of data regarding heat production, flue gas temperature and water return temperature. The savings achieved by using different connection principles such as bypass, reheating and controlled water temperature are also calculated. (author)

  11. Molecular gas and star formation in the centers of Virgo spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian, B.

    1990-01-01

    The CO and H alpha flux distributions for a sample of Virgo spirals were mapped out in an attempt to understand the coupling between gas dynamics and star formation in spiral galaxies. A broad range of morphological types were observed (types Sab through Scd) under the hypothesis that the gas dynamics is most influential in determining the overall appearance of a spiral galaxy. Only non-barred spirals were considered so that the well-studied but complicated properties of bars and their role in inducing star formation would not be a factor. All galaxies were chosen from the Virgo cluster to eliminate uncertainties due to distance errors. Since the dynamical seat of a spiral is at its center, it was expected that the dynamics of the central region would influence global properties of the rest of the disk. This could happen through the existence or absence of an inner Lindblad resonance (according to the degree of central concentration of mass) to modulate swing amplification of spiral waves, or the persistence of an oval distortion to initiate an instability which leads to spiral structure

  12. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  13. Intelligent Control of Micro Grid: A Big Data-Based Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhiseng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a structure of micro grid system with big data-based control center is introduced. Energy data from distributed generation, storage and load are analized through the control center, and from the results new trends will be predicted and applied as a feedback to optimize the control. Therefore, each step proceeded in micro grid can be adjusted and orgnized in a form of comprehensive management. A framework of real-time data collection, data processing and data analysis will be proposed by employing big data technology. Consequently, a integrated distributed generation and a optimized energy storage and transmission process can be implemented in the micro grid system.

  14. Gas analysis by computer-controlled microwave rotational spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    Microwave rotational spectrometry has inherently high resolution and is thus nearly ideal for qualitative gas mixture analysis. Quantitative gas analysis is also possible by a simplified method which utilizes the ease with which molecular rotational transitions can be saturated at low microwave power densities. This article describes a computer-controlled microwave spectrometer which is used to demonstrate for the first time a totally automated analysis of a complex gas mixture. Examples are shown for a complete qualitative and quantitative analysis, in which a search of over 100 different compounds is made in less than 7 min, with sensitivity for most compounds in the 10 to 100 ppm range. This technique is expected to find increased use in view of the reduced complexity and increased reliabiity of microwave spectrometers and because of new energy-related applications for analysis of mixtures of small molecules

  15. Probing the Outflowing Multiphase Gas ∼1 kpc below the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Blair D.; Kim, Tae-Sun; Wakker, Bart P. [Department of astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Massa, Derck [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Bordoloi, Rongmon [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lockman, Felix J. [Green Bank Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hernandez, Svea [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-01

    Comparison of interstellar medium (ISM) absorption in the UV spectrum of LS 4825, a B1 Ib−II star d  = 21 ± 5 kpc from the Sun toward l  = 1.°67 and b  = −6.°63, with ISM absorption toward an aligned foreground star at d  < 7.0 ± 1.7 kpc, allows us to isolate and study gas associated with the Milky Way nuclear wind. Spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show low-ionization absorption out to d  < 7 kpc (e.g., O i, C ii, Mg ii, Si ii, Fe ii, S ii) only between 0 and 40 km s{sup −1}, while absorption at d  > 7 kpc, ∼1 kpc below the Galactic plane, is complex and spans −290 to +94 km s{sup −1}. The intermediate and high ions Si iii, C iv, Si iv, and N v show extremely strong absorption with multiple components from −283 to 107 km s{sup −1}, implying that the ISM ∼1 kpc below the Galactic center has a substantial reservoir of plasma and more gas containing C iv and N v than in the Carina OB1 association at z  = 0 kpc. Abundances and physical conditions are presented for many absorption components. The high ion absorption traces cooling transition temperature plasma probably driven by the outflowing hot gas, while the extraordinarily large thermal pressure, p / k  ∼ 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3} K{sup −1}, in an absorption component at −114 km s{sup −1} probably arises from the ram pressure of the outflowing hot gas. The observations are consistent with a flow whose ionization structure in the high ions can be understood through a combination of nonequilibrium radiative cooling and turbulent mixing.

  16. Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation control systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Keating, Edward J.

    2018-05-01

    An engine control system of a vehicle includes a fuel control module that controls fuel injection of a first cylinder of an engine based on a first target air/fuel ratio that is fuel lean relative to a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and that controls fuel injection of a second cylinder of the engine based on a second target air/fuel ratio that is fuel rich relative to stoichiometry. The first cylinder outputs exhaust to a first three way catalyst (TWC), and the second cylinder outputs exhaust to an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. An EGR control module controls opening of the EGR valve to: (i) a second TWC that reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust and outputs ammonia to a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst; and (ii) a conduit that recirculates exhaust back to an intake system of the engine.

  17. A gas production system from methane hydrate layers by hot water injection and BHP control with radial horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, T.; Ono, S.; Iwamoto, A.; Sugai, Y.; Sasaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Reservoir characterization of methane hydrate (MH) bearing turbidite channel in the eastern Nankai Trough, in Japan has been performed to develop a gas production strategy. This paper proposed a gas production system from methane hydrate (MH) sediment layers by combining the hot water injection method and bottom hole pressure control at the production well using radial horizontal wells. Numerical simulations of the cylindrical homogeneous MH layer model were performed in order to evaluate gas production characteristics by the depressurization method with bottom hole pressure control. In addition, the effects of numerical block modeling and averaging physical properties of MH layers were presented. According to numerical simulations, combining the existing production system with hot water injection and bottom hole pressure control results in an outward expansion of the hot water chamber from the center of the MH layer with continuous gas production. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-01-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  19. [Cocaine base paste: experience from the Montevideo Poison Control Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Negrin, Alba; Laborde, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    In Uruguay, cocaine base paste (CBP, pasta base) is a widely used form of cocaine. The aim of our study is to determine the main clinical characteristics of CBP abusers. Retrospective, single-center study of consultations at the Montevideo Poison Control Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005. One hundred and thirteen consultations were included, with an average age of 22 years (+ - 0.5 years) and a female-male sex ratio of 1:4.3. The consultations were related to drug overdose (77%), suicide attempt (16.8%), and wanting to give up CBP use (6.2%). In 48.1% the time elapsed since inhalation of CBP was less than 6 hours. Doses varied between 0.5 gr. and 25 gr. Use of other drugs at the same time, such as alcohol, marijuana or benzodiazepines, was common (51 cases). The symptoms most frequently observed were neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular, followed by respiratory symptoms. In 16.8% of patients, reason for the consultation was intentional acute ingestion of drugs, considered as a suicide attempt, occurring within a few hours of drug consumption. CBP users are mostly young males. Although clinical findings are compatible with those for cocaine abuse, euphoria is a major clinical feature in CBP abusers. The presence of respiratory symptoms reflects the complications associated with the ingestion route. Suicide attempts occurring within a few hours of CBP confirm the high prevalence of suicidal ideation reported by other authors. cocaine base paste, clinical features, suicide attempts.

  20. Safety concerns with the Centers for Disease Control opioid calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fudin J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1–4 Mena Raouf,2 Erica L Wegrzyn,2–4 Michael E Schatman5,61Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate, LLC, Delmar, NY, USA; 2Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 3Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, USA; 4Albany College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 5Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USA; 6Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USAMorphine milligram equivalence (MME and other comparable acronyms have been employed in federal pain guidelines and used by policy makers to limit opioid prescribing.1–5 On March 18, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC released its Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain.1 The guidelines provided 12 recommendations for “primary care clinicians prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care”. One of the CDC recommendations states that clinicians “should avoid increasing dosage to ≥90 MME/day or carefully justify a decision to titrate dosage to ≥90 MME/day”.1

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  2. Control of temperature distribution in a supercritical gas extraction tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Honda, G.; Iwama, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Odagiri, S.

    1989-01-01

    A control scheme recently proposed by the authors is applied to the control of axial temperature distribution in a bench-scale supercritical-gas extractor. The extraction unit is constructed from a packed column 3 m long covered by a coaxial cylindrical casing. Although the actual structure of the extractor is very complicated, it is modeled by a simple double-pipe and therefore its mathematical model can be described by a pair of partial differential equations. The models are reduced to a lumped parameter system with a finite dimension by use of the finite Fourier transform technique. The controller is designed on the basis of the reduced model. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate simultaneously the state variables and the unknown parameters. The results demonstrate that both the state estimation and the controller performance are satisfactory. This implies that the control scheme is very robust in spite of the incompleteness of the model used

  3. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  4. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  5. Fretting fatigue cracking of a center guide bolt supporting the combustion chamber in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Fischer, Boromir; Gaedicke, Tobias [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor

    2018-04-01

    The slotted center guide bolt of the center guide feature of the lower part of the outer shell of an annular combustion chamber was found fractured in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine used for power generation, after approximately 5.500 operating hours. The incident was a one-off event and not a recurring incident. No similar events were reported from the fleet; hence the failure was not considered a field issue. The metallurgical root cause investigation that was ordered to determine the failure mechanism revealed that the incident center guide bolt failed by fretting fatigue cracking, a high cycle fatigue (HCF) phenomenon.

  6. Energy conservation. Purposeful regulation and control systems for gas infrared radiation heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsch, L [GoGaS Goch G.m.b.H. und Co., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    Gas infrared radiators have been in use for a long time for heating large halls of trade and industrial buildings as well as sport centers. The success of this heating system is based mainly on considerably reduced energy consumption as against convective heating systems. However, the biggest energy savings can be achieved when heating systems of this kind are equipped with regulation and control systems which are adapted to the way the rooms are used. Solutions to problems are described and information is given for planning.

  7. 76 FR 12955 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-78-000] CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Line AM- 46 Replacement Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Onsite Environmental Review The staff of the...

  8. The role of poison control centers in CBRN incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borron, S. W.; Haynes, J.; Young, P.

    2009-01-01

    Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have historically played a limited, parallel role in management of CBRN incidents; they are frequently called for advice by the public or health care providers when such incidents occur, but in many cases are not considered an integral part of the CBRN disaster emergency response team, lacking a 'place' in the Incident Command Structure (ICS). This is unfortunate, as PCCs represent an important public health resource. The roughly 60 centers in the U.S. are available 24/7, 365 days/year. Telephones are manned by professionals, including pharmacists and nurses with additional specialized training in poisoning response. PCC medical directors are generally trained in Emergency Medicine, Pediatrics or Preventive Medicine, with subspecialty training in Medical Toxicology. Many toxicologists attend specialized training in the radiation emergency management at REAC/TS. PCCs have extensive databases for poisoning management coupled with GIS surveillance. This combination of expertise and information renders PCCs well prepared to advice on decontamination and treatment of CBRN-contaminated victims. Their toxicology expertise allows their participation in risk assessment. PCCs are highly trusted by the community, enhancing their role in risk communication. We recently initiated a program that provides guidance on activation of PCCs by the Region 6 Regional Response Team (RRT6), Co-Chaired by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Coast Guard, serving as the federal component of the National Response System for the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The program will be described, with emphasis on how PCCs may work within ICS.(author)

  9. A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Hillman, Tim; Janson, Bruce; Reiner, Mark; Thomas, Gregg

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for individual cities is confounded by spatial scale and boundary effects that impact the allocation of regional material and energy flows. This paper develops a demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle-based methodology for conducting city-scale GHG inventories that incorporates (1) spatial allocation of surface and airline travel across colocated cities in larger metropolitan regions, and, (2) life-cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the embodied energy of key urban materials--food, water, fuel, and concrete. The hybrid methodology enables cities to separately report the GHG impact associated with direct end-use of energy by cities (consistent with EPA and IPCC methods), as well as the impact of extra-boundary activities such as air travel and production of key urban materials (consistent with Scope 3 protocols recommended by the World Resources Institute). Application of this hybrid methodology to Denver, Colorado, yielded a more holistic GHG inventory that approaches a GHG footprint computation, with consistency of inclusions across spatial scale as well as convergence of city-scale per capita GHG emissions (approximately 25 mt CO2e/person/year) with state and national data. The method is shown to have significant policy impacts, and also demonstrates the utility of benchmarks in understanding energy use in various city sectors.

  10. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  11. Electron energy distribution function control in gas discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godyak, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron temperature in low temperature gas discharge plasmas is analyzed in frames of local and non-local electron kinetics. It is shown, that contrary to the local case, typical for plasma in uniform electric field, there is the possibility for EEDF modification, at the condition of non-local electron kinetics in strongly non-uniform electric fields. Such conditions “naturally” occur in some self-organized steady state dc and rf discharge plasmas, and they suggest the variety of artificial methods for EEDF modification. EEDF modification and electron temperature control in non-equilibrium conditions occurring naturally and those stimulated by different kinds of plasma disturbances are illustrated with numerous experiments. The necessary conditions for EEDF modification in gas discharge plasmas are formulated

  12. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  13. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  14. Bond-selective control of a gas-surface reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killelea, Daniel R.

    The prospect of using light to selectively control chemical reactions has tantalized chemists since the development of the laser. Unfortunately, the realization of laser-directed chemistry is frequently thwarted by the randomization of energy within the molecule through intramolecular vibrational energy distribution (IVR). However, recent results showing vibrational mode-specific reactivity on metal surfaces suggest that IVR may not always be complete for gas-surface reactions. Here, we combine molecular beam techniques and direct laser excitation to characterize the bond-specific reactivity of trideuteromethane on a Ni(111) surface. Our results reveal important details about how vibrational energy is distributed in the reactive molecule. We use a molecular beam to direct state-selected trideuteromethane (CHD 3) molecules onto a nickel single crystal sample and use the results we obtain to describe the flow of vibrational energy in the methane-surface reaction complex. We show that CHD3 molecules initially excited to v=1, J=2, K=0 of the v 1 symmetric C-H stretching mode will dissociate exclusively via C-H cleavage on Ni(111). This result highlights the localization of vibrational energy in the reaction complex, despite the presence of many energy exchange channels with the high state-density surface. We demonstrate, for the first time, highly parallel bond-selective control of a heterogeneously catalyzed reaction. We place our results in the context of recent experiments investigating IVR for molecules in both the gas phase and liquid solutions. If IVR is fast on the reaction timescale, vibrational energy would be randomly distributed throughout the nascent methane-surface reaction complex and vibrational mode-specific behavior would not occur. The short timescale of a direct gas-surface collision may explain how the exchange of energy via IVR is limited to only a small subset of the energetic configurations available to the reaction complex. This framework

  15. Optimal control in a micro gas grid of prosumers using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Nefkens, W.J.; Scherpen, Jacqueline M.A.; Volkerts, M.

    This paper studies the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas prosumers equipped with local storage devices. Excess biogas can be upgraded and injected into the low- pressure gas grid or, alternatively, shipped per lorry to be used elsewhere in an effort to create revenue. The aim of the control

  16. A modeling and control approach to advanced nuclear power plants with gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablay, Günyaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Load frequency control strategies in nuclear plants are researched. • Nuclear reactor-centered control system may not be suitable for load control. • Local unit controllers improve stability and overall time constant. • Coolant loops in nuclear plants should be controlled locally. - Abstract: Advanced nuclear power plants are currently being proposed with a number of various designs. However, there is a lack of modeling and control strategies to deal with load following operations. This research investigates a possible modeling approach and load following control strategy for gas turbine nuclear power plants in order to provide an assessment way to the concept designs. A load frequency control strategy and average temperature control mechanism are studied to get load following nuclear power plants. The suitability of the control strategies and concept designs are assessed through linear stability analysis methods. Numerical results are presented on an advanced molten salt reactor concept as an example nuclear power plant system to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed modeling and load following control strategies

  17. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  18. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  19. Fabrication of control rod system of RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari-Sudirdjo; Setyono; Hendra-Prasetya

    2003-01-01

    Two unit absorbers, they are part of RSG-GAS control rod system, have been fabricated. One set absorber consist of two absorber plates and absorber casing. Absorber plate is made of Ag In Cd ( 80%, 15%, 5% ) alloy, which is cladded by stainless steel plate SS-316. Ag In Cd absorber plate has size of 625 mm x 60 mm x 3.3 mm, while cladding plat has thickness of 0.8 mm. Fabrication of two set absorbers has been conducted according to the plan

  20. The present status of rare gas release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1974-01-01

    Of the rare gases Ar, Kr and Xe released from nuclear facilities, the problem of release control can be confined to 41 Ar, 85 Kr and 133 Xe. The cases of the latter two are described, as 41 Ar is not much significant. 133 Xe, having relatively short half-life, can be dealt sufficiently by holding-up in case of light water reactors. 85 Kr of long half-life must be removed : the methods are low temperature adsorption, liquefaction distillation, absorption and diaphragm method. As for future problem, there is disposal of concentrated rare gas. (Mori, K.)

  1. Regional quality control survey of blood-gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, B D; Nunn, J F

    1977-09-01

    We undertook an external quality control survey of blood-gas analysis in 16 laboratories at 13 hospitals. All samples were prepared in the laboratories under investigation by equilibration of blood or serum with gas mixtures of known composition. pH of serum was measured with no significant bias but with an SD of random error 0.026 pH units, which was almost twice the SD of the reference range (0.015). An acceptable random error (half SD of reference range) was not obtained in a longitudinal internal quality control suvey although there were acceptable results for buffer pH in both field and internal surveys. Blood PO2 was measured with no significant bias but with SD of random error 1.38 kPa which reduced to 0.72 kPa by excluding one egregious result. The latter value was just over half of the SD of the reference range (1.2 kPa). PCO2 of blood was also measured without significant bias but with a much smaller SD of random error of 0.28 kPa (by excluding one egregious result), which was again just over half the SD of the reference range (0.51 kPa). Measurements of blood PO2 and PCO2 seem generally acceptable in relation to their respective reference ranges but measurements of pH were unsatisfactory in both internal and external trials.

  2. Control of oral malodour by dentifrices measured by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Evelyn E; Hickling, Jenneth M; Hughes, Francis J; Proskin, Howard M; Bosma, Marylynn P

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of toothpaste treatments on levels of oral volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) measured by gas chromatography in two clinical studies. These were blinded, randomised, controlled, crossover studies with 16 (study A) or 20 (study B) healthy volunteers between the ages of 19-54. Study A: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately and lhr after brushing. Four dentifrices (Zinc A, Zinc B, commercially available triclosan dentifrice and zinc free control) were evaluated. Study B: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately, 1, 2, 3 and 7 hours after treatment. Subjects consumed a light breakfast then provided an additional breath sample between baseline assessment and treatment. Two dentifrices (gel-to-foam and a commercially available triclosan dentrifrice) were evaluated. Breath samples were collected in syringes and analysed for VSCs (hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and Total VSCs) utilising gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Study A: immediately after treatment, a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed for Zinc A product only. A statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed after 1 hour for all products. Both zinc products exhibited a significantly greater reduction from baseline VSCs than Colgate Total and Control at all time points. Study B: a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed at all time points for both products. The gel-to-foam product exhibited significantly greater reduction from baseline Total VSC concentration than Colgate Total at all time points from 1 hour post-treatment. Control of oral malodour by toothpaste treatment, evaluated as VSC levels using GC, has been demonstrated. Zinc is effective at reducing VSCs and the efficacy of zinc is formulation dependent. A gel-to-foam dentifrice was more effective at reducing VSCs than Colgate Total up to 7 hours.

  3. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Dynamics and Controls Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    NASA Armstrong continues its legacy of exciting work in the area of Dynamics and Control of advanced vehicle concepts. This presentation describes Armstrongs research in control of flexible structures, peak seeking control and adaptive control in the Spring of 2015.

  4. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  5. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  6. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and other... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  7. 78 FR 29754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  8. plasmatis Center for Innovation Competence: Controlling reactive component output of atmospheric pressure plasmas in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    The novel approach of using plasmas in order to alter the local chemistry of cells and cell environment presents a significant development in biomedical applications. The plasmatis center for innovation competence at the INP Greifswald e.V. performs fundamental research in plasma medicine in two interdisciplinary research groups. The aim of our plasma physics research group ``Extracellular Effects'' is (a) quantitative space and time resolved diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and liquids to determine distribution and composition of reactive species (b) to control the plasma and apply differing plasma source concepts in order to produce a tailored output of reactive components and design the chemical composition of the liquids/cellular environment and (c) to identify and understand the interaction mechanisms of plasmas with liquids and biological systems. Methods to characterize the plasma generated reactive species from plasma-, gas- and liquid phase and their biological effects will be presented. The diagnostic spectrum ranges from absorption/emission/laser spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and cell biological diagnostic techniques. Concluding, a presentation will be given of the comprehensive approach to plasma medicine in Greifswald where the applied and clinical research of the Campus PlasmaMed association is combined with the fundamental research at plasmatis center.

  9. Potential of electrical gas discharges for pollution control of large gas volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-equilibrium gas discharges in many cases offer an innovative approach to the solution cf industrial air pollution problems. Negative corona discharges are used in electrostatic precipitators to collect dust and fly ash particles. Pulsed positive streamer coronas, dielectric-barrier discharges and possibly also flow-stabilised high pressure glow discharges are emerging technologies for the destruction of air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide in flue gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial effluents. The different discharge types are discussed with special emphasis on their potential for upscaling. Major applications are expected particularly in the removal of dilute concentrations of air pollutants, in odour control and in the simultaneous removal of different pollutants. Dielectric-barrier discharges exhibit disposal efficiencies similar to those of pulsed positive streamer coronas and require less sophisticated feeding circuits in large-scale industrial applications. (author)

  10. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  11. Micro controller based system for characterizing gas detector operating parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Verma, Amit K.; Anilkumar, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.; Harikumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation and analysis of radioactivity levels in samples from environment and from various stages of nuclear fuel cycle operations has become a matter of concern for the implementation of radiological safety procedures. Gas filled/ flow detectors play crucial role in achieving this objective. Since these detectors need high voltage for their operation, the operating characteristics of each detector for optimum performance has to be determined before incorporating into the systems. The operating voltages of these detectors are ranging from few hundred volts to few kilo volts. Present paper describes the design of microcontroller based system to control two HV modules (Electron tubes make: PS2001/12P) independently and acquire data from different gas filled radiation detectors simultaneously. The system uses Philips 80C552 microcontroller based Single Board Computer (SBC). The inbuilt DAC and ADC of microcontroller were used to control HV from 0-2000 with less than ± 1 %, error 1000V. The starting HV, HV step size, decision making intelligence to terminate HV increment (for preset plateau slope) and data acquisition (for preset time), data acquisition time etc., can be programmed. Nearly 200 detectors data (20 data points per detector) can be stored and transferred to PC on request. Data collected by the system for LND 719 GM detectors with starting voltage from 500 V, HV step size of 24 V and 100 seconds counting time to find out the plateau length. The plateau slope and length obtained with this system for LND 719 GM detectors are 3-5%/100V and ∼ 150V respectively. (author)

  12. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  13. 77 FR 46096 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...), concerning strategies and goals for the programs and research within OPHPR, monitoring the overall strategic... Board Strategic National Stockpile ad hoc working group; CDC's response to laboratory biosafety issues... Learning Centers; update on CDC's biosurveillance and situational awareness activities; (2) BSC liaison...

  14. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  15. Usable Translational Hand Controllers for NASA's Habitability Design Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This summer I was given the opportunity to work at the Habitability Design Center (HDC). NASA Johnson Space Center's HDC is currently developing Cislunar and Mars spacecraft mockups. I contributed to this effort by designing from scratch low cost, functional translational hand controllers (THCs) that will be used in spacecraft mission simulation in low to medium fidelity exploration spacecraft mockups. This project fell under the category of mechatronics, a combination of mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering. Being an aerospace engineering student, I was out of my comfort zone. And that was a wonderful thing. The autonomy that my mentor, Dr. Robert Howard, allowed me gave me the opportunity to learn by trying, failing, and trying again. This project was not only a professional success for me, but a significant learning experience. I appreciated the freedom that I had to take the time to learn new things for myself rather than blindly follow instructions. I was the sole person working on this project, and was required to work independently to solve the many hardware and software challenges that the project entailed. I researched THCs that have been used on the ISS, the Space Shuttle, and the Orion MPVC and based my design off of these. I worked through many redesigns before finding an optimal configuration of the necessary mechanisms and electrical components for the THC. Once I had a functional hardware design, I dove into the challenge of getting an Arduino Uno, an extremely low cost and easily programmable microcontroller, to behave as a human interface device. The THCs I built needed to be able to integrate to a mission simulation designed by NASA's Graphics and Visualization Lab. This proved to be the most challenging aspect of the project. To accomplish this I learned how to change the firmware of the USB serial converter microcontroller. The process was very complicated as it involved multiple software programs and manual flashing of pins on the

  16. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  17. NOISE CONTROL IN GAS STATIONS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Eduardo Amaral Herzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The high noise level in urban has changed, in the last decades, in some way of pollution that has worried the health agents. The value registered accused levels of so high discomfort that the urban sound pollution passed to be considered as a kind of pollution that hit the outnumbered people. There are efficient measures in its control, but still there are few companies that adopt measure control and auditive conservation program. This way, the objective of the work was to evaluate the noise level in which the employees and users of the gas station are daily exposed. The survey of quantitative datum was done measuring the noise level right in the emission source and making arithmetic means with the gotten sample. The average obtained revealed that the working environment isn’t appropriate, that means the noise can affect straight to communication and working production. With the prevention objective or stabilizing the auditive lost in witch the workers and the frequenters are submitted to the referred place were proposed measures to the implantation of a Auditive Conservation Program (ACP.

  18. Real Time Implementation of Incremental Fuzzy Logic Controller for Gas Pipeline Corrosion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust virtual instrumentation based fuzzy incremental corrosion controller is presented to protect metallic gas pipelines. Controller output depends on error and change in error of the controlled variable. For corrosion control purpose pipe to soil potential is considered as process variable. The proposed fuzzy incremental controller is designed using a very simple control rule base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions. The proposed scheme is tested for a wide range of pipe to soil potential control. Performance comparison between the conventional proportional integral type and proposed fuzzy incremental controller is made in terms of several performance criteria such as peak overshoot, settling time, and rise time. Result shows that the proposed controller outperforms its conventional counterpart in each case. Designed controller can be taken in automode without waiting for initial polarization to stabilize. Initial startup curve of proportional integral controller and fuzzy incremental controller is reported. This controller can be used to protect any metallic structures such as pipelines, tanks, concrete structures, ship, and offshore structures.

  19. Control system at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A modern control system was designed for SRRC to control and monitor the facilities of storage ring, beam transport line and injection system. The SRRC control system is a distributed system which is divided into two logical levels. Several process computers and workstations at upper level provide the computing power for physics simulation, data storage and graphical user interfaces. VME-based Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC) are the backbone of the lower level system which handle the real time devices access and the closed loop control. Ethernet network provides the interconnection between these two layers using IEEE 802.3 and TCP/IP protocol. The software in upper level computers includes data base server, network server, simulation programs, various application codes and X windows based graphical user interfaces. Device drivers, application programs for devices control and communication programs are the major software components at the ILC level

  20. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  1. A Detailed Assessment for the Potential use of Waste Hydrogen Gas at Stennis Space Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stennis Space Center (SSC) is NASA’s primary liquid rocket engine test facility. As such, large amounts of liquid hydrogen are used as a rocket propellant. This...

  2. The role of clinical toxicologists and poison control centers in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Bronstein, Alvin C; Heard, Stuart E; Barthold, Claudia L; Lando, James; Lewis, Lauren S; Schier, Joshua G

    2010-06-01

    Poison control centers and clinical toxicologists serve many roles within public health; however, the degree to which these entities collaborate is unknown. The objective of this survey was to identify successful collaborations of public health agencies with clinical toxicologists and poison control centers. Four areas including outbreak identification, syndromic surveillance, terrorism preparedness, and daily public health responsibilities amenable to poison control center resources were assessed. An online survey was sent to the directors of poison control centers, state epidemiologists, and the most senior public health official in each state and selected major metropolitan areas. This survey focused on three areas: service, structure within the local or state public health system, and remuneration. Questions regarding remuneration and poison control center location within the public health structure were asked to assess if these were critical factors of successful collaborations. Senior state and local public health officials were excluded because of a low response rate. The survey was completed in October 2007. A total of 111 respondents, 61 poison control centers and 50 state epidemiologists, were eligible for the survey. Sixty-nine (62%) of the 111 respondents, completed and returned the survey. Thirty-three (54%) of the 61 poison control centers responded, and 36 of the 50 state epidemiologists (72%) responded. The most frequent collaborations were terrorism preparedness and epidemic illness reporting. Additional collaborations also exist. Important collaborations exist outside of remuneration or poison control centers being a formal part of the public health structure. Poison control centers have expanded their efforts to include outbreak identification, syndromic surveillance, terrorism preparedness, and daily public health responsibilities amenable to poison control center resources. Collaboration in these areas and others should be expanded. Published

  3. A Controlled Environment System For Measuring Plant-Atmosphere Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Brown

    1975-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, efficient system for measuring plant-atmosphere gas exchange. Designed to measure transpiration from potted tree seedlings, it is readily adaptable for measuring other gas exchanges or gas exchange by plant parts. Light level, air and root temperature can be precisely controlled at minimum cost.

  4. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri (South of Italy) Oil Center gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi - ENI - Val d'Agri Oil Center - COVA). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  5. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (southern Italy) gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the robust satellite techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant, owned by Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e., waste flaring), as industrial processes are regulated by strict regional laws. While regarding the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented for 13 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated with the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, using data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. The results achieved indicate that the such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  6. Why natural gas for CO2 and climate control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roose, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have suggested that increased use of natural gas is a possible strategy for reducing the potential for global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) contributes as much to global warming as all other greenhouse gases combined. During combustion, natural gas generates less CO 2 per unit of energy produced than either coal or oil. On the basis of the amount of CO 2 emitted, the potential for global warming could be reduced by substituting natural gas to coal or oil. However, since natural gas is primarily methane, a potent greenhouse gas, these emissions could reduce natural gas's inherent advantage of lower CO 2 emissions. To address this issue and compare the fuels on an equivalent basis, it is necessary to account for emissions of all greenhouse gases throughout the fuel cycle of each fuel and to determine the impact of these gases on global warming. Gas Research Institute and EPA jointly funded a study to quantify methane emissions from the natural gas industry so that this information could be used as input to address the issue of the fuel switching strategy. The study found that the natural gas industry emitted 1.4% of natural gas production (314 Bscf of methane) to the atmosphere in 1992. Today, due to voluntary reductions from the gas industry, the percent leaked is even less. This 1992 amount has been analyzed over a broad range of global warming potentials, and the conclusion that fuel switching to natural gas reduces the potential for global warming is supported. The results of this study are presented in this paper

  7. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  8. Study on goaf gas control technology of gob-side entry driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qihan; Yuan, Benqing; Li, Qiansi

    2018-01-01

    The 1112 (1) track gate roadway of Gu Qiao coal mine of Huainan mining group adopt the method of gob-side entry driving, the gas emission is large during the driving of the roadway, the gas in the goaf seriously influences the safe driving of the roadway. Equalizing method, drilling drainage method, jet grouting method and other goaf gas controlling measures has been adopted. Finally, it effectively solves the safety threat of gas in goaf to roadway driving, it provides a good reference for the gas control of the gob-side entry.

  9. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  10. A More Extreme View of Molecular Gas in the Center of the Milky Way galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth Anne Crossfield

    This thesis examines the molecular gas properties in the central 600 parsecs of the Galaxy (the CMZ). I first present a study of a group of HII regions in the central 10 parsecs embedded within the M-0.02-0.07 cloud, adjacent to the Sgr A East supernova remnant. To better depict the physical relationship between these sources, I use archival VLA observations and Paschen-alpha images from the Hubble Space telescope to determine the extinction toward the HII regions. From the measured extinctions and source morphologies, I determine that three of the HII regions lie on the front side of the cloud and formed in the eastern part of the cloud which is unaffected by the supernova remnant's expansion. The higher extinction of the fourth HII region indicates it is embedded in the supernova-compressed ridge, and though younger than the other HII regions, is still older than the supernova. This work is an important determination of the their line-of-sight placement of these sources which helps to define their interaction and strengthens the case that the supernova did not trigger the formation of the HII regions. I next present results from a project I led to survey a sample of CMZ clouds for hot gas using the Green Bank Telescope. I observe multiple highly-excited lines of ammonia, and detect emission from the (9,9) line of ammonia, (excitation energy = 840 K) in 13 of 17 clouds, many of which have no associated star formation. For the three strongest sources, I derive rotation temperatures of 400-500 K, substantially higher than previous temperatures of 200-300 K measured for these clouds. The widespread detections of gas hotter than 400 K indicates for the first time that his hot gas must be heated by global processes in the CMZ. These extremely high temperatures also suggest that cosmic rays are not responsible for the heating of this gas. I also present a determination of the density of the Circumnuclear disk (CND) in the central two parsecs using multiple transitions

  11. Controls on gas transfer velocities in a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of biogenic gases from large rivers can be an important component of regional greenhouse gas budgets. However, emission rate estimates are often poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the air-water gas exchange rate. We used the floating chamber method to estim...

  12. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  13. Toolchain for User-Centered Intelligent Floor Heating Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agesen, Mads Kronborg; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius

    2016-01-01

    temperature is below the user defined target temperature, otherwise it closes for the heating in the room. The disadvantage is that the heat exchange among the rooms, outside weather conditions, weather forecast and other factors are not considered. We propose a novel model-driven approach for intelligent...... floor heating control based on a chain of tools that allow us to gather the sensor readings from the actual hardware and use the state-of-the-art controller synthesis tool UPPAAL Stratego in order to synthesise abstract control strategies that are then executed on the real hardware platform provided...... by the company Seluxit. We have built a scaled demonstrator of the system and the experimental results document a 38% to 52 % increase in user satisfaction, moreover with additional energy savings between 2% to 12%....

  14. ORIGINS OF SCATTER IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HCN 1-0 AND DENSE GAS MASS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Elisabeth A. C. [San Jose State University, 1 Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Battersby, Cara, E-mail: elisabeth.mills@sjsu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We investigate the correlation of HCN 1-0 with gas mass in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy. We find that on the ∼10 pc size scale of individual cloud cores, HCN 1-0 is well correlated with dense gas mass when plotted as a log–log relationship. There is ∼0.75 dex of scatter in this relationship from clouds like Sgr B2, which has an integrated HCN 1-0 intensity of a cloud less than half its mass, and others that have HCN 1-0 enhanced by a factor of 2–3 relative to clouds of comparable mass. We identify the two primary sources of scatter to be self-absorption and variations in HCN abundance. We also find that the extended HCN 1-0 emission is more intense per unit mass than in individual cloud cores. In fact the majority (80%) of HCN 1-0 emission comes from extended gas with column densities below 7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, accounting for 68% of the total mass. We find variations in the brightness of HCN 1-0 would only yield a ∼10% error in the dense gas mass inferred from this line in the Galactic center. However, the observed order of magnitude HCN abundance variations, and the systematic nature of these variations, warn of potential biases in the use of HCN as dense gas mass tracer in more extreme environments such as an active galactic nucleus and shock-dominated regions. We also investigate other 3 mm tracers, finding that HNCO is better correlated with mass than HCN, and might be a better tracer of cloud mass in this environment.

  15. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  16. Influence of gas chemistry on Si-V color centers in diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2580-2584 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapor deposition * diamond * photoluminescence * plasma * silicon optical centers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  17. Capabilities of a New Pressure Controller for Gas-Controlled Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, S.; Merlone, A.; Marenco, S.; Marcarino, P.; Tiziani, A.

    2008-10-01

    Pressure control is used in many metrological applications and for the control of thermodynamic quantities. At the Italian National Research Institute of Metrology (INRiM), a new pressure controller has been designed and assembled, operating in the pressure range between 4 kPa and 400 kPa. This innovative instrument uses a commercial pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 10-4 and several electro-valves interposed among calibrated volumes of different dimensions in order to realize known ratios for very fine pressure changes. The device is provided with several circuits to drive the electro-valve actions, for signal processing and transmission, and for both manual and automatic control. Input/output peripherals, such as a 4 × 20 dot matrix display and a 4 × 4 keyboard, allow setting of the parameters and data visualization, while a remote control port allows interfacing with a computer. The operating principle of this pressure controller has been recently applied, with excellent results, to control the pressure in gas-controlled heat pipes by using a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a temperature/pressure sensor, achieving in this case a relative sensitivity better than 10-6 in pressure. Several tests were also made to control the pressure by means of a commercial sensor. The device, its main components, and its capabilities are here reported, together with application tests and results.

  18. Structural controls on the emission of magmatic carbon dioxide gas, Long Valley Caldera, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Wing, Boswell

    2015-04-01

    We present a degassing study of Long Valley Caldera that explores the structural controls upon emissions of magmatic carbon dioxide gas. A total of 223 soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes using a field-portable cavity ring-down spectrometer. This novel technique is flexible, accurate, and provides sampling feedback on a daily basis. Sampling sites included major and minor volcanic centers, regional throughgoing faults, caldera-related structures, zones of elevated seismicity, and zones of past and present hydrothermal activity. The classification of soil gases based on their δ13C and CO2 values reveals a mixing relationship among three end-members: atmospheric, biogenic, and magmatic. Signatures dominated by biogenic contributions (~4 vol %, -24‰) are found on the caldera floor, the interior of the resurgent dome, and areas associated with the Hilton Creek and Hartley Springs fault systems. With the introduction of the magmatic component (~100 vol %, -4.5‰), samples acquire mixing and hydrothermal signatures and are spatially associated with the central caldera and Mammoth Mountain. In particular, they are concentrated along the southern margin of the resurgent dome where the interplay between resurgence-related reverse faulting and a bend in the regional fault system has created a highly permeable fracture network, suitable for the formation of shallow hydrothermal systems. This contrasts with the south moat, where despite elevated seismicity, a thick sedimentary cover has formed an impermeable cap, inhibiting the ascent of fluids and gases to the surface.

  19. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  20. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  1. 76 FR 28438 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... below concerns RFA CE10-004, the National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention... Violence Prevention (U01). Contact Person for More Information: Gwendolyn Haile Cattledge, PhD, M.S.E.H., F... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...

  2. A Plasma Control and Gas Protection System for Laser Welding of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    A prototype shield gas box with different plasma control nozzles have been investigated for laser welding of stainless steel (AISI 316). Different gases for plasma control and gas protection of the weld seam have been used. The gas types, welding speed and gas flows show the impact on process...... stability and protection against oxidation. Also oxidation related to special conditions at the starting edge has been investigated. The interaction between coaxial and plasma gas flow show that the coaxial flow widens the band in which the plasma gas flow suppresses the metal plasma. In this band the welds...... are oxide free. With 2.7 kW power welds have been performed at 4000 mm/min with Ar / He (70%/30%) as coaxial, plasma and shield gas....

  3. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  4. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Bi-fuel Natural Gas Vehicles Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    power vehicle electronics/accessories. Electronic control module (ECM) - (gasoline): The ECM controls ; safeguards the engine from abuse; and detects and troubleshoots problems. Electronic control module (ECM sensors: These monitor the pressure of the fuel supply and relay that information to the electronic

  6. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  7. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  8. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  9. Design electronic of manual control for cobalt unit Alcyon II of the National Center of Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morraz V, E.; Campos, X.

    2002-01-01

    A manual control for the cobalt unit, of French production, it was designed by the team of electronic of the national center of radiotherapy with materials found in the national trade. The control has the same characteristics that the original one and it is also adapted a switch from which you can control the lights of the room of the cobalt

  10. Simulation of the fuzzy-smith control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deheng; Xu Xiaolin; Zheng Jie; Guo Renjun; Zhang Guifen

    1997-01-01

    The Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller to solve the control of the big delay system is developed, accompanied with the development of the mathematical model of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled test reactor (HTR-10) and the design of its control system. The simulation results show the Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller has the advantages of both fuzzy control and Smith pre-estimate controller; it has better compensation to the delay and better adaptability to the parameter change of the control object. So it is applicable to the design of the control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

  11. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  12. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  13. Two extremely luminous WN stars in the Galactic center with circumstellar emission from dust and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Barniske, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W. -R.

    2008-01-01

    We study relatively isolated massive WN-type stars in the Galactic center. The K-band spectra of WR102ka and WR102c are exploited to infer the stellar parameters and to compute synthetic stellar spectra using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code. These models are combined with dust-shell models for analyzing the Spitzer IRS spectra of these objects. Archival IR images complement the interpretation. We report that WR102ka and WR102c are among the most luminous stars in the Milky...

  14. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade process control system structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Staffon, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; describes the main control computer hardware and system software features in more detail; and, then, describes the real-time control tasks, and how they interact with each other, and how they interact with the operator interface task

  15. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software

  16. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  17. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  18. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  19. Dynamics and control of a gas-fired furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A non-linear model has been developed for a gas-fired furnace in which oil is heated. The model is applicable from minimum to maximum heat load of the furnace. The dynamics of the model have been compared to experimental results, which were obtained for a pilot-scale furnace. They are in good

  20. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

  1. 75 FR 7483 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting; meeting...

  2. Online social networking and US poison control centers: Facebook as a means of information distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Kathy; Smollin, Craig

    2015-06-01

    Online social networking services such as Facebook provide a novel medium for the dissemination of public health information by poison control centers in the United States. We performed a cross-sectional study of poison control center Facebook pages to describe and assess the use of this medium. Facebook pages associated with poison control centers were identified during a continuous two-week period from December 24, 2012 to January 7, 2013. Data were extracted from each page, including affiliated poison control center; page duration, measured in years since registration; number of subscribers; number of postings by general toxicological category; and measures of user-generated activity including "likes", "shares", and comments per posting. Among the 56 US poison control centers, 39 Facebook pages were identified, of which 29 were currently active. The total number of active pages has increased by 140% from 2009 to 2013 (average of 25% per year). The total number of all subscribers to active pages was 11,211, ranging from 40 to 2,456 (mean 387, SD 523), equal to 0.006% of all Facebook users in the United States. The number of subscribers per page was associated with page duration, number of postings, and type of postings. The types of toxicological postings were public education (45%), self-promotion (28%), childhood safety (12%), drugs of abuse (8%), environmental poisonings (6%), and general overdoses (1%). Slightly over half of all poison control centers in the United States are supplementing their outreach and education efforts through Facebook. In general, the more active the poison control center on Facebook, the more page followers and follower engagement gained.

  3. Enhancing damping of gas bearings using linear parameter-varying control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    systems to regulate the injection pressure of the fluid. Due to the strong dependencies of system performance on system parameters, the sought controller should be robust over a large range of operational conditions. This paper addresses the damping enhancement of controllable gas bearings through robust...... control approaches. Through an extensive experimental campaign the paper evaluates two robust controllers, a linear parametervarying (LPV) controller and ∞ controller, on their capability to guarantee stability and performance of a gas bearing across the large operational envelopes in rotational speed...

  4. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.

  5. Proposed Strategies for DWPF Melter Off-Gas Surge Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOI, ALEXANDERS.

    2004-01-01

    Off-gas surging is inherent to the operation of slurry-fed melters. Although the melter design and the feed chemistry are both known to significantly affect off-gas surging, the frequency and intensity of surges are in essence unpredictable. In typical off-gas surges, both condensable and non condensable flows spike simultaneously. Condensable or steam surges have been observed to occur as the boiling water layer occasionally falls into the crevices of the cold cap or flows over the edges of the cold cap, thereby coming in contact with the melt surface. The resulting steam surges can pressurize the melter considerably and, therefore, are responsible for the bulk of pressure transients that propagate throughout the off-gas system. The non condensable surges occur as the calcine gases that have been accumulating within the cold cap finally build up enough pressure to be released through the temporary openings of the cold cap. The analysis of off-gas data has shown that over 90 of the gas released during a surge is due to steam.1 Therefore, it is essential to have a large inventory of water in the cold cap for any significant pressure spikes to occur. With the Melter 2 vapor space temperature typically running at 720C, the water layer in the cold cap will quickly evaporate once the feeding stops, and the potential for any large pressure spikes should practically cease to exist. The analysis also showed that large pressure spikes well above 2 inches H2O cannot occur under the steam surge scenarios described above. More severe conditions should prevail and one such condition would be that the feed materials form a mound with a growing lake on top, while the melt below remains very fluidic due to its low viscosity, thus resulting in greater movements both in the lateral as well as vertical directions. Once the mound begins to grow, its rate should accelerate, since the heat transfer rate to the upper regions of the cold cap is inversely proportional to the cold cap

  6. DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subhashis

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1°. The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359.°5 e is ∼10 cm –3 , which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of ∼0.°2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically ∼7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz

  7. Glovebox with purification and pressure control of the neutral gas atmosphere in closed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadrot, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the gas main are placed 2 series of specific gas purifiers in parallel. Pressure is controlled with a buffer tank two three way solenoid value upstream and down stream a compressor and a supercharger. A checking board allows continuous monitoring of circuit tightness [fr

  8. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used in...

  9. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  10. Adaptation effects in static postural control by providing simultaneous visual feedback of center of pressure and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenta; Mani, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Naoya; Sato, Yuki; Tanaka, Shintaro; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-07-19

    The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COP AP ) and mediolateral (COP ML ) directions. A motion analysis system was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of mass (COM) in both directions (COM AP and COM ML ). The coordinates of the COG in the AP direction (COG AP ) were obtained from the force plate signals. Augmented visual feedback was presented on a screen in the form of fluctuation circles in the vertical direction that moved upward as the COP AP and/or COG AP moved forward and vice versa. The COP + COG group received the real-time COP AP and COG AP feedback simultaneously, whereas the COP group received the real-time COP AP feedback only. The control group received no visual feedback. In the training session, the COP + COG group was required to maintain an even distance between the COP AP and COG AP and reduce the COG AP fluctuation, whereas the COP group was required to reduce the COP AP fluctuation while standing on a foam pad. In test sessions, participants were instructed to keep their standing posture as quiet as possible on the foam pad before (pre-session) and after (post-session) the training sessions. In the post-session, the velocity and root mean square of COM AP in the COP + COG group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the absolute value of the sum of the COP - COM distances in the COP + COG group was lower than that in the COP group. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the COM AP velocity and COP - COM parameters. The results suggest that the novel visual feedback

  11. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  12. KECK OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER SOURCE G2: GAS CLOUD OR STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, K.; Meyer, L.; Ghez, A. M.; Witzel, G.; Yelda, S.; Boehle, A.; Morris, M. R.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Do, T. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Matthews, K., E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We present new observations and analysis of G2-the intriguing red emission-line object which is quickly approaching the Galaxy's central black hole. The observations were obtained with the laser guide star adaptive optics systems on the W. M. Keck I and II telescopes (2006-2012) and include spectroscopy (R {approx} 3600) centered on the hydrogen Br{gamma} line as well as K' (2.1 {mu}m) and L' (3.8 {mu}m) imaging. Analysis of these observations shows the Br{gamma} line emission has a positional offset from the L' continuum. This offset is likely due to background source confusion at L'. We therefore present the first orbital solution derived from Br{gamma} line astrometry, which, when coupled with radial velocity measurements, results in a later time of closest approach (2014.21 {+-} 0.14), closer periastron (130 AU, 1600 R{sub s}), and higher eccentricity (0.9814 {+-} 0.0060) compared to a solution using L' astrometry. It is shown that G2 has no K' counterpart down to K' {approx} 20 mag. G2's L' continuum and the Br{gamma} line emission appears unresolved in almost all epochs, which implies that the bulk of the emission resides in a compact region. The observations altogether suggest that while G2 has a gaseous component that is tidally interacting with the central black hole, there is likely a central star providing the self-gravity necessary to sustain the compact nature of this object.

  13. System of automatic control over data Acquisition and Transmission to IGR NNC RK Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, I.I.; Gordienko, D.D.; Kunakov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Automated system for seismic and acoustic data acquisition and transmission in real time was established in Data Center IGR NNC RK, which functions very successively. The system monitors quality and volume of acquired information and also controls the status of the system and communication channels. Statistical data on system operation are accumulated in created database. Information on system status is reflected on the Center Web page. (author)

  14. Modeling and dynamic control simulation of unitary gas engine heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Haibo Zhao; Zheng Fang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the dynamic model of the gas engine heat pump (GEHP) system, an intelligent control simulation is presented to research the dynamic characteristics of the system in the heating operation. The GEHP system simulation model consists of eight models for its components including a natural gas engine, a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, a cylinder jacket heat exchanger, an exhaust gas heat exchanger and an auxiliary heater. The intelligent control model is composed of the prediction controller model and the combined controller model. The Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order algorithms are used to solve the differential equations. The results show that the model is very effective in analyzing the effects of the control system, and the steady state accuracy of the intelligent control scheme is higher than that of the fuzzy controller

  15. Controlling processes that are sensitive to natural gas quality; Procedes de controle sensibles a la qualite du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K R [BG Technology Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In the UK, and in many other countries throughout the world, the quality of natural gas supplied to customers is maintained to a safe specification. Nevertheless, the specification usually allows some variation in the calorific value of the gas. For a small number of industrial or commercial consumers, this variation can present some difficulties. Measurement of these small, and sometimes rapid, changes is required to allow suitable control systems to be implemented. In the past, the measurement of gas quality has been either inadequate for accurate control or too expensive. BG Technology has developed an acceptable cost solution to this long-standing problem. This paper describes how this novel technology presents exciting new opportunities for gas combustion control and other applications. (author)

  16. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  17. Gas generation in deep radioactive waste repositories: a review of processes, controls and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    Gas generation within radioactive waste repositories may produce two general problems: 1) breaching of engineered and natural barriers due to high gas pressures; 2) enhanced radiological risk due to reduced groundwater travel times and/or greater aqueous or gaseous activities reaching the biosphere. As a result of these concerns, HMIP must be aware of the current status of relevant research, together with any associated deficiencies. This report addresses the current status of published research on near-field gas generation from worldwide sources and documents the important gas generating processes, the factors controlling them and models available to simulate them. In the absence of suitable models, outline technical specifications for corrosion and microbial degradation gas generation models are defined and the deficiencies in the current understanding of gas generation are highlighted; a conceptual research programme to correct these deficiencies is presented. (author)

  18. Sixth NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Control and Diagnostics (PCD) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S. (Compiler)

    2018-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted the Sixth Propulsion Control and Diagnostics Workshop on August 22-24, 2017. The objectives of this workshop were to disseminate information about research being performed in support of NASA Aeronautics programs; get feedback from peers on the research; and identify opportunities for collaboration. There were presentations and posters by NASA researchers, Department of Defense representatives, and engine manufacturers on aspects of turbine engine modeling, control, and diagnostics.

  19. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  20. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  1. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  2. Influence of electrode, buffer gas and control gear on metal halide lamp performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamouri, A; Naruka, A; Sulcs, J; Varanasi, C V; Brumleve, T R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the influence of electrode composition, buffer gas fill pressure and control gear on the performance of metal halide lamps is investigated. It is shown that pure tungsten electrodes improve lumen maintenance and reduce voltage rise over lamp life. An optimum buffer gas fill pressure condition is discovered which allows for reduced electrode erosion during lamp starting as well as under normal operating conditions. Use of electronic control gear is shown to improve the performance of metal halide lamps

  3. Complete Quantum Control of a Single Silicon-Vacancy Center in a Diamond Nanopillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Dory, Constantin; Radulaski, Marina; Kelaita, Yousif; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Chu, Steven; Vuckovic, Jelena

    Coherent quantum control of a quantum bit (qubit) is an important step towards its use in a quantum network. SiV- center in diamond offers excellent physical qualities such as low inhomogeneous broadening, fast photon emission, and a large Debye-Waller factor, while the fast spin manipulation and techniques to extend the spin coherence time are under active investigation. Here, we demonstrate full coherent control over the state of a single SiV- center in a diamond nanopillar using ultrafast optical pulses. The high quality of the chemical vapor deposition grown SiV- centers allows us to coherently manipulate and quasi-resonantly read out the state of the single SiV- center. Moreover, the SiV- centers being coherently controlled are integrated into diamond nanopillar arrays in a site-controlled, individually addressable manner with high yield, low strain, and high spectral stability, which paves the way for scalable on chip optically accessible quantum system in a quantum photonic network. Financial support is provided by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences through Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  4. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  5. Design of SCADA water resource management control center by a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Zand, Ali; Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    SCADA is an essential system to control critical facilities in big cities. SCADA is utilized in several sectors such as water resource management, power plants, electricity distribution centers, traffic control centers, and gas deputy. The failure of SCADA results in crisis. Hence, the design of SCADA system in order to serve a high reliability considering limited budget and other constraints is essential. In this paper, a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is proposed to design Tehran's SCADA water resource management control center. Reliability maximization and cost minimization are concurrently considered. Since the proposed RAP is a non-linear multi-objective mathematical programming so the exact methods cannot efficiently handle it. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is designed to solve it. Several features such as dynamic parameter tuning, efficient constraint handling and Pareto gridding are inserted in proposed MOPSO. The results of proposed MOPSO are compared with an efficient ε-constraint method. Several non-dominated designs of SCADA system are generated using both methods. Comparison metrics based on accuracy and diversity of Pareto front are calculated for both methods. The proposed MOPSO algorithm reports better performance. Finally, in order to choose the practical design, the TOPSIS algorithm is used to prune the Pareto front. - Highlights: • Multi-objective redundancy allocation problem (MORAP) is proposed to design SCADA system. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is proposed to solve MORAP. • Efficient epsilon-constraint method is adapted to solve MORAP. • Non-dominated solutions are generated on Pareto front of MORAP by both methods. • Several multi-objective metrics are calculated to compare the performance of methods

  6. Project and implementation of advanced controls in a natural gas reformation unit; Projeto e implementacao de controles avancados em unidade de reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoni, Bruno [Andreoni Servicos de Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bueno, Roberto Galvao [Prosint S.A., XX (Brazil); Cruz, Luiz Alfredo A [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an effective implementation of advanced controls using a DCS previously loaded with conventional controls only. The advanced control system for a multiple fuel natural gas reform furnace consists of material and energy on-line balances, multivariable feedback trims, dynamic compensations and adaptive controls. The system performed well without an analyzer despite wide variations in fuel composition. A few items were implemented to improve the system after startup of the original strategies. All implementations were made possible through great involvement of plant personnel, aided by a consulting firm. The system provided tangible benefits and adequate return on the investment. (author)

  7. The releases control and the environment survey of the Cea Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Cea sets the environment protection in the heart of its security policy, which is based on the mastership of risks resulting from the researches activities and installations development. This policy aims to reduce as small as possible compared with the technical and economical necessities, the impact of its activities on the human and the environment. This document, takes stock for the year 2002, of the liquid and gas radioactive effluents releases as also of the radioactivity level around the Cea Centers, by a systematic monitoring of the atmosphere, the waters, the vegetation and the milk. (A.L.B.)

  8. Distributed Control Architecture for Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of engine control systems from centralized to distributed architecture is both necessary and enabling for future aeropropulsion applications. The continued growth of adaptive control applications and the trend to smaller, light weight cores is a counter influence on the weight and volume of control system hardware. A distributed engine control system using high temperature electronics and open systems communications will reverse the growing trend of control system weight ratio to total engine weight and also be a major factor in decreasing overall cost of ownership for aeropropulsion systems. The implementation of distributed engine control is not without significant challenges. There are the needs for high temperature electronics, development of simple, robust communications, and power supply for the on-board electronics.

  9. Intelligent sensing and control of gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent sensing and control is a multidisciplinary approach that attempts to build adequate sensing capability, knowledge of process physics, control capability, and welding engineering into the welding system such that the welding machine is aware of the state of the weld and knows how to make a good weld. The sensing and control technology should reduce the burden on the welder and welding engineer while providing the great adaptability needed to accommodate the variability found in the production world. This approach, accomplished with application of AI techniques, breaks the tradition of separate development of procedure and control technology

  10. PC-based arc ignition and arc length control system for gas tungsten arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Springfield, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a PC-based digital control system for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. This system controls the arc ignition process, the arc length, and the process of welding termination. A DT2818 made by Data Translation is used for interface and A/D and D/A conversions. The digital I/O ports of the DT2818 are used for control of wirefeed, shield gas, cooling water, welding power supply, etc. The DT2818 is housed in a PC. The welding signals and status are displayed on the screen for in-process monitoring. A user can control the welding process by the keyboard

  11. Fuel control device for various gas turbine configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, C F; Tutherly, H W

    1980-09-29

    The hydromechanic fuel control device can be adapted for various engine configurations as for example turbofan-, turbopro-, and turboshaft engines by providing those elements which are common for all engine configurations in the main housing and a detachable block for each individual configuration with all control elements and flow channels necessary for the respective configuration.

  12. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  13. Development of an engine control system using city gas and biogas fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Kanno, Masanobu; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The gas engine control system was developed using both city gas and biogas flexibly. ► The developed control system corporates with an original controller. ► The target value of O 2 emission is decided by Wobbe index of mixture fuel and load. ► The controller achieved stable operation for fuel mix ratio and load changing. -- Abstract: In this paper, a gas engine system capable of stable operation at any mix ratio of city gas 13A and biogas was developed. The gas engine system consists of a spark-ignition gas engine, an additional electric throttle valve for fuel and our own control algorithm. The engine is a 3-cylinder 1.6-l engine that was originally used for co-generation, and the fuel throttle valve was added to respond to different fuel compositions. The control algorithm was also designed to adjust the fuel and air ratio to attain a higher generation efficiency and lower NOx emission with different mix ratios of city gas 13A, biogas and load. Before developing the controller, the effect of the mix ratio on generation efficiency and NOx emission was investigated under various load conditions. The following summarizes the experimental results: a control algorithm using the Wobbe index for mixed fuels was formulated; this index determines the target fuel-to-air ratio. Next, operation tests were performed under varying fuel mix ratios and loads by applying the control algorithm to the gas engine. The target engine rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration was realized in 5 s when the biogas fraction varied from 20% to 40% and from 70% to 40%. When the load was also varied from 9.4 kW to 0.5 kW and from 0.5 kW to 9.4 kW at a constant rate, the rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration achieved the target values in 20 s. Under both transient operation conditions, the engine system met the NOx emission requirement, and the results indicate that the simple hardware modification to a conventional gas engine and our original control

  14. Energy Center Structure Optimization by using Smart Technologies in Process Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilkina, Svetlana V.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with practical application of fuzzy logic methods in process control systems. A control object - agroindustrial greenhouse complex, which includes its own energy center - is considered. The paper analyzes object power supply options taking into account connection to external power grids and/or installation of own power generating equipment with various layouts. The main problem of a greenhouse facility basic process is extremely uneven power consumption, which forces to purchase redundant generating equipment idling most of the time, which quite negatively affects project profitability. Energy center structure optimization is largely based on solving the object process control system construction issue. To cut investor’s costs it was proposed to optimize power consumption by building an energy-saving production control system based on a fuzzy logic controller. The developed algorithm of automated process control system functioning ensured more even electric and thermal energy consumption, allowed to propose construction of the object energy center with a smaller number of units due to their more even utilization. As a result, it is shown how practical use of microclimate parameters fuzzy control system during object functioning leads to optimization of agroindustrial complex energy facility structure, which contributes to a significant reduction in object construction and operation costs.

  15. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  17. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  18. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  19. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  20. Adaptation of center of mass control under microgravity in a whole-body lifting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Toussaint, H.M.; Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human balance in stance is usually defined as the preservation of the vertical projection of the center of mass (COM) on the support area formed by the feet. Under microgravity conditions, the control of equilibrium seems to be no longer required. However, several reports indicate preservation of

  1. 77 FR 31018 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Violence or Sexual Violence Perpetration (R01), FOA CE12-003. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the..., discussion of competitive applications following initial review of applications received in response to FOA...

  2. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control/Comparison Groups for Trials of Non... Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission of exploring... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-5767...

  3. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  4. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  5. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations

  6. The psychology of computer displays in the modern mission control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Work at NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) has demonstrated the need for increased consideration of psychological factors in the design of computer displays for the WATR mission control center. These factors include color perception, memory load, and cognitive processing abilities. A review of relevant work in the human factors psychology area is provided to demonstrate the need for this awareness. The information provided should be relevant in control room settings where computerized displays are being used.

  7. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. System development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company, interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Yudow, B.D.; Sala, D.L.; Donakowski, T.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1979-08-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems are energy systems for communities that provide heating, cooling, and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer a significant potential for energy savings. Results of the System Development Phase of the HP-ICES Project are given. The heat-actuated (gas) heat-pump incorporated into this HP-ICES concept is under current development and demonstration. The concurrent program was redirected in September 1977 toward large-tonnage applications; it is currently focusing on 60- to 400-ton built-up systems for multi-zone applications. This study evaluates the performance of a HAHP-ICES as applied to a community of residential and commercial buildings. To permit a general assessment of the concept in non-site-specific terms, the sensitivity of the system's performance and economics to climate, community size, utility rate structures, and economic assumptions is explored. (MCW)

  8. Mantle Noble Gas Contents Controlled by Subduction of Serpentinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material1, well gases2, MORB, and OIBs3 indicate that noble gases are being recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. However, the path taken by these noble gases is unclear. To estimate the distribution and quantity of Ar, Kr, and Xe in subducting slabs, a model consisting of layers of sediments, altered oceanic crust (AOC), and serpentinite (hydrously altered mantle) has been developed. The noble gas contents of sediments and AOC were calculated using the least air-like and most gas-rich analyses from natural systems4,5, while serpentinite was modelled using both data from natural systems1 and experimentally determined solubilities. Layer thicknesses were assessed over a range of values: 1 to 12 km of sediments, 5 to 9 km of AOC, and 1 to 30 km of serpentinite. In all cases, the serpentinite layer contains at least an order of magnitude more Ar and Kr than the other layers. For realistic layer thicknesses (1 km of sediments, 6 km of AOC, and 3 km of serpentinite), Xe is distributed roughly equally between the three layers. By incorporating global subduction rates6, fluxes of the heavy noble gases into the mantle have been calculated as 4 · 1012 mol/Ma for 36Ar, 6 · 1011 mol/Ma for 84Kr, and 8 · 109 mol/Ma for 130Xe. These fluxes are equivalent to the total 84Kr and 130Xe contents of the depleted and bulk mantle over 1 and 10 Ma7. Similarly, the flux of 36Ar is equivalent over 1 and 100 Ma. Since the Kr and Xe have not been completely overprinted by recycling, the large majority of subducted noble gases must escape in the subduction zone. However, even the small amounts that are subducted deeper have affected the mantle as measured in both MORB and OIBs. 1. Kendrick, M.A. et al., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G. and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Parai, R. and Mukhopadhyay, S., G3, 16, 719-735, 2015 4. Matsuda, J. and Nagao, K., Geochemical Journal, 20, 71-80, 1986

  9. Methane oxidation over noble metal catalysts as related to controlling natural gas vehicle exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Mitchell, P.J.; Siewert, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. This paper reports on methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, which has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd/Al 2 O 3 > Rh/Al 2 O 3 > Pt/Al 2 O 3 . Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O 2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry

  10. Gas Selectivity Control in Co3O4 Sensor via Concurrent Tuning of Gas Reforming and Gas Filtering using Nanoscale Hetero-Overlayer of Catalytic Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Jeong, Seong-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Bo-Young; Kim, Jun-Sik; Abdel-Hady, Faissal; Wazzan, Abdulaziz A; Al-Turaif, Hamad Ali; Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2017-11-29

    Co 3 O 4 sensors with a nanoscale TiO 2 or SnO 2 catalytic overlayer were prepared by screen-printing of Co 3 O 4 yolk-shell spheres and subsequent e-beam evaporation of TiO 2 and SnO 2 . The Co 3 O 4 sensors with 5 nm thick TiO 2 and SnO 2 overlayers showed high responses (resistance ratios) to 5 ppm xylene (14.5 and 28.8) and toluene (11.7 and 16.2) at 250 °C with negligible responses to interference gases such as ethanol, HCHO, CO, and benzene. In contrast, the pure Co 3 O 4 sensor did not show remarkable selectivity toward any specific gas. The response and selectivity to methylbenzenes and ethanol could be systematically controlled by selecting the catalytic overlayer material, varying the overlayer thickness, and tuning the sensing temperature. The significant enhancement of the selectivity for xylene and toluene was attributed to the reforming of less reactive methylbenzenes into more reactive and smaller species and oxidative filtering of other interference gases, including ubiquitous ethanol. The concurrent control of the gas reforming and oxidative filtering processes using a nanoscale overlayer of catalytic oxides provides a new, general, and powerful tool for designing highly selective and sensitive oxide semiconductor gas sensors.

  11. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  12. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  13. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG effect of tropospheric ozone (O3 is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE, which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and tropospheric O3column. The zonally averaged subtropical LWRE is ~0.2 W m-2higher than the zonally averaged tropical LWRE, generally due to lower water vapor concentrations and less cloud coverage at the downward branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics. The largest values of O3LWRE over the Middle East (>1 W/m2 are further due to large thermal contrasts and tropospheric ozone enhancements from atmospheric circulation and pollution. Conversely, the low O3LWRE over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (on average 0.4 W m-2 is due to strong water vapor absorption and cloudiness, both of which reduce the tropospheric O3absorption in the longwave radiation. These results show that changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change could affect the magnitude and distribution of ozone radiative forcing.

  14. Intelligent system for control and automation of natural gas distribution operation; Sistema inteligente de controle e automacao da operacao de distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scucuglia, Jose W.; Souza, Celso C. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Patricio, Cristian M.M.M.; Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Cortez, Marco A.A.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Rosa, Willian A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present work has as objective to present the development of a dedicated intelligent system to the operation of natural gas distribution. The system adds tools of project, simulation, supervision and control of the flow of natural gas in networks distribution, and is composed of hardware and intelligent software. The developed software possess friendly graphical interface, so that the operator composing visually the distribution network automatically, composes a mathematical model formed by a set of differential equations, being solved by the Newton-Raphson method. This tool of simulation allows, in function of network topology, to get through simulation the conditions gas flow in each point of the loop flow. The micro controlled hardware for acquisition of the data in real time and control of valves was developed. The hardware possesses flexible communication (Radio Frequency, Ethernet and Optical Fiber), intelligence for decision taking and auto test of its proper functioning, so that guarantee security in the operations. An implanted neural system in software propitiates the control monitoring of the characteristics operation and conditions of leak with loss of load, identifying inclusive the place of this leak along of the duct. A system with national technology was gotten, of low cost and high added technological value. (author)

  15. Effects of voluntary and automatic control of center of pressure sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Kozo; Okada, Yohei; Nakano, Hideki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of voluntary and automatic control on the spatial variables (envelope area, maximal amplitude, and root mean square [RMS]) of center of pressure (COP) displacement during quiet standing and identified differences in their postural control strategies (mean velocity [MV], mean power frequency [MPF], and power density). COP data were recorded under relaxed (experimental control), still (voluntary control), and dual (automatic control) conditions. RMS was significantly lower in the still and dual conditions than in the relaxed condition. MV, MPF, and power density were significantly higher in the still condition than in the dual condition. These results indicate that both voluntary and automatic control decrease the spatial variables of COP displacement; however, their postural control strategies are different.

  16. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  17. Prediction and control of rock burst of coal seam contacting gas in deep mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En-yuan Wang; Xiao-fei Liu; En-lai Zhao; Zhen-tang Liu [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-06-15

    By analyzing the characteristics and the production mechanism of rock burst that goes with abnormal gas emission in deep coal seams, the essential method of eliminating abnormal gas emission by eliminating the occurrence of rock burst or depressing the magnitude of rock burst was considered. The No.237 working face in Nanshan coal mine was selected as the typical working face contacting gas in deep mining; aimed at this working face, a system of rock burst prediction and control for coal seam contacting gas in deep mining was established using the three-dimensional distinct element code software 3DEC. This system includes three parts: (1) regional prediction of rock burst hazard before mining; (2) local prediction of rock burst hazard during mining; and (3) rock burts control by an electromagnetic radiation method and specific drilling method. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fuel and control modifications to fire oil and gas individually or simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Chenes, C.D.; Connolly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Jacksonville Electric Authority's (JEA's) Northside station Unit 1 (NS-1) is now modified to fire natural gas as well as the original No. 6 fuel oil. Hardware and control modifications accommodate oil, gas. or simultaneous oil and gas firing in the boiler. Working with Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, this flexibility derives from control modifications not previously used in North American power plants. This paper reports that the modifications not only reduce fuel costs, but also increase flexibility in meeting air emissions requirements. Emission levels for particulate and nitrous oxides (NO x ) on oil were demonstrated prior to the modification. No emission increases are allowed as a result of the modification in any firing mode. Particulate emission limits in pounds per million British thermal units (lb/mmBtu) are 0.1/mm Btu and NO x limits are 0.45 lb/mmBtu. No x emissions from gas firing are also stipulated to be below oil emission limits

  19. Advancing Knowledge on Fugitive Natural Gas from Energy Resource Development at a Controlled Release Field Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, A. G.; Chao, J.; Forde, O.; Prystupa, E.; Mayer, K. U.; Black, T. A.; Tannant, D. D.; Crowe, S.; Hallam, S.; Mayer, B.; Lauer, R. M.; van Geloven, C.; Welch, L. A.; Salas, C.; Levson, V.; Risk, D. A.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fugitive gas, comprised primarily of methane, can be unintentionally released from upstream oil and gas development either at surface from leaky infrastructure or in the subsurface through failure of energy well bore integrity. For the latter, defective cement seals around energy well casings may permit buoyant flow of natural gas from the deeper subsurface towards shallow aquifers, the ground surface and potentially into the atmosphere. Concerns associated with fugitive gas release at surface and in the subsurface include contributions to greenhouse gas emissions, subsurface migration leading to accumulation in nearby infrastructure and impacts to groundwater quality. Current knowledge of the extent of fugitive gas leakage including how to best detect and monitor over time, and particularly its migration and fate in the subsurface, is incomplete. We have established an experimental field observatory for evaluating fugitive gas leakage in an area of historic and ongoing hydrocarbon resource development within the Montney Resource Play of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Natural gas will be intentionally released at surface and up to 25 m below surface at various rates and durations. Resulting migration patterns and impacts will be evaluated through examination of the geology, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, hydro-geophysics, vadose zone and soil gas processes, microbiology, and atmospheric conditions. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles and remote sensors for monitoring and detection of methane will also be assessed for suitability as environmental monitoring tools. Here we outline the experimental design and describe initial research conducted to develop a detailed site conceptual model of the field observatory. Subsequently, results attained from pilot surface and sub-surface controlled natural gas releases conducted in late summer 2017 will be presented as well as results of numerical modelling conducted

  20. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results: Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion: PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases.   How to cite this article: Khan NU, Mir MU, Khan UR, Khan AR, Ara J, Raja K, et al. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:31-5.

  1. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with Mark III type containments and all pressurized water reactors with ice condenser containments must... condenser containments that do not rely upon an inerted atmosphere inside containment to control combustible... containment atmosphere following a significant beyond design-basis accident for combustible gas control and...

  2. Expert methods in control systems of deep oil and gas holes building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sementsov, G.; Fadeeva, I.; Chigur, I. [State Technical Univ. of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Attempts to provide self-control of process of long holing on oil and gas have not given due effect owing to complication of object, it fuzzy and equivocation of the information. In this connection it is offered to use for management of drilling expert systems, which one use fuzzy models and methods of the theory of fuzzy control systems. (orig.)

  3. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  4. Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D

    2008-11-20

    Earth's climate and the concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) varied strongly on millennial timescales during past glacial periods. Large and rapid warming events in Greenland and the North Atlantic were followed by more gradual cooling, and are highly correlated with fluctuations of N(2)O as recorded in ice cores. Antarctic temperature variations, on the other hand, were smaller and more gradual, showed warming during the Greenland cold phase and cooling while the North Atlantic was warm, and were highly correlated with fluctuations in CO(2). Abrupt changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have often been invoked to explain the physical characteristics of these Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations, but the mechanisms for the greenhouse-gas variations and their linkage to the AMOC have remained unclear. Here we present simulations with a coupled model of glacial climate and biogeochemical cycles, forced only with changes in the AMOC. The model simultaneously reproduces characteristic features of the Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature, as well as CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations. Despite significant changes in the land carbon inventory, CO(2) variations on millennial timescales are dominated by slow changes in the deep ocean inventory of biologically sequestered carbon and are correlated with Antarctic temperature and Southern Ocean stratification. In contrast, N(2)O co-varies more rapidly with Greenland temperatures owing to fast adjustments of the thermocline oxygen budget. These results suggest that ocean circulation changes were the primary mechanism that drove glacial CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations on millennial timescales.

  5. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi

    2013-01-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  7. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. JOYO coolant sodium and cover gas purity control database (MK-II core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2000-03-01

    The experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' served as the MK-II irradiation bed core for testing fuel and material for FBR development for 15 years from 1982 to 1997. During the MK-II operation, impurities concentrations in the sodium and the argon gas were determined by 67 samples of primary sodium, 81 samples of secondary sodium, 75 samples of primary argon gas, 89 samples of secondary argon gas (the overflow tank) and 89 samples of secondary argon gas (the dump tank). The sodium and the argon gas purity control data were accumulated from in thirty-one duty operations, thirteen special test operations and eight annual inspections. These purity control results and related plant data were compiled into database, which were recorded on CD-ROM for user convenience. Purity control data include concentration of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, iron, nickel and chromium in sodium, concentration of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and helium in argon gas with the reactor condition. (author)

  9. Direct numerical control of machine tools in a nuclear research center by the CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwoll, K.; Mueller, K.D.; Becks, B.; Erven, W.; Sauer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The production of mechanical parts in research centers can be improved by connecting several numerically controlled machine tools to a central process computer via a data link. The CAMAC Serial Highway with its expandable structure yields an economic and flexible system for this purpose. The CAMAC System also facilitates the development of modular components controlling the machine tools itself. A CAMAC installation controlling three different machine tools connected to a central computer (PDP11) via the CAMAC Serial Highway is described. Besides this application, part of the CAMAC hardware and software can also be used for a great variety of scientific experiments

  10. ELEMENT DESIGN FOR AN INKJET SYSTEM OF HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Il'ina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel.

  11. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rêgo, A.T.; Hanriot, S.M.; Oliveira, A.F.; Brito, P.; Rêgo, T.F.U.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  12. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambale Giorgio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT. Results Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. Conclusion The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings.

  13. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynami...... principles followed by parameter identication and compares the results of these approaches. The paper performs a validation against experimental data from a test engine and presents a linearised model for EGR control design....

  14. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  15. Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in a Control Center Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Joseph; Calvelage, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The technology of transmitting voice over data networks has been available for over 10 years. Mass market VoIP services for consumers to make and receive standard telephone calls over broadband Internet networks have grown in the last 5 years. While operational costs are less with VoIP implementations as opposed to time division multiplexing (TDM) based voice switches, is it still advantageous to convert a mission control center s voice system to this newer technology? Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has converted its mission voice services to a commercial product that utilizes VoIP technology. Results from this testing, design, and installation have shown unique considerations that must be addressed before user operations. There are many factors to consider for a control center voice design. Technology advantages and disadvantages were investigated as they refer to cost. There were integration concerns which could lead to complex failure scenarios but simpler integration for the mission infrastructure. MSFC HOSC will benefit from this voice conversion with less product replacement cost, less operations cost and a more integrated mission services environment.

  16. Confining dyon gas with finite-volume effects under control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckmann, Falk [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Dinter, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, VBLHEP, Dubna (Russian Federation); Maier, Benjamin; Mueller-Preussker, Michael [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Wagner, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-11-15

    As an approach to describe the long-range properties of non-Abelian gauge theories at non-zero temperature Tcontrol, which is a crucial requirement for numerical studies of interacting dyon ensembles. (orig.)

  17. Confining dyon gas with finite-volume effects under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Maier, Benjamin; Mueller-Preussker, Michael; Wagner, Marc; Frankfurt Univ.

    2011-11-01

    As an approach to describe the long-range properties of non-Abelian gauge theories at non-zero temperature T c , we consider a non-interacting ensemble of dyons (magnetic monopoles) with non-trivial holonomy. We show analytically, that the quark-antiquark free energy from the Polyakov loop correlator grows linearly with the distance, and how the string tension scales with the dyon density. In numerical treatments, the long-range tails of the dyon fields cause severe finite-volume effects. Therefore, we demonstrate the application of Ewald's summation method to this system. Finite-volume effects are shown to be under control, which is a crucial requirement for numerical studies of interacting dyon ensembles. (orig.)

  18. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  19. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  20. Free-Piston Stirling Convertor Controller Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor - the Stirling cycle engine, linear alternator, controller, and load. This paper is concerned with controllers. It discusses three controllers that have been studied using this model. Case motion has been added to the model recently so that effects of differences between convertor components can be simulated and ameliorative control engineering techniques can be developed. One concern when applying a system comprised of interconnected mass-spring-damper components is to prevent operation in any but the intended mode. The design mode is the only desired mode of operation, but all other modes are considered in controller design.

  1. ONAV - An Expert System for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1992-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real-time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently, Oct. 1991, the entry and ascent systems have been certified for use on console as support tools, and were used for STS-48. The rendezvous system is in verification with the goal to have the system certified for STS-49, Intelsat retrieval. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real-world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only Al issues but operating environment issues. The Al issues included the maturity of Al languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  2. Controlled coupling of NV defect centers to plasmonic and photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Michael, E-mail: michael.barth@physik.hu-berlin.d [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Schietinger, Stefan; Schroeder, Tim; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond have recently emerged as promising candidates for a number of applications in the fields of quantum optics and quantum information, such as single photon generation and spin qubit operations. The performance of these defect centers can strongly be enhanced through coupling to plasmonic and photonic nanostructures, such as metal particles and optical microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the controlled assembly of such hybrid structures via manipulation with scanning near-field probes. In particular, we investigate the plasmonic enhancement of the single photon emission through coupling to gold nanospheres as well as the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the optical modes of microsphere resonators and photonic crystal cavities. These systems represent prototypes of fundamental nanophotonic/plasmonic elements and provide control on the generation and coherent transfer of photons on the level of a single quantum emitter.

  3. The Corrosion control in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline; O controle da corrosao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the techniques and procedures adopted for the corrosion control of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. In buried pipes, the corrosion process may occur on the external surface in contact with the surrounding soil as well on the internal surface in contact with the conveyed fluid, being necessary the simultaneous mitigation of the both processes. (author)

  4. [Using the subcutaneous approach for symptoms control in a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual López, L; Portaceli Armiñana, A; Ros Sáez, A

    2001-01-01

    To describe the use of the subcutaneous tract for symptoms control in patients those are in phase of palliative treatment of their illness. Observational study. Primary care. Patients seen in a health center, in phase of palliative treatment of their illness, that needed for symptoms control the subcutaneous administration of drugs. Most of the patients were in terminal phase (19), the fundamental cause (17 cases) that justified the use of the subcutaneous tract was the difficulty to take drugs by oral tract in the last days of life, attention on death throes. The infusion continuous through injector type travenol, at an infusion speed of 2 ml/h, it was the most common way of drug administration (19 patients). The drugs and initial average dose most used were: morphine 19 patients dose 100 mg/24 h, hyoscine butylbromide (Buscapina), 13 patients, 60 mg/24 h, haloperidol 12 patients, 4 mg/24 h. The patients death was the main cause that justified the retirement of the continuous infusion (17 people sick), happening in its own home. Symptoms control was good or very good in the most of patients (14). The experience on using the subcutaneous tract for symptoms control in our health center is positive, being the fundamental cause for its use symptoms control in the last days of the patients life. The continuous subcutaneous infusion should be used in primary attention, as an usual technique for the symptoms control in patients that are in phase of palliative treatment of their illness.

  5. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Radiation Hazard Scale Data Product Review Feedback Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    In support of the Department of Energy (DOE) National nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assisted in the development of new data templates for disseminating and communicating FRMAC1 data products using the CDC Radiation Hazard Scale communication tool. To ensure these data products will be useful to stakeholders during a radiological emergency, LLNL facilitated opportunities for product socialization and review.

  7. Person-centered care planning and service engagement: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Tondora, Janis; Davidson, Larry; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-04-22

    Service disengagement is a pervasive challenge the mental health care system faces. Mental health services are of little value should persons with mental illnesses continue to opt out of receiving them. Consumers attribute disengagement from care to an absence of choice in their treatment. In response, the mental health system is adopting a person-centered model, based upon recovery principles, to engage consumers more actively in their care. Person-centered care planning is a promising practice involving collaboration to develop and implement an actionable plan to assist the person in achieving personal recovery goals. This study design combines a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of community mental health organizations with qualitative methods to assess the effectiveness of person-centered care planning. Participants at 14 sites in Delaware and Connecticut will be randomized to treatment as usual or the person-centered care planning intervention. Participants will be in leadership (n = 70) or supervisory or direct care (n = 210) roles. The person-centered care planning intervention involves intensive staff training and 12 months of ongoing technical assistance. Quantitative survey data will be collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months measuring person-centered care planning competency and organizational factors. Consumer outcomes (engagement, medication adherence, functioning and consumer satisfaction) will be assessed by Medicaid and state-level data. Qualitative data focused on process factors will include staff and consumer interviews and focus groups. In this intent-to-treat analysis, we will use mixed-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate the differential impact of the person-centered care planning intervention on each consumer and implementation outcome as well as the extent to which clinician assessments of organizational factors are associated with the implementation outcome. Mixed methods will triangulate and strengthen the

  8. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  9. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    content), or when the thermal stresses on the working fluid should be minimized. Additionally, the controller is demonstrated to improve the dynamic flexibility of the plant compared to the reference controller designed by the gas turbine manufacturer.The model predictive control can reduce the frequency......This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... technology, ii) the identification of the best working fluid to design ecient, light and cost-competitive waste heat recovery units, iii) the integration of dynamic criteria in the project phase to discard infeasible designs, iv) the development of a novel control strategy to optimally operate the power...

  10. Controlled beta-quenching of fuel channels using inert gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeckel, Andreas; Cremer, Ingo; Kratzer, Anton; Walter, Dirk [AREVA NP (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The trend towards higher fuel assembly discharge burnups poses new challenges for fuel channels in terms of their dimensional behavior and corrosion resistance. This led AREVA NP to develop a new technique for beta quenching of fuel channels that combines the effect of beta-quenching with the optimization of the microstructure. The first set of fuel channels with these optimized material properties have been placed in the core of a German boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant in spring of 2004. Some more channels have been sited in the core of a Scandinavian BWR in fall of 2007 to broaden the in-pile experience with these channels. Dimensional stability is the major requirement that is applied to fuel channels. High corrosion resistance and low hydrogen pickup are certainly required as well. However, corrosion and hydrogen pickup are usually not life limiting factors due to the large wall thickness of the material. Since thick layers of oxide may spall off extensively at high burnup and cause increase of the dose rate for the personnel, high corrosion resistance of fuel channels is mandatory. The fuel channels which surround BWR fuel assemblies are exposed to neutron irradiation as well as to loads induced by the reactor coolant flowing through them. These service conditions induce material growth and creep which cause permanent changes in the dimensions of the channels. Especially, fuel channel bow is of certain interest as increased channel bow may lead to some friction with control blades. Fuel channel bow is mainly induced by fluence gradients. However, there may be additional influences such as oxidation and hydrogen uptake to cause increased channel bow. The effect of hydrogen is currently discussed in the nuclear community to explain the unexpected high fuel channel bow that has been observed in some nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  11. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  12. Problems of gas control and fueling in the Tara tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Horne, S.; Brau, K.; Casey, J.; Golovato, S.; Sevillano, E.; Shuy, G.; Smith, D.K.

    1986-10-01

    Control of the edge neutral pressure is critical for successful thermal barrier operation of tandem mirrors. High neutral pressures lead to substantial charge exchange losses of plasma ions as well as creating a population of cold ions and electrons which may be electrostatically trapped in the negative and positive confining potentials in the end cells. The primary sources of neutral gas in Tara are central cell and transition gas injection, and neutral beam injection in the plugs. In the central cell, the region of ionization is separated from the mirror-trapped hot ion region. Gettering in the region of hot ions, controls reflux and reduces the central cell gas contribution to the plug. During end plugging, the plasma stream from the central cell which is used to fuel the minimum B anchor cells is cut off, so that gas fueling must be supplied in the transition region. The beamlines and dumps use LN/Ti pumps, baffling and bakeable dumps and scrapers to limit gas penetration to the plug plasma. Gettering of the plug wall and geometric considerations are used to control reflux from charge exchange. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to analyze the plug and central cell reflux. A new central cell configuration employing a midplane magnetic divertor is now being evaluated. The halo plasma produced in the diverted magnetic flux will be used to improve shielding of the core plasma from charge exchange

  13. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Control and monitoring systems for electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Licki, J.; Mazurekc, J.; Nelskic, L.; Sobolewskic, L.

    2011-01-01

    The reliable and accurate measurements of gas parameters in essential points of industrial plant are necessary for its proper operation and control. Natural flue gases there are only at the inlet. At other points of plant gas parameters are strongly modified by process control system. The principal role of process monitoring system is to provide the Computer System for Monitoring and Control with continuous recording of process parameters. The main goal of control system is to obtain the optimal SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies by control of amount of spray water at the spray cooler, amount of NH 3 injection to flue gas and adjustment of electron beam current. The structure of the process control system is based on algorithms describing functional dependence of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies. The best available techniques should be applied for measurements of flue gases parameters at essential points of installation and for digital control system to assist plant operators in the analysis and optimization of plant operation, including integrated emission control. (author)

  15. Control and monitoring systems for electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Mazurekc, J.; Nelskic, L.; Sobolewskic, L. [Dolna Odra Group, Pomorzany Power Plant, Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The reliable and accurate measurements of gas parameters in essential points of industrial plant are necessary for its proper operation and control. Natural flue gases there are only at the inlet. At other points of plant gas parameters are strongly modified by process control system. The principal role of process monitoring system is to provide the Computer System for Monitoring and Control with continuous recording of process parameters. The main goal of control system is to obtain the optimal SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies by control of amount of spray water at the spray cooler, amount of NH{sub 3} injection to flue gas and adjustment of electron beam current. The structure of the process control system is based on algorithms describing functional dependence of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies. The best available techniques should be applied for measurements of flue gases parameters at essential points of installation and for digital control system to assist plant operators in the analysis and optimization of plant operation, including integrated emission control. (author)

  16. 75 FR 4830 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES..., CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs...

  17. 76 FR 57744 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2011, Volume 76, Number 174...

  18. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter..., that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K52, Atlanta...

  19. Doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in equine urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, April S Y; Leung, Gary N W; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    Anabolic steroids are banned substances in equine sports. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been the traditional technique for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in biological samples. Although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become an important technique in doping control, the detection of saturated hydroxysteroids by LC-MS remains a problem due to their low ionization efficiency under electrospray. The recent development in fast-scanning gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has provided a better alternative with a significant reduction in chemical noise by means of selective reaction monitoring. Herein, we present a sensitive and selective method for the screening of over 50 anabolic steroids in equine urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. NOx emission control for gas turbines: A 1991 update on regulations and technology (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The technologies that are available for the control of NO x emissions from gas turbines utilize the factors that impact the formation of NO x described in the previous section and include (1) diluent injection (i.e., water or steam) into the combustion zone, which is a front-end control technology that lowers the combustor flame temperature, (2) selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which is a back-end exhaust gas cleanup system, (3) dry low NO x combustors (DLN), which use staged combustion and very lean fuel-air mixtures (they are currently being introduced), and (4) catalytic combustion systems that hold the promise of achieving extremely low emission levels without resorting to exhaust gas cleanup. This last option is being developed to burn very lean fuel-air mixtures, but will require significant technological breakthroughs; it is still several years away from becoming commercially available

  1. Mathematical model for adaptive control system of ASEA robot at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Omar

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic properties and the mathematical model for the adaptive control of the robotic system presently under investigation at Robotic Application and Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center are discussed. NASA is currently investigating the use of robotic manipulators for mating and demating of fuel lines to the Space Shuttle Vehicle prior to launch. The Robotic system used as a testbed for this purpose is an ASEA IRB-90 industrial robot with adaptive control capabilities. The system was tested and it's performance with respect to stability was improved by using an analogue force controller. The objective of this research project is to determine the mathematical model of the system operating under force feedback control with varying dynamic internal perturbation in order to provide continuous stable operation under variable load conditions. A series of lumped parameter models are developed. The models include some effects of robot structural dynamics, sensor compliance, and workpiece dynamics.

  2. Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A [Dept. of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, Coll. of Medicine, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

  3. Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

  4. Numerical analysis of thermal environment control in high density data center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Joong; Cha, Dong An [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Increasing heat generation in CPUs can hamper effective recirculation and by pass because of the large temperature difference between the exhaust and the intake air through a server room. This increases the overall temperature inside a data center and decreases the efficiency of the data center's cooling system. The purpose of the data center's cooling system is to separate the intake and exhaust air by controlling the computer room air conditioner(CRAC). In this study, ICEPAK is used to conduct a numerical analysis of a data center's cooling system. The temperature distribution and the entire room are analyzed for different volumetric flow rates. The optimized volumetric flow rate is found for each CPU power. The heat removal and temperature distribution for CPU powers of 100, 120, and 140W are found to be the best for a volumetric flow rate of 0.15m'3'/s. The numerical analysis is verified through RTI indicators, and the results appear to be the most reliable when the RTI value is 81.

  5. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  6. FY1995 molecular control technology for mining of methane-gas-hydrate; 1995 nendo methane hydrate no bunshi seigyo mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the investigation are as follows: 1) developing a method to control formation/dissociation of methane-gas-hydrate, 2) developing a technology to displace methane gas by CO{sub 2} in methane-gas-hydrate deposit, 3) developing a technology to produce methane gas from the deposit efficiently. The final purpose of the project is to create new mining industry that solves both the problems of energy and global environment. 1) Clustering of water molecules is found to play the key role in the methane gas hydrate formation. 2) Equilibrium properties and kinetics of gas hydrates formation and dissociation in bulk-scale gas-hydrate are clarified in the practical environmental conditions. 3) Particle size of hydrate deposit influences the formation and dissociation of bulk-scale gas-hydrate crystal. 4) Mass transfer between gas and liquid phase in turbulent bubbly flow is a function of bubble diameter. The mass transfer depends on interfacial dynamics. (NEDO)

  7. A MODIS-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (South of Italy) thermal emission: an independent gas flaring estimation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Nicola; Faruolo, Mariapia; Irina, Coviello; Carolina, Filizzola; Teodosio, Lacava; Valerio, Tramutoli

    2014-05-01

    Different kinds of atmospheric pollution affect human health and the environment at local and global scale. The petroleum industry represents one of the most important environmental pollution sources, accounting for about 18% of well-to-wheels greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main pollution source is represented by the flaring of gas, one of the most challenging energy and environmental problems facing the world today. The World Bank has estimated that 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas are being flared annually, that is equivalent to 30% of the European Union's gas consumption. Since 2002, satellite-based methodologies have shown their capability in providing independent and reliable estimation of gas flaring emissions, at both national and global scale. In this paper, for the first time, the potential of satellite data in estimating gas flaring volumes emitted from a single on-shore crude oil pre-treatment plant, i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), located in the Basilicata Region (South of Italy), was assessed. Specifically, thirteen years of night-time Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired in the medium and thermal infrared (MIR and TIR, respectively) bands were processed. The Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach was implemented for identifying anomalous values of the signals under investigation (i.e. the MIR-TIR difference one), associated to the COVA flares emergency discharges. Then, the Fire Radiative Power (FRP), computed for the thermal anomalies previously identified, was correlated to the emitted gas flaring volumes, available for the COVA in the period 2003 - 2009, defining a satellite based regression model for estimating COVA gas flaring emitted volumes. The used strategy and the preliminary results of this analysis will be described in detail in this work.

  8. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  9. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.

    2017-01-10

    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears. In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include a valve formed from one or more pins movable between open and closed positions in which the one pin at least partially bisects the bypass channel to regulate flow.

  10. Automated information and control complex of hydro-gas endogenous mine processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davkaev, K. S.; Lyakhovets, M. V.; Gulevich, T. M.; Zolin, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    The automated information and control complex designed to prevent accidents, related to aerological situation in the underground workings, accounting of the received and handed over individual devices, transmission and display of measurement data, and the formation of preemptive solutions is considered. Examples for the automated workplace of an airgas control operator by individual means are given. The statistical characteristics of field data characterizing the aerological situation in the mine are obtained. The conducted studies of statistical characteristics confirm the feasibility of creating a subsystem of controlled gas distribution with an adaptive arrangement of points for gas control. The adaptive (multivariant) algorithm for processing measuring information of continuous multidimensional quantities and influencing factors has been developed.

  11. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.

    2017-03-14

    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include an annular ring having at least one metering orifice extending therethrough, whereby alignment of the metering orifice with the outlet may be adjustable to change a cross-sectional area of an opening of aligned portions of the outlet and the metering orifice.

  12. Effect of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in steam turbine condenser and modelling of ejector pump system by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Golob, Marjan; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Control of the amount of the pumped gases through extraction tubes. The connecting locations interconnect the extraction tubes for STC gas pumping. The extraction tubes are fitted with 3 control valves to control the amount of the pumped gas depending on the temperature of the pumped gas. The amount of the pumped gas increases through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are cooler and decreases, at the same time, through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are warmer. As a result, pumping of a larger amount of NCG is ensured and of a smaller amount of CG, given that the NCG concentration is the highest on the colder places. This way, the total amount of the pumped gases from the STC can be reduced, the SEPS operates more efficiently and consumes less energy for its operation. - Highlights: • Impact of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser. • The ejector system is optimised by selecting a Laval nozzle diameter. • Simulation model of the control of the amount of pumped gases through extraction tubes. • Neural network and fuzzy logic systems used to control gas extraction rate. • Simulation model was designed by using real process data from the thermal power plant. - Abstract: The paper describes the impact of non-condensable gas (NCG) on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser (STC) and modelling of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS) by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes. The ideal connection points for the NCG extraction from the STC are identified by analysing the impact of the NCG on the heat transfer and measuring the existing system at a thermal power plant in Slovenia. A simulation model is designed using the Matlab software and Simulink, Neural Net Work, Fuzzy Logic and Curve Fitting Toolboxes, to control gas extraction rate through extraction tubes of the gas pumped from the STC, thus optimising the operation of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS). The

  13. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  14. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  15. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  16. Ayahuasca Exposure: Descriptive Analysis of Calls to US Poison Control Centers from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, C William; Brooks, Daniel E

    2017-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity. Psychotria viridis contains the 5HT2A/2C/1A receptor agonist hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Usual desired effects include hallucination, dissociation, mood alteration and perception change. Undesired findings previously reported are nausea, vomiting, hypertension, and tachycardia. All human exposure calls reported to the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS) between September 1, 2005 and September 1, 2015 were reviewed. Cases were filtered for specific plant derived ayahuasca-related product codes. Abstracted data included the following: case age and gender, exposure reason, exposure route, clinical manifestations, treatments given, medical outcomes and fatality. Five hundred and thirty-eight exposures to ayahuasca botanical products were reported. The majority of the calls to poison control centers came from healthcare facilities (83%). The most common route of exposure was ingestion. Most cases were men (437, 81%, 95% CI 77.7% - 84.3%). The median age was 21 (IQR 18-29). Most exposures were acute. Three hundred thirty-seven (63%) were reported to have a major or moderate clinical effect. The most common clinical manifestations reported were hallucinations (35%), tachycardia (34%), agitation (34%), hypertension (16%), mydriasis (13%) and vomiting (6%). Benzodiazepines were commonly given (30%). There were 28 cases in the series who required endotracheal intubation (5

  17. An application of gain-scheduled control using state-space interpolation to hydroactive gas bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Camino, Juan F.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    with a gain-scheduling strategy using state-space interpolation, which avoids both the performance loss and the increase of controller order associated to the Youla parametrisation. The proposed state-space interpolation for gain-scheduling is applied for mass imbalance rejection for a controllable gas...... bearing scheduled in two parameters. Comparisons against the Youla-based scheduling demonstrate the superiority of the state-space interpolation....

  18. Computer simulation f the genetic controller for the EB flue gas treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, Z.; Bouzyk, J.; Sowinski, M.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The use of computer genetic algorithm (GA) for driving a controller device for the industrial flue gas purification systems employing the electron beam irradiation, has been studied. As the mathematical model of the installation the properly trained artificial neural net (ANN) was used. Various cost functions and optimising strategies of the genetic code were tested. These computer simulations proved, that ANN + GA controller can be sufficiently precise and fast to be applied in real installations. (author)

  19. Controls on methane expulsion during melting of natural gas hydrate systems. Topic area 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemings, Peter [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-14

    1.1. Project Goal The project goal is to predict, given characteristic climate-induced temperature change scenarios, the conditions under which gas will be expelled from existing accumulations of gas hydrate into the shallow ocean or directly to the atmosphere. When those conditions are met, the fraction of the gas accumulation that escapes and the rate of escape shall be quantified. The predictions shall be applicable in Arctic regions and in gas hydrate systems at the up dip limit of the stability zone on continental margins. The behavior shall be explored in response to two warming scenarios: longer term change due to sea level rise (e.g. 20 thousand years) and shorter term due to atmospheric warming by anthropogenic forcing (decadal time scale). 1.2. Project Objectives During the first budget period, the objectives are to review and categorize the stability state of existing well-studied hydrate reservoirs, develop conceptual and numerical models of the melting process, and to design and conduct laboratory experiments that dissociate methane hydrate in a model sediment column by systematically controlling the temperature profile along the column. The final objective of the first budget period shall be to validate the models against the experiments. In the second budget period, the objectives are to develop a model of gas flow into sediment in which hydrate is thermodynamically stable, and conduct laboratory experiments of this process to validate the model. The developed models shall be used to quantify the rate and volume of gas that escapes from dissociating hydrate accumulations. In addition, specific scaled simulations characteristic of Arctic regions and regions near the stability limit at continental margins shall be performed. 1.3. Project Background and Rationale The central hypothesis proposed is that hydrate melting (dissociation) due to climate change generates free gas that can, under certain conditions, propagate through the gas hydrate stability

  20. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  1. Calls to Florida Poison Control Centers about mercury: Trends over 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Matthew O; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Stephan, Wendy B; Hunter, Candis M; Weisman, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to contrast trends in exposure-report calls and informational queries (a measure of public interest) about mercury to the Florida Poison Control Centers over 2003-2013. Poison-control specialists coded calls to Florida Poison Control Centers by substance of concern, caller demographics, and whether the call pertained to an exposure event or was an informational query. For the present study, call records regarding mercury were de-identified and provided along with daily total number of calls for statistical analysis. We fit Poisson models using generalized estimating equations to summarize changes across years in counts of daily calls to Florida Poison Control Centers, adjusting for month. In a second stage of analysis, we further adjusted for the total number of calls each day. We also conducted analyses stratified by age of the exposed. There was an overall decrease over 2003-2013 in the number of total calls about mercury [Ratio per year: 0.89, 95% CI: (0.88, 0.90)], and calls about mercury exposure [Ratio per year: 0.84, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.85)], but the number of informational queries about mercury increased over this time [Ratio per year: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.18)]. After adjusting for the number of calls of that type each day (e.g., call volume), the associations remained similar: a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.89) per year for total calls, 0.85 (0.83, 0.86) for exposure-related calls, and 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) for informational queries. Although, the number of exposure-related calls decreased, informational queries increased over 2003-2013. This might suggest an increased public interest in mercury health risks despite a decrease in reported exposures over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient-centered recruitment and retention for a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Jefferson, Ashlie; Cook, Ratna; Meeker, Caitlin R; Kim, Ji Hyun; Hartz, Kayla Marie; Wong, Yu-Ning; Caruso, Adele; Newman, Diane K; Morales, Knashawn H; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2018-03-27

    Recruitment and retention strategies for patient-centered outcomes research are evolving and research on the subject is limited. In this work, we present a conceptual model of patient-centered recruitment and retention, and describe the recruitment and retention activities and related challenges in a patient-centered comparative effectiveness trial. This is a multicenter, longitudinal randomized controlled trial in localized prostate cancer patients. We recruited 743 participants from three sites over 15 months period (January 2014 to March 2015), and followed them for 24 months. At site 1, of the 773 eligible participants, 551 (72%) were enrolled. At site 2, 34 participants were eligible and 23 (68%) enrolled. Of the 434 eligible participants at site 3, 169 (39%) enrolled. We observed that strategies related to the concepts of trust (e.g., physician involvement, ensuring protection of information), communication (e.g., brochures and pamphlets in physicians' offices, continued contact during regular clinic visits and calling/emailing assessment), attitude (e.g., emphasizing the altruistic value of research, positive attitude of providers and research staff), and expectations (e.g., full disclosure of study requirements and time commitment, update letters) facilitated successful patient recruitment and retention. A stakeholders' advisory board provided important input for the recruitment and retention activities. Active engagement, reminders at the offices, and personalized update letters helped retention during follow-up. Usefulness of telephone recruitment was site specific and, at one site, the time requirement for telephone recruitment was a challenge. We have presented multilevel strategies for successful recruitment and retention in a clinical trial using a patient-centered approach. Our strategies were flexible to accommodate site-level requirements. These strategies as well as the challenges can aid recruitment and retention efforts of future large

  3. Research in Korea on Gas Phase Synthesis and Control of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mansoo

    2001-01-01

    Research activity into the gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles has witnessed rapid growth on a worldwide basis, which is also reflected by Korean research efforts. Nanoparticle research is inherently a multi-disciplinary activity involving both science and engineering. In this paper, the recent studies undertaken in Korea on the gas phase synthesis and control of nanoparticles are reviewed. Studies on the synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles are first discussed with a focus on the different types of reactors used. Recent experimental and theoretical studies and newly developed methods of measuring and modeling nanoparticle growth are also reviewed

  4. Closed loop identification of a piezoelectrically controlled radial gas bearing: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2018-01-01

    Gas bearing systems have extremely small damping properties. Feedback control is thus employed to increase the damping of gas bearings. Such a feedback loop correlates the input with the measurement noise which in turn makes the assumptions for direct identification invalid. The originality...... of this article lies in the investigation of the impact of using different identification methods to identify a rotor-bearing systems’ dynamic model when a feedback loop is active. Two different identification methods are employed. The first method is open loop Prediction Error Method, while the other method...

  5. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  6. Effect of growth regulators on 'Brookfield' apple gas diffusion and metabolism under controlled atmosphere storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators on gas diffusion and on metabolism of 'Brookfield' apple, and to determine their correlation with quality characteristics of fruit stored in controlled atmosphere. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates. After eight months of storage, the effects of water (control, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, AVG + ethephon, AVG + naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, ethephon + NAA, sole NAA, 1-MCP, ethylene absorption by potassium permanganate (ABS, AVG + ABS, and of AVG + 1-MCP - applied at different rates and periods - were evaluated on: gas diffusion rate, ethylene production, respiratory rate, internal ethylene concentration, internal CO2 content, mealiness, and intercellular space. Fruit from the control and sole NAA treatments had the highest mealiness occurrence. Growth regulators significantly changed the gaseous diffusion through the pulp of 'Brookfield' apple, mainly in the treatment AVG + ABS, which kept the highest gas diffusion rate. NAA spraying in the field, with or without another growth regulator, increased ripening metabolism by rising ethylene production and respiration rate, and reduced gas diffusion during shelf life. AVG spraying cannot avoid the ethephon effect during the ripening process, and reduces both the internal space and mealiness incidence, but it is not able to induce ethylene production or to increase respiration rates.

  7. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  8. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  9. Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyushev, Petr; Metsch, Mathias H.; Ijaz, Aroosa; Binder, Jan M.; Bhaskar, Mihir K.; Sukachev, Denis D.; Sipahigil, Alp; Evans, Ruffin E.; Nguyen, Christian T.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Rogers, Lachlan J.; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-08-01

    A solid-state system combining a stable spin degree of freedom with an efficient optical interface is highly desirable as an element for integrated quantum-optical and quantum-information systems. We demonstrate a bright color center in diamond with excellent optical properties and controllable electronic spin states. Specifically, we carry out detailed optical spectroscopy of a germanium-vacancy (GeV ) color center demonstrating optical spectral stability. Using an external magnetic field to lift the electronic spin degeneracy, we explore the spin degree of freedom as a controllable qubit. Spin polarization is achieved using optical pumping, and a spin relaxation time in excess of 20 μ s is demonstrated. We report resonant microwave control of spin transitions, and use this as a probe to measure the Autler-Townes effect in a microwave-optical double-resonance experiment. Superposition spin states were prepared using coherent population trapping, and a pure dephasing time of about 19 ns was observed at a temperature of 2.0 K.

  10. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  11. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

  12. Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas, Xavier; Eriksson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-orien...

  13. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  14. Lateral Dynamics of Flexible Rotors Supported by Controllable Gas Bearings Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    Active gas bearings might represent a mechatronic answer to the growing industrial need for high performance turbomachinery. In this framework, the paper gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the improvement of lateral dynamics of rotating machines. The work aims at demonstrating...... theoretically as well as experimentally the feasibility of applying active lubrication to gas journal bearings. The operation principle is to generate active forces by regulating the radial injection of a compressible lubricant (gas) by means of piezoelectric actuators mounted on the back of the bearing sleeve....... The active control principle is built using eddy-current sensor signals to detect the lateral motion of the rotor. A feedback law is used to couple the lateral dynamics of a flexible rotor-bearing system with the pneumatic and dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric actuated valve system. A proportional...

  15. Control oriented modeling of ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxygen fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinhai; Li Yanzhong; Cai Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    A one-equation model is proposed for fuel ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Firstly, the fundamental governing equations are established by employing the thermodynamic, fluid dynamic principles and chemical constraints inside the ejector; secondly, the one-equation model is derived by using the parameter analysis and lumped-parameter method. Finally, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is employed to obtain the source data for determining the model parameters. The effectiveness of the model is studied under a wide range of operation conditions. The effect of ejector performance on the anode gas recirculation SOFC system is also discussed. The presented model, which only contains four constant parameters, is useful in real-time control and optimization of fuel ejector in the anode gas recirculation SOFC system.

  16. Study on agroecology contamination from 125I gas and control measures in a simulated ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Li Chuanzhao; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong; Li Xia

    1995-09-01

    The study was made in an air-tight space in which a simulated agricultural ecosystem was contaminated from 125 I gas. The contents of the study were summarized as follows: The space and time distribution of 125 I gas, contamination of foliage of the plants, accumulation and transfer of 125 I fallen on the soil and entered into the plants from the roots of crops and vegetables, the time distribution of 125 I in crops in water contaminated from 125 I fallout, distribution, accumulation and transfer of 125 I in chickens and rabbits which inhaled 125 I gas or fed the fodder contaminated from 125 I. The control measures of contamination in agroenvironment from 125 I were discussed. (7 refs., 20 figs., 29 tabs.)

  17. Quantitative measurements of in-cylinder gas composition in a controlled auto-ignition combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most effective means to achieve controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a gasoline engine is by the residual gas trapping method. The amount of residual gas and mixture composition have significant effects on the subsequent combustion process and engine emissions. In order to obtain quantitative measurements of in-cylinder residual gas concentration and air/fuel ratio, a spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) system has been developed recently. The optimized optical SRS setups are presented and discussed. The temperature effect on the SRS measurement is considered and a method has been developed to correct for the overestimated values due to the temperature effect. Simultaneous measurements of O2, H2O, CO2 and fuel were obtained throughout the intake, compression, combustion and expansion strokes. It shows that the SRS can provide valuable data on this process in a CAI combustion engine.

  18. Quantitative measurements of in-cylinder gas composition in a controlled auto-ignition combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H; Zhang, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the most effective means to achieve controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a gasoline engine is by the residual gas trapping method. The amount of residual gas and mixture composition have significant effects on the subsequent combustion process and engine emissions. In order to obtain quantitative measurements of in-cylinder residual gas concentration and air/fuel ratio, a spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) system has been developed recently. The optimized optical SRS setups are presented and discussed. The temperature effect on the SRS measurement is considered and a method has been developed to correct for the overestimated values due to the temperature effect. Simultaneous measurements of O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 and fuel were obtained throughout the intake, compression, combustion and expansion strokes. It shows that the SRS can provide valuable data on this process in a CAI combustion engine

  19. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  20. Simulations research of the global predictive control with self-adaptive in the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jie; Xia Guoqing; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For further improving the dynamic control capabilities of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant, this paper puts forward to apply the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive in the rotate speed control of the gas turbine, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant. the simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed under the control algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive is ten second faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed under the PID control algorithm is 1%-2% higher than that under the control slgorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive. It shows that the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive can better control the output of the speed of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant and get the better control effect. (authors)

  1. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Loria A; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2014-10-15

    The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  3. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  4. Quality Control Practices for Chemistry and Immunochemistry in a Cohort of 21 Large Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Matthew W; Flood, James G; Melanson, Stacy E F; Baumann, Nikola A; Marzinke, Mark A; Rai, Alex J; Hayden, Joshua; Wu, Alan H B; Ladror, Megan; Lifshitz, Mark S; Scott, Mitchell G; Peck-Palmer, Octavia M; Bowen, Raffick; Babic, Nikolina; Sobhani, Kimia; Giacherio, Donald; Bocsi, Gregary T; Herman, Daniel S; Wang, Ping; Toffaletti, John; Handel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Kathleen A; Albeiroti, Sami; Wang, Sihe; Zimmer, Melissa; Driver, Brandon; Yi, Xin; Wilburn, Clayton; Lewandrowski, Kent B

    2018-05-29

    In the United States, minimum standards for quality control (QC) are specified in federal law under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment and its revisions. Beyond meeting this required standard, laboratories have flexibility to determine their overall QC program. We surveyed chemistry and immunochemistry QC procedures at 21 clinical laboratories within leading academic medical centers to assess if standardized QC practices exist for chemistry and immunochemistry testing. We observed significant variation and unexpected similarities in practice across laboratories, including QC frequency, cutoffs, number of levels analyzed, and other features. This variation in practice indicates an opportunity exists to establish an evidence-based approach to QC that can be generalized across institutions.

  5. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

    2004-11-15

    The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the

  6. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  7. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Web 2.0 (and Beyond?) in Space Flight Operations Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.

  9. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  10. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems. 192.197 Section 192.197 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high...

  11. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  12. IEEE Std 649-1991: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for both harsh and mild environment applications in nuclear power generating stations are described. In addition to defining specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers and their components in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, this standard is intended to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  13. Development of a process model for intelligent control of gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.; Einerson, C.J.; Watkins, A.D.; Carlson, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses work in progress on the development of an intelligent control scheme for arc welding. A set of four sensors is used to detect weld bead cooling rate, droplet transfer mode, weld pool and joint location and configuration, and weld defects during welding. A neural network is being developed as the bridge between the multiple sensor set a conventional proportional-integral controller that provides independent control of process variables. This approach is being developed for the gas metal arc welding process. 20 refs., 8 figs

  14. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center: Overview of Activities 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory continued operation aimed at collecting, evaluating, and disseminating atomic, molecular, and particle-surface interaction (AM and PSI) data needed by both the U.S. and international plasma science communities. This work has been carried out within an overarching atomic physics research group which produces much of the required data through an active experimental and theoretical science program. The production of an annotated bibliography of AM and PSI literature relevant to plasma science continues to be among the most important activities of the data center, forming the basis for the CFADC on-line bibliographic search engine and a significant part of the IAEA A+M Data Unit's 'International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion.' Also chief among the data center's activities are responses to specific data requests from the plasma science community, leading to either rapid feedback using existing data resources or long term data production projects, as well as participation in IAEA Coordinated Research Programs including recently 'Data for Surface Composition Dynamics Relevant to Erosion Processes' and 'Atomic and Molecular Data for Plasma Modeling.' Highlights of recent data production projects include the following: Experimental and theoretical data for inelastic electron-hydrocarbon reactions, large scale computational results for particle reflection from surfaces, measurements of chemical sputtering from carbon, inaugural experiments considering molecular ion collisions with neutral hydrogen, and expansion of the database of elastic and related transport cross sections calculated for intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in hydrogen plasmas. Progress is being hampered owing to news from the US Department of Energy that it plans to close out the program after a ramp down of funding in 2012, following a distinguished 52 year history of contributions to the US and

  15. Simulating the control of molecular reactions via modulated light fields: from gas phase to solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallmair, Sebastian; Keefer, Daniel; Rott, Florian; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few years quantum control has proven to be very successful in steering molecular processes. By combining theory with experiment, even highly complex control aims were realized in the gas phase. In this topical review, we illustrate the past achievements on several examples in the molecular context. The next step for the quantum control of chemical processes is to translate the fruitful interplay between theory and experiment to the condensed phase and thus to the regime where chemical synthesis can be supported. On the theory side, increased efforts to include solvent effects in quantum control simulations were made recently. We discuss two major concepts, namely an implicit description of the environment via the density matrix algorithm and an explicit inclusion of solvent molecules. By application to chemical reactions, both concepts conclude that despite environmental perturbations leading to more complex control tasks, efficient quantum control in the condensed phase is still feasible.

  16. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    frequencies. Active lubrication of the journal during operations could enhance the damping and stabilisation characteristics of the sytems, and this could be achieved by means of stabilising controllers. This paper investigates the feasibility of using reduced order models obtained through Grey......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...... directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed...

  17. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Its Partners' Contributions to Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappero, Jordan W; Cassell, Cynthia H; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Angulo, Frederick J; Craig, Allen; Pesik, Nicki; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ijaz, Kashef; Jafari, Hamid; Martin, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    To achieve compliance with the revised World Health Organization International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), countries must be able to rapidly prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. Most nations, however, remain unprepared to manage and control complex health emergencies, whether due to natural disasters, emerging infectious disease outbreaks, or the inadvertent or intentional release of highly pathogenic organisms. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) works with countries and partners to build and strengthen global health security preparedness so they can quickly respond to public health crises. This report highlights selected CDC global health protection platform accomplishments that help mitigate global health threats and build core, cross-cutting capacity to identify and contain disease outbreaks at their source. CDC contributions support country efforts to achieve IHR 2005 compliance, contribute to the international framework for countering infectious disease crises, and enhance health security for Americans and populations around the world.

  18. Germinal Center Optimization Applied to Neural Inverse Optimal Control for an All-Terrain Tracked Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several meta-heuristics algorithms which offer solutions for multi-variate optimization problems. These algorithms use a population of candidate solutions which explore the search space, where the leadership plays a big role in the exploration-exploitation equilibrium. In this work, we propose to use a Germinal Center Optimization algorithm (GCO which implements temporal leadership through modeling a non-uniform competitive-based distribution for particle selection. GCO is used to find an optimal set of parameters for a neural inverse optimal control applied to all-terrain tracked robot. In the Neural Inverse Optimal Control (NIOC scheme, a neural identifier, based on Recurrent High Orden Neural Network (RHONN trained with an extended kalman filter algorithm, is used to obtain a model of the system, then, a control law is design using such model with the inverse optimal control approach. The RHONN identifier is developed without knowledge of the plant model or its parameters, on the other hand, the inverse optimal control is designed for tracking velocity references. Applicability of the proposed scheme is illustrated using simulations results as well as real-time experimental results with an all-terrain tracked robot.

  19. Trends in Teenagers' Nonopiod Substance Exposures Reported to Poison Control Centers, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad; Mestan, Samantha; Ahrens, Monica; Bottei, Edward

    2018-05-01

    To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures. The number of calls per 1000 persons increased from 5.7 to 6.8 for teenage girls and decreased from 4.7 to 4.3 for boys. Reported exposures to prescription and over-the-counter medications and illicit street drugs increased between 24% and 73%, and reported opioid exposures decreased by 16%. Among teenage girls, intentional exposures increased from 57% to 68%, with cases increasingly managed in health care facilities and more likely to result in worse health outcomes. The increase in intentional nonopioid substance exposures among teenage girls, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences, is a matter of serious concern. Similar trends were not observed among teenage boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included

  1. Challenges in Slug Modeling and Control for Offshore Oil and Gas Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The upstream offshore multi-phase well-pipeline-riser installations are facing huge challenges related to slugging flow: An unstable flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the multi-phase pipelines. One typical severe slug is induced by vertical wells or risers...... most models require specific facility and operating data which, unfortunately, often is not available from most offshore installations. Anti-slug control have been investigated for several decades in oil & gas industry, but many of these existing methods suffer the consequent risk of simultaneously...... reducing the oil & gas production. This paper concludes that slug is a well defined phenomenon, but even though it has been investigated for several decades the current anti-slug control methods still have problems related to robustness. It is predicted that slug-induced challenges will be even more severe...

  2. Neural control systems for alternatively fuelled vehicles and natural gas fuel injection for DACIA NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatisky, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Ghelesel, A. [BC Gas International, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The elements of natural gas vehicle conversion technology are described as background to a discussion of the development of bi-fuel injection system for the Rumanian-manufactured DACIA-NOVA automobile. The bi-fuel injection system mirrors the fueling system installed by the original equipment manufacturer; it can also be easily installed on Ford, General Motors and DaimlerChrysler vehicles as well as on most imports.To meet emission standards after 2000, it is envisaged to install on the DACIA NOVA a neural control system (NCS) and a completely adaptive linear control system (ACLS). Details of natural gas vehicles development and the development of NCS and ACLS are discussed, including short-term and long-term objectives.

  3. Evaluation Of Rotation Frequency Gas-Diesel Engines When Using Automatic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A.; Efremov, A.

    2017-01-01

    A possibility of quality improvement of stabilization of rotation frequency of the gas-diesels used as prime mover of generator set in the multigenerator units working for abruptly variable load of large power is considered. An evaluation is made on condition of fuzzy controller use developed and described by the authors in a number of articles. An evaluation has shown that theoretically, the revolution range of gas-diesel engine may be reduced at 25-30 times at optimal settings of the controller in all the power range. The results of modeling showing a considerable quality improvement of transient processes in the investigated system at a sharp change of loading are presented in this article.

  4. Intelligent Combustion. A gas boiler with a new control and safety device using the signals of a semiconductor-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, S.; Kostrzewa, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present controls of small gas boilers use an actual differential pressure of the flowing air to regulate the gas valve. It is also possible to combine the change of the gas flow rate and the air volume mechanically. In both of these methods, it is neglected that the air volume required for complete combustion is strongly affected by changing gas quality. The article discusses the use of a BaSnO3 semiconductor control sensor, which is heated by the flame and changes electrical resistance with temperature, O2 and CO content in the burning chamber. It also describes a new burner concept using the sensor

  5. FAA Alleged Waste and Mismanagement of Air Route Traffic Control Centers Critical and Essential Power Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-16

    The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reviewed a complaint from Congressman Deal on behalf of a constituent. The constituent alleged waste and mismanagement occurred in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers Criti...

  6. Experimental and Computational Instrumentation for Rotorcraft Noise and Vibration Control Research at the Penn State Rotorcraft Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A team of faculty at the Penn State Rotorcraft Center of Excellence has integrated five new facilities into a broad range of research and educational programs focused on rotorcraft noise and vibration control...

  7. IEEE Std 649-1980: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for outside containment applications in nuclear power generating stations. Qualification of motor control centers located inside containment in a nuclear power generating station is beyond the scope of this standard. The purpose of this standard is (1) to define specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1974, IEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations; (2) to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the design adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  8. An on-line gas control system using an artificial intelligence language: PROLOG II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.

    1990-01-01

    An application of Artificial Intelligence to a real physics experiment is presented. This allows comparison with classical programming techniques. The PROLOG language appears as a convenient on-line language, easily interfaced to the low level service routines, for which algorithmic languages can still be used. Steering modules have been written for a gas acquisition and analysis program, and for a control system with graphic human interface. This system includes safety rules and automatic action sequences

  9. Risk-based Reliability Assessment of Subsea Control module for Offshore Oil and Gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Umofia, Anietie Nnana

    2014-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploitation is principally conducted using dry or wet tree systems, otherwise called the subsea Xmas tree system. Due to the shift to deeper waters, subsea production system (SPS) has come to be a preferred technology with attendant economic benefits. At the centre of the SPS is the subsea control module (SCM), responsible for the proper functioning and monitoring of the entire system. With increasing search for hydrocarbons in deep and ultra-deepwaters...

  10. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-07

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  11. Laser polarization dependent and magnetically control of group velocity in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H., E-mail: Rahimpour@guilan.ac.ir

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, group velocity control of Gaussian beam in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers under optical excitation is discussed. The shape of transmitted and reflected pulses from dielectric can be tuned by changing the intensity of magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of intensity of control beam on group velocity is also investigated.

  12. Change On The S-Z Effect Induced By The Cooling Flow CF On The Hot Electronic Gas At The Center OF The Clusters Of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejd Caca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zeldovich effect SZ. An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground CMB photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium ICM. So far the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect but based on the recent improved observations from satellites which showed that the hot electronic gas presents a feature called Cooling Flow CF. Temperatures in this model differs towards the edges of the Clusters of Galaxies leading to a change on the Compton parameter in comparison with Isothermal model. In this paper are processed data provided by X-ray satellite Chandra. The X-ray analysis is based on two models for the electron density and temperature profile. A sample of 12 clusters of galaxies are analyzed and by building the temperature profiles using CF model the differences on the Compton parameter are 10-100 in comparison with Isothermal model. Therefore to increase the accuracy of evaluation of the Compton parameter we should take into account the change of the electronic gas tempera- ture change that affect changes in both CMB spectrum and temperature from SZ effect.

  13. Development and evaluation of a multidisciplinary controlled substances committee within a patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernant, Stephanie A; Bastien, Rachel; Lai, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To present the development of a multidisciplinary controlled substances committee and describe its effectiveness in relation to prescribers' acceptance of committee recommendations, the number of premature deaths associated with controlled substances, and prescribers' need for education on controlled substances. A patient-centered medical home and accountable care organization in Maine that serves more than 60,000 patients across a large rural area, 70% of whom are classified as lower income. A multidisciplinary group of prescribers and PharmD residents created a committee to influence organizational culture regarding controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Initiative Committee (CSIC) updated institutional policies, developed provider education, and made personalized patient recommendations to prescribers. The primary outcome was average change in daily morphine equivalent dose (MED) in patients for whom CSIC recommended a dose reduction to the patient's prescriber. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who died of a known overdose or suspected drug-related death during 2012-2013 or 2013-2014. In addition, prescriber beliefs about controlled substances were measured via a needs assessment. The average daily MED for patients whom CSIC recommended dose reduction was lower after 3 months compared with at baseline (175.5 ± 344.3 mg vs. 292.7 ± 466.5 mg; P vs. 11.1%; P = 1.00). However, a greater number of patients had a suspected drug-related death during 2013-2014 compared with during 2012-2013 (0% vs. 27.3%; P = 0.05). A multidisciplinary controlled substances committee may improve patient safety and outcomes by offering prescriber support and helping alter prescribing culture.

  14. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  15. Analysis and control design of sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Bing; Duncan, Stephen; Papachristodoulou, Antonis; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now an urgent priority. Systems control theory, and in particular feedback control, can be helpful in designing policies that achieve sustainable levels of emissions of CO 2 (and other greenhouse gases) while minimizing the impact on the economy, and at the same time explicitly addressing the high levels of uncertainty associated with predictions of future emissions. In this paper, we describe preliminary results for an approach where model predictive control (MPC) is applied to a model of the UK economy (UK 4see model) as a test bed to design sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions. Using feedback control, the policies are updated on the basis of the actual emissions, rather than on the predicted level of emissions. The basic structure and principle of the UK 4see model is described and its implementation in Simulink is presented. A linearized state space model is obtained and model predictive control is applied to design policies for CO 2 emissions. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The preliminary results obtained in this paper illustrate the strength of the proposed design approach and form the basis for future research on using systems control theory to design optimal sustainable policies

  16. Fuzzy logic for plant-wide control of biological wastewater treatment process including greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2018-06-01

    The application of control strategies is increasingly used in wastewater treatment plants with the aim of improving effluent quality and reducing operating costs. Due to concerns about the progressive growth of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), these are also currently being evaluated in wastewater treatment plants. The present article proposes a fuzzy controller for plant-wide control of the biological wastewater treatment process. Its design is based on 14 inputs and 6 outputs in order to reduce GHG emissions, nutrient concentration in the effluent and operational costs. The article explains and shows the effect of each one of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller, as well as the relationship between them. Benchmark Simulation Model no 2 Gas is used for testing the proposed control strategy. The results of simulation results show that the fuzzy controller is able to reduce GHG emissions while improving, at the same time, the common criteria of effluent quality and operational costs. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ASTEC and MODEL: Controls software development at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John P.; Bauer, Frank H.; Surber, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    The ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software is under development at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The design goal is to provide a wide selection of controls analysis tools at the personal computer level, as well as the capability to upload compute-intensive jobs to a mainframe or supercomputer. In the last three years the ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software has been under development. ASTEC is meant to be an integrated collection of controls analysis tools for use at the desktop level. MODEL (Multi-Optimal Differential Equation Language) is a translator that converts programs written in the MODEL language to FORTRAN. An upgraded version of the MODEL program will be merged into ASTEC. MODEL has not been modified since 1981 and has not kept with changes in computers or user interface techniques. This paper describes the changes made to MODEL in order to make it useful in the 90's and how it relates to ASTEC.

  18. A sequential approach to control gas for the extraction of multi-gassy coal seams from traditional gas well drainage to mining-induced stress relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Shengli; Cheng, Yuanping; Ren, Ting; Liu, Hongyong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The gas reservoirs characteristics are measured and analyzed. • A sequential approach to control gas of multi-gassy coal seams is proposed. • The design of gas drainage wells has been improved. • The utilization ways of different concentrations of gas production are shown. - Abstract: As coal resources become exhausted in shallow mines, mining operations will inevitably progress from shallow depth to deep and gassy seams due to increased demands for more coal products. However, during the extraction process of deeper and gassier coal seams, new challenges to current gas control methods have emerged, these include the conflict between the coal mine safety and the economic benefits, the difficulties in reservoirs improvement, as well as the imbalance between pre-gas drainage, roadway development and coal mining. To solve these problems, a sequential approach is introduced in this paper. Three fundamental principles are proposed: the mining-induced stress relief effect of the first-mined coalbed should be sufficient to improve the permeability of the others; the coal resource of the first-mined seams must be abundant to guarantee the economic benefits; the arrangement of the vertical wells must fit the underground mining panel. Tunlan coal mine is taken as a typical example to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The approach of integrating surface coalbed methane (CBM) exploitation with underground gas control technologies brings three major benefits: the improvement of underground coal mining safety, the implementation of CBM extraction, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This practice could be used as a valuable example for other coal mines having similar geological conditions

  19. Proposal of an Observatory of Trends for Nanotechnology in the Context of Technology Management in an Oil and Gas R&D Center – Case: Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Masseran Antunes Parreiras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents basic concepts on nanotechnology and the use of this in an oil and gas research and development (R&D center, the Research and Development Center Leopoldo Américo Miguez de Mello of Petrobras (CENPES. The aim of this paper is to present a proposal of an observatory of trends in the area of nanotechnology at CENPES, to generate information, such as the state of the art technologies, technological trajectories, movements of competitors and partners, and aspects relating to regulations and incentives for decision making in the technology management process. The model consists of five steps that should occur in a continuous cycle: literature review, expert consultation, analysis of opportunities and threats, timelines or roadmaps, and monitoring. In conclusion, the proposed observatory includes a set of topics (variables, sources, techniques of competitive technical intelligence and technological foresight, systematized in order to support decision making in technology management.

  20. Comparative tests of bench equipment for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendaleva, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The relevance of interlaboratory comparative researches is confirmed by attention of world metrological community to this field of activity. Use of the interlaboratory comparative research methodology not only for single gages collation, but also for bench equipment complexes, such as modeling stands for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine, is offered. In this case a comparative measure of different bench equipment will be the control fuel pump. Ensuring traceability of measuring result received at test benches of various air enterprises, development and introduction of national standards to practice of bench tests and, eventually, improvement of quality and safety of a aircraft equipment is result of this approach.

  1. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  2. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

  3. Performance-based maintenance of gas turbines for reliable control of degraded power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huadong; Sansavini, Giovanni; Xie, Min

    2018-03-01

    Maintenance actions are necessary for ensuring proper operations of control systems under component degradation. However, current condition-based maintenance (CBM) models based on component health indices are not suitable for degraded control systems. Indeed, failures of control systems are only determined by the controller outputs, and the feedback mechanism compensates the control performance loss caused by the component deterioration. Thus, control systems may still operate normally even if the component health indices exceed failure thresholds. This work investigates the CBM model of control systems and employs the reduced control performance as a direct degradation measure for deciding maintenance activities. The reduced control performance depends on the underlying component degradation modelled as a Wiener process and the feedback mechanism. To this aim, the controller features are quantified by developing a dynamic and stochastic control block diagram-based simulation model, consisting of the degraded components and the control mechanism. At each inspection, the system receives a maintenance action if the control performance deterioration exceeds its preventive-maintenance or failure thresholds. Inspired by realistic cases, the component degradation model considers random start time and unit-to-unit variability. The cost analysis of maintenance model is conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Optimal maintenance strategies are investigated to minimize the expected maintenance costs, which is a direct consequence of the control performance. The proposed framework is able to design preventive maintenance actions on a gas power plant, to ensuring required load frequency control performance against a sudden load increase. The optimization results identify the trade-off between system downtime and maintenance costs as a function of preventive maintenance thresholds and inspection frequency. Finally, the control performance-based maintenance model can reduce

  4. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  5. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  6. Turbo-gas emissions and integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Sera, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper considers the gas-turbine pollution and joints out that the NO, is the most important pollutant among others pollutants as well as the carbon oxide and the volatile organic compounds because the NO x , has a high mass production rate (in the combustion chamber), elevated toxicity to the ecosystem and because of being in the atmosphere a precursor of secondary ultrafine particles PM 2,5 . In with reference to the integrated pollution and control (IPPC) the job shows schemes of chain chemical reactions which are on the base of the formation of different types of NO x , thermal and organic, and it illustrates the influence of some operative parameters on the combustion's efficiency and then on the NO x , production rate. Also, the study gives the best absolvable techniques (BAT) to reduce the NO x , production rate and to demolish it before its introduction, as well as gas exhaust, in the atmosphere. At the end, the work shows that the gas-turbine are to consider thermal engines with a little environment impact index specially when they make use of the natural gas, as well as fuel [it

  7. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makalinao, Irma R.; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-01-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well

  8. Electronic Cigarette Exposure: Calls to Wisconsin Poison Control Centers, 2010–2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.

  9. Impact of gas puffing location on density control and plasma parameters in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Estrada, T.; Tafalla, D.; Hidalgo, A.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pastor, I.; Herranz, J.; Ascasibar, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under pure Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) conditions in TJ-II plasmas (P<300 kW, 53.2 GHz, 2nd harmonic X-mode, power density < 25 W/m''3), plasma start-up and good density control are obtained only by the proper combination of wall conditions and gas puffing characteristics. Such a control is particularly critical for the optimisation of the NBI power transfer to the target plasmas. The relatively low cut-off limit is easily reached due not only to the unfavourable wall/puffing-fuelling ratio but also due to the steep density profiles developed during the Enhanced Particle Confinement (EPC) modes. These modes are triggered by the gas puffing waveform, and they cannot be achieved for high iota magnetic configurations in TJ-II. Comparative experiments under metallic and boronised wall conditions have shown that the sensitivity of the EPC modes to the puffing rate is at least partially related to the energy balance at the plasma periphery under central heating scenarios. In this work, the impact of gas-fuelling location on the plasma parameters and density control is described. For that purpose, three different fuelling locations have been investigated; broad distribution from a side ports, localized injection from long tubes at different poloidal positions and highly localized injection through a movable limiter. Edge density and temperature profiles from a broad set of diagnostics (atomic beams, reflectometry, Thompson Scattering ECE, etc...) are analysed and compared. It has been found that preventing from transition to the EPC mode is achieved by using slow puffing rates, while neutral penetration into the plasma core can be enhanced for highly localized gas sources. Wall inventory, however, has been found to pl ay a dominant role in the fuelling of the plasma under most conditions. (author)

  10. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  11. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John

    2013-04-01

    relatively undeformed backlimb strata. Fracture apertures locally increase adjacent to reverse faults without an overall increase in fracture frequency. Fluid inclusion analyses of crack-seal quartz cement indicate both aqueous and methane-rich inclusions are present. Homogenization temperatures of two-phase inclusions indicate synkinematic fracture cement precipitation and fracture opening under conditions at or near maximum burial of 190-210°C in core samples, and 120-160°C in outcrop samples. In comparison with the fracture evolution in other, less deformed tight-gas sandstone reservoirs such as the Piceance and East Texas basins where fracture opening is primarily controlled by gas generation, gas charge, and pore fluid pressure, these results suggest a strong control of regional tectonic processes on fracture generation. In conjunction with timing and rate of gas charge, rates of fracture cement growth, and stratigraphic-lithological controls, these processes determine the overall distribution of open fractures in these reservoirs.

  12. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  13. Quality Control Algorithms for the Kennedy Space Center 50-Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Winds Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the process used by the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) to quality control (QC) data from the Kennedy Space Center's 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler for use in vehicle wind loads and steering commands. The database has been built to mitigate limitations of using the currently archived databases from weather balloons. The DRWP database contains wind measurements from approximately 2.7-18.6 km altitude at roughly five minute intervals for the August 1997 to December 2009 period of record, and the extensive QC process was designed to remove spurious data from various forms of atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts. The QC process is largely based on DRWP literature, but two new algorithms have been developed to remove data contaminated by convection and excessive first guess propagations from the Median Filter First Guess Algorithm. In addition to describing the automated and manual QC process in detail, this paper describes the extent of the data retained. Roughly 58% of all possible wind observations exist in the database, with approximately 100 times as many complete profile sets existing relative to the EV44 balloon databases. This increased sample of near-continuous wind profile measurements may help increase launch availability by reducing the uncertainty of wind changes during launch countdown

  14. Adaptation of Control Center Software to Commerical Real-Time Display Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing an enhanced Huntsville Operation Support Center (HOSC) system designed to support multiple spacecraft missions. The Enhanced HOSC is based upon a distributed computing architecture using graphic workstation hardware and industry standard software including POSIX, X Windows, Motif, TCP/IP, and ANSI C. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is currently developing a prototype of the Display Services application for this system. Display Services provides the capability to generate and operate real-time data-driven graphic displays. This prototype is a highly functional application designed to allow system end users to easily generate complex data-driven displays. The prototype is easy to use, flexible, highly functional, and portable. Although this prototype is being developed for NASA-MSFC, the general-purpose real-time display capability can be reused in similar mission and process control environments. This includes any environment depending heavily upon real-time data acquisition and display. Reuse of the prototype will be a straight-forward transition because the prototype is portable, is designed to add new display types easily, has a user interface which is separated from the application code, and is very independent of the specifics of NASA-MSFC's system. Reuse of this prototype in other environments is a excellent alternative to creation of a new custom application, or for environments with a large number of users, to purchasing a COTS package.

  15. Antivenom Therapy for Crotaline Snakebites: Has the Poison Control Center Provided Effective Guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chia Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotaline snakebites (Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri are a common medical emergency in Taiwan that can be effectively treated by a bivalent F(ab'2 antivenom. We investigated the differences in the clinical outcomes of patients who received different therapeutic regimens of antivenom in a medical center where clinical toxicologists followed the poison control center (PCC guidelines (medical group and surgeons did not (surgical group. The medical records of inpatients with crotaline snakebites between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed and information on demographics, treatments, adverse effects of antivenom, and complications was abstracted and analyzed. A total of 179 patients (90 medical, 89 surgical were eligible for study. There was no significant intergroup difference in baseline characteristics except that the dose of antivenom and the probability of antibiotic use were both higher in the surgical group (5.9 ± 4.2 vials vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 vials; 93% vs. 60%. Multiple logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, calendar year of envenomation, severity of envenomation, and antibiotic use did not disclose evidence of any difference in various clinical outcomes between medical and surgical patients. The lower dose of antivenom recommended by the PCC may be as effective and safe as the higher dose used in the surgical group for the treatment of crotaline snakebites.

  16. Automated daily quality control analysis for mammography in a multi-unit imaging center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Veli-Matti; Mäkelä, Teemu; Meaney, Alexander; Kaasalainen, Touko; Savolainen, Sauli

    2018-01-01

    Background The high requirements for mammography image quality necessitate a systematic quality assurance process. Digital imaging allows automation of the image quality analysis, which can potentially improve repeatability and objectivity compared to a visual evaluation made by the users. Purpose To develop an automatic image quality analysis software for daily mammography quality control in a multi-unit imaging center. Material and Methods An automated image quality analysis software using the discrete wavelet transform and multiresolution analysis was developed for the American College of Radiology accreditation phantom. The software was validated by analyzing 60 randomly selected phantom images from six mammography systems and 20 phantom images with different dose levels from one mammography system. The results were compared to a visual analysis made by four reviewers. Additionally, long-term image quality trends of a full-field digital mammography system and a computed radiography mammography system were investigated. Results The automated software produced feature detection levels comparable to visual analysis. The agreement was good in the case of fibers, while the software detected somewhat more microcalcifications and characteristic masses. Long-term follow-up via a quality assurance web portal demonstrated the feasibility of using the software for monitoring the performance of mammography systems in a multi-unit imaging center. Conclusion Automated image quality analysis enables monitoring the performance of digital mammography systems in an efficient, centralized manner.

  17. Independent sailing with high tetraplegia using sip and puff controls: integration into a community sailing center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojhani, Solomon; Stiens, Steven A; Recio, Albert C

    2017-07-01

    We are continually rediscovering how adapted recreational activity complements the rehabilitation process, enriches patients' lives and positively impacts outcome measures. Although sports for people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has achieved spectacular visibility, participation by high cervical injuries is often restricted due to poor accessibility, safety concerns, lack of adaptability, and high costs of technology. We endeavor to demonstrate the mechanisms, adaptability, accessibility, and benefits the sport of sailing creates in the rehabilitative process. Our sailor is a 27-year-old man with a history of traumatic SCI resulting in C4 complete tetraplegia. The participant completed an adapted introductory sailing course, and instruction on the sip-and-puff sail and tiller control mechanism. With practice, he navigated an on-water course in moderate winds of 5 to 15 knots. Despite trends toward shorter rehabilitation stays, aggressive transdisciplinary collaboration with recreation therapy can provide community and natural environment experiences while inpatient and continuing post discharge. Such peak physical and psychological experiences provide a positive perspective for the future that can be shared on the inpatient unit, with families and support systems like sailing clubs in the community. Rehabilitation theory directs a team process to achieve patient self-awareness and initiate self-actualization in spite of disablement. Utilization of local community sailing centers that have provided accessible assisted options provides person-centered self-realization of goals as assisted by family and natural supports. Such successful patients become native guides for others seeking the same experience.

  18. BNL ALARA Center experience with an information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Khan, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential elements of an international information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants are summarized. Information was collected from literature abstracting services, by attending technical meetings, by circulating data collection forms, and through personal contacts. Data are assembled in various databases and periodically disseminated to several hundred interested participants through a variety of publications and at technical meetings. Immediate on-line access to the data is available to participants with modems, commercially available communications software, and a password that is provided by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center to authorized users of the system. Since January 1992, rapid access also has been provided to persons with fax machines. Some information is available for ''polling'' the BNL system at any time, and other data can be installed for polling on request. Most information disseminated to data has been through publications; however, new protocols, simplified by the ALARA Center staff, and the convenience of fax machines are likely to make the earlier availability of information through these mechanisms increasingly important

  19. Diffuse control of gas turbines in power stations of combined cycle; Contral difuso de turbinas de gas en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; De Lara J, Salvadror; Castelo C, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article the application of the technology of the fuzzy logic to the control of gas turbines is presented in order to evaluate it in one of the most difficult processes and with stricter control requirements that exist in the electrical generation industry. For being important for the generation electrical sector, given their use in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the first selected prototype was the gas turbines model W501 of Westinghouse, installed in the of combined cycle power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango and Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. The second selected prototype was the one of the turbo gas units type 5001 (that applies to the GE 5001 models and Westinghouse of series 191 and 251). Based on the analysis of the performance of the system of conventional control previously made, the controllers of speed and generation of electrical power were selected to be replaced by diffuse controllers. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta la aplicacion de la tecnologia de la logica difusa al control de turbinas de gas con el proposito de evaluarla en uno de los procesos mas dificiles y con requerimientos mas estrictos de control que existen en la industria de generacion electrica. Por ser importantes para el sector electrico de generacion, dada su utilizacion en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), el primer prototipo seleccionado fueron las turbinas de gas modelo W501 de Westinghouse, instaladas en la central de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango y Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. El segundo prototipo seleccionado fue el de unidades turbogas tipo 5001 (que aplica a los modelos GE 5001 y Westinghouse de la serie 191 y 251). Basados en el analisis del desempeno del sistema de control convencional realizado previamente, los controladores de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica fueron seleccionados para ser sustituidos por controladores difusos.

  20. Regulations concerning the cooking installations using the natural gas in the bakeries and the cake shops of the shopping Centers; Reglementation des installations de cuisson au gaz naturel en boulangerie-patisserie dans les centres commerciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This brochure presents the regulation relative to the cooking installations using the natural gas in bakeries and cake shops of the shopping Centers. Following the general regulation context, the guide presents the ovens which can be installed and the associated technical restraints. The necessary conditions for the buildings, the gas alimentation, the natural gas pipelines in the buildings and the installations conditions are also presented. Finally the guide presents the maintenance facilities obligations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Operator-centered control of a semi-autonomous industrial robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Jones, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work done by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec, Inc., to develop a new operator-centered control system for Remotec's Andros telerobot. Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities, the armed forces, and numerous law enforcement agencies to perform tasks which are hazardous for human operators. This project has automated task components and enhanced the video graphics display of the robot's position in the environment to significantly reduce operator workload. The procedure of automating a telerobot requires the addition of computer power to the robot, along with a variety of sensors and encoders to provide information about the robots performance in and relationship to its environment The resulting vehicle serves as a platform for research on strategies to integrate automated tasks with those performed by a human operator. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments

  2. Examining the role of gender in career advancement at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement.

  3. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  4. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  5. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O'Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  6. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    a linear system to be controlled by linear state feedback control. The advantage of using a nonlinear approach as feedback linearization is the ability of this method to cope with nonlinearities and different operating points. However, the model describing the GMAW process is not exact, and therefore......In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only......, the cancellation of nonlinear terms might give rise to problems with respect to robustness. Robustness of the closed loop system is therefore nvestigated by simulation....

  7. Relating calls to US poison centers for potential exposures to medications to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting of influenza-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission controls : differentiated vs. flat rate targets : impacts and concerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydanek, D.

    1997-01-01

    Continuing the discussion on differentiation in greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables for all nations, the different implications of differentiation vs. flat rate controls were examined. A scenario of how different targets for different countries based on national circumstances might be implemented, was presented. Implications of differentiation for the Dow Chemical Company were also reviewed. For more than 20 years, Dow has practiced leading edge energy efficiency in environmental management systems and has committed to a series of environmental, health and safety goals. The company believes that at the international level, fully differentiated targets and timetables need to be negotiated, party by party, by the 150 nations who agreed to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. It was suggested that a strong disincentive exists to delivering energy efficiency beyond compliance. It was predicted that despite efficiency, the energy intensive assets in place today in Annex I countries will be disadvantaged and prematurely retired as the costs of greenhouse gas emission controls grow and exert pressure to move productive capacity offshore

  9. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  10. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm"2 and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure

  11. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm{sup 2} and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure.

  12. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder S; Gill, Tejkaran S; Kamath, Ashwini; Whisnant, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms) are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving health care-related literature and, in turn, promoting health literacy. Based on the comprehensive literature review and assessment of the 40 documents associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury, recommendations have been made for improving the readability, suitability, and usability of health care-related documents. The recommendations are

  13. Wobbe index control system in gas industry processes; Systeme de controle de l'index de Wobbe du gaz naturel dans les processus industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibba, M.; Bertani, M. [SNAM, (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Natural gas supplied to industry for process utilizations originates from different sources and that can cause fluctuations in gas composition. Changing gas composition may lead to production problems in industry with sensitive thermal processes (particularly glass industry and thermal metal treatments), such as efficiency and product quality. An equipment suitable to control and adjust such variations has been developed. Experimental tests in laboratory were carried out in order to investigate the control system accuracy and reliability. In particular five different settings were tested: at a preset thermal input by adjusting the natural gas flow rate in respect to Wobbe Index variations; at a set furnace temperature and stack oxygen level with variable thermal input by monitoring the Wobbe Index value; at constant Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas; at constant thermal input and prefixed Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas and varying the air and gas mixture flow rate; gross calorific value control by adding air or LPG to natural gas. All the tested settings gave good results. This report illustrates these results and the main features of the control system. The control and regulation system was installed in two glass factories for field tests. (authors)

  14. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  15. Matlab/Simulink-based simulation for digital-control system of marine three-shaft gas-turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Youhong; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    A gas-turbine plant model is required in order to design and develop its control system. In this paper, a simulation model of a marine three-shaft gas-turbine's digital-control system is presented. Acceleration processes are simulated via a Matlab/Simulink program. The effects of some of the main variables on the system's performance are analyzed and the optimum values of parameters obtained. A simulation experiment upon a real gas-turbine plant is performed using the digital-control model. The results show that the simulation model is reliable

  16. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension has evolved substantially to include (i the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed.

  17. Active control of combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, B.T.; Neumeier, Y. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This 3-year research program was initiated in September, 1995, to investigate active control of detrimental combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines (LNGT), which burn natural gas in a lean premixed mode to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. The program will investigate the mechanisms that drive these instabilities. Furthermore, it will study active control systems (ACS) that can effectively prevent the onset of such instabilities and/or reduce their amplitudes to acceptable levels. An understanding of the driving mechanisms will not only guide the development of effective ACS for LNGT but may also lead to combustor design changes (i.e., passive control) that will fully or partially resolve the problem. Initial attempts to stabilize combustors (i.e., chemical rockets) by ACS were reported more than 40 years ago, but were unsuccessful due to lack of adequate sensors, electronics, and actuators for performing the needed control actions. Progress made in recent years in sensor and actuator technology, electronics, and control theory has rekindled interest in developing ACS for unstable combustors. While initial efforts in this area, which focused on active control of instabilities in air breathing combustors, have demonstrated the considerable potential of active control, they have also indicated that more effective observers, controllers, and actuators are needed for practical applications. Considerable progress has been made in the observer and actuator areas by the principal investigators of this program during the past 2 years under an AFOSR program. The developed observer is based upon wavelets theory, and can identify the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the five most dominant combustor modes in (virtually) real time. The developed actuator is a fuel injector that uses a novel magneto-strictive material to modulate the fuel flow rate into the combustor.

  18. Improvement of Performance Range of Centrifugal Compressors Gas by Surge Line Modification Using Active Controller Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surge of prevention is a critical problem in oil and gas industries, particularly when return gas flow or gas flow reduces in transportation of gas pipelines. This paper is illustrated new results about surge control of centrifugal compressors .surge phenomenon is flow unsteady state in compressors which causes damages seriously in compressor construction. Furthermore, it also demonstrates in comparison with anti surge control ،active surge control expands stability range.Active surge control which based on fuzzy logic،is the main idea that used in this investigation. Using fuzzy controller causes an improvement in compressor's condition and increase performance range of the compressor, in addition to prevention of any instability in compressor. The simulation results is also satisfactory.

  19. High call volume at poison control centers: identification and implications for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, E M; Latimer, S; Reblin, M; Bennett, H K W; Cummins, M R; Crouch, B I; Ellington, L

    2012-09-01

    High volume surges in health care are uncommon and unpredictable events. Their impact on health system performance and capacity is difficult to study. To identify time periods that exhibited very busy conditions at a poison control center and to determine whether cases and communication during high volume call periods are different from cases during low volume periods. Call data from a US poison control center over twelve consecutive months was collected via a call logger and an electronic case database (Toxicall®).Variables evaluated for high call volume conditions were: (1) call duration; (2) number of cases; and (3) number of calls per staff member per 30 minute period. Statistical analyses identified peak periods as busier than 99% of all other 30 minute time periods and low volume periods as slower than 70% of all other 30 minute periods. Case and communication characteristics of high volume and low volume calls were compared using logistic regression. A total of 65,364 incoming calls occurred over 12 months. One hundred high call volume and 4885 low call volume 30 minute periods were identified. High volume periods were more common between 1500 and 2300 hours and during the winter months. Coded verbal communication data were evaluated for 42 high volume and 296 low volume calls. The mean (standard deviation) call length of these calls during high volume and low volume periods was 3 minutes 27 seconds (1 minute 46 seconds) and 3 minutes 57 seconds (2 minutes 11 seconds), respectively. Regression analyses revealed a trend for fewer overall verbal statements and fewer staff questions during peak periods, but no other significant differences for staff-caller communication behaviors were found. Peak activity for poison center call volume can be identified by statistical modeling. Calls during high volume periods were similar to low volume calls. Communication was more concise yet staff was able to maintain a good rapport with callers during busy call periods

  20. Quality control of residual solvents in [18F]FDG preparations by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jeong; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Yun Sang; Kim, Hyung Woo; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of volatile organic solvents in 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) preparations was performed by gas chromatography (GC), in accordance with USP. Analyses were carried out on a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatography equipped with an FID. We determined the amounts of ethanol and acetonitrile on every batch of our routine [ 18 F]FDG preparations, ranging between 5000 ppm and 100 ppm. In our routine preparation of [ 18 F]FDG, the amount of acetonitrile and ethanol in the final product were well below the maximum allowable limit described in the USP. Our [ 18 F]FDG preparations were in accordance with the suggested USP maximum allowable levels of the quality control analysis of volatile organic compounds

  1. Frequency stabilization of a He-Ne gas laser by controlling refractive index of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Wu Yizun

    1991-01-01

    A new way to stabilize the frequency of a Zeeman He-Ne gas laser is described. The laser frequency is stabilized by controlling the refractive index of the laser plasma. It does not need a gas laser tube with a piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) made by special technology. As the phase-locking technology is used in the laser servo system, the self-beat frequency is a constant and the frequency stability is better than 2.2 x 10 -11 (averaging time = 10 sec.). The long term frequency fluctuation never exceeded 2 x 10 -8 during two months. The frequency of the locked point can be adjusted continuously in the range of over 200 MHz

  2. HERSCHEL* FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER. HOT MOLECULAR GAS: SHOCKS VERSUS RADIATION NEAR Sgr A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Etxaluze, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bell, T. A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, Carretera de Ajalvir, Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Contursi, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Polehampton, E. T. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sonnentrucker, P., E-mail: jr.goicoechea@cab.inta-csic.es [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present a {approx}52-671 {mu}m spectral scan toward Sgr A* taken with the PACS and SPIRE spectrometers on board Herschel. The achieved angular resolution allows us to separate, for the first time at far-IR wavelengths, the emission toward the central cavity (gas in the inner central parsec of the galaxy) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk. The spectrum toward Sgr A* is dominated by strong [O III], [O I], [C II], [N III], [N II], and [C I] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by UV photons from the central stellar cluster. In addition, rotationally excited lines of {sup 12}CO (from J = 4-3 to 24-23), {sup 13}CO, H{sub 2}O, OH, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN, as well as ground-state absorption lines of OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, CH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, OH, HF, CH, and NH are detected. The excitation of the {sup 12}CO ladder is consistent with a hot isothermal component at T{sub k} {approx_equal} 10{sup 3.1} K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx}< 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. It is also consistent with a distribution of temperature components at higher density with most CO at T{sub k} {approx}< 300 K. The detected molecular features suggest that, at present, neither very enhanced X-ray nor cosmic-ray fluxes play a dominant role in the heating of the hot molecular gas. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) results from a combination of UV- and shock-driven heating. If irradiated dense clumps/clouds do not exist, shocks likely dominate the heating of the hot molecular gas. This is consistent with the high-velocity gas detected toward Sgr A*.

  3. Control of body's center of mass motion relative to center of pressure during uphill walking in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Wang, Ting-Ming; Li, Jia-Da; Ho, Wei-Pin; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Uphill walking places more challenges on the locomotor system than level walking does when the two limbs work together to ensure the stability and continuous progression of the body over the base of support. With age-related degeneration older people may have more difficulty in maintaining balance during uphill walking, and may thus experience an increased risk of falling. The current study aimed to investigate using gait analysis techniques to determine the effects of age and slope angles on the control of the COM relative to the COP in terms of their inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change of IA (RCIA) during uphill walking. The elderly were found to show IAs similar to those of the young, but with reduced self-selected walking speed and RCIAs (PIA in the sagittal plane (PIA and RCIA during walking provide a sensitive measure to differentiate individuals with different balance control abilities. The current results and findings may serve as baseline data for future clinical and ergonomic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste Gas And Particulate Control Measures For Laser Cutters In The Automotive Cloth Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R. D.; Kulik, B. F.; Stoncel, R. J.; Tan, S. L.

    1986-11-01

    Demands for greater flexibility and accuracy in the manufacture of automobile trim parts has made single-ply laser cutting an attractive proposition. Lasers are able to cut a large variety of cloth types, from vinyls to velours. Unlike mechanically cut parts, which in the case of velours produce rough edges and dust problems, laster cutting of parts produces smooth edges, fumes and fine particulate. A detailed study of the nature of the laser effluent from a cross section of typical synthetic cloth found in an automotive trim plant was undertaken. Most samples were cut by a fast axial flow, 500 Watt, continuous wave CO2 laser. A 254 mm (10-inch) focussing optics package was used. The width of the kerf varied with the material, and values were determined at between 0.2 and 0.7 mm. Particle size distribution analysis and rates of particulate emission for each cloth were determined. Gases were collected in gas sample bags and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Low boiling point organics were collected on activated charcoal tubes, identified on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and quantified on a gas chromatograph. Inorganic contaminants were collected on filter paper and analysed on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. A number of different effluent control systems were evaluated. Due to the very fine and sticky nature of the particulate, filters capable of removing particulate sizes in the 10 μm or lower range, tend to clog rapidly. Laboratory scale models of wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators were built and tested. The most effective dust and effluent gas control was given by a wet electrostatic precipitator. This system, in conjunction with a scrubber, should maintain emission levels within environmental standards.

  5. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebowitz, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

  6. Coherent Control of Multiphoton Transitions in the Gas and Condensed Phases with Shaped Ultrashort Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantus, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10 16 W/cm 2 . In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting

  7. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  8. Speed control and generation of electric power of a gas turbine by means of fuzzy-logic; Control de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas mediante logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamaca Fernandez, Luis Jonathan

    2000-08-01

    The development of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm is presented. It was developed for the speed and load control of a gas turbine. The speed/load controller of the gas turbine which were conventional Pi's were completely replaced by the fuzzy-logic controllers. The fuzzy controllers correspond to MISO systems that has as input the error an its rate of change and as an output the control signal for the fuel valve. The fuzzy controller provides an algorithm that can turn a strategy of linguistic control (based on knowledge of experts) into a strategy of automatic control. The fuzzy controllers were validated by the development of functional test in a simulation of a nonlinear mathematical gas-turbine model. The controllers were programmed in C language in PC. Simulation test for the speed regulation and load tracking were used for the controller validation. The fuzzy controller had a good performance because the minimized the signal error produced by the set of programmed system perturbations (due to control actions). Besides, they had a better reference tracking then PI controllers. Consequently, the proposed fuzzy controllers have a better performance than the conventional control system. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno, programacion y evaluacion de un algoritmo de control basado en logica difusa para el control de velocidad y generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas. En el esquema de control velocidad/carga de la turbina de gas, se sustituyeron completamente los dos controladores convencionales del tipo PI por controladores difusos, teniendo asi un control digital directo. Los controladores difusos corresponden a sistemas MISO que utilizan como variables de entrada el error y la derivada del error, y como variable de salida la senal de control a la valvula de combustible. De esta forma, un controlador difuso provee un algoritmo que puede convertir una estrategia de control linguistico (basado en conocimiento de expertos

  9. The effect of oil and gas content on the controllability and separation in a de-oiling hydrocyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Belaidi, Hafid

    2003-01-01

    The effect of free gas on cyclonic oil-water separation was examined using a geometry which sought to minimise problems with gas. Tests were carried out using the purpose built oil-water separation facility at Bradford University where pre-choke conditions could be partially simulated. Firstly, tests were carried out with water and gas-water to look at flow behaviour and control parameters, then comparative tests carried out with gas-oil-water. Comparisons were also made with tests data from ...

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  11. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  12. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  13. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  14. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case–Control Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case–control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078–265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658–415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249–22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default. PMID:26839480

  15. [Qilin Pills for idiopathic oligoasthenospermia: A multi-centered randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jia-Ming; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Chuan-Hang; Ning, Ke-Qin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yang, Shu-Wen; Li, Hai-Song; Zhou, Shao-Hu; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Ji-Xiu; Huang, Yong-Han

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Qilin Pills in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia in infertile men. This multi-centered randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial included 216 infertile males with oligoasthenospermia, 108 in the trial group and the other 108 in the control, the former treated with Qilin Pills at the dose of 6 g tid while the latter with Wuziyanzong Pills at 6 g bid, both for 12 weeks. We examined the total sperm count, sperm motility and the count of progressively motile sperm of the patients before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after medication and evaluated the safety of the drug based on the adverse events and the laboratory results of blood and urine routine examinations and liver and kidney function tests. Compared with the baseline, the patients in the trial group showed a significant time-dependent improvement after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication in sperm motility (21.75% vs 27.54%, 29.04% and 32.95%, P Pills can evidently improve the semen quality of oligoasthenospermia patients with no obvious adverse events.

  16. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  17. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  18. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  19. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  20. Management of pelvic inflammatory disease by primary care physicians. A comparison with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessol, N A; Priddy, F H; Bolan, G; Baumrind, N; Vittinghoff, E; Reingold, A L; Padian, N S

    1996-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommendations for clinicians on the management of pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is unknown if providers are aware of the guidelines or follow them. To compare pelvic inflammatory disease screening, diagnosis, treatment, and reporting practices among primary care physicians with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease. A weighted random sample of California primary care physicians surveyed in November 1992 and January 1993. Of the 1,165 physicians surveyed, 553 (48%) returned completed questionnaires. Among respondents, 302 (55%) reported having treated a case of pelvic inflammatory disease during the last 12 months, and of these, 52% answered that they were unsure of or do not follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pediatricians and those with more years since residency were less likely to deviate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease, and family practitioners were more likely to deviate from the guidelines. Pelvic inflammatory disease is commonly encountered by primary care physicians in California. Training and experience were important predictors of compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations; however, substantial divergence from the guidelines occurs.

  1. Radioisotope techniques for process optimisation and control in the offshore oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    For over fifty years, radioisotope technology has been used by the oil industry to solve problems and to help optimise process operations. The widespread development of offshore oil and gas fields has brought, and continues to bring, new challenges and, in response, new or modified applications of radioisotope technology have been introduced. This paper presents case studies, which illustrate the use of radioisotopes, both in the sub-sea environment and on the offshore production platforms. On the platform, radioisotope techniques applied singly or in combination, have been applied to the performance assessment of oil/gas separation and gas dehydration units. Novel nucleonic instrumentation has been developed for the control of three-phase separators. Sub-sea, radioactive tracers and/or sealed sources have been used to investigate the integrity of submerged structures and to troubleshoot pipeline problems. The continuing expansion in the use of this technology stems from industry increasing awareness of its versatility and from the fact that the benefits it confers can be obtained at a relatively modest cost. Examples of economic benefit described in the paper are associated with production enhancements derived from the ability of radioisotope technology to measure performance and diagnose problems on line, without disrupting process operations in any way. (Author)

  2. Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vashpanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time.

  3. Development of a 3D cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for the numerical modeling of the gas dynamics and hyper-elasticity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) flows are multi-material flows characterized by strong shock waves and large changes in the domain shape due to rare faction waves. Numerical schemes based on the Lagrangian formalism are good candidates to model this kind of flows since the computational grid follows the fluid motion. This provides accurate results around the shocks as well as a natural tracking of multi-material interfaces and free-surfaces. In particular, cell-centered Finite Volume Lagrangian schemes such as GLACE (Godunov-type Lagrangian scheme Conservative for total Energy) and EUCCLHYD (Explicit Unstructured Cell-Centered Lagrangian Hydrodynamics) provide good results on both the modeling of gas dynamics and elastic-plastic equations. The work produced during this PhD thesis is in continuity with the work of Maire and Nkonga [JCP, 2009] for the hydrodynamic part and the work of Kluth and Despres [JCP, 2010] for the hyper elasticity part. More precisely, the aim of this thesis is to develop robust and accurate methods for the 3D extension of the EUCCLHYD scheme with a second-order extension based on MUSCL (Monotonic Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws) and GRP (Generalized Riemann Problem) procedures. A particular care is taken on the preservation of symmetries and the monotonicity of the solutions. The scheme robustness and accuracy are assessed on numerous Lagrangian test cases for which the 3D extensions are very challenging. (author) [fr

  4. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Matthew; Oliver, Kevin; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul; Achterberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual...

  5. Music therapy in Huntington's disease: a protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen-Rufi, Monique; Vink, Annemieke; Achterberg, Wilco; Roos, Raymund

    2016-07-26

    Huntington's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive decline and behavioral and psychological symptoms. Since there is no cure, all treatment is aimed at improving quality of life. Music therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention, aiming to improve the quality of life, but its use and efficacy in patients with Huntington's disease has hardly been studied. In this article, a protocol is described to study the effects of music therapy in comparison with a control intervention to improve quality of life through stimulating expressive and communicative skills. By targeting these skills we assume that the social-cognitive functioning will improve, leading to a reduction in behavioral problems, resulting in an overall improvement of the quality of life in patients with Huntington's disease. The study is designed as a multi-center single-blind randomised controlled intervention trial. Sixty patients will be randomised using centre-stratified block-permuted randomisation. Patients will be recruited from four long-term care facilities specialized in Huntington's disease-care in The Netherlands. The outcome measure to assess changes in expressive and communication skills is the Behaviour Observation Scale Huntington and changes in behavior will be assessed by the Problem Behaviour Assesment-short version and by the BOSH. Measurements take place at baseline, then 8, 16 (end of intervention) and 12 weeks after the last intervention (follow-up). This randomized controlled study will provide greater insight into the effectiveness of music therapy on activities of daily living, social-cognitive functioning and behavior problems by improving expressive and communication skills, thus leading to a better quality of life for patients with Huntington's disease. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR4904 , registration date Nov. 15, 2014.

  6. Modeling the Control Systems of Gas-Turbines to Ensure Their Reliable Parallel Operation in the UPS of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, A. Yu., E-mail: vinogradov-a@ntcees.ru; Gerasimov, A. S.; Kozlov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. N. [JSC “STC UPS” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Consideration is given to different approaches to modeling the control systems of gas turbines as a component of CCPP and GTPP to ensure their reliable parallel operation in the UPS of Russia. The disadvantages of the approaches to the modeling of combined-cycle units in studying long-term electromechanical transients accompanied by power imbalance are pointed out. Examples are presented to support the use of more detailed models of gas turbines in electromechanical transient calculations. It is shown that the modern speed control systems of gas turbines in combination with relatively low equivalent inertia have a considerable effect on electromechanical transients, including those caused by disturbances not related to power imbalance.

  7. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  8. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  9. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S Gill,1 Tejkaran S Gill,2 Ashwini Kamath,3 Billy Whisnant41College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI; 2College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Information, University of Texas, Austin, TX; 4College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USAAbstract: Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving

  10. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  11. Quality control of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of the coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors is characterized by the fact that the size of the target product to be controlled is very small, and the quantity is very large. Accordingly, the sampling plan and the method of evaluating the population through satisfically treating the measured data of the samples are the important subjects to see and evaluate the quality of a batch or a lot. This paper shows the fabrication process and the quality control procedure for the coated fuel particles. The development work of a HTGR was started by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1969, and as for the production technology for coated fuel particles, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. has continued the development work. The pilot plan with the capacity of about 40 kg/year was established in 1972. The fuel product fabricated in this plant was put to the irradiation experiment and out-of-pile evaluation test. In 1983, the production capacity was expanded to 200 kg/year, and the fuel compacts for the VHTRC in JAERI were produced for two years. The basic fuel design, the fabrication process, the quality control, the process control and the quality assurance are reported. For the commercial product, the studies from the viewpoint of production and quality control costs are required. (Kako, I.)

  12. UTSA-74: A MOF-74 Isomer with Two Accessible Binding Sites per Metal Center for Highly Selective Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Feng

    2016-04-26

    A new metal-organic framework Zn2(H2O)-(dobdc)·0.5(H2O) (UTSA-74, H4dobdc = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid), Zn-MOF-74/CPO-27-Zn isomer, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. It has a novel four coordinated fgl topology with one-dimensional channels of about 8.0 Å. Unlike metal sites in the wellestablished MOF-74 with a rod-packing structure in which each of them is in a five coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, there are two different Zn2+ sites within the binuclear secondary building units in UTSA-74 in which one of them (Zn1) is in a tetrahedral while another (Zn2) in an octahedral coordination geometry. After activation, the two axial water molecules on Zn2 sites can be removed, generating UTSA-74a with two accessible gas binding sites per Zn2 ion. Accordingly, UTSA-74a takes up a moderately high and comparable amount of acetylene (145 cm3/cm3) to Zn-MOF-74. Interestingly, the accessible Zn2+ sites in UTSA-74a are bridged by carbon dioxide molecules instead of being terminally bound in Zn-MOF-74, so UTSA-74a adsorbs a much smaller amount of carbon dioxide (90 cm3/cm3) than Zn-MOF-74 (146 cm3/cm3) at room temperature and 1 bar, leading to a superior MOF material for highly selective C2H2/CO2 separation. X-ray crystal structures, gas sorption isotherms, molecular modeling, and simulated and experimental breakthroughs comprehensively support this result. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  13. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldrey, Matthew P.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature- and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual) timescales. Previous work shows that in the North Atlantic, ΔpCO2 and k both contribute significantly to interannual F variability but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. On some timescale between interannual and multidecadal, gas transfer velocity variability and its associated uncertainty become negligible. Here we quantify this critical timescale for the first time. Using an ocean model, we determine the importance of k, ΔpCO2, and α on a range of timescales. On interannual and shorter timescales, both ΔpCO2 and k are important controls on F. In contrast, pentadal to multidecadal North Atlantic flux variability is driven almost entirely by ΔpCO2; k contributes less than 25%. Finally, we explore how accurately one can estimate North Atlantic F without a knowledge of nonseasonal k variability, finding it possible for interannual and longer timescales. These findings suggest that continued efforts to better constrain gas transfer velocities are necessary to quantify interannual variability in the North Atlantic carbon sink. However, uncertainty in k variability is unlikely to limit the accuracy of estimates of longer-term flux variability.

  14. Diffusion-controlled regime of surface-wave-produced plasmas in helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, J; Makasheva, K; Schlueter, H; Shivarova, A

    2002-01-01

    The study presents a numerical fluid-plasma model of diffusion-controlled surface-wave-sustained discharges in helium gas. The self-consistent behaviour of the discharge based on the interrelation between plasma density and Θ, the power absorbed on average by one electron, is described. The nonlinear process of step ionization in the charged particle balance equation is the main factor, which ensures the self-consistency. However, it is shown that in helium discharges, the ionization frequencies enter the dependence of Θ on the plasma density also through the ambipolar-diffusion coefficient. Results at two different values of the gas pressure and of the wave frequency are discussed. The lower value of the gas pressure is chosen according to the condition to have a pure diffusion-controlled regime without interference with a transition to the free-fall regime. The boundary condition for the ion flux at the wall sheath is used for determination of the value of μ, the quantity denoting the degree of the radial plasma-density inhomogeneity which, together with the electron-neutral elastic collision frequency, influences the wave propagation characteristics. The two values of the wave frequency chosen provide descriptions of high-frequency and microwave discharges. The model results in the self-consistent structure of the discharge: interrelated variations along the discharge length of wavenumber, space damping rate, Θ, plasma density and electron temperature. The power necessary for sustaining discharges of a given length is also calculated. Comparisons with argon discharges are shown

  15. Transient Analysis of a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for Single Control Assembly Withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hangbok

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Multiplier Module (EMZ) system response has been evaluated for control assembly withdrawal transients. Currently the EM2 core is equipped with six cylindrical drum-type control assemblies in the reflector zone for excess reactivity control and power maneuvering during the operating core life. This study investigates the system response to the control assembly withdrawal accident with various rotational speeds and reactivity worth to determine feasible control assembly design requirements from the physics viewpoint. The simulations have been conducted for single control assembly withdrawal transients without scram by a gas-cooled reactor plant simulator, which is based on a simplified plant nodal model, including the point reactor kinetics, single channel core thermal-fluid model, and a turbo-machinery performance model. Simulations were conducted for the middle-of- cycle core, when the excess reactivity of the core is the highest. Control assembly withdrawal times were varied from 1 (runaway) to 180 sec and reactivity worth was varied from 100 to 400 pcm. For a single control assembly withdrawal, the simulation has shown that the peak fuel temperature is expected to be ~1820°C when the assembly worth is 200 pcm and the runaway time is 1 sec per 180 degree rotation. The peak temperature could be reduced to ~1780°C if the assembly is rotated out in a moderate speed such as 1 degree/sec. These peak temperatures give a thermal margin of 22 to 24% to the melting point of uranium carbide fuel. The results also indicate that the current design with a single control assembly worth of 314 pcm may need adjustments in the future design. (author)

  16. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  17. Study on the Control of Polluted Odour Gas by Biological Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of the environment as well as its purification capacity, to reduce environmental costs and achieve clean and efficient management of malodorous gas pollution, on the basis of fully understanding the theory of biotechnology, this paper presents the research of biotechnology to control the pollution of malodorous pollutants. In this research, the biofiltration method was used to control the odour gas ammonia produced in waste composting, which can effectively purify gases, with a high ammonia removal rate. One week after the ammonia removal experiment, the removal rate was detected to be around 79.3 %. Twenty-four days after the experiment, the removal rate stabilized at around 98 %. Through the test of pH value of nutrient solution, it was found that the change in pH value corresponded to the increase in removal rate. There are many advantages of applying biotechnology to filter malodorous polluted gases, such as low energy consumption, high degree of purification, good environmental compatibility, simple operation and maintenance, and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it has good application prospects.

  18. Kennedy Space Center Timing and Countdown Interface to Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are developing a time-tagging process to enable reconstruction of the events during a launch countdown. Such a process can be useful in the case of anomalies or other situations where it is necessary to know the exact time an event occurred. It is thus critical for the timing information to be accurate. KGCS will synchronize all items with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) obtained from the Timing and Countdown (T&CD) organization. Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the protocol currently in place for synchronizing UTC. However, NTP has a peak error that is too high for today's standards. Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a newer protocol with a much smaller peak error. The focus of this project has been to implement a PTP solution on the network to increase timing accuracy while introducing and configuring the implementation of a firewall between T&CD and the KGCS network.

  19. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  20. The Neural-fuzzy Thermal Error Compensation Controller on CNC Machining Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Pai-Chung; Chen, Shen-Len

    The geometric errors and structural thermal deformation are factors that influence the machining accuracy of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining center. Therefore, researchers pay attention to thermal error compensation technologies on CNC machine tools. Some real-time error compensation techniques have been successfully demonstrated in both laboratories and industrial sites. The compensation results still need to be enhanced. In this research, the neural-fuzzy theory has been conducted to derive a thermal prediction model. An IC-type thermometer has been used to detect the heat sources temperature variation. The thermal drifts are online measured by a touch-triggered probe with a standard bar. A thermal prediction model is then derived by neural-fuzzy theory based on the temperature variation and the thermal drifts. A Graphic User Interface (GUI) system is also built to conduct the user friendly operation interface with Insprise C++ Builder. The experimental results show that the thermal prediction model developed by neural-fuzzy theory methodology can improve machining accuracy from 80µm to 3µm. Comparison with the multi-variable linear regression analysis the compensation accuracy is increased from ±10µm to ±3µm.

  1. Analysis of RSG-GAS Control Rod Worth Due to Perturbation Reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taswanda Taryo

    2004-01-01

    The control rod interaction effect of RSG-GAS typical working core was studied using a method based on the exact perturbation theory with three simplifying assumptions which require only N+1 criticality calculations. The interaction effect between two interacting rods reached up to 19 % while the interaction effect of multiple interacting rods reached up to 32 % for all (8) control rods involved. The accuracy of the adopted method were extensively investigated to determine the error sources and the magnitude of the error. Through comparison of the present results with ones of the simple summation method, it was obvious that the adopted method was superior in that a significant improvement on the accuracy of the calculated reactivity worth can be achieved with a small number of criticality calculations. (author)

  2. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  3. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  4. Weight Loss and Glycemic Control after Sleeve Gastrectomy: Results from a Middle Eastern Center of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Ansari, Ahmed; Showaiter, May

    2018-02-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are strongly linked to both morbidity and mortality. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been established as an effective means of weight loss for obese patients as well as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was designed to examine the short- and midterm outcomes of patients who underwent SG in a Middle Eastern Center of Excellence, a military training teaching hospital. The clinical outcomes of 59 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM who underwent SG between 2011 and 2014 with at least one and up to four years of follow-up were studied. Data were collected and compared, including the pre- and post-surgery measures of weight, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting blood glucose. Complete remission was defined as a fasting blood glucose level ≤100 mg/dL, an HbA1c ≤6 mg/dL, without use of antidiabetic medications. All patients showed significant reduction in body mass index following SG. Tight glycemic control was achieved among both diabetic and prediabetic patients. In this study, 88.14 per cent of all patients (diabetic and prediabetic) achieved complete resolution from their impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM and maintained normal blood glucose and HbA1C levels from one to four years postoperatively. SG is beneficial both in terms of short- and midterm weight loss and glucose control in both diabetic and prediabetic obese patients.

  5. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  6. Transfusion Complications in Thalassemia Patients: A Report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichinsky, Elliott; Neumayr, Lynne; Trimble, Sean; Giardina, Patricia J.; Cohen, Alan R.; Coates, Thomas; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Kenney, Kristy; Grant, Althea; Thompson, Alexis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives Transfusions are the primary therapy for thalassemia but have significant cumulative risks. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a national blood safety monitoring program for thalassemia. The purpose of this report is to summarize the patient population as well as previous non-immune and immune transfusion complications at the time of enrollment into the program. A focus on factors associated with allo- and auto-immunization in chronically transfused patients and a description of blood product preparation and transfusion practices at the participating institutions are included. Study Design and Methods The CDC Thalassemia Blood Safety Network is a consortium of thalassemia centers, longitudinally following patients to determine transfusion-related complications. Enrollment occurred from 2004 through 2012 and annual data collection is ongoing. Demographic data, transfusion history, and previous transfusion and non-transfusion complications were summarized for patients enrolled between 2004 and 2011. Logistic analyses of factors associated with allo- and auto-immunization were developed. Summary statistics of infections reported at the time of enrollment were also calculated. Results The race/ethnicity of the 407 thalassemia patients enrolled in the Network was predominantly Asian or Caucasian and 27% were immigrants. The average age was 22.3 years ± 13.2 and patients received an average total number of 149 ± 103.4 units of red blood cells. Iron-induced multi-organ dysfunction was common despite chelation. At study entry, 86 patients had previously been exposed to possible transfusion-associated pathogens, including Hepatitis-C (61), Hepatitis B (20), Hepatitis A (3), Parvovirus (9), HIV (4), malaria (1), staphylococcus aureus (1) and babesia (1). As 27% of the population was born outside of the United States (India, Pakistan, Thailand, China, Vietnam and Iran accounting for 57%), the source of

  7. Research on Using the Naturally Cold Air and the Snow for Data Center Air-conditioning, and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kunikazu; Tano, Shunichi; Ichino, Junko

    To lower power consumption has becomes a worldwide concern. It is also becoming a bigger area in Computer Systems, such as reflected by the growing use of software-as-a-service and cloud computing whose market has increased since 2000, at the same time, the number of data centers that accumulates and manages the computer has increased rapidly. Power consumption at data centers is accounts for a big share of the entire IT power usage, and is still rapidly increasing. This research focuses on the air-conditioning that occupies accounts for the biggest portion of electric power consumption by data centers, and proposes to develop a technique to lower the power consumption by applying the natural cool air and the snow for control temperature and humidity. We verify those effectiveness of this approach by the experiment. Furthermore, we also examine the extent to which energy reduction is possible when a data center is located in Hokkaido.

  8. Radiological protection and routinary controls of an activimeter with a cesium and barium sources in an nuclear medicine center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the results when carrying out the routine controls in a Deluxe Isotope (Calibrator II) equipment, with some sources of Cesium 137 and Barium 133, in a Nuclear Medicine Center that operates from the year 1983 in a modern one construction inside the Institute of Neoplastic Illnesses (INEN) are shown. Taking in account the Radiological Protection measures to verify if the equipment responds to the personnel's demands in the measurements of activities of the diverse radionuclides that are used in different types of exams that are carried out in this Nuclear Medicine Center are the objectives of this work. This Center was equipped initially with donated equipment by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with those that it develops assistance, educational works and of research, giving services to patients of the INEN and other public and private medical centers. (Author)

  9. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  10. Oil and Gas Information Center of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey; Criacao do Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Francisco; Serrao, Marcio; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Silva, Jose Otavio da; Chaves, Hernani [Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas Information Center (CIPEG) of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey concentrates data of oil and natural gas (O and G) industry in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and meet a specialist staff to work with this data. The CIPEG works in partnership with the Geology School of Rio de Janeiro State University. Its creation was motivated by the government necessity to dominate the techniques to calculate the Government take for the production of O and G front the RJ position in the national oil industry. In 2007, the Rio de Janeiro was responsible for 84% of domestic production of oil and of 91 municipalities, 86 received royalties. These resources represent substantial share in the budget of municipalities and the State, and any variation, could be bring deep impact on the economy of these counties and the State. The products of CIPEG are: a map of O and G industry in Rio de Janeiro, a Database, a GIS and a Timing of Predicting Production of O and G. These products are available through a Internet page with accompanying by graphs of the production of O and G or royalties and Web map for viewing the information in the GIS. (author)

  11. Quantum Control of a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center using Surface Acoustic Waves in the Resolved Sideband Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golter, David; Oo, Thein; Amezcua, Maira; Wang, Hailin

    Micro-electromechanical systems research is producing increasingly sophisticated tools for nanophononic applications. Such technology is well-suited for achieving chip-based, integrated acoustic control of solid-state quantum systems. We demonstrate such acoustic control in an important solid-state qubit, the diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. Using an interdigitated transducer to generate a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field in a bulk diamond, we observe phonon-assisted sidebands in the optical excitation spectrum of a single NV center. This exploits the strong strain sensitivity of the NV excited states. The mechanical frequencies far exceed the relevant optical linewidths, reaching the resolved-sideband regime. This enables us to use the SAW field for driving Rabi oscillations on the phonon-assisted optical transition. These results stimulate the further integration of SAW-based technologies with the NV center system.

  12. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report

  13. Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas; Hyland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to design controllers that would provide substantial reduction of line-of-sight control errors. The satisfaction of this objective required the controllers to attenuate the beam vibration significantly. Particular emphasis was placed on controller simplicity (i.e., reduced-order and decentralized controller architectures). Complexity reduction in control law implementation is of paramount interest due to stringent limitations on throughput of even state-of-the-art space qualified processors. The results of this experiment successfully demonstrate active vibrator control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the ACES structure at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

  14. Design of a boil-off natural gas reliquefaction control system for LNG carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Younggy; Lee, Yoon Pyo

    2009-01-01

    Onboard boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction is a new technology that liquefies BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it off during a voyage. For the commercial development of this technology, an object-oriented dynamic simulation is presented which facilitates the design of the plant and control system for the thermal process. A reliquefaction process based on the reverse Brayton cycle has been designed, and its static thermodynamic states at the design BOG load are presented. To make the cycle work for any BOG load, an idea was sought that would achieve a heat balance with the work extracted by the expander. Dynamic simulations were conducted for all operating modes, including start-up and idle. It was found that the expander exit temperature is the key process variable for control and that the process control works successfully when three actuators are activated in three different BOG load regimes. The study also shows that control of the separator pressure to keep the vapor fraction at the throttle valve exit as low as possible is an efficient method for purging nitrogen from BOG

  15. Study of radon and thoron gas behaviour in the air at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos A.C.; Cardoso, Domingos D.

    2005-01-01

    The radon is a radioactive gas. It occurs naturally in the atmosphere coming from the decay of radium, with emission of alpha particles. There are three radon isotopes more known, of which the most important under the environmental point of view is the Rn-222, whose half life is 3.82 days. The radon and their descendants are responsible by more than 40 % of the natural radioactive dose received for the human beings inside the building. In doses above 4 pCi/l, given as occupational dose, can cause among other diseases, the lung cancer. The main source of radon inside the building is the soil. The incidence of radon inside the building varies according to the soil composition, the materials employed in its construction, the inside air temperature and humidity, time during the day, season and the ventilation process designed. The work was realized at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas, for methodology confirmation. It was utilized the passive (track detectors) and active (two filters technique. Kusnetz technique, Tsivoglou technique and alpha spectrometry technique) methods. The objective of this work was to analyze the radon and thoron concentrations levels in order to supply parameters upon the quality of the air in those commercial centers. (author)

  16. Operational benefits obtained by implementing a remote monitoring and control system at CEGAS (Gas Company of Ceara, Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Rui C.O. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zamponha, Rogerio S. [SOFTBRASIL, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    CEGAS (Gas Company of Ceara) recently implemented an automated remote monitoring and control system at the Natural Gas Stations located within the city of Fortaleza. The main purposes to implement the project were to install a better operational platform, allowing CEGAS to analyze its operational conditions and to measure customer's consumption in real time. The data communication infra-structure chosen was GPRS/GSM, due to it's low deployment cost and coverage availability. The first phase of the project comprised 50 vehicular natural gas stations. The project was successfully installed, and became the 1{sup st} project at this type to run efficiently over a GPRS infra-structure in Brazil for gas monitoring, with reliable control and data communication. This document intends to present the reasons that lead CEGAS to invest in such a system, the technology deployed and the benefits achieved. (author)

  17. Heart transplant outcomes in recipients of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high risk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Wilson, Lynn; Sekar, Rajesh B; Mangi, Abeel A; Yun, James J

    2016-12-01

    A lack of donor hearts remains a major limitation of heart transplantation. Hearts from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high-risk donors can be utilized with specific recipient consent. However, outcomes of heart transplantation with CDC high-risk donors are not well known. We sought to define outcomes, including posttransplant hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in recipients of CDC high-risk donor hearts at our institution. All heart transplant recipients from August 2010 to December 2014 (n = 74) were reviewed. Comparison of 1) CDC high-risk donor (HRD) versus 2) standard-risk donor (SRD) groups were performed using chi-squared tests for nominal data and Wilcoxon two-sample tests for continuous variables. Survival was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Of 74 heart transplant recipients reviewed, 66 (89%) received a SRD heart and eight (11%) received a CDC HRD heart. We found no significant differences in recipient age, sex, waiting list 1A status, pretransplant left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, cytomegalovirus (CMV) status, and graft ischemia times (p = NS) between the HRD and SRD groups. All of the eight HRD were seronegative at the time of transplant. Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in rejection rates at six and 12 months posttransplant. Importantly, no HRD recipients acquired hepatitis or HIV. Survival in HRD versus SRD recipients was not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank p = 0.644) at five years posttransplant. Heart transplants that were seronegative at the time of transplant had similar posttransplant graft function, rejection rates, and five-year posttransplant survival versus recipients of SRD hearts. At our institution, no cases of hepatitis or HIV occurred in HRD recipients in early follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiru; Hu, Zhihai; Sun, Aijun; Ma, Yanwen; Chen Yingying; Zhang, Xuzhi; Liu, Meiling; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shuoshuo; Zhang, Yunjia; Li, Yijing; Shen, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoar thritis (KOA). Methods This was a multi-center randomized parallel controlled trial. One hundred and seventy one patients with KOA were randomly allocated to a pricking-cupping group (89 cases) and a conventional acu puncture group (82 cases). Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35) and ashi points were selected in the two groups. Patients in the pricking-cupping group were treated with YANG's pricking-cupping therapy; the seven-star needles were used to perform pricking at acupoints, then cupping was used until slight bleeding was observed. Patients in the conventional acupuncture group were treated with semi-standardized filiform needle therapy. The treatment was given for 4 weeks (from a minimum of 5 times to a maximum of 10 times). The follow-up visit was 4 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were adopted for the efficacy assessments. The pain score, stiffness score, physical function score and total score of WOMAC were all reduced after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit in the two groups (all P0. 05), each score and total score of WOMAC in the pricking-cupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (Pcupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (P cupping and conventional acupuncture therapy can both significantly improve knee joint pain and function in patients with KOA, which are relatively safe. The pricking cupping therapy is superior to conventional acupuncture with the identical selection of acupoints.

  19. Dose control in semi industrial irradiation plant at the Ezeiza Atomic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975 a study was initiated at the Division of Dosimetry to develop a technique and a system of dosimetry to be applied to the radiosterilization processes in the semi industrial irradiation plant of Ezeiza Atomic Center. The result of this study was the potassium nitrate/nitrite dosimeter used as routine dosimeter for control processes in food conservation, with a dose range of 0.2 kGy-1 kGy and in radiosterilization processes of disposable medical products of 1 kGy-150kGy. The potassium nitrate crystals undergo a radiolytic reduction. A linear correlation between the dose applied to the solid and the production of potassium nitrite was observed. After the irradiation of solid, the produced nitrite solution is colorimetrically titrated by measuring the absorbency in a spectrophotometer at 504 nm. The color is due to the formation of a diazonium salt and its later copulation with N-1 naphtylethylendiamine hydrochloride in acid medium. In 1980 a postal survey was organized presenting this dosimeter to standardize the irradiation dose in industrial process for Latin America. This dosimeter was presented in 1984 at the International Symposium on High Doses of the IAEA that took place in Vienna. Since them, comparative studies were performed between this dosimeter and those internationally considered and accepted: cerium(IV)/cerium(III) sulphate, ionization chamber of parallel plates, alanine. The results of comparison with the alanine dosimeter, which was used by Dr. Regula of the GSF of Munich, were the following: February 1985: 0% deviation; February 1986: 0.43% deviation. (Author)

  20. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.