WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas application system

  1. Application of Hastelloy X in gas-cooled reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Corwin, W.R.; Strizak, J.P.; Lystrup, A.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence of helium environments with controlled amounts of impurities on these properties. In order to develop these properties in helium environments that are expected to be prototypic of HTGR operating conditions, it was necessary to construct special environmental test systems. Details of construction and operating parameters are described. Interim results from tests designed to determine the above properties are presented. To date a fairly extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between Hastelloy X and a number of other structural alloys are given

  2. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  3. Systems of quasilinear equations and their applications to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Roždestvenskiĭ, B L; Schulenberger, J R

    1983-01-01

    This book is essentially a new edition, revised and augmented by results of the last decade, of the work of the same title published in 1968 by "Nauka." It is devoted to mathematical questions of gas dynamics. Topics covered include Foundations of the Theory of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type in Two Independent Variables; Classical and Generalized Solutions of One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics; Difference Methods for Solving the Equations of Gas Dynamics; and Generalized Solutions of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type.

  4. Natural gas demand forecast system based on the application of artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu, J.M.; Doumanian, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Gas Natural BAN, as a distribution gas company since 1993 in the north and west area of Buenos Aires Argentina, with 1,000,000 customers, had to develop a gas demand forecast system which should comply with the following basic requirements: Be able to do reliable forecasts with short historical information (2 years); Distinguish demands in areas of different characteristics, i.e. mainly residential, mainly industrial; Self-learning capability. To accomplish above goals, Gas Natural BAN chose in view of its own necessities, an artificial intelligence application (neural networks). 'SANDRA', the gas demand forecast system for gas distribution used by Gas Natural BAN, has the following features: Daily gas demand forecast, Hourly gas demand forecast and Breakdown of both forecast for each of the 3 basic zones in which the distribution area of Gas Natural BAN is divided. (au)

  5. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  6. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  7. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  9. General Analysis of System Efficiency in Application of Combined Power Plants for Gas-Distribution Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kachan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes utilization of discharged heat of gas-piston engine (GPE or contact steam-gas plants (SGP with the purpose to heat up gas at gas-distribution stations (GDS of combined power plants with turbine and gas-expansion units. Calculations prove significant economic efficiency of the proposed variant in comparison with the application of ordinary gas- turbine units. Technical and economic calculation is used to determine gas-piston engine or contact steam-gas plant power for specific operational conditions of gas-distribution stations and utilization rate of discharged heat.

  10. Principles and applications of a research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, J.E.; Risby, T.H.; Jurs, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    A research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system for a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed based on a centrally located departmental computer facility. An overview of the hardware and software system is presented, emphasizing the important aspects of on-line computer data acquisition and control and the design philosophy used in the development of the system. The application of the system is demonstrated by the g.c.-m.s. analysis of a mixture of four transition metal β-diketonates (Al, Cr, Rh, and Ru tris-1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate). This anaysis involved vacuum gas chromatography with a support-coated open tubular column and detection of the eluent by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate the data system capabilities and indicate the utility of the combined methodologies. (Auth.)

  11. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  12. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  13. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, C.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba); Escriva, A.; Perez-Navarro, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C.P. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rosales, J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Utilization of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for Hydrogen production. > Evaluation of the potential use of gas-cooled ADS for a sustainable use of Uranium resources by transmutation of nuclear wastes, electricity and Hydrogen production. > Application of the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical process to subcritical systems. > Application of CINDER90 to calculate burn-up in subcritical systems. - Abstract: The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel flexibility opening the possibility to reduce the nuclear stockpile producing energy from actual LWR irradiated fuel with an efficiency of 45-46%, either in the form of Hydrogen, electricity, or both.

  14. Application of metal foam heat exchangers for a high-performance liquefied natural gas regasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Yeon; Sung, Tae Hong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate fluid vaporizer has wide applications in the regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas). The heat exchanger performance is one of the main contributors to the thermodynamic and cost effectiveness of the entire LNG regasification system. Within the paper, the authors discuss a new concept for a compact heat exchanger with a micro-cellular structure medium to minimize volume and mass and to increase thermal efficiency. Numerical calculations have been conducted to design a metal-foam filled plate heat exchanger and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger using published experimental correlations. The geometry of both heat exchangers was optimized using the conditions of thermolators in LNG regasification systems. The heat transfer and pressure drop performance was predicted to compare the heat exchangers. The results show that the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has the best performance at different channel heights and mass flow rates of fluid. In the optimized configurations, the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has a higher heat transfer rate and lower pressure drop than the shell-and-tube heat exchanger as the mass flow rate of natural gas is increased. - Highlights: • A metal foam heat exchanger is proposed for LNG regasification system. • Comparison was made with a shell and tube heat exchanger. • Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were estimated. • The geometry of both heat exchangers is optimized for thermolators. • It can be used as a compact and high performance thermolators.

  15. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  16. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel; Olmos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  17. The application of expert systems and neural networks to gas turbine prognostics and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePold, H.R.; Gass, F.D.

    1999-10-01

    Condition monitoring of engine gas generators plays an essential role in airline fleet management. Adaptive diagnostic systems are becoming available that interpret measured data, furnish diagnosis of problems, provide a prognosis of engine health for planning purposes, and rank engines for scheduled maintenance. More than four hundred operations worldwide currently use versions of the first or second generation diagnostic tools. Development of a third generation system is underway which will provide additional system enhancements and combine the functions of the existing tools. Proposed enhancements include the use of artificial intelligence to automate, improve the quality of the analysis, provide timely alerts, and the use of an Internet link for collaboration. One objective of these enhancements is to have the intelligent system do more of the analysis and decision making, while continuing to support the depth of analysis currently available at experienced operations. This paper presents recent developments in technology and strategies in engine condition monitoring including: (1) application of statistical analysis and artificial neural network filters to improve data quality, (2) neural networks for trend change detection, and classification to diagnose performance change, and (3) expert systems to diagnose, provide alerts and to rank maintenance action recommendations.

  18. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  19. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  20. Application of assembly module to high-temperature gas-cooled reactor full-scope simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sifeng; Li Fu; Ma Yuanle; Shi Lei

    2007-01-01

    According to the circumstances that exist in the reactor full-scope simulators development as long development cycle, very difficult upgrade and narrow range of applicability, a kind of new model was developed based on assembly module which root in Linux kernel and successfully applied to the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor full-scope simulator system. The simulation results are coincident with the experimental ones, and it indicates that the new model based on assembly module is feasible to design of high-temperature gas cooled reactor simulation system. (authors)

  1. Stimulation of deep gas wells using HCl/formic acid system : lab studies and field application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A.; Al-Mutairi, S.; Al-Malki, B. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia); Metcalf, S.; Walters, W. [BJ Services Co USA, Houston, TX (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Well stimulation in the deep carbonate Khuff reservoirs in eastern Saudi Arabia is needed to remove drilling mud filter cakes and to enhance reservoir permeability. A non associated gas is being produced from the reservoirs. This gas is associated with the hydrogen sulfide content that varies from 0 to 10-mol per cent. The average reservoir temperature is 275 degrees F and initial reservoir pressure is 7,000 psi. A special system is needed to stimulate the carbonate reservoir because of this high bottomhole temperature and the corrosive nature of hydrochloric acid (HCl) at high temperature. A rotating disk method was used to determine the reaction rate of an HCl/formic acid system with reservoir rocks. Results from coreflood tests showed that the acid system creates deep wormholes in tight reservoir cores. Corrosion tests showed that the well tubulars could tolerate the acid system. A gelled 15-wt per cent HCl/9-wt per cent formic acid system successfully fractured 3 vertical wells in deep sour gas reservoirs without any operational problems. The treatment resulted in significant increases in gas production and flowing wellhead pressures. In addition, overflush of the treatment successfully eliminated the return of live acid after the treatment. 37 refs., 10 tabs., 17 figs.

  2. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  3. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  4. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  5. Preliminary study on application of Pd composite membrane in helium purification system of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Yang Xiaoyong; Wang Jie; Yu Suyuan

    2008-01-01

    Helium purification system (HPS) is the main part of the helium auxiliary system of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), also in fusion reactors. Some exploratory work was carried out on the application of Pd composite membrane in the separation of He and H 2 . A typical single stripper permeator with recycle (SSP) system was designed, based on the design parameters of a small scale He purification test system CIGNE in CADARACHE, CEA, France, and finite element analysis method was used to solve the model. The total length of membrane module is fixed to 0.5 m. The results show that the concentration of H 2 is found to reduce from 1 000 μL/L in feed gas to 5 μL/L in the product He (the upper limitation of HPS in HTGR). And the molar ratio of product He to feed gas is 96.18% with the optimized ratio of sweep gas to retentive gas 0. 3970. It's an exponential distribution of H 2 concentration along the membrane module. The results were also compared with the other two popular designs, two stripper in series permeator (TSSP) and continuous membrane column (CMC). (authors)

  6. Application of tracer gas studies in the optimal design of soil vapor extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Cody, R.J.; Polonsky, J.D.; Woodward, D.D.; Buterbaugh, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of an optimal, cost effective vapor extraction system (VE) for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is necessary to account for heterogeneities in the vadose zone. In some cases, such as those found in relatively homogeneous sands, heterogeneities can be neglected as induced air flow through the subsurface can be considered uniform. The subsurface conditions encountered at many sites (soil/bedrock interfaces, fractured bedrock) will result in preferential subsurface-air flow pathways during the operation of the VES. The use of analytical and numerical compressible fluid flow models calibrated and verified from parameter evaluation tests can be utilized to determine vadose zone permeability tensors in heterogeneous stratifications and can be used to project optimal, full scale VES performance. Model-derived estimations of the effect of uniform and/or preferential air flow pathways on subsurface induced air flow velocities can be enhanced, confirmed utilizing tracer gas studies. A vadose zone tracer gas study entails the injection of an easily detected, preferably inert gas into differing locations within the vadose zone at distances away from the VES extraction well. The VES extraction well is monitored for the detection of the gas. This is an effective field methodology to qualify and quantify the subsurface air flow pathways. It is imperative to gain an understanding of the dynamics of the air flow in the soils and lithologies of each individual site, and design quick and effective methodologies for the characterization of the subsurface to streamline remediation costs and system operations. This paper focuses on the use of compressible fluid flow models and tracer gas studies in the enhancement of the design of vapor extraction systems

  7. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  8. Application of quality assurance guidelines to the high pressure gas system, building 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.

    1976-01-01

    Major improvements have been made to decrease the tritium release potential for LLL's tritium-handling facilities in Bldg. 331. Some of the major problems and solutions in designing and building the High Pressure Gas System, which was the first system to be rebuilt are described. To increase system safety, it was necessary to specify material and processes used in component manufacture, to inspect all materials and processes to ensure compliance with specifications, to use proper joint design, to use secondary containment in cases where specifications could not be met, and to exercise tighter control of operating procedures

  9. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANE, M.; MEDLES, K.; ADJOUDJ, M.; MILOUA, F.; DAMELINCOURT, J. J.; TILMATINE, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on ...

  10. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  11. Application of systems engineering techniques (reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars) to the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, J.G.; DeLozier, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The systems engineering function for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) covers system requirements definition, analyses, verification, technical reviews, and other system efforts necessary to assure good balance of performance, safety, cost, and scheduling. The systems engineering function will support the design, installation, start-up, and operational phases of GCEP. The principal objectives of the systems engineering function are to: assure that the system requirements of the GCEP process are adequately specified and documented and that due consideration and emphasis are given to all aspects of the project; provide system analyses of the designs as they progress to assure that system requirements are met and that GCEP interfaces are compatible; assist in the definition of programs for the necessary and sufficient verification of GCEP systems; and integrate reliability, maintainability, logistics, safety, producibility, and other related specialties into a total system effort. This paper addresses the GCEP reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars (RAM dollars) analyses which are the primary systems engineering tools for the development and implementation of trade-off studies. These studies are basic to reaching cost-effective project decisions. The steps necessary to achieve optimum cost-effective design are shown

  12. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIANE, M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on "channel" approximation of the high pressure mercury (HPM gas-discharge lamp, is developed to determine the physical and electric magnitudes, which characterize the dynamic behavior of the couple "lamp-electrical power system". The evolution of the lamp properties when principal parameters of the discharge (pressure of mercury, voltage supply, frequency are varying were studied and analyzed. We show the concordance between simulation, calculations and measurements for electric, energetic or irradiative characteristics. The model reproduces well the evolution of properties of the supply when principal parameters of the discharge vary.

  13. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  14. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in evaluation of irradiation vessel of flue gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joon-Ha Jin; Myun-Joo Lee; Sung-Hee Jung; Young-Chang Nho

    1998-01-01

    The proper design of the irradiation vessel of electron beam flue gases treatment plant and resultant optimum gas flow pattern is a very important factor to get a high removal efficiency of toxic materials from flue gases. Radioisotope tracer experiments were conducted to study the residence time distribution of gas flow in a cylindrical irradiation vessel. A few mCi of gaseous radioisotope tracer Ar-41 was injected to the upstream of the vessel and the input and output response were measured with two NaI scintillation detectors. The same experiment was conducted after the modification of the vessel by introducing 4 baffles. The experimental data were analyzed to calculate mean residence times and mixing characteristics of each system using the residence time distribution (RTD) analysis software. A method to estimate pollutant removal efficiencies of an irradiation vessel from the residence time distributions measured by radiotracer experiments was suggested. The analytical results were compared to evaluate the effect of the baffles on the removal efficiency of the plant

  15. Noble Gas Signatures in Groundwater and Rainwater on the Island of Maui, Hawaii - Developing a New Noble Gas Application in Fractured, Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. C.; Niu, Y.; Warrier, R. B.; Hall, C. M.; Gingerich, S. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Bouvier, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) in fractured groundwater systems reflect the temperature of the ground surface at the time of infiltration rather than the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) value as commonly assumed in sedimentary systems where NGTs are typically used as indicators of past climate. This suggests that noble gases in fractured areas may record seasonality, and thus, provide information about timing of recharge in addition to location. Calculation of NGTs assumes that rain-derived recharge at the water table is in equilibrium with ground air. Lack of noble gas equilibration with respect to surface conditions, however, was observed in high-altitude springs in the Galapagos Islands and in a rainwater pilot study in Michigan, supporting the NGT seasonality hypothesis. Developing this new NGT application will lead to a better understanding of fractured groundwater flow systems and will contribute to improved water resource management plans. This study, carried out on Maui, Hawaii, is meant to test these hypotheses while improving knowledge of this island's groundwater flow system where limited hydrologic data are available. Here, we present the first results of noble gas analyses from samples collected in springs, groundwater wells and rainwater on northeast Maui. Results show that like most Michigan rainwater samples, rainwater from Maui is in disequilibrium with surface conditions and follows a mass-dependent pattern. Spring samples follow a similar pattern to that of rainwater and suggest that spring water originates directly from rainfall. These findings further support the hypothesis of NGT seasonality. However, while the atmospheric composition of noble gases points to direct supply from rainfall to spring aquifer systems, a direct connection between spring water and deeper aquifer levels or the mantle is apparent from He isotopic ratios which display an almost pure He mantle component in some springs.

  16. On the definition of exergy efficiencies for petroleum systems: Application to offshore oil and gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Elmegaard, Brian; Ertesvåg, Ivar Ståle; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2014-01-01

    Exergy-based efficiencies are measures of the thermodynamic perfection of systems and processes. A meaningful formulation of these performance criteria for petroleum systems is difficult because of (i) the high chemical exergy of hydrocarbons, (ii) the large variety of chemical components, and (iii) the differences in operating conditions between facilities. This work focuses on offshore processing plants, considering four oil platforms that differ by their working conditions and designs. Several approaches from the scientific literature for similar processes are presented and applied to the four cases. They showed a low sensitivity to performance improvements, gave inconsistent results, or favoured facilities operating under certain conditions. We suggest an alternative formulation, called the component-by-component exergy efficiency, which builds on the decomposition of the exergy flows at the level of the chemical compounds. It allows therefore for sound comparisons of separation systems, while it successfully evaluates their theoretical improvement potentials. The platform displaying the lowest efficiency (1.7%) is characterised by little pumping and compression works, at the opposite of the one displaying the highest performance (29.6%). A more realistic measure of the technical potential for improving these systems can be carried out by splitting further the exergy destruction into its avoidable and unavoidable parts. - Highlights: • Different exergy efficiency definitions for petroleum systems are reviewed. • These definitions are applied to four oil and gas platforms and are revealed to be inapplicable. • A new formulation, namely the component-by-component efficiency, is proposed. • The performance of the offshore platforms under study varies between 1.7% and 29.6%

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lawrence Kar Chung; Wilkins, Steven; McGlashan, Niall; Urban, Bernhard; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this developing technology considering its current high cost. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining a SOFC-GT system and an absorption heat pump (AHP) in a trigeneration system to drive the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical base-load systems. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the system, with various configurations and cooling loads. Measurement of actual yacht performance data forms the basis of this system simulation. It is found that for the optimum configuration using a double effect absorption chiller in Ship 1, the net electric power increases by 47% relative to the electrical power available for a conventional SOFC-GT-HVAC system. This is due to more air cooled to a lower temperature by absorption cooling; hence less electrical cooling by the conventional HVAC unit is required. The overall efficiency is 12.1% for the conventional system, 34.9% for the system with BROAD single effect absorption chiller, 43.2% for the system with double effect absorption chiller. This shows that the overall efficiency of a trigeneration system is far higher when waste heat recovery happens. The desiccant wheel hardly reduces moisture from the outdoor air due to a relative low mass flow rate of fuel cell exhaust available to dehumidify a very large mass flow rate of HVAC air, Hence, desiccant wheel is not recommended for this application.

  18. Application of finite inverse gas chromatography in hypromellose acetate succinate-water-acetone systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Wei; Sturm, Derek R; Moser, Justin D; Danner, Ronald P

    2016-09-30

    A modification of a GC was developed to investigate both infinitely dilute and finite concentrations of solvents in polymers. Thermodynamic properties of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-L)-acetone-water systems are important for the optimization of spray-drying processes used in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dispersion formulations. These properties, at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, were investigated using capillary column inverse gas chromatography (CCIGC). Water was much less soluble in the HPMCAS-L than acetone. Experiments were also conducted at infinitely dilute concentrations of one of the solvents in HPMCAS-L that was already saturated with the other solvent. Overall the partitioning of the water was not significantly affected by the presence of either water or acetone in the polymer. The acetone partition coefficient decreased as either acetone or water was added to the HPMCAS-L. A representation of the HPMCAS-L structure in terms of UNIFAC groups has been developed. With these groups, the UNIFAC-vdw-FV model did a reasonable job of predicting the phase equilibria in the binary and ternary systems. The Flory-Huggins correlation with fitted interaction parameters represented the data well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas Flow Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  20. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  1. Study on the nuclear heat application system with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor and its safety evaluation (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the realization of the nuclear heat application system with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), research and development on the whole evaluation of the system, the connection technology between the HTGR and a chemical plant such as the safety evaluation against the fire and explosion and the control technology, and the vessel cooling system of the HTGR were carried out. In the whole evaluation of the nuclear heat application system, an ammonia production system using nuclear heat was examined, and the technical subjects caused by the connection of the chemical plant to the HTGR were distilled. After distilling the subjects, the safety evaluation method against the fire and explosion to the reactor, the mitigation technology of thermal disturbance to the reactor, and the reactor core cooling by the vessel cooling system were discussed. These subjects are very important in terms of safety. About the fire and explosion, the safety evaluation method was established by developing the process and the numerical analysis code system. About the mitigation technology of the thermal disturbance, it was demonstrated that the steam generator, which was installed at the downstream of the chemical reactor in the chemical plant, could mitigate the thermal disturbance to the reactor. In order to enhance the safety of the reactor in accidents, the heat transfer characteristic of the passive indirect core cooling system was investigated, and the heat transfer equation considering both thermal radiation and natural convection was developed for the system design. As a result, some technical subjects related to safety in the nuclear heat application system were solved. (author)

  2. Development of a nuclear steam generator system for gas-cooled reactors for application in oil sands extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Hart, R.; Lazic, L.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has vast energy reserves in the Oil Sands regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Present extraction technologies, such as strip mining, where oil deposits are close to the surface, and Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technologies for deeper deposits consume significant amounts of energy to produce the bitumen and upgraded synthetic crude oil. Studies have been performed to assess the feasibility of using nuclear reactors as primary energy sources to produce, in particular the steam required for the SAGD deeper deposit extraction process. Presently available reactors fall short of meeting the requirements, in two areas: the steam produced in a 'standard' reactor is too low in pressure and temperature for the SAGD process. Requirements can be for steam as high as 12MPa pressure with superheat; and, 'standard' reactors are too large in total output. Ideally, reactors of output in the range of 400 to 500 MWth, in modules are better suited to Oil Sands applications. The above two requirements can be met using gas-cooled reactors. Generally, newer generation gas-cooled reactors have been designed for power generation, using Brayton Cycle gas turbines run directly from the heated reactor coolant (helium). Where secondary steam is required, heat recovery steam generators have been used. In this paper, a steam generating system is described which uses the high temperature helium from the reactor directly for steam generation purposes, with sufficient quantities of steam produced to allow for SAGD steam injection, power generation using a steam turbine-generator, and with potential secondary energy supply for other purposes such as hydrogen production for upgrading, and environmental remediation processes. It is assumed that the reactors will be in one central location, run by a utility type organization, providing process steam and electricity to surrounding Oil Sands projects, so steam produced is at very high pressure (12 MPa), with superheat, in order to

  3. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  4. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  5. Selection and Application of Sulfide Oxidizing Microorganisms Able to Withstand Thiols in Gas Biodesulfurization Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Pawel; Klok, Johannes B M; Sousa, João A B; Broman, Elias; Dopson, Mark; Van Zessen, Erik; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Janssen, Albert J H

    2016-12-06

    After the first commercial applications of a new biological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) from low pressure biogas, the need arose to broaden the operating window to also enable the removal of organosulfur compounds from high pressure sour gases. In this study we have selected microorganisms from a full-scale biodesulfurization system that are capable of withstanding the presence of thiols. This full-scale unit has been in stable operation for more than 10 years. We investigated the microbial community by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons which showed that methanethiol gave a competitive advantage to bacteria belonging to the genera Thioalkalibacter (Halothiobacillaceae family) and Alkalilimnicola (Ectothiorhosdospiraceae family). The sulfide-oxidizing potential of the acclimatized population was investigated under elevated thiol loading rates (4.5-9.1 mM d -1 ), consisting of a mix of methanethiol, ethanethiol, and propanethiol. With this biomass, it was possible to achieve a stable bioreactor operation at which 80% of the supplied H 2 S (61 mM d -1 ) was biologically oxidized to elemental sulfur. The remainder was chemically produced thiosulfate. Moreover, we found that a conventionally applied method for controlling the oxygen supply to the bioreactor, that is, by maintaining a redox potential set-point value, appeared to be ineffective in the presence of thiols.

  6. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  7. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  8. Development Output Program Data Entry System For RSG-GAS Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihombing, Edison; Sitorus, Jupiter; Imron, M.; Azriani

    2000-01-01

    Data Entry System is a data acquisition software of failure data of system and component. The acquisition data was calculated to get the failure rate, upper bound value. Since the calculated is big enough the development on Data Entry System program was introduced. Now, the data Entry System can be run to calculate big enough data

  9. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natvig, Bent; Eide, Kristina A.; Gasemyr, Jorund; Huseby, Arne B.; Isaksen, Stefan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  10. Selection and Application of Sulfide Oxidizing Microorganisms Able to Withstand Thiols in Gas Biodesulfurization Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Pawel; Klok, Johannes B.M.; Bastos Sousa, Joao; Broman, Elias; Dopson, Mark; Zessen, van Erik; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Janssen, Albert J.H.

    2016-01-01

    After the first commercial applications of a new biological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from low pressure biogas, the need arose to broaden the operating window to also enable the removal of organosulfur compounds from high pressure sour gases. In this study we

  11. The application of gas ejector for road transport air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumeru, Nasution, Henry; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel supply requires fuel and energy saving in energy utilization system. Therefore, these required the development of new and efficient technologies as to reduce fuel consumption especially in air conditioning of road vehicles. Currently, the air conditioning for road vehicles uses vapor compression system. Although the vapor compression system has high COP, the compressor is driven by vehicle engines, which take additional fuel consumption when the air conditioning system is in operation. In this study, the waste heat of radiator drives the ejector refrigeration for air conditioning. Although the ejector refrigeration system has low COP, the use of heat driven air conditioning will reduce the fuel consumption as compared with conventional system. This is because the systems do not use the mechanical engine load. The analysis of this study is based on the ejector refrigeration system using natural refrigerant (isobutene). The evaporation temperature is 10°C, condensation temperature is 35°C, generator temperature is 90°C with ejector isentropic efficiency of 0.7, and the COP system is 0.25. The heat released by the radiator of typical small road vehicles is between 60 to 100 kW and if the generator absorbs 20% of the heat, the heat contained in the generator is 12 to 20 kW. When the ejector air conditioning system has a COP 0.25, it will generate cooling capacity between 3 to 5 kW, compared with the conventional air conditioning of similar vehicles, which is approximately 2 to 4.4 kW.

  12. Some considerations in standard gas leak designs and their applications to computer control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, C.R.; Wedel, T.A.

    The primary difficulty with flow rate measurements below 10 -10 standard cubic centimeters per second (std. cc/sec) is that there are no commercially available standards. The requirements, however, dictate that the problem of design and construction of a qualifiable standard in the ultra-sensitive range had to be solved. There are a number of leak types which were considered: capillary leaks, orifice leaks, and the pore type leaks, among others. The capillary leak was not used because of the cracking or sorting effects that are common to this type leak. For example, a gas blend flowing through a capillary leak will result in the lighter gases passing through the leak first. The difficulty of fabricating the proper hole size in relation to the flow rate requirements ruled out the orifice type leak. The selected choice was the pore type leak which utilizes the basic concept of a stainless steel knife edge driven into a fixed section composed of stainless steel with a gold overlay and maintained under force

  13. On the definition of exergy efficiencies for petroleum systems: Application to offshore oil and gas processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Exergy-based efficiencies are measures of the thermodynamic perfection of systems and processes. A meaningful formulation of these performance criteria for petroleum systems is difficult because of (i) the high chemical exergy of hydrocarbons, (ii) the large variety of chemical components, and (iii....... They showed a low sensitivity to performance improvements, gave inconsistent results, or favoured facilities operating under certain con-ditions. We suggest an alternative formulation, called the component-by-component exergy efficiency, which builds on the decomposition of the exergy ows at the level...... the highest performance (29.6%). A more realistic measure of the technical potential for improving these systems can be carried out by splitting further the exergy destruction into its avoidable and unavoidable parts....

  14. Cogenerative Performance of a Wind − Gas Turbine − Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System for Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Michele; Branchini, Lisa; De Pascale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Gas Turbines (GT) are widely used for power generationin offshore oil and gas facilities, due to their high reliability,compactness and dynamic response capabilities. Small heavyduty and aeroderivative units in multiple arrangements aretypically used to offer larger load flexibility......, but limitedefficiency of such machines is the main drawback. A solutionto enhance the system performance, also in Combined Heat andPower (CHP) arrangement, is the implementation of OrganicRankine Cycle (ORC) systems at the bottom of the gas turbines.Moreover, the resulting GT-ORC combined cycle could befurther...... a 10MW offshorewind farm and three gas turbines rated for 16:5MW, eachone coupled with an 4:5MW ORC module. The ORC mainparameters are observed under different wind power fluctuations.Due to the non-programmable availability of wind and powerdemand, the part-load and dynamic characteristics...

  15. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  16. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-07-14

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  17. Modeling panel detection frequencies by queuing system theory: an application in gas chromatography olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Johannes H F; van Putten, Bram; Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Roozen, Jacques P; Voragen, Alphons G J; Kroeze, Jan H A

    2004-10-01

    In continuous vigilance tasks, the number of coincident panel responses to stimuli provides an index of stimulus detectability. To determine whether this number is due to chance, panel noise levels have been approximated by the maximum coincidence level obtained in stimulus-free conditions. This study proposes an alternative method by which to assess noise levels, derived from queuing system theory (QST). Instead of critical coincidence levels, QST modeling estimates the duration of coinciding responses in the absence of stimuli. The proposed method has the advantage over previous approaches that it yields more reliable noise estimates and allows for statistical testing. The method was applied in an olfactory detection experiment using 16 panelists in stimulus-present and stimulus-free conditions. We propose that QST may be used as an alternative to signal detection theory for analyzing data from continuous vigilance tasks.

  18. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  19. The rates measurement of methane hydrate formation and dissociation using micro-drilling system application for gas hydrate exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Dou [Engineering Faculty, China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China)]|[Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Technology Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Reinicke, K.M. [Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Technology Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Guosheng Jiang; Xiang Wu; Fulong Ning [Engineering Faculty, China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China)

    2006-07-01

    When drilling through gas hydrate bearing formations, the energy supplied by virtue of the drilling process may lead to a destabilization of the hydrates surrounding the wellbore. Therefore, as the number of oil and gas fields being development in deepwater and onshore arctic environments increases, greater emphasis should be placed on quantifying the risks, gas hydrates pose to drilling operations. The qualification of these risks requires a comprehensive understanding of gas hydrate-formation and dissociation as a result of drilling induced processes. To develop the required understanding of gas hydrat formation and dissociation, the authors conducted laboratory experiments by using a micro-drilling system, to study the dissociation rates of methane hydrates contained in a tank reactor. The test facility used is a development of China University of Geosciences. The rates of methane hydrate formation and dissociation in the tank reactor were measured at steady-state conditions at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 25 MPa and temperatures ranging from -5 to 20 C. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by the fluid system used to form the hydrates, pressure and temperature, with the influence of the temperature on methane hydrate dissociation being stronger than that of the pressure. Drilling speed, drilling fluids and hydrate dissociation inhibitors were also shown to influence hydrate dissociation rate. The derived results have been used to predict hydrate drilling stability for several drilling fluid systems.

  20. Aerospace gas/liquid separator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The space gas/liquid separator, a key component in the heat transport subsystem of a space reactor power system, was developed to remove helium gas from liquid lithium in zero gravity. Helium is generated from lithium irradiation in the reactor core and would reach saturation in lithium after 48 hours of full power operations. The gas/liquid separator is also applicable for large commercial powerplants to deaerate the water before and after the feedwater heaters. Another terrestrial application is for industrial companies to use the gas/liquid separator and wet chemistry to remove all the gases from the air and only discharge clean air to the atmosphere. An additional application that resulted from this gas/liquid separator technology, was separating liquid carbon dioxide from nitrogen. This application is opposite from the space application in that it is removing a liquid from a gas rather than a gas from a liquid

  1. Diagnosis of dynamic systems based on explicit and implicit behavioural models: an application to gas turbines in Esprit Project Tiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Milne, R.

    1995-12-31

    We are interested in the monitoring and diagnosis of dynamic systems. In our work, we are combining explicit temporal models of the behaviour of a dynamic system with implicit behavioural models supporting model based approaches. This work is drive by the needs of and applied to, two gas turbines of very different size and power. In this paper we describe the problems of building systems for these domains and illustrate how we have developed a system where these two approaches complement each other to provide a comprehensive fault detection and diagnosis system. We also explore the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The work described here is currently working continuously, on line to a gas turbine in a major chemical plant. (author) 24 refs.

  2. Diagnosis of dynamic systems based on explicit and implicit behavioural models: an application to gas turbines in Esprit Project Tiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Milne, R

    1996-12-31

    We are interested in the monitoring and diagnosis of dynamic systems. In our work, we are combining explicit temporal models of the behaviour of a dynamic system with implicit behavioural models supporting model based approaches. This work is drive by the needs of and applied to, two gas turbines of very different size and power. In this paper we describe the problems of building systems for these domains and illustrate how we have developed a system where these two approaches complement each other to provide a comprehensive fault detection and diagnosis system. We also explore the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The work described here is currently working continuously, on line to a gas turbine in a major chemical plant. (author) 24 refs.

  3. Quantifying the value of investing in distributed natural gas and renewable electricity systems as complements: Applications of discounted cash flow and real options analysis with stochastic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen

    2016-01-01

    One energy policy objective in the United States is to promote the adoption of technologies that provide consumers with stable, secure, and clean energy. Recent work provides anecdotal evidence of natural gas (NG) and renewable electricity (RE) synergies in the power sector, however few studies quantify the value of investing in NG and RE systems together as complements. This paper uses discounted cash flow analysis and real options analysis to value hybrid NG-RE systems in distributed applications, focusing on residential and commercial projects assumed to be located in the states of New York and Texas. Technology performance and operational risk profiles are modeled at the hourly level to capture variable RE output and NG prices are modeled stochastically as geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) stochastic processes to capture NG price uncertainty. The findings consistently suggest that NG-RE hybrid distributed systems are more favorable investments in the applications studied relative to their single-technology alternatives when incentives for renewables are available. In some cases, NG-only systems are the favorable investments. Understanding the value of investing in NG-RE hybrid systems provides insights into one avenue towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, given the important role of NG and RE in the power sector. - Highlights: • Natural gas and renewable electricity can be viewed as complements. • We model hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems at the hourly level. • We incorporate variable renewable power output and uncertain natural gas prices. • Hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems can be valuable investments.

  4. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  5. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  6. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  7. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  8. Application of Module System for Processing a Large Capacity of Coal Steam Power Plant Flue gas by Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukijatmo; Munawir Z, M.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual design of SOx dan NOx flue gas treatment base on 25% of 400 M We capacity and 90% efficiency reduction of SOx, the electron beam machine will be utilized to performed the environment quality standard of air pollution. The technical specification of electron beam machine, processing system and chamber dimension should conformed to the regulation. The discussion is focused on the selection of electron beam machine type and the dimension of radiation vessel for perfect reaction and exact time processing. The design calculation is indicated that we need two electron beam machines of 500 mA, 800 kV installed in parallel and 3 up to 3.4 metres diameter, the speed of flue gas in the vessel around 16.4 up to 18.14 metre per second, 80% treatment of 0,7% sulphur content coal is conform to regulation on emission of flue gas environment, and only 50% of flue gas needed to be treated by 4 modular. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of a trigeneration (TRIGEN) system with a gas-diesel engine: Part II - An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, Ozgur; Aras, Haydar; Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    The paper is Part 2 of the study on the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of trigeneration system with a gas-diesel engine. In Part 1, thermodynamic and thermoeconomic methodologies for such a comprehensive analysis were provided, while this paper applies the developed methodology to an actual TRIGEN system with a rated output of 6.5 MW gas-diesel engine installed in the Eskisehir Industry Estate Zone, Turkey. Energy and exergy efficiencies, equivalent electrical efficiency, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) efficiency, fuel energy saving ratio, fuel exergy saving ratio and other thermodynamic performance parameters are determined for the TRIGEN system. The efficiencies of energy, exergy, PURPA and equivalent electrical efficiency of the entire system are found to be 58.97%, 36.13%, 45.7% and 48.53%, respectively. For the whole system and its components, exergetic cost allocations and various exergoeconomic performance parameters are calculated using the exergoeconomic analysis based on specific exergy costing method (SPECO). The specific unit exergetic cost of the net electrical power, heat energy in the Factory Heating Center (FHC) heating, heat energy in the Painting Factory Heating (PFH) and chilled water in the absorption chiller (ACh) produced by the TRIGEN system are obtained to be 45.94 US$/GJ, 29.98 US$/GJ, 42.42 US$/GJ and 167.52 US$/GJ, respectively.

  10. System of treating flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas

  11. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  12. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  13. A custom on-line ultrasonic gas mixture analyzer with simultaneous flowmetry developed for use in the LHC-ATLAS experiment, with wide application in high and low flow gas delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho- Direito, J.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Da Riva, E.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Lombard, D.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Deterre, C.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Degeorge, C.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a combined ultrasonic instrument for continuous gas flow measurement and simultaneous real-time binary gas mixture analysis. In the instrument, sound bursts are transmitted in opposite directions, which may be aligned with the gas flow path or at an angle to it, the latter configuration being the best adapted to high flow rates. Custom electronics based on Microchip R dsPIC and ADuC847 micro-controllers transmits 50 kHz ultrasound pulses and measures transit times in the two directions together with the process gas temperature and pressure. The combined flow measurement and mixture analysis algorithm exploits the phenomenon whereby the sound velocity in a binary gas mixture at known temperature and pressure is a unique function of the molar concentration of the two components. The instrument is central to a possible upgrade to the present ATLAS silicon tracker cooling system in which octafluoro-propane (C 3 F 8 ) evaporative cooling fluid would be replaced by a blend containing up to 25% hexafluoro-ethane (C 2 F 6 ). Such a blend will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) increases. The instrument has been developed in two geometries following computational fluid dynamics studies of various mechanical layouts. An instrument with 45 crossing angle has been built in stainless steel and installed for commissioning in the ATLAS silicon tracker evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system. It can be used in gas flows up to 20000 l.min -1 , and has demonstrated a flow resolution of 2.3% of full scale for linear flow velocities up to 10 m.s-1 in preliminary studies with air. Other instruments are currently used to detect low levels of C 3 F 8 vapour leaking into the N 2 environmental gas surrounding the ATLAS silicon tracker. Gas from several

  14. Exergy based methods for economic and risk design optimization of energy systems: Application to a gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, G.; Rocco, M.V.; Colombo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Exergy based analyses are considered by the scientific community appropriate tools for the design and the performance evaluation and improvements of energy systems. Moreover, they are today recognized as proper instruments to assess economic, environmental and social externalities of energy systems. This paper presents the results of a study in which different exergy analysis methods are adopted to determine the optimal design configuration of a gas turbine operating in simple Joule Brayton cycle. Standard exergy and Thermoeconomic analyses are performed to identify the highest thermodynamic efficiency and minimum economic cost configurations of the system, while for the environmental analysis Authors propose an innovative method in which the exergy analysis is combined with a Risk Analysis. With this method the total risk associated to the system is used as objective function in the same way as monetary cost is for standard Thermoeconomic analysis. These three methods aims therefore to determine the optimal design configurations of the system with respect to their specific objective functions, respectively: exergy cost (J/J), monetary (exergoeconomic) cost (€/J) and risk (injured/J) of the product. Results lead to three different optimal design parameters for the system, according to the objective of each analysis procedure. - Highlights: • An original implementation of Thermoeconomic framework is proposed. • Standard Exergy and Thermoeconomic analysis are performed on a case study. • A new model using exergy as allocation criteria for Risk Analysis is performed. • Different optimal configurations are obtained and compared

  15. Pipeline system for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Tsutomu; Umezawa, Sadao.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Novel electron gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Rapisarda, F.; Conti, S.

    1998-01-01

    We review recent progress on the physics of electrons in the bilayered electron gas, relevant to coupled quantum wells in GaAs/AIGaAs heterostructures. First we focus on the phase diagram of a symmetric bilayer at T = B = 0, obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations. It is found that inter-layer correlations stabilize crystalline structures at intermediate inter-layer separation, while favoring a liquid phase at smaller distance. Also, the available DMC evidence is in contrast with the recently (Hartree-Fock) predicted total charge transfer (TCT), whereby all the electron spontaneously jump in one layer. In fact, one can show that such a TCT state is never stable in the ideal bilayer with no tunneling. We finally comment on ongoing DMC investigations on the electron-hole bilayer, where excitonic condensation is expected to take place. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  17. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  19. Exponential-fitted methods for integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations: Applications to homogeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional algorithms for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on the use of polynomial functions as interpolants. However, the exact solutions of stiff ODEs behave like decaying exponential functions, which are poorly approximated by polynomials. An obvious choice of interpolant are the exponential functions themselves, or their low-order diagonal Pade (rational function) approximants. A number of explicit, A-stable, integration algorithms were derived from the use of a three-parameter exponential function as interpolant, and their relationship to low-order, polynomial-based and rational-function-based implicit and explicit methods were shown by examining their low-order diagonal Pade approximants. A robust implicit formula was derived by exponential fitting the trapezoidal rule. Application of these algorithms to integration of the ODEs governing homogenous, gas-phase chemical kinetics was demonstrated in a developmental code CREK1D, which compares favorably with the Gear-Hindmarsh code LSODE in spite of the use of a primitive stepsize control strategy.

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  1. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  2. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The design, installation and testing of each LPG system must meet ABYC A-1, “Marine Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST...

  3. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  4. [Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Gas Hydrate Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wu, Neng-you; Lu, Hai-long; Wu, Dai-dai; Su, Qiu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Gas hydrates are important potential energy resources. Microstructural characterization of gas hydrate can provide information to study the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and to support the exploitation and application of gas hydrate technology. This article systemly introduces the basic principle of laser Raman spectroscopy and summarizes its application in gas hydrate studies. Based on Raman results, not only can the information about gas composition and structural type be deduced, but also the occupancies of large and small cages and even hydration number can be calculated from the relative intensities of Raman peaks. By using the in-situ analytical technology, laser Raman specstropy can be applied to characterize the formation and decomposition processes of gas hydrate at microscale, for example the enclathration and leaving of gas molecules into/from its cages, to monitor the changes in gas concentration and gas solubility during hydrate formation and decomposition, and to identify phase changes in the study system. Laser Raman in-situ analytical technology has also been used in determination of hydrate structure and understanding its changing process under the conditions of ultra high pressure. Deep-sea in-situ Raman spectrometer can be employed for the in-situ analysis of the structures of natural gas hydrate and their formation environment. Raman imaging technology can be applied to specify the characteristics of crystallization and gas distribution over hydrate surface. With the development of laser Raman technology and its combination with other instruments, it will become more powerful and play a more significant role in the microscopic study of gas hydrate.

  5. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  6. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  7. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  8. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  9. Relaxation dynamics of a driven two-level system coupled to a Bose-Einstein condensate: application to quantum dot-dipolar exciton gas hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vadim M; Tse, Wang-Kong

    2017-11-22

    We develop a microscopic theory for the relaxation dynamics of an optically pumped two-level system (TLS) coupled to a bath of weakly interacting Bose gas. Using Keldysh formalism and diagrammatic perturbation theory, expressions for the relaxation times of the TLS Rabi oscillations are derived when the boson bath is in the normal state and the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state. We apply our general theory to consider an irradiated quantum dot coupled with a boson bath consisting of a two-dimensional dipolar exciton gas. When the bath is in the BEC regime, relaxation of the Rabi oscillations is due to both condensate and non-condensate fractions of the bath bosons for weak TLS-light coupling and pre dominantly due to the non-condensate fraction for strong TLS-light coupling. Our theory also shows that a phase transition of the bath from the normal to the BEC state strongly influences the relaxation rate of the TLS Rabi oscillations. The TLS relaxation rate is approximately independent of the pump field frequency and monotonically dependent on the field strength when the bath is in the low-temperature regime of the normal phase. Phase transition of the dipolar exciton gas leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the TLS relaxation rate on both the pump field frequency and field strength, providing a characteristic signature for the detection of BEC phase transition of the coupled dipolar exciton gas.

  10. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  11. City gas supply management system. Toshi gas kyokyu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, S [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-05

    Supply and control system of city gas (about 90% is LNG) at Tokyo Gas Company is summarized. The LNG is delivered from the high pressure, A-middle pressure and B-middle pressure stations through the low pressure governors at about 3,000 locations to the low-pressure conduit networks. The information system department uses a large-size general purpose IBM computer as a host computer, control computers at each station, and communication networks consisted mainly of the in-house wireless networks. The trunk lines are all looped, and the important facilities are dualized. Characteristic functions include the supply prediction, which takes into account the past supply and ambient temperature records, a day of the week for a particular date, and demand fluctuation trends; adjustments of each holder based on the prediction and restrictions; and piping network simulation to decide gas manufacturing patterns, and determine reasonability of local construction of complicated conduits. The monitoring and control system as the central nerve includes a quick block-wide operation at an accident from earthquake and the like to prevent wide area disasters. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  13. Application of the FTA and ETA Method for Gas Hazard Identification for the Performance of Safety Systems in the Industrial Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignac-Nowicka, Jolanta

    2018-03-01

    The paper analyzes the conditions of safe use of industrial gas systems and factors influencing gas hazards. Typical gas installation and its basic features have been characterized. The results of gas threat analysis in an industrial enterprise using FTA error tree method and ETA event tree method are presented. Compares selected methods of identifying hazards gas industry with respect to the scope of their use. The paper presents an analysis of two exemplary hazards: an industrial gas catastrophe (FTA) and an explosive gas explosion (ETA). In both cases, technical risks and human errors (human factor) were taken into account. The cause-effect relationships of hazards and their causes are presented in the form of diagrams in the drawings.

  14. [Phylogeny of gas exchange systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, K D; Gros, G

    2002-04-01

    Several systems of gas transport have developed during evolution, all of which are able to sufficiently supply oxygen to the tissues and eliminate the CO2 produced by the metabolism, in spite of great distances between the environment and the individual cells of the tissues. Almost all these systems utilize a combination of convection and diffusion steps. Convection achieves an efficient transport of gas over large distances, but requires energy and cannot occur across tissue barriers. Diffusion, on the other hand, achieves gas transport across barriers, but requires optimization of diffusion paths and diffusion areas. When two convectional gas flows are linked via a diffusional barrier (gas/fluid in the case of the avian lung, fluid/fluid in the case of gills), the directions in which the respective convectional movements pass each other are important determinants of gas exchange efficiency (concurrent, countercurrent and cross-current systems). The tracheal respiration found in insects has the advantage of circumventing the convective gas transport step in the blood, thereby avoiding the high energy expenditure of circulatory systems. This is made possible by a system of tracheae, ending in tracheoles, that reaches from the body surface to every cell within the body. The last step of gas transfer in these animals occurs by diffusion from the tracheoles ("air capillaries") to the mitochondria of cells. The disadvantage is that the tracheal system occupies a substantial fraction of body volume and that, due to limited mechanical stability of tracheal walls, this system would not be able to operate under conditions of high hydrostatic pressures, i. e. in large animals. Respiration in an "open" system, i. e. direct exposure of the diffusional barrier to the environmental air, eliminates the problem of bringing the oxygen to the barrier by convection, as is necessary in the avian and mammalian lung, in the insects' tracheal system and in the gills. An open system is

  15. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  16. Gas tagging system development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Rindo, H.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, T.; Heki, H.

    1981-05-01

    The Gas tagging method has been considered to be most desirable for a failed fuel location system for the fast breeder reactor, regarding the component reduction in the reactor vessel and rapid location during reactor operation. The gas tagging system has been designed by referring to R and D results obtained in Japan and other countries. The designed system is comprised of tag gas filling pins, cover gas sampling system, tag gas recovery and enrichment system, tag gas analyzer and system control and data handling computers. The main specifications for this system have been decided as follows; 1) Main function is location of failed fuels in core and a part of blanket region, 2) Identification capability is each subassembly, 3) Time for identification is within a few days, 4) Continuous operation with automatic start at fuel failure, 5) Detection sensitivity must cover both gas leak and pin burst. In designing the gas tagging system, the following R and D items were selected; 1) System design study, 2) Tag gas capsule development, 3) Modeling the tag gas behavior in reactor primary cooling system, 4) Tag gas recovery and enrichment system, 5) Computer code development for tag gas isotope ratio change estimation. Details of the Japanese gas tagging system development appear in this paper. (author)

  17. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, James B. (Inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  18. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  19. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  20. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  1. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  2. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project

  3. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  4. Application of model MTS5 dew-point meter in gas sampling and analyzing system of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang; Li Zhihui

    2010-01-01

    The feature of humidity detector to measure the content of water in pure helium of main loop of reactor was discussed, and the circumstances using Al 2 O 3 moisture sensor to measure the content of water in helium on-line were introduced. During those few years, the dew-point meter has sufficed to measure the content of water in the helium gas during the running of the reactor. On the other hand, excursion can happen when the instrument running. Demarcate must be made periodically to improve the veracity of the meter. (authors)

  5. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  7. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  8. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems... requirements: (a) The design, installation and testing of each LPG system must meet ABYC A-1, “Marine Liquefied...

  9. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  10. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  12. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  13. The gas introduction system of JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, A.; Dietz, K.J.; Rebut, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Gas Introduction System of JET is designed to handle, measure, transfer and inject into the machine, at given rates and times, the quantities of gases required to feel the plasma discharges. The System is composed by a Gas Handling Unit for the gas preparation, and four identical Gas Introduction Modules which are positioned symmetrically at the machine. The lay-out and design of the different components is described and operational experience is presented. (author)

  14. The gas introduction system of JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, A.; Dietz, K.J.; Rebut, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Gas Introduction System of JET is designed to handle, measure, transfer and inject into the machine, at given rates and times, the quantitites of gases required to feed the plasma discharges. The System is composed by a Gas Handling Unit for the gas preparation, and four identical Gas Introduction Modules which are positioned symmetrically at the machine. In this paper the lay-out and design of the different components is described and operational experience is presented

  15. Nitrogen mineralisation and greenhouse gas emission from the soil application of sludge from reed bed mineralisation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Larsen, Julie Dam; Bekiaris, G

    2017-01-01

    A sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is a technology used for dewatering and stabilising sewage sludge via assisted biological mineralisation, which creates a sludge residue suitable for use as fertiliser on agricultural land. We evaluated the effect of sludge residue storage time (stabilisa......A sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is a technology used for dewatering and stabilising sewage sludge via assisted biological mineralisation, which creates a sludge residue suitable for use as fertiliser on agricultural land. We evaluated the effect of sludge residue storage time...... (stabilisation time) for three STRBs on soil N mineralisation and CO2 and N2O emissions in soil. The experiment revealed that the N mineralisation rate and emissions of CO2 and N2O decreased as a function of treatment time in the STRBs. Mixed sludge residue (sludge residue subjected to different treatment times......) for the three STRBs resulted in N mineralisation rates similar to the sludge residue subjected to a shorter treatment time but lower N2O emissions similar to the values of the older sludge residue. This finding reveals that combining fresh and more stabilised sludge residue ensures high N availability...

  16. Safety of the medical gas pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Sarangi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical gases are nowadays being used for a number of diverse clinical applications and its piped delivery is a landmark achievement in the field of patient care. Patient safety is of paramount importance in the design, installation, commissioning, and operation of medical gas pipeline systems (MGPS. The system has to be operational round the clock, with practically zero downtime and its failure can be fatal if not restored at the earliest. There is a lack of awareness among the clinicians regarding the medico-legal aspect involved with the MGPS. It is a highly technical field; hence, an in-depth knowledge is a must to ensure safety with the system.

  17. A gas conditioning and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.

    1974-01-01

    A system for carrying out a rapid analysis of explosive gas-mixtures is described. This system comprises a conduit connecting a sample taking point to a detection chamber, said chamber containing a mass of liquid into which the gas sample is discharged and being provided with a detecting unit for analyzing gases and with separate gas exit and liquid exit. The liquid is sent to a level-regulating chamber, whereas said gas exit sends the gas to a gas-stopping chamber which is in turn, connected to the conduit leading to a discharge point, and a vacuum pump for drawing up the gas sample into the system. This can be apply to nuclear power stations [fr

  18. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  19. Gas-cooled reactors for advanced terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, K.; Lance, J.R.; Jones, A.R.; Spurrier, F.R.; Peoples, J.A.; Porter, C.A.; Bresnahan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual design of a power plant on an inert gas cooled nuclear coupled to an open, air Brayton power conversion cycle is presented. The power system, called the Westinghouse GCR/ATA (Gas-Cooled Reactors for Advanced Terrestrial Applications), is designed to meet modern military needs, and offers the advantages of secure, reliable and safe electrical power. The GCR/ATA concept is adaptable over a range of 1 to 10 MWe power output. Design descriptions of a compact, air-transportable forward base unit for 1 to 3 MWe output and a fixed-base, permanent installation for 3 to 10 MWe output are presented

  20. Gas-cooled reactor application for a university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ue.; Kadiroghlu, O.K.; Soekmen, C.N.; Schmitt, H.

    1991-01-01

    Large urban areas with unfavourable topographic and meteorological conditions suffer severe air pollution during the winter months. Use of low grade lignites, imported higher quality coal or imported fuel oil are the sources of air pollution in the form of sulphur dioxide, fly ash and soot. Large housing complexes or old and historical locations within the city are in need of pollution free centralized district heating systems. Natural gas imported from the Soviet Union is a solution for this problem. Lack of gas distribution network for high pressure gas within the city is the main bottle-neck for the heating systems utilizing natural gas. Concern of the safety of flammable high pressure gas circulating within the city is another drawback for the natural gas heating systems. Nuclear district heating is an environmentally viable option worth looking into it. Localized urban nuclear heating is an interesting solution for large urban areas with old and historical character. The results of a feasibility study on the HGR application for the Hacettepe University presented here, summarizes the concept of gas-cooled heating reactors specially designed for urban centers. The inherently safe characteristics of the pebble bed heating reactor makes localized urban nuclear heating a viable alternative to other heat sources. An economical analysis of various heat sources with equal power levels is done for the Beytepe campus of Hacettepe University in Ankara. Under special boundary conditions, the price for heat generation can be much lower for nuclear heating with GHR 20 than for hard coal or fuel oil. It is also possible that if the price escalation rate for natural gas exceeds 3%, then nuclear heating with GHR can be more competitive. It is concluded that the nuclear heating of Beytepe campus with a GHR 20 is feasible and economical. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs

  1. Expert hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Selection and design of oil and gas distribution systems involves a large number of decision makers and interest groups, as well as many alternative technical, financial, network, operating, management and regulatory options. Their objectives and measures of performance are different. Decision models can be effectively represented by hierarchical structures. A simple deterministic analytic hierarchy process is presented with application to oil and gas distribution systems

  2. Reconstruction of Low Pressure Gas Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current reconstruction of residential areas in large cities especially with the developed heat-supply systems from thermal power stations and reduction of heat consumption for heating due to higher thermal resistance of building enclosing structures requires new technical solutions in respect of gas-supply problems. While making reconstruction of a gas-supply system of the modernized or new buildings in the operating zone of one gas-distribution plant it is necessary to change hot water-supply systems from gas direct-flow water heaters to centralized heat-supply and free gas volumes are to be used for other needs or gas-supply of new buildings with the current external gas distribution network.Selection of additional gas-line sections and points of gas-supply systems pertaining to new and reconstructed buildings for their connection to the current distribution system of gas-supply is to be executed in accordance with the presented methodology.

  3. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  4. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  5. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  6. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  7. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, F.G.

    1994-01-01

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  8. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  9. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  10. Gas system proposal for the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, F; Lindner, R

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the gas system proposed for the LHCb Muon system, following the Gas Working Group mandate to ensure the uniform approach to gas technology and controls across the LHC detectors. Standard technical design modules are employed as fas as possible, in order to minimise design overheads and long term support costs.

  11. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  12. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO 2 per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment

  13. Gas fueling system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, Mohammad Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down and initiation, the piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low costs for both construction and maintenance and its flexibility in working gas selection. The main functions of SST-1 gas feed system are to feed the required amount of ultrahigh purity hydrogen gas for specified period into the vessel during plasma operation and ultrahigh helium gas for glow discharge cleaning. In addition to these facilities, the gas feed system is used to feed a mixture gas of hydrogen and helium as well as other gases like nitrogen and Argon during divertor cooling etc. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before the plasma operation during each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of gas fueling in SST-1. (author)

  14. Application of molecular microbial ecology tools to facilitate the development of feeding systems for ruminant livestock that reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.; Mitsumori, M.; Makkar, H.P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Ruminant livestock populations in developing countries are increasing in response to increasing demand for meat and milk. These animals are a major global source of methane, a greenhouse gas produced during the degradation of organic matter by micro-organisms in the foregut of ruminant livestock. Chemical inhibition of methanogenic micro-organisms has been reported; however, associated improvements in feed digestion and livestock productivity have not been consistently demonstrated. Gene-based technologies have the potential to contribute new knowledge of the rumen microbial populations involved in these processes, which will assist in identifying feeding practices that lead to methane abatement and improved livestock productivity. For small-scale farmers, feeding interventions that achieve greenhouse gas abatement need also to be associated with improved feed conversion efficiency and enterprise profitability. During the adoption of methane abatement technologies, other regionally important issues such as poverty, food security, sustainable agriculture production systems and environmental management must also be addressed. (author)

  15. European standards applied by Gas Transmission System Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, M.; Kuchta, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Teperek, T.

    2005-01-01

    The lecture described actual state of implementation of European standards concerning transmission of natural gas and underlined their importance for proper performance of Transmission System Operator (TSO). European standards implemented to Polish Standards as PN-EN, necessary for TSO, related to design, construction and operation of high pressure gas network were also described. The lecture underlined as well the impact of standards application on preparation process of national regulations. They obligate TSO to create the technical conditions that ensure safety of gas transmission network functioning as well as environmental and surroundings safety. (authors)

  16. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  17. Accident on the gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.

    1991-10-01

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  18. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  19. Inert gas handling in ion plating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, A.R.; Burden, M.St.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the best methods for production and monitoring of the inert gas environment for ion plating systems are reported. Work carried out on Pirani gauges and high pressure ion gauges for the measurement of pressures in the ion plating region (1 - 50mtorr) and the use of furnaces for cleaning argon is outlined. A schematic of a gas handling system is shown and discussed. (UK)

  20. Gas Control System for HEAO-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B.; Brissette, R.; Humphrey, A.; Morris, J.; Luger, J.; Swift, W.

    1978-01-01

    The HEAO-B Gas Control System consists of a high pressure gas storage supply together with distribution and regulation assemblies and their associated electronics for management of gas required for HEAO-B X-ray counter experiments. The Gas Control System replenishes a gas mixture (82 percent argon, 12.3 percent carbon dioxide, 5.7 percent xenon) in the counter volumes which is lost by: diffusion through controlled leakage plugs, diffusion through counter windows, and consumption resulting from periodic purges. The gas density in each counter volume is maintained constant to within 0.25 percent by comparison with a sealed reference volume. The system is fully redundant, capable of operating at atmospheric pressure as well as in a vacuum, contains interlocks which shut down gas flow in the event of either leakage or excessive pressure, and is able to shut down counter high voltage if counter pressure is abnormally low. The system is electronically controlled by ground command and self-sustaining in orbit for a period of at least one year.

  1. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  2. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  3. Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, M.; Schley, P.

    1995-01-01

    Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of the c p o correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were adjusted to selected c p o data calculated form spectroscopic data for temperatures ranging from 10 to 1000 K. The data sources used are discussed and compared with literature data deduced from theoretic models and caloric measurements. The parameters presented will be applied in a current GERG project for evaluating equations of state (e.g., the AGA 8 equation) for their suitability for calculating caloric properties

  4. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Devikala, S.; Kamaraj, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In t...

  5. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  6. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  7. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions: Theoretical development and application in the study of phase separation in gas-liquid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkinides, E. S.; Monson, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Building on recent developments in dynamic density functional theory, we have developed a version of the theory that includes hydrodynamic interactions. This is achieved by combining the continuity and momentum equations eliminating velocity fields, so the resulting model equation contains only terms related to the fluid density and its time and spatial derivatives. The new model satisfies simultaneously continuity and momentum equations under the assumptions of constant dynamic or kinematic viscosity and small velocities and/or density gradients. We present applications of the theory to spinodal decomposition of subcritical temperatures for one-dimensional and three-dimensional density perturbations for both a van der Waals fluid and for a lattice gas model in mean field theory. In the latter case, the theory provides a hydrodynamic extension to the recently studied dynamic mean field theory. We find that the theory correctly describes the transition from diffusive phase separation at short times to hydrodynamic behaviour at long times

  8. Progress Toward a Microfabricated Gas Turbine Generator for Soldier Portable Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, S. A; Das, S; Savoulides, N; Steyn, J. L; Lang, J; Li, H. Q; Livermore, C; Schmidt, M. A; Teo, C. J; Umans, S. D; Epstein, A. H; Arnold, D. P; Park, J-W; Zana, I; Allen, M. G

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) turbocharger and electric generator devices have been fabricated and tested as part of a program at MIT to develop a microfabricated gas turbine generator for portable power applications...

  9. Turbulent combustion modeling using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds for Gas Turbine applications in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Panek, L.; Lammel, O.; Krebs, W.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous interest in reducing pollutions and developing both an efficient and clean combustion system require large attention in the design requirements, especially when related to industrial gas turbine application. Although in recent years the advancements in modelling have increased

  10. Gas Fuelling System for SST-1Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, M. S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in the Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down & initiation, piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as a primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low construction and maintenance cost and its flexibility in the selection of the working gas. Hydrogen gas feeding with piezoelectric valve is used in the SST-1 plasma experiments. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of the gas fuelling system of SST-1.

  11. [Application of continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system "Paratrend 7" for pulmonary lavage of a patient with alveolar proteinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, M; Hirose, Y; Gamo, M; Hirose, M; Fujiwara, C; Matsuo, K

    1999-03-01

    We applied a continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system (Paratrend 7) to a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis during pulmonary lavage. Lavage was performed under general anesthesia with one lung ventilation. We inserted the sensor of Patatrend 7 through a 20 G catheter into the radial artery, and monitored pH, PaCO2 and PaO2 continuously throughout the procedure. SpO2 and EtCO2 were also monitored. Saline 1000-1500 ml was instilled and drained repeatedly by volume limited methods. PaO2 values by Paratrend 7 increased during instillation and decreased during drainage of the irrigating fluid. In contrast, PaCO2 value by Paratrend 7 decreased slightly during instillation and increased during drainage. The change of SpO2 was almost the same as that by Paratrend 7, but the response time of pulse oxymetry was a little quicker than Paratrend 7. During the lavage procedure, respiratory and circulatory condition changed very rapidly, and it is necessary to monitor blood gas change intensively. Paratrend 7 is useful as a perioperative monitoring system, but pulse oxymetry might be sufficient during pulmonary lavage considering its cost.

  12. WWW expert system on producer gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, E.J.; Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The University of Groningen (RUG) has developed an expert system on cleaning of biomass producer gas. This work was carried out in close co-operation with the Biomass Technology Group B.V. (BTG) in Enschede, The Netherlands within the framework of the EC supported JOR3-CT95-0084 project. The expert system was developed as a tool for the designer-engineer of downstream gas cleaning equipment and consists of an information package and a flowsheet package. The packages are integrated in a client/server system. The flowsheeting package of the expert system has been designed for the evaluation of different gas cleaning methods. The system contains a number of possible gas cleaning devices such as: cyclone, fabric filter, ceramic filter, venturi scrubber and catalytic cracker. The user can select up to five cleaning steps in an arbitrary order for his specific gas cleaning problem. After specification of the required design parameters, the system calculates the main design characteristics of the cleaning device. The information package is a collection of HTML{sup TM} files. It contains a large amount of information, tips, experience data, literature references and hyperlinks to other interesting Internet sites. This information is arranged per cleaning device. (orig.)

  13. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  14. Application of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basden, A

    1983-11-01

    This article seeks to bring together a number of issues relevant to the application of expert systems by discussing their advantages and limitations, their roles and benefits, and the influence that real-life applications might have on the design of expert systems software. Part of the expert systems strategy of one major chemical company is outlined. Because it was in constructing one particular expert system that many of these issues became important this system is described briefly at the start of the paper and used to illustrate much of the later discussion. It is of the plausible-inference type and has application in the field of materials engineering. 22 references.

  15. Advanced research and development of gas hydrate resources. R and D of exploration and others - R and D of excavation technologies and others - surveys/researches on methods of evaluating environmental effects - surveys/researches on application systems; Gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu / riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Gas hydrate is a clathrate compound in a gaseous molecule as the host, stable under relatively mild environments. It is deposited in the 600m or deeper sea bottoms to form the gas hydrate deposit and massively occurring in the sea areas around Japan. This deposit has been studied viewed from natural gas resources, causes for natural hazards and contribution to the global warming. This project excavates a well in the deposit, to study possibilities of the technologies for decomposing, fluidizing and lifting the hydrate as the gas source, and for establishing the natural gas transporting/mooring systems in which its characteristics are utilized. The R and D activities are directed to the 4 areas, (1) development of the exploration technologies to determine the deposit sea area, quantity and conditions, (2) development of the stable well-excavation technologies, (3) studies on the effects of gas production on the environments, and development of the system for predicting the effects, (4) and studies on the application systems. The item (3) finds out the transportation/storage system possibly more economical than the current freezing/liquefaction technologies. The item (3) has the development themes of evaluating the geohazards caused by excavation and gas production, and their effects on the ecological systems. (NEDO)

  16. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Gas Chromatographic System for the Detection of Ethylene Gas Using Ambient Air as a Carrier Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nayyer Abbas; Tahir, Muhammad Waseem; Vellekoop, Michael J; Lang, Walter

    2017-10-07

    Ethylene gas is a naturally occurring gas that has an influence on the shelf life of fruit during their transportation in cargo ships. An unintentional exposure of ethylene gas during transportation results in a loss of fruit. A gas chromatographic system is presented here for the detection of ethylene gas. The gas chromatographic system was assembled using a preconcentrator, a printed 3D printed gas chromatographic column, a humidity sensor, solenoid valves, and an electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. Ambient air was used as a carrier gas in the gas chromatographic system. The flow rate was fixed to 10 sccm. It was generated through a mini-pump connected in series with a mass flow controller. The metal oxide gas sensor is discussed with its limitation in ambient air. The results show the chromatogram obtained from metal oxide gas sensor has low stability, drifts, and has uncertain peaks, while the chromatogram from the electrochemical sensor is stable and precise. Furthermore, ethylene gas measurements at higher ppb concentration and at lower ppb concentration were demonstrated with the electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. The system separates ethylene gas and humidity. The chromatograms obtained from the system are stable, and the results are 1.2% repeatable in five similar measurements. The statistical calculation of the gas chromatographic system shows that a concentration of 2.3 ppb of ethylene gas can be detected through this system.

  18. FFTF fission gas monitor computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a liquid-metal-cooled test reactor located on the Hanford site. A dual computer system has been developed to monitor the reactor cover gas to detect and characterize any fuel or test pin fission gas releases. The system acquires gamma spectra data, identifies isotopes, calculates specific isotope and overall cover gas activity, presents control room alarms and displays, and records and prints data and analysis reports. The fission gas monitor system makes extensive use of commercially available hardware and software, providing a reliable and easily maintained system. The design provides extensive automation of previous manual operations, reducing the need for operator training and minimizing the potential for operator error. The dual nature of the system allows one monitor to be taken out of service for periodic tests or maintenance without interrupting the overall system functions. A built-in calibrated gamma source can be controlled by the computer, allowing the system to provide rapid system self tests and operational performance reports

  19. Videoscope applications in oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Bachek

    2003-01-01

    The need of inspection not only for external condition but for both internal and external. How we are going to check and know the internal condition of a piping as small as 4 inch or tube sheet of 10 mm outside diameter. Due to the nature of its operation which carries high temperature products or water it is very essential to know the internal condition before its too late where this may cause explosion or failure to any part or equipment which will claim lives and causes huge lost to the plant owner. With the aid of video scope inspection service or commonly called CCTV you now can see and inspect the internal condition of a small pipe or tube sheet or any in access item or equipment. Not only you can inspect but with the latest CCTV technologies you also can size the defect length and record the findings in CD-Rom for monitoring purposes. You can observe the growth of a defects and decide whether or not to repair or when to repair. CCTV has many field application beside normal tube inspection?its also can be used for special task such to inspect cause of blockage, to check any left over materials before box-up, to confirm presence or absence, etc. With various camera sizes and with or without control head many inspection task has been successfully completed.Normal defect that can be expected from CCTV inspection are such as erosion, burn trough, blockage, hard sediments, left behind item (before the box beam) pitting, etc. We have experience in inspecting the following items for major oil and gas petrochemical plant as well as special request from various industries sector. (Author)

  20. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required

  1. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  2. Long life gas laser system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochuli, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    A long life gas discharge laser having an improved self-repairing cathode system is described. In a specific embodiment, water vapor having a partial pressure below about 10 -5 torr incorporated in a molecular sieve is used to provide impurities (in this case water vapor) for repairing the cathode surface by regenerating the oxide surface and/or preventing same from deteriorating. Other impurities may be incorporated in the molecular sieve such as hydrogen, oxygen, for example. In some cases CO 2 may be used. This application includes material disclosed in a paper entitled ''Continuation of the Investigation into Material Properties Affecting the Frequency Stability and Reliability of He-Ne Laser Structures'' submitted to the Office of Naval Research dated June 1972 by the inventor hereof and also a paper entitled ''Investigations of the Long Term Frequency Stability of Stable Laser Structures'' Progress Report for ONR Contract N00014-67-A-D239-0016 July 1972 by the inventor hereof. A royalty free license is hereby granted to the United States for use of the invention for all government purposes. (auth)

  3. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, W.; Angelo, F.; Clemens, M.

    1995-01-01

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO x emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ''greenhouse gas'' contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition

  4. Basic characteristics of hollow-filament polyimide membrane in gas separation and application to tritium monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Sh.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, K.; Tega, E.; Shimada, A.; Akahori, S.; Okuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    The separation efficiency of hollow-filament polyimide membranes for 3 H and 41 Ar is preliminarily examined for a potential application to continuous gas monitoring systems for analysis of stack emission from accelerator facilities. The basic gas separation characteristics of the membranes are experimentally investigated, and a preliminary gas monitor design is proposed. The membranes are capable of selectively enriching hydrogen by more than 25 times, with negligible variation with respect to the species of isotope. (author)

  5. The transport system for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndalen, Joergen; Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the actors on the Norwegian shelf in cooperation with the authorities established a new regime for sale and transport of gas. This article deals with some issues of interest relating to this new regime. The transport system for natural gas shows clear signs of being a natural monopoly, which makes it difficult to use the system efficiently. Two main problems of the current way of organizing are pointed out: (1) lack of price and market signals in capacity allocation and (2) unclear incentive effects. The article indicates a possible solution based on the form of organization that is used in the power market

  6. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devikala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In the present work, a new composite has been prepared by using PMMA and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP. The PMMA/Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (PMADP composites PMADP 1 and PMADP 2 were characterized by using Powder XRD. The thick films of the composite on glass plates were prepared by using a spin coating unit at 9000 rpm. The application of the thick film as gas sensor has been studied between 0 and 2000 seconds. The results reveal that the thick film of PMADP composite can function as a very good gas sensor.

  7. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  10. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  11. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  12. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  13. Proportional gas scintillation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The principle is described of a gas proportional scintillation detector and its function. Dependence of Si(Li) and xenon proportional detectors energy resolution on the input window size is given. A typical design is shown of a xenon detector used for X-ray spetrometry at an energy of 277 eV to 5.898 keV and at a gas pressure of 98 to 270 kPa. Gas proportional scintillation detectors show considerable better energy resolution than common proportional counters and even better resolution than semiconductor Si(Li) detectors for low X radiation energies. For detection areas smaller than 25 mm 2 Si(Li) detectors show better resolution, especially for higher X radiation energies. For window areas 25 to 190 mm 2 both types of detectors are equal, for a window area exceeding 190 mm 2 the proportional scintillation detector has higher energy resolution. (B.S.)

  14. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  15. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  16. Multitube coaxial closed cycle gas laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A gas laser design capable of long term reliable operation in a commercial environment is disclosed. Various construction details which insulate the laser optics from mechanical distortions and vibrations inevitably present in the environment are developed. Also, a versatile optical cavity made up of modular units which render the basic laser configuration adaptable to alternate designs with different output capabilities is shown in detail. The system built around a convection laser operated in a closed cycle and the working medium is a gas which is excited by direct current electric discharges. (auth)

  17. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  18. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas

  19. Mobile Application Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    With the amount of mobile applications available increasing rapidly, users have to put a lot of effort into finding applications of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to aid users in the process of discovering new mobile applications by providing them with recommendations. A prototype system is then built as a proof-of-concept. The work of the thesis is divided into three phases where the aim of the first phase is to study related work and related systems to identify p...

  20. Development of an integrated optical coherence tomography-gas nozzle system for surgical laser ablation applications: preliminary findings of in situ spinal cord deformation due to gas flow effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ronnie; Jivraj, Jamil; Vuong, Barry; Ramjist, Joel; Dinn, Nicole A; Sun, Cuiru; Huang, Yize; Smith, James A; Yang, Victor X D

    2015-01-01

    Gas assisted laser machining of materials is a common practice in the manufacturing industry. Advantages in using gas assistance include reducing the likelihood of flare-ups in flammable materials and clearing away ablated material in the cutting path. Current surgical procedures and research do not take advantage of this and in the case for resecting osseous tissue, gas assisted ablation can help minimize charring and clear away debris from the surgical site. In the context of neurosurgery, the objective is to cut through osseous tissue without damaging the underlying neural structures. Different inert gas flow rates used in laser machining could cause deformations in compliant materials. Complications may arise during surgical procedures if the dura and spinal cord are damaged by these deformations. We present preliminary spinal deformation findings for various gas flow rates by using optical coherence tomography to measure the depression depth at the site of gas delivery.

  1. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, B.; Schůrek, J.; Myslík, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2011), 643-649 ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : MAPLE * gas sensors * biomedicine * thin films Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2011

  2. Recent airborne EM system (helicopter VTEM and fixed-wing ZTEM) development for near-surface and regional applications for oil and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legault, Jean; Prikhodko, Alexander; Kumar, Harish; Genereux, Jim [Geotech Ltd., Aurora, ON (Canada)], email: jean@geotech.ca, email: alexander@geotech.ca, email: harish@geotech.ca, email: jim.genereux@geotech.ca

    2011-07-01

    The helicopter-borne VTEM (versatile time-domain electromagnetic) system is a geophysical instrument, whose development has been ongoing since 2002, and which was designed to improve detection of many kinds of conductive targets, primarily for mining. However, although deep penetration characteristics of this system have progressively achieved significant improvements, its capacity for near-surface imaging has been limited by its early-time data. To solve this problem, Geotech has undertaken a system design strategy in order to improve the early-channel VTEM data and to obtain quantitative measurements closer to the transmitter current turn-off. With this development, a new model of the VTEM system could be designed specifically for near-surface, high-resolution applications, while deep penetration characteristics still remained reasonably optimal. The standard ZTEM (z-axis tipper electromagnetic) acquisition system obtains vertical-component data by means of an aircoil receiver that is suspended below the aircraft. Then the z-axis data are proportioned to fixed horizontal field measurements obtained with identical reference coils.

  3. Gas System 2013 at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2013: Total Consumption 2013 vs 2012: +1.4% gross consumption, -2% climate adjusted. Public Distribution Consumption 2013 vs 2012: +3.6% gross consumption, -1.9% climate adjusted. Industrial Customers Consumption 2013 vs 2012: -2.4% gross consumption. Power Generation: -50% since 2011. Industrial Customers 2012 vs 2013 (excluding power generation): +2%. Transported Quantities by GRTgaz 2013 vs 2012: Stability (-0.1%). LNG imports are down (-19%) compensated by pipe imports (+5%). Increasing outlet to the South-West, Congestion on North-South Link. Price spread between North and South. In 2013, gas gross consumption rose by 1.4 % on GRTgaz network, mainly because of colder climatic conditions, especially during the first half of the year, compared to 2012. Consumption of industrial customers connected to GRTgaz increased by 2 % (excluding power generation), mainly driven by sectors like Refineries, Chemistry, Glass and Materials. In 2013, GRTgaz transmission network ran under unusual gas flow conditions, especially with a continuing decrease of LNG imports (-19 %) and a low level in underground storages (-8 %)

  4. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  5. Radio-controlled automatic gas meter-reading system; Releve automatique de compteur par radio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, M. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Ishikawa, K.; Fujiwara, J. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichihashi, T. [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, an automatic gas meter-reading system is in operation, also incorporating the functions of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff. This system has been realized by linking microcomputer-controlled gas meters(It's called 'Intelligent gas mater') equipped with automatic shutoff mechanism to the gas utility company operation center via communication lines. While the present system uses cable communication lines, we of Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Toho Gas Co., Ltd., have jointly developed a new system based on radio communication. This paper introduces this new system. While radio-controlled meter-reading systems are used in many countries around the world solely for automatic meter reading, our recently developed system is also capable of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff, thanks to its almost real-time two-way communication function. The new system can serve for a period of ten years without recharging. It is also characterized by its applicability as different systems according to purposes: 1) conventional automatic meter-reading system (terminal network control unit or T-NCU), 2) large-scale radio-controlled meter-reading system, and 3) portable terminal-type radio-controlled meter-reading system. (authors)

  6. MOFs for storage of natural gas in mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, S.; Arnold, L.; Gaab, M.; Maurer, S.; Weickert, M.; Mueller, U. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Gummaraju, R.; SantaMaria, M.; Wilson, K.; Garbotz, C.; Lynch, J. [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are supposed to have high potential in gas storage, particular in the storage of natural gas (NG) for mobile applications. Due to the shale gas exploration and the cost advantage of natural gas on the North American market as well as the environmental benign behavior upon combustion, storage of gaseous fuels will become more important for future mobility. The main challenge with all gaseous fuels is the limited range of the fuel stored on board of a vehicle. Instead of increasing the pressure in the tank, which would lead to heavy tanks and high compression costs, MOFs might help to improve the energy density of the gas stored in a tank resulting in an increased driving distance or reduced space needed for the gas tanks. (orig.)

  7. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  8. Variable speed gas engine-driven air compressor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. R.; Ruggles, A. E.; Chen, T. N.; Gehret, J.

    1992-11-01

    Tecogen Inc. and Ingersoll-Rand Co. as a subcontractor have designed a nominal 150-hp gas engine-driven air compressor utilizing the TECODRIVE 8000 engine and the Ingersoll-Rand 178.5-mm twin screw compressor. Phase 1 included the system engineering and design, economic and applications studies, and a draft commercialization plan. Phase 2 included controls development, laboratory prototype construction, and performance testing. The testing conducted verified that the compressor meets all design specifications.

  9. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  10. Mechanical valve assembly for xenon 133 gas delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, W.H. (Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston (Australia))

    Some gas delivery systems used in pulmonary ventilation scanning are unable to satisfactorily supply /sup 133/Xe gas to bed-ridden patients. A mechanical gas valve assembly to control the flow of gas in such systems was constructed. A commercially produced /sup 133/Xe gas delivery system when fitted with the new assembly was able to ventilate almost all patients whereas previously this could be achieved with approximately only 50% of patients.

  11. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  12. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  13. Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry | Shammar | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry. ... is the key factor for considering AR as an effective tool to be used in maintenance work. Works related to applications of VR for energy exploration and safety training for petroleum industry is ...

  14. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  15. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiaobo [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Li, Yu' e, E-mail: liyue@caas.cn [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Hong [Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Fan, Fenliang [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liao, Yulin [Soils and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC1), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC2), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH{sub 4}) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH{sub 4} flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p < 0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20 t ha{sup −} {sup 1}) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. - Graphical abstract: Relative change ratio of different biochar amendments and rice straw residues to CK treatment during the

  16. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC1), application of 10 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC2), application of 10 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400 kg ha"− "1(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400 kg ha"− "1(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH_4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH_4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p < 0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20 t ha"− "1) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. - Graphical abstract: Relative change ratio of different biochar amendments and rice straw residues to CK treatment during the rice growing seasons from 2012 to 2015. * and *** stand for

  17. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1996-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  18. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues

  19. N2 gas station and gas distribution system for TLD personnel monitoring gas based semi-automatic badge readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasiya, G.; Pradhan, S.M.; Kher, R.K.; Bhatt, B.C

    2003-01-01

    Full text: New improvised hot gas based Auto TLD badge reader has several advantages over the earlier contact heating based manual badge reader. It requires constant supply of N 2 gas for its operation; The gas supplied using replaceable individual gas cylinders may have some safety hazards in their handling. It was therefore considered worthwhile to setup a N 2 gas assembly/ station outside the lab area and to bring regulated gas supply through network of tubes with proper regulation to the individual readers. The paper presents detailed description of the gas station and distribution system. The system is quite useful and offers several practical advantages for readout of TLD badges on the semiautomatic badge readers based on gas heating. Important advantage from dosimetric point of view is avoidance of gas flow rate fluctuations and corresponding variations in TL readouts

  20. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  1. Power control system for a hot gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntell, John O.

    1986-01-01

    A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

  2. Consistency Analysis and Data Consultation of Gas System of Gas-Electricity Network of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemite, L.; Kutjuns, A.; Bode, I.; Kunickis, M.; Zeltins, N.

    2018-02-01

    In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies. Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

  3. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  4. Natural gas hydrates. Experimental techniques and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuguang; Liu, Changling (eds.) [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology (China). Gas Hydrate Laboratory

    2013-07-01

    Focuses on gas hydrate experiment in laboratory. Intends to provide practical significant parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation in the oceanic and permafrost environments. Consists of different themes that present up-to-date information on hydrate experiments. ''Natural Gas Hydrates: Experimental Techniques and Their Applications'' attempts to broadly integrate the most recent knowledge in the fields of hydrate experimental techniques in the laboratory. The book examines various experimental techniques in order to provide useful parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. It provides experimental techniques for gas hydrates, including the detection techniques, the thermo-physical properties, permeability and mechanical properties, geochemical abnormalities, stability and dissociation kinetics, exploitation conditions, as well as modern measurement technologies etc.

  5. Gas cluster ion beam equipments for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, J.; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, I.

    1995-01-01

    30 keV and 200 keV gas cluster ion beam equipments have been developed for industrial applications. A gas cluster source with a non-cooled nozzle was used for both the equipments. Sufficient monomer ion suppression was achieved by using an ExB filter and chromatic lenses mass filter with low extraction voltage. These equipments are suitable to be used for low-damage surface treatment of metals, insulators and semiconductors without heavy metal contamination. (orig.)

  6. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  7. Corrective actions to gas accumulation in safety injection system pipings of PWRs and gas void detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    In the US, gas accumulation events of safety injection systems of PWRs during plant operation are continuously reported. As the events may result in loss of safety function, the USNRC is alerting licensees by Information Notices. The cause of the events is coolant leakage to interfacing systems with lower pressure, or gas dissolution of primary coolant by partial pressure drop. In this study, it was clarified by the evaluation of the cause of the events of US plants, gas accumulation in piping between an accumulator and Residual Heat Removal System should be quantitatively investigated regarding Japanese plants. Also, effectiveness of ultrasonic testing which is used for monthly gas accumulation surveillance in US plants was demonstrated using a model loop. In addition, the method was confirmed applicable by an experiment carried out at INSS to detect cavitation voids in piping systems. (author)

  8. Fabrication Of Control Rod System Of The RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirdjo, Hari; Setyono; Prasetya, Hendra

    2001-01-01

    Eight units of control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS has been fabricated. The control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS consist of guide tube and lifting rod. Complete construction of the control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS are guide tube, lifting rod, absorber, and absorber casing. The eight units of the control rod mechanical system of RSG-GAS has been fabricated according to the mechanical engineering design

  9. Balancing Accuracy and Computational Efficiency for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    phase transitions. This paper describes and demonstrates a numerical solution scheme for ternary hydrate systems that seeks a balance between accuracy and computational efficiency. This scheme uses a generalize cubic equation of state, functional forms for the hydrate equilibria and cage occupancies, variable switching scheme for phase transitions, and kinetic exchange of hydrate formers (i.e., CH4, CO2, and N2) between the mobile phases (i.e., aqueous, liquid CO2, and gas) and hydrate phase. Accuracy of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing property values and phase equilibria against experimental data. Computational efficiency of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing the base scheme against variants. The application of interest will the production of a natural gas hydrate deposit from a geologic formation, using the guest molecule exchange process; where, a mixture of CO2 and N2 are injected into the formation. During the guest-molecule exchange, CO2 and N2 will predominately replace CH4 in the large and small cages of the sI structure, respectively.

  10. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  11. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed flammable gas detection system that has sampling points in: (1) Each cargo pump room; (2) Each cargo...

  12. GeoCEGAS: natural gas distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Lorena C.J. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Targa, Fernando O. [Gestao Empresarial e Informatica Ltda. (GEMPI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This Technical Paper approach the conception, architecture, design, construction, and implementation of GeoCEGAS, a spatially enabled corporate management information system, oriented to store and provide Web access, to information associated with the natural gas distribution network, owned by CEGAS. This paper reports business processes, business entities and business intelligence approached on the project, as well as an overview of system architecture, applications, and technology used on the implementation of GeoCEGAS. Finally, is presented an introduction to the work methodology used, as well a synopsis of benefits achievements. (author)

  13. The RPI-X system of regulation and British Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring, P.

    1992-01-01

    The RPI-X system of regulation was subject to a theoretical examination in a previous paper 'The RPI-X system of price-capping regulation re-examined'. The practical example of British Gas shows that what started out as a simple formula can become a complex hybrid lacking in transparency. The formula has properties which mean that its impact can be harsher or lighter depending on exogenous factors which the regulated company cannot be entirely or reasonably expected to predict or control. In the first five years - 1987 to 1992 -of the formula's application, when X was set at a very undemanding 2%, the surge in the RPI, resulted in a virtual windfall increase in profits. In the second five years 1992 to 1997 - X has been reset at a much more demanding 5%. Also, new terms for gas costs (GPI-Z) and energy efficiency (E) have been introduced which are quite lacking in transparency. (author)

  14. Gas system 2016: Press conference 17 January 2017 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2016: A first part presents the national data about gas consumption, production of gas-fired power plants, new gas uses (diesel-gas substitution, biomethane..) and their environmental impacts, and the development of the Internet open-data platform. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions with a focus on industrial clients

  15. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  16. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRYE-MASON, GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER, EDWIN J.; HIETALA, VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE, RICHARD; LEWIS, PATRICK R.; MANGINELL, RONALD P.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; WONG, CHUNGNIN C.

    1999-01-01

    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ((micro)ChemLab(trademark)) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described

  17. Overview of the EPRI CONTRACTMIX model for natural gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Contract Mix Model (CONTRACTMIX) is designed to assist gas supply planners in analyzing the costs and risks of alternative supply strategies. By explicitly incorporating uncertainty about gas demand and market conditions into the analysis, the methodology permits the analyst to compare contracting strategies on the basis of cost and risk and to assess the value of flexible strategies and contracts. The model is applicable to purchase decisions for natural gas and other fuels. CONTRACTMIX may be used at all phases of supply decision-making, from broad strategy formulation to detailed contract design and evaluation. This document introduces the prospective user to the model's capability for analysis of gas supply contracting decisions. The document describes the types of problems CONTRACTMIX is designed to address as well as the model's structure, inputs, outputs, and unique features

  18. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H 2 +CO 2 ) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000 0 F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH 4 + H 2 O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR

  19. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  20. Detection device for off-gas system accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Tsuruoka, Ryozo; Yamanari, Shozo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly isolate the off-gas system by detecting the off-gas system failure accident in a short time. Constitution: Radiation monitors are disposed to ducts connecting an exhaust gas area and an air conditioning system as a portion of a turbine building. The ducts are disposed independently such that they ventilate only the atmosphere in the exhaust gas area and do not mix the atmosphere in the turbine building. Since radioactivity issued upon off-gas accidents to the exhaust gas area is sucked to the duct, it can be detected by radiation detection monitors in a short time after the accident. Further, since the operator judges it as the off-gas system accident, the off-gas system can be isolated in a short time after the accident. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Automated metabolic gas analysis systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, D J

    2001-01-01

    The use of automated metabolic gas analysis systems or metabolic measurement carts (MMC) in exercise studies is common throughout the industrialised world. They have become essential tools for diagnosing many hospital patients, especially those with cardiorespiratory disease. Moreover, the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is routine for many athletes in fitness laboratories and has become a defacto standard in spite of its limitations. The development of metabolic carts has also facilitated the noninvasive determination of the lactate threshold and cardiac output, respiratory gas exchange kinetics, as well as studies of outdoor activities via small portable systems that often use telemetry. Although the fundamental principles behind the measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) have not changed, the techniques used have, and indeed, some have almost turned through a full circle. Early scientists often employed a manual Douglas bag method together with separate chemical analyses, but the need for faster and more efficient techniques fuelled the development of semi- and full-automated systems by private and commercial institutions. Yet, recently some scientists are returning back to the traditional Douglas bag or Tissot-spirometer methods, or are using less complex automated systems to not only save capital costs, but also to have greater control over the measurement process. Over the last 40 years, a considerable number of automated systems have been developed, with over a dozen commercial manufacturers producing in excess of 20 different automated systems. The validity and reliability of all these different systems is not well known, with relatively few independent studies having been published in this area. For comparative studies to be possible and to facilitate greater consistency of measurements in test-retest or longitudinal studies of individuals, further knowledge about the performance characteristics of these

  2. Extending the molecular application range of gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography is an important analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide range of application areas. It is fast, provides a high peak capacity, is sensitive and allows combination with a wide range of selective detection methods including mass spectrometry.

  3. Improved zinc oxide film for gas sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material for different commercial applications such as transparent electrodes, piezoelectric devices, varistors, SAW devices etc because of its high piezoelectric coupling, greater stability of its hexagonal phase and its pyroelectric property. In fact, ZnO is a potential material for gas sensor ...

  4. Consideration on developing of leaked inflammable gas detection system for HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Masashi

    1999-09-01

    One of most important safety design issues for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) - Hydrogen Production System (HTGR-HPS) is to ensure reactor safety against fire and explosion at the hydrogen production plant. The inflammable gas mixture in the HTGR-HPS does not use oxygen in any condition and are kept in high pressure in the normal operation. The piping system and/or heat transfer tubes which have the potential possibility of combustible materials ingress into the Reactor Building (R/B) due to the failure are designed to prevent the failure against any events. Then, it is not necessary to consider their self-combustion in vessels nor leakage in the R/B. The only one case which we must consider is the ex-building fire or explosion caused by their leakage from piping or vessel. And it is important to mitigate their effects by means of early detection of gas leakage. We investigated our domestic standards on gas detection, applications of gas detectors, their detection principles, performance, sensitivity, reliability, their technical trends, and so on. We proposed three gas detection systems which may be applied in HTGR-HPS. The first one is the universal solid sensor system; it may be applied when there is no necessity to request their safety credits. The second is the combination of the improved solid sensor system and enhanced beam detector system; it may be applied when it is necessary to request their safety credit. And the third is the combination of the universal solid sensor system and the existing beam detector system; it may be applied when the plant owner request higher detector sensitivity than usual, from the view point of public acceptance, though there is not necessity to request their safety credits. To reduce the plant cost by refusing of safety credits to the gas leakage detection system, we proposed that the equipment required to isolate from others should be installed in the inertrized compartments. (author)

  5. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  6. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    produced from digesters ─ Animal manure (dairy cows, swine ) ─ Waste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills > RNG produced from...LNG) for vehicle fuel ─Ft. Lewis — Anaerobic digestion of waste water for production of hydrogen as a fuel cell vehicle fuel ─SCRA * – Landfill gas...BE CLEANED- UP AND PLACED IN THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM 6 GTI RNG Project Examples >Example GTI Projects: ─Gills Onions— Anaerobic

  7. Advances in marine ice profiling for oil and gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissel, D.; Marko, J.; Melling, H.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in acoustic profiling technologies have allowed ever more accurate and information-rich extraction of data on the draft, undersurface topography and immediately adjacent water column environment of polar and other marine and freshwater ice covers. The purpose of these advances was to replace and improve upon other, often inconvenient, costly and/or otherwise unsatisfactory methodologies such as the use of upward looking sonar (ULS) sounders on submarines as well as deployments of airborne- sensors such as laser profilometers and electromagnetic induction instrumentation. ULS is a primary source of data for measurements of ice thickness. Self-contained units now have the data capacity and accuracy/resolution sufficient for unattended operation. Recent technological advances have now led to the next generation of ice profiling sonar (IPS), incorporating much expanded on-board data storage capacity and powerful onboard real-time firmware. This paper outlined the nature of the issues addressed in past oil and gas related ice profiling studies. The paper focused on identifying the key items of interest and the remaining uncertainties in the derived products. All of the data gathered in this regard was obtained with first generation profiling instrumentation of the type initially introduced by Melling and coworkers in 1995. The additional features of a recently introduced next generation IPS instrument were briefly described. The observed and potential benefits offered in oil and gas related applications were also presented. It was concluded that the next generation ice profilers sets the stage for research and development into the measurement of new ice parameters, the combination of information from ice profilers and all-weather radar satellite systems, and the possibility of remote access to the ice profiler data from multi-year moorings located well within the main Arctic Ocean ice pack. 11 refs., 10 figs

  8. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali; Lai, Zhiping; Pinnau, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality

  9. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  10. A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, M.; Rolker, J.; Witthaut, D.; Schulze, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Hanau (Germany); Buchholz, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    An energy-efficient absorbent formulation fors eparating acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, H2S) from gas streams such as natural gas, syngas or flue gas is important for a number of industrial applications. In many cases, a substantial share of their costs is driven by the operational expenditure (OPEX) of the CO{sub 2} separation unit. One possible strategy for reducing OPEX is the improvement of the absorbent performance. Although a number of absorbents for the separation of CO{sub 2} from gas streams exist, there is still a need to develop CO{sub 2} absorbents with an improved absorption performance, less corrosion and foaming, no nitrosamine formation, lower energy requirement and therefore less OPEX. This contribution aims at giving a brief state-of-the-art overview followed by an introduction and performance characterization of a new family of amine-based CO{sub 2} absorbents. High cyclic capacities in the range of 2.9 to 3.2 mol CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} absorbent and low absorption enthalpies of about -30 kJ mol{sup -1} allow for significant savings in the regeneration energy of the new absorbent system. Calculations with the modified Kremser model indicate a reduction in the specific reboiler heat duty of 45 %. Moreover, the high-performance absorbents developed show much lower corrosion rates than state-of-the-art solutions that are currently employed. (orig.)

  11. A new helium gas recovery and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamotot, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, J.; Hamana, I.; Hayashi, S.; Mizutani, S.; Sanjo, S.

    1974-01-01

    A helium gas recovery and purification system, based on the principle of gas permeation through a membrane, is described. The system can be used for the purification of helium gas containing air as a contaminant. The apparatus, operating at ambient temperature does not need constant attention, the recovery ratio of helium gas is satisfactory and running costs are low. Gases other than helium can be processed with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  12. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  13. Applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenninkmeijer C. A.M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has become established as a useful method for tracing the budgets of atmospheric trace gases and even atmospheric oxygen. Several new developments are briefly discussed in a systematic way to give a practical guide to the scope of recent work. Emphasis is on applications and not on instrumental developments. Processes and reactions are less considered than applications to resolve trace gas budgets. Several new developments are promising and applications hitherto not considered to be possible may allow new uses.

  14. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  15. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection Association, Battery March Park, Quincy, MA 02269, as follows: (1) A fuel system installed before... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for the...

  16. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... more than five times over that achieved by using the gas (air) phase alone. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  18. Gas replacement system for fuel cell. Nenryo denchi no gas chikan hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T

    1990-02-14

    When stopping the operation of a fuel cell, the gas in the reaction gas system is purged using such an inert gas as nitrogen for inactivation. A gas source such as inert gas bomb must be prepared beforehand for the purpose. This invention relates to a method of production of inert gas from the air collected from atmosphere to use it as the purge gas. The air collected from the atmosphere is passed through an oxygen remover filled with oxidation catalyst to remove oxygen, and dehumidified by a dehumidifier filled with drying agent, the obtained inert drying gas with nitrogen as the main constituent being used as the purge gas. Copper system catalyst supported by silica is used as the oxidation catalyst, and silica gel as the drying agent. After the operation of the fuel cell is re-started, a part of the high temperature fuel gas extracted from the reaction gas system is introduced to the oxygen remover for the reduction of oxidation catalyst and for heat regeneration of dehumidifying agent by the contained hydrogen. 1 fig.

  19. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  20. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  1. Pressureless sintering and gas flux properties of porous ceramic membranes for gas applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Obada

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of kaolin based ceramic membranes using styrofoam (STY and sawdust (SD as pore formers have been prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis using pressureless sintering technique with porogen content between (0–20 wt% by die pressing. Pellets were fired at 1150 °C and soaking time of 4 h. The membranes cast as circular disks were subjected to characterization studies to evaluate the effect of the sintering temperature and pore former content on porosity, density, water absorption and mechanical strength. Obtained membranes show effective porosity with maximum at about 43 and 47% respectively for membranes formulated with styrofoam and sawdust porogens but with a slightly low mechanical strength that does not exceed 19 MPa. The resultant ceramic bodies show a fine porous structure which is mainly caused by the volatilization of the porogens. The fabricated membrane exhibited high N2 gas flux, hence, these membranes can be considered as efficient for potential application for gas separation by reason of the results shown in the gas flux tests. Keywords: Porosity, Pore formers, Kaolin, Physico-mechanical properties, Gas separation, Gas flux

  2. [Prospects for Application of Gases and Gas Hydrates to Cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, N V; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, we tried to evaluate the known properties of gas hydrates and gases participating in the formation of gas hydrates from the point of view of the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection, to consider the papers on freezing biological materials in the presence of inert gases, and to analyze the perspectives for the development of this direction. For the purpose, we searched for the information on the physical properties of gases and gas hydrates, compared processes occured during the formation of gas hydrates and water ice, analyzed the influence of the formation and growth of gas hydrates on the structure of biological objects. We prepared a short review on the biological effects of xenon, krypton, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide especially on hypothermal conditions and probable application of these properties in cryopreservation technologies. The description of the existing experiments on cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases was analyzed. On the basis of the information we found, the most perspective directions of work in the field of cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases were outlined. An attempt was made to forecast the potential problems in this field.

  3. A new light emitting diode-light emitting diode portable carbon dioxide gas sensor based on an interchangeable membrane system for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas-Sansalvador, I M Pérez; Fay, C; Phelan, T; Fernández-Ramos, M D; Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Diamond, D; Benito-Lopez, F

    2011-08-12

    A new system for CO(2) measurement (0-100%) based on a paired emitter-detector diode arrangement as a colorimetric detection system is described. Two different configurations were tested: configuration 1 (an opposite side configuration) where a secondary inner-filter effect accounts for CO(2) sensitivity. This configuration involves the absorption of the phosphorescence emitted from a CO(2)-insensitive luminophore by an acid-base indicator and configuration 2 wherein the membrane containing the luminophore is removed, simplifying the sensing membrane that now only contains the acid-base indicator. In addition, two different instrumental configurations have been studied, using a paired emitter-detector diode system, consisting of two LEDs wherein one is used as the light source (emitter) and the other is used in reverse bias mode as the light detector. The first configuration uses a green LED as emitter and a red LED as detector, whereas in the second case two identical red LEDs are used as emitter and detector. The system was characterised in terms of sensitivity, dynamic response, reproducibility, stability and temperature influence. We found that configuration 2 presented a better CO(2) response in terms of sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, H.

    1992-04-14

    The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.

  5. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  6. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  7. 78 FR 58529 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 4, 2013, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (Floridian Gas Storage), 1000 Louisiana Street, Suite 4361, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in Docket No. CP13-541-000 an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  8. Gas stream cleaning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunchal, S. Kumar; Erck, Louis J.; Harris, Harry A.

    1979-04-13

    An oil mist and solid particle laden gas from an oil shale retorting operation is initially treated with a temperature controlled oil spray and then by a coalescer to reduce the quantity of oil mist and remove most of the solid particle content of the gas stream and then finally treated by an electrostatic precipitator to essentially remove the oil mist remaining in the gas.

  9. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  10. 78 FR 33400 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Gas Act to construct, and operate a new 9,400 horsepower (hp) compressor station in Washington County, Pennsylvania (Redd Farm CS); two additional compressor units totaling 15,600 hp at its existing Glenville CS in Gilmer County, West Virginia; new station piping, control systems, and other appurtenant facilities at...

  11. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  12. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  13. Phenomenological studies and modelling of the gaseous impurities oxidation and adsorption mechanisms in helium: application for the purification system optimization in gas cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, F.

    2008-01-01

    In GEN IV studies on future fission nuclear reactors, two concepts using helium as a coolant have been selected: GFR and VHTR. Among radioactive impurities and dusts, helium can contain H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , H 2 O, O 2 , as well as nitrogenous species. To optimize the reactor functioning and lifespan, it is necessary to control the coolant chemical composition using a dedicated purification system. A pilot designed at the CEA allows studying this purification system. Its design includes three unit operations: H 2 and CO oxidation on CuO, then two adsorption steps. This study aims at providing a detailed analysis of the first and second purification steps, which have both been widely studied experimentally at laboratory scale. A first modelling based on a macroscopic approach was developed to represent the behaviour of the reactor and has shown that the CuO fixed bed conversion is dependent on the chemistry (mass transfer is not an issue) and is complete. The results of the structural analysis of the solids allow considering the CuO as particles made of 200 nm diameter grains. Hence, a new model at grain scale is proposed. It is highlighted that the kinetic constants from these two models are related with a scale factor which depends on geometry. A competition between carbon monoxide and hydrogen oxidation has been shown. Activation energies are around 30 kJ.mol-1. Simulation of the simultaneous oxidations leads to consider CO preferential adsorption. A similar methodology has been applied for CO 2 and H 2 O adsorption. The experimental isotherms showed a Langmuir type adsorption. Using this model, experimental and theoretical results agree. (author) [fr

  14. Porous Metal Filters for Gas and Liquid Applications in the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth, Rubow

    2009-01-01

    Sintered metal media are ideally suited for use in the most demanding industrial applications where long life is required and often other media are not cost-effective solution. As examples, filtration technology utilizing sintered metal media provides excellent performance in numerous liquid/solids and gas/solid separation applications found in the handling and processing of fluids containing radioactive materials. Many types of filter media, ranging from single use (disposable) to semi-permanent, are utilized today for separation of particulate matter. However, semi-permanent media are usually cleanable, either on or off-line, and are intended for sustainable, often multi-year, operating life in harsh environments. These harsh environments, which may involve corrosive fluids, high temperatures, high pressures or pressure spikes, often requiring continuous filtration service, are ideally suited for all-metal filtration systems employing semi-permanent sintered metal media. Sintered metal media, usually fabricated into tubular metal elements, have proven high particle removal efficiency and demonstrated reliability that uniquely afford excellent performance for demanding liquid/solids and gas/solids separation processes. The filter element and, in certain cases, the entire filter are weldable; therefore, the inherent sealing eliminates the need for potentially problematic seals. These media provide a positive barrier to ensure particulate removal to protect downstream equipment, for product separation, and/or to meet health, safety and environmental regulations. Typical applications for sintered metal media include: 1) gas and liquid filter systems used in various nuclear and radioactive waste processing applications, 2) an all-metal High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter developed under Department of Energy (DOE) funding as an alternative to traditional HEPA filters fabricated with conventional glass fibers used on High Level Waste (HLW) tank ventilation

  15. Analysis of a multicomponent gas absorption system with carrier gas coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, J.R.

    1975-03-01

    Conventional integrated versions of the packed gas absorber design equations do not account for significant coabsorption of the carrier gas along with the dilute transferring species. These equations, as a result, also neglect the relationship between dilute component transfer and carrier gas coabsorption. In the absorption of Kr and Xe from various carrier gases, using CCl 2 F 2 as the process solvent, carrier coabsorption is substantial. Consequently, a design package was developed to deal with multicomponent gas absorption in systems characterized by carrier gas coabsorption. Developed within the general film theory framework, the basic feature of this design approach is a view of dilute component mass-transfer as a conventional diffusive transfer superimposed on a net flux caused by carrier absorption. Other supporting elements of the design package include predictive techniques for various fluid properties, estimating procedures for carrier gas equilibrium constants, and correlations for carrier gas and dilute gas mass-transfer coefficients. When applied to systems using CCl 2 F 2 as the solvent; He, N 2 , air, or Ar as the carrier gas; and Kr or Xe as the dilute gas; the design approach gave good results, even when extended to conditions well beyond those of its development. (U.S.)

  16. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  17. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were compositions range from −65.2 to −80.7‰ for methane, −53.1 to −55.2‰ for ethane is consistent with mainly microbial gas sources, although one value recorded of −35.4‰ for propane

  18. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  19. Development of failure detection system for gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feirreira, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents several kinds of Failure Detection Systems for Fuel Elements, stressing their functional principles and major applications. A comparative study indicates that the method of electrostatic precipitation of the fission gases Kr and Xe is the most efficient for fuel failure detection in gas-cooled reactors. A detailed study of the physical phenomena involved in electrostatic precipitation led to the derivation of an equation for the measured counting rate. The emission of fission products from the fuel and the ion recombination inside the chamber are evaluated. A computer program, developed to simulate the complete operation of the system, relates the counting rate to the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes. The project of a mock-up is then presented. Finally, the program calculations are compared to experimental data, available from the literature, yielding a close agreement. (author)

  20. Modeling of leak detection system for high pressure transmission system of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.; Paracha, Z.J.; Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Gas Industry can be considered as one of the most important industries in the economy of any country. Safe Transportation of Gas is thus considered to be vital because interruption of Supply of Gas to consumers not only causes domestic problems but also loss of revenue to country. Now most of power generation Sector has switched over their system to Natural Gas. So, interruption of supply to this sector can cause a lot of problems. This paper has provided assessment of technology approach and formulated this approach for Leak Detection Model in High Pressure Transmission system for current and future operations, which will improve the efficiency of any transmission company to a great extent. This model can be extremely helpful in conditions of Rupture Emergencies or Leakage because of corrosive conditions of Pipeline to manage the situation of resources in pipeline network. Any exceptional readings or messages should alert the user to the fact that something is wrong with the system. Such a system helps a lot in the safe and efficient management of pipeline network. The data and information provided by the Leak Detection System applications will allow for efficient and safe pipeline operation maximizing profitability over the pipeline's service lifetime. (author)

  1. Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S.; Kumasaka, M.; Nishikubo, M.

    2001-01-01

    In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

  2. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were exploration and occurs in a forearc basin. Each of these hydrate-bearing systems overlies and is likely supported by the presence and possible migration of gas from deeper gas-prone petroleum

  3. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Miao; Mancang Yuan; Guodong Li

    2014-01-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is propos...

  4. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  5. 78 FR 28837 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-129-001] Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition Take notice that on May 6, 2013, Acadian Gas Pipeline System (Acadian... concerns filed in the September 26, 2011 filing, as more fully detailed in the petition. Any person...

  6. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  7. New Commodity Services System increases gas bill for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch company Gasunie Trade and Supply will replace the Commodity Services System (CDS, abbreviated in Dutch) January 1, 2004. This will result in a higher gas bill for almost all their clients that are expected to use more than 1 million m 3 natural gas per year. An overview is given of the principles of the old and the new pricing system [nl

  8. Research on application of GIS and GPS in inspection and management of city gas pipeline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Meng, Xiangyin; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Fengpei

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems existing in the current Gas Company patrol management, such as inaccurate attendance, whether or not the patrol personnel exceed the scope of patrol inspection. This paper Proposed that we apply the SuperMap iDeskTop 8C plug-in desktop GIS application and development platform, the positioning function of GPS and the data transmission function of 3G/4G/GPRS/Ethernet to develop a gas pipeline inspection management system. We build association between real-time data, pipe network information, patrol data, map information, spatial data and so on to realize the bottom data fusion, use the mobile location system and patrol management client to achieve real-time interaction between the client and the mobile terminal. Practical application shows that the system has completed the standardized management of patrol tasks, the reasonable evaluation of patrol work and the maximum utilization of patrol resources.

  9. Development of a Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.B.; Pepper, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objective of developing this model (GSAM) is to create a comprehensive, nonproprietary, PC-based model of domestic gas industry activity. The system can assess impacts of various changes in the natural gas system in North America; individual and collective impacts due to changes in technology and economic conditions are explicitly modeled in GSAM. Major gas resources are all modeled, including conventional, tight, Devonian Shale, coalbed methane, and low-quality gas sources. The modeling system assesses all key components of the gas industry, including available resources, exploration, drilling, completion, production, and processing practices. Distribution, storage, and utilization of natural gas in a dynamic market-gased analytical structure is assessed. GSAM is designed to provide METC managers with a tool to project impacts of future research, development, and demonstration benefits

  10. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  11. Sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Teo, T. [Caterpillar China Investment Co., Beijing (China); Tnay, C.H. [Westrac Inc., Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the World Coal Institute, coal provides 25 per cent of worldwide primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. China produces the largest amount of hard coal. The anthropogenic release of methane (CH{sub 4}) into the environment is a byproduct of the coal mining process. The global warming potential of this methane continues to draw attention around the world. In particular, China's government has recognized the need for environmental responsibility in the pursuit of greater power production. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and targets must be met within a five-year time frame between 2008 and 2012. Sequestering coal mine methane (CMM) as an alternative fuel for reciprocating gas engine generator sets is a mature and proven technology for greenhouse gas mitigation. Prior to commissioning CMM-fueled power systems, the methane gas composition must be evaluated. An integrated systems approach can then be used to develop a CMM-fueled power project. This paper discussed the sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane. It discussed the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanism, and CMM as compared to other fuel sources. It was concluded that there is considerable opportunity for growth in the Asia-Pacific region for electric power applications using CMM. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Steelmaking gas prediction system; Sistema de predicao de gas de aciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Pedro Henrique Boaventura; Sampaio, William Genelhu [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The Usiminas, Steelmaking Plant located in Ipatinga - MG, has the necessity to complement its energy matrix with additional fuel (oil derived from petroleum presently). Despite the high cost of this fuel, 24,3% of the LDG gas was wasted due to inadequate size of the LDG gas holder and the inappropriate tool to manage the distribution of the fuel. This paper presents how the Steelmaking Gas Prediction System was developed aiming to improve its management and other actions to increase the gas usage minimizing the matrix complementation. (author)

  13. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  14. Behavior of radionuclides in nuclear gas stimulation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jr, C F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The Gasbuggy experiment has presented a unique opportunity to investigate the behavior of radionuclides over an extended period of time in a somewhat unusual environment. In addition to the obvious practical utility of this investigation for Plowshare applications, the information gained has value of a purely scientific nature. Both aspects of the Gas Quality program for Gasbuggy are discussed in this presentation. The study of Gasbuggy results is divided into two distinct periods, according to the field operations. During the initial six months following detonation, the chimney reentry well was shut-in, and the nuclear chimney served as a chemical and radiochemical reaction vessel. A detailed examination of the concentrations and specific activities of tritium and C{sup 14} is presented as a function of the changing chemical composition of the chimney gas and as a function of time. The effects of radiochemical exchange reactions, together with the tritium isotope effect, are demonstrated. Following this shut-in period, a series of production and flushing tests was conducted. During these experiments, the chimney gas composition was seen to change about as would be expected due to dilution of the chimney gas with formation gas. An examination of radionuclide concentrations and specific activities during the production tests demonstrated the relative unimportance of isotopic exchange and chemical reactions during this period, as compared to the early shut-in periods. Within the limitations of the Gasbuggy experience a generalized model of the behavior of tritium and C{sup 14} can be deduced. The discussion involves estimation of initial distribution of activities, the effects of chemical reactions and isotopic exchange on this distribution, and the importance of the environment in determining the level of radioactivity contamination to be expected. (author)

  15. Gas system 2015: Press conference 21 January 2016 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2015: Gas consumption resumed despite warm conditions in 2015. Gas demand for power generation in gas-fired power plants has strongly increased, due to favourable economic conditions. 2015 was characterised by the lowest LNG imports to France ever, which entailed a still intensive use of the North-South link, despite transits to Spain and Italy back to 5 year average level. New gas uses and biomethane permitted to avoid 490,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions in 2015. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions by administrative regions

  16. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  17. Application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model gas mixtures using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model, ternary gas mixtures (α-pinene, toluene and triethylamine) using electronic nose prototype. The results obtained using fuzzy logic algorithms were compared with the values obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) model and sensory analysis. As the results of the studies, it was found the electronic nose prototype along with the fuzzy logic pattern recognition system can be successfully used to estimate the odour intensity of tested gas mixtures. The correctness of the results obtained using fuzzy logic was equal to 68%.

  18. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  19. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  20. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author).

  1. Suggestions to leak prevention in Fortaleza's natural gas piping system; Sugestoes para a prevencao de vazamentos de gas natural canalizado na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara (ARCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Leaks are the bigger problem in health, safety and environmental when the subject is gas distribution piping systems. Specially in high density human regions, like in the majority districts of Fortaleza, safety have to be the higher priority to the gas company responsible for the gas distribution piping systems. Leaks are able to cause accidents or incidents, depending on the circumstances which they happen. In order to be control the situation and overcome the luck factor, leaks must be previously avoided by the application of some security requirements. This paper present some suggestions to natural gas leak prevention in the Fortaleza's metropolitan region pipeline systems. First, the piping systems are analysed, observing the risk regions. Then, safety actions and basic requirements to avoid pipe corrosion are presented in order to improve safety in the gas distribution piping systems of Fortaleza's metropolitan region. (author)

  2. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  3. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  4. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  5. Gas-mixing system for drift chambers using solenoid valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.; Sugano, K.; Trentlage, D.B.

    1983-04-01

    We describe an inexpensive system for mixing argon and ethane drift chamber gas which is used for the E-605 experiment at Fermilab. This system is based on the idea of intermittent mixing of gases with fixed mixing flow rates. A dual-action pressure switch senses the pressure in a mixed gas reservoir tank and operates solenoid valves to control mixing action and regulate reservoir pressure. This system has the advantages that simple controls accurately regulate the mixing ratio and that the mixing ratio is nearly flow rate independent. We also report the results of the gas analysis of various samplings, and the reliability of the system in long-term running

  6. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  7. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is proposed in the paper. This paper introduces the system framework of SCADA system based on cloud computing and the realization details about the private cloud platform of SCADA system.

  8. Possibilities of gas-phase radio-chromatography application to permanent-gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Charrier, G.; Alba, C.; Massimino, D.

    1970-01-01

    The gas-phase radio-chromatography technique has been applied to the rapid analysis of permanent gases (H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH 4 ) labelled with radioactive indicators ( 3 H, 37 A, 85 Kr, 133 Xe). After calibration, the components of such a mixture can be identified and their concentrations measured in less than two hours, using a sample volume of from 0.1 to 10 cm 3 . The minimum detectable activity is of the order of 10 -4 μC for each radioactive isotope. The measurements are reproducible to about 2 to 3 per cent. This work has been mainly concerned with the influence of parameters affecting the response of the radioactivity detector (ionization chamber or gas flow proportional counter). The method has very numerous applications both theoretically, for the study of chromatographic phenomena under ideal conditions (infinitesimal concentrations made possible by the use of radioactive tracers), and practically, for rapid and accurate radiochemical analysis of radioactive gas mixtures. (authors) [fr

  9. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  10. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  11. Potential application of gas chromatography to the analysis of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.K.; Sprague, R.E.; Bohl, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Gas chromatography is used at Mound Laboratory for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic impurities in gas mixtures. This instrumentation was used to study the applicability of the gas chromatography technique to the determination of the major components of hydrogen isotopic gas mixtures. The results of this study, including chromatograms and precision data, are presented

  12. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas... in Docket No. CP12-4-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and Part 157 of the... Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 2563...

  13. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2006-01-01

    Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force

  14. Fabrication of Titania Nanotubes for Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzilal, A. A.; Muti, M. N.; John, O. D.

    2010-03-01

    Detection of hydrogen is needed for industrial process control and medical applications where presence of hydrogen indicates different type of health problems. Titanium dioxide nanotube structure is chosen as an active component in the gas sensor because of its highly sensitive electrical resistance to hydrogen over a wide range of concentrations. The objective of the work is to fabricate good quality titania nanotubes suitable for hydrogen sensing applications. The fabrication method used is anodizing method. The anodizing parameters namely the voltage, time duration, concentration of hydrofluoric acid in water, separation between the electrodes and the ambient temperature are varied accordingly to find the optimum anodizing conditions for production of good quality titania nanotubes. The highly ordered porous titania nanotubes produced by this method are in tabular shape and have good uniformity and alignment over large areas. From the investigation done, certain set of anodizing parameters have been found to produce good quality titania nanotubes with diameter ranges from 47 nm to 94 nm.

  15. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  16. Noble gas mass spectrometry. Application to earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Nobuo [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1983-03-01

    The method for the isotopic analysis of trace noble gas is described briefly, and the theoretical background of the application to earth science is discussed. Furthermore, the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in volcanic gases and hot spring gases from various areas in Japan, and /sup 3/He//sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratios in mantle-origi nated rocks and minerals are presented. The examples of the application of these results to the field of earth science are introduced. The magma activity which is specific to the considered volcano is identified from the decrease in /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio with the process of volcanic activity. The possibility of earthquake prediction by the measurement of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio is suggested from the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in the gas sampled from an earthquake fault. The isotopes of He and Ar in a diamond were analyzed, and from these results, the isotope composition in mantle when the diamond had been formed was estimated. The mantle model that the mantle is constituted from upper depleted mantle and lower fertile mantle is explained, based on the results of the analysis of He and Ar isotopes in various volcanic eruptions.

  17. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  18. Microturbine applications for the oil and gas industries of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Lee [Capstone Turbine Corp., Chatsworth, CA (United States); Vescovo, Edgardo [Capstone Turbine Corp. South America (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the application of power generation by the use of microturbine technology by Capstone Turbine Corporation throughout South America. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology and the experience gained over the last six years. The microturbines are power generation systems that produce energy from a diverse range of liquid or gaseous fuels. The generator is driven by a small gas turbine with a common shaft for the rotors of the generator and the engine. (author)

  19. 77 FR 51792 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 7, 2012, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C. (CIG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a certificate of...

  20. 76 FR 79673 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application On December 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C... (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, and part 157 of the... Rocan, Senior Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  1. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-97-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas..., filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the Commission's...

  2. Individual hollow and mesoporous aero-graphitic microtube based devices for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Oleg; Postica, Vasile; Marx, Janik; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    In this work, individual hollow and mesoporous graphitic microtubes were integrated into electronic devices using a FIB/SEM system and were investigated as gas and vapor sensors by applying different bias voltages (in the range of 10 mV-1 V). By increasing the bias voltage, a slight current enhancement is observed, which is mainly attributed to the self-heating effect. A different behavior of ammonia NH3 vapor sensing by increasing the applied bias voltage for hollow and mesoporous microtubes with diameters down to 300 nm is reported. In the case of the hollow microtube, an increase in the response was observed, while a reverse effect has been noticed for the mesoporous microtube. It might be explained on the basis of the higher specific surface area (SSA) of the mesoporous microtube compared to the hollow one. Thus, at room temperature when the surface chemical reaction rate (k) prevails on the gas diffusion rate (DK) the structures with a larger SSA possess a higher response. By increasing the bias voltage, i.e., the overall temperature of the structure, DK becomes a limiting step in the gas response. Therefore, at higher bias voltages the larger pores will facilitate an enhanced gas diffusion, i.e., a higher gas response. The present study demonstrates the importance of the material porosity towards gas sensing applications.

  3. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  4. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. As part of the... greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the greenhouse gas...

  5. An environmentally-friendly, highly efficient, gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system for ICP-MS and its application to detection of cadmium and lead in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yupin; Deng, Biyang; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli

    2017-05-15

    An environmentally friendly and highly efficient gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system (GPASIS) was developed for inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A GPASIS consisting of a gas-pressure control device, a customized nebulizer, and a custom-made spray chamber was fabricated. The advantages of this GPASIS derive from its high nebulization efficiencies, small sample volume requirements, low memory effects, good precision, and zero waste emission. A GPASIS can continuously, and stably, nebulize 10% NaCl solution for more than an hour without clogging. Sensitivity, detection limits, precision, long-term stability, double charge and oxide ion levels, nebulization efficiencies, and matrix effects of the sample introduction system were evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the performance of this GPASIS, was equivalent to, or better than, those obtained by conventional sample introduction systems. This GPASIS was successfully used to determine Cd and Pb by ICP-MS in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  7. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  8. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  9. Flow regimes in vertical gas-solid contact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Cankurt, N. T.; Geldart, D.; Liss, B.

    1976-01-01

    The flow characteristics in fluidized beds, i.e., gas-solid systems, was studied to determine the flow regimes, the interaction of gas and solid in the various flow regimes and the dependence of this interaction and of transition between flow regimes on the properties of the gas and solid, on the gas and solid flow rates, and on the containing vessel. Fluidized beds with both coarse and fine particles are considered. Test results using high speed photography to view the operation of a 2-dimensional bed are discussed. (LCL)

  10. Physical aspects of the US oil and gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Hermelee, A.

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical operations which take place within the petroleum and natural gas industries of the US. This information was the basis for the overall network design and the detailed data requirements for the Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Since EEMIS represents the entire oil and gas systems this report can be used to obtain a basic understanding of the entire energy system, from production to consumption, that is composed of the US oil and gas industries.

  11. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Transport Study of Nafion® and Its Fe3+-Substituted Derivative for Membrane-Based Natural Gas Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the structure-gas transport property relationship in Nafion® to investigate its potential use as a gas separation membrane material for natural gas (NG) applications

  12. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullatif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  13. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah

    2017-11-01

    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  14. Development of compact tritium confinement system using gas separation membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop more compact and cost-effective tritium confinement system for fusion reactor, a new system using gas separation membranes has been studied at the Tritium Process Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The preliminary result showed that the gas separation membrane system could reduce processing volume of tritium contaminated gas to more than one order of magnitude compared with the conventional system, and that most of tritiated water vapor (humidity) could be directly recovered by water condenser before passing through dryer such as molecular sieves. More detail investigations of gas separation characteristics of membrane were started to design ITER Atmospheric Detritiation System (ADS). Furthermore, a scaled polyimide membrane module (hollow-filament type) loop was just installed to investigate the actual tritium confinement performance under various ITER-ADS conditions. (author)

  15. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  16. Functional design criteria for the retained gas sampler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) is being developed to capture and analyze waste samples from Hanford Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks to determine both the quantity and composition of gases retained in the waste. The RGSS consists of three main components: the Sampler, Extractor, and Extruder. This report describes the functional criteria for the design of the RGSS components. The RGSS Sampler is based on the WHC Universal Sampler design with modifications to eliminate gas leakage. The primary function of the Sampler is to capture a representative waste sample from a tank and transport the sample with minimal loss of gas content from the tank to the laboratory. The function of the Extruder is to transfer the waste sample from the Sampler to the Extractor. The function of the Extractor is to separate the gases from the liquids and solids, measure the relative volume of gas to determine the void fraction, and remove and analyze the gas constituents

  17. TO APPLICATION OF BIO-GAS UNITS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Nga Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the published papers written by national and foreign researchers reveals that an increasing global energy deficit, exhaustion of  fossil organic and nuclear fuels, chemical and radio-active contamination of the environment are main reasons in favour of  thorough investigation  and wide introduction of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Nowadays Vietnamese Institute of Energy Science has been developing the state-of-the-art bio-gas technologies on the  basis of application and modernization of Chinese and Dutch family-style technologies. The most rational technologies are combined ones which operate using various types of energy raw materials, for example, solar and bio-gas energy because usage of solar energy expands operational possibilities of the bio-gas system, ensures its operation within wide temperature range creating necessary parameters for the required technological task.

  18. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner-Volpe, B.; Trapmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  19. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  20. Overview of gas cooled reactors' applications with CATHARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevieve Geffraye; Fabrice Bentivoglio; Anne Messie; Alain Ruby; Manuel Saez; Nicolas Tauveron; Ola Widlund

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For about four years, CEA has launched feasibility studies of future nuclear advanced systems in a consistent series of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) ranging from thermal reactors, as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for the mid term, to fast reactors (GFR) for the long term. Thermal hydraulic performances are a key issue for the core design, the evaluation of the thermal stresses on the structures and the decay heat removal systems. This analysis requires a 1D code able to simulate the whole reactor, including the core, the vessel, the piping and the components (turbine, compressors, heat exchangers). CATHARE is the reference code developed and extensively validated in collaboration between CEA, EDF, IRSN and FRAMATOME-ANP for the French Pressurized Water Reactors. CATHARE has the capabilities to model a Gas Cooled Reactor using standard 0D and 1D modules with some adaptations to treat the specificities of the GCR designs. In this paper, the different adaptations are presented and discussed. The direct coupling of a Gas Cooled Reactor with a closed gas-turbine cycle leads to a specific dynamic plant behaviour and a specific turbomachinery module has been developed. The thermal reactors' core consists of hexagonal graphite blocks with an annular-fueled region surrounded by reflectors and a special attention is paid on the thermal modeling of such a core leading to a quasi-2D thermal description. First designs of the VHTR are proposed and are based on an indirect cycle concept with a primary circuit, cooled by helium, and containing the core and a circulator. The core power is transmitted to the secondary circuit via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The secondary circuit contains a turbine and a compressor coupled on a single shaft. It uses a mixture of helium and nitrogen, in order to benefit from both the favourable thermal properties of helium for the heat exchanger, and from existing experience of turbomachines using

  1. Off-gas recirculation system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, M.; Lade, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    According to the invention, it is suggested to provide a buffer vessel in the ring main of the off-gas recirculation system for off-gases of a nuclear reactor to which all chambers or vessels which may contain radioactively contaminated gases are connected, within the connection line to outside air. This is to prevent the immediate release of an appreciable amount of gas to the outside air due to pressure variations conditioned by the sequence of operations - e.g. on the filling of the coolant storage. After the improvement, the released gas may be reduced to the amount of gas corresponding to the leakage gas flow entering the ring mains system. (TK) [de

  2. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  3. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  4. Gas characterization system operation, maintenance, and calibration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the responsibilities and requirements for operation, maintenance, and calibration of the Gas Characterization Systems (GCS) analytical instrumentation. It further, defines the division of responsibility between the Characterization Monitoring Development organization and Tank Farms Operations

  5. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  6. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  7. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Shinde, R.R.; Joshi, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m 2 , with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C 2 H 2 F 4 ), isobutane (iC 4 H 10 ) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  8. Application of safeguards techniques to the Eurodif gas diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.; Goens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristic features of gas diffusion plants are such that safeguards procedures specifically suited for this technique can be proposed. The first of these features is the fact that appreciably altering the enrichment level of the plant product is not possible without making easily detectable changes either in the plant structure itself or in the movement of incoming and outgoing materials. Furthermore, because of the size of gas diffusion plants large stocks of uranium are present in them. Although inventory differences may be small in relative terms, they are large in abosolute terms and exceed the quantities of low-enriched uranium considered significant from the standpoint of safeguards. Lastly, the impossibility for economic reasons for taking a physical inventory of the plant after it has been emptied prevents a comparison of the physical inventory with the book inventory. It would therefore seem that the safeguarding of a gas diffusion plant should be focused on the movement of nuclear material between the plant and the outside world. The verification of inputs and outputs can be considered satisfactory from the safeguards standpoint as long as it is possible to make sure of the containment of the plant and of the surveillance for the purpose of preventing clandestine alterations of structure. The description of the Eurodif plant and the movement of materials planned there at present indicate that the application of such a safeguards technique to the plant should be acceptable to the competent authorities. For this purpose a monitoring area has been set aside in which the inspectors will be able to keep track of all movements between the outside world and the enrichment plant

  9. Corrosive Space Gas Restores Artwork, Promises Myriad Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Atomic oxygen's unique characteristic of oxidizing primarily hydrogen, carbon, and hydrocarbon polymers at surface levels has been applied in the restoration of artwork, detection of document forgeries, and removal of bacterial contaminants from surgical implants. The Electro-Physics Branch at Glenn Research Center built on corrosion studies of long-duration coatings for use in space, and applied atomic oxygen's selectivity to instances where elements need to be removed from a surface. Atomic oxygen is able to remove organic compounds high in carbon (mostly soot) from fire-damaged artworks without causing a shift in the paint color. First successfully tested on oil paintings, the team then applied the restoration technique to acrylics, watercolors, and ink. The successful art restoration process was well-publicized, and soon a multinational, nonprofit professional organization dedicated to the art of forensic analysis of documents had successfully applied this process in the field of forgery detection. The gas has biomedical applications as well-Atomic Oxygen technology can be used to decontaminate orthopedic surgical hip and knee implants prior to surgery, and additional collaborative research between the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and the Glenn team shows that this gas's roughening of surfaces improves cell adhesion, which is important for the development of new drugs.

  10. Exergy analysis of a gas-hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yuehong; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghe

    2014-01-01

    Based on exergy analysis of charging and discharging processes in a gas-hydrate cool storage system, the formulas for exergy efficiency at the sensible heat transfer stage and the phase change stage corresponding to gas-hydrate charging and discharging processes are obtained. Furthermore, the overall exergy efficiency expressions of charging, discharging processes and the thermodynamic cycle of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are obtained. By using the above expressions, the effects of number of transfer units, the inlet temperatures of the cooling medium and the heating medium on exergy efficiencies of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are emphatically analyzed. The research results can be directly used to evaluate the performance of gas-hydrate cool storage systems and design more efficient energy systems by reducing the sources of inefficiency in gas-hydrate cool storage systems. - Highlights: • Formulas for exergy efficiency at four stages are obtained. • Exergy efficiency expressions of two processes and one cycle are obtained. • Three mainly influencing factors on exergy efficiencies are analyzed. • With increasing the inlet temperature of cooling medium, exergy efficiency increases. • With decreasing the inlet temperature of heating medium, exergy efficiency increases

  11. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  12. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  13. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2005-11-01

    The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

  14. The Danish gas and electricity system; Det danske gas- og elsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-28

    The report presents intermediate results from the project 'A model for and analyses of an integrated gas and electricity system'. The project starts from deregulation of the energy markets and increased focus on the connection between various forms of supply. The report describes the two systems with a view to identify differences and similarities. (BA)

  15. Stakeholder Workshop on EPA GHG Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  16. Inverse problem and uncertainty quantification: application to compressible gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birolleau, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with uncertainty propagation and the resolution of inverse problems together with their respective acceleration via Polynomial Chaos. The object of this work is to present a state of the art and a numerical analysis of this stochastic spectral method, in order to understand its pros and cons when tackling the probabilistic study of hydrodynamical instabilities in Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube experiments. The first chapter is introductory and allows understanding the stakes of being able to accurately take into account uncertainties in compressible gas dynamics simulations. The second chapter is both an illustrative state of the art on generalized Polynomial Chaos and a full numerical analysis of the method keeping in mind the final application on hydrodynamical problems developing shocks and discontinuous solutions. In this chapter, we introduce a new method, naming iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos, which ensures a gain with respect to generalized Polynomial Chaos, especially with non smooth solutions. Chapter three is closely related to an accepted publication in Communication in Computational Physics. It deals with stochastic inverse problems and introduces bayesian inference. It also emphasizes the possibility of accelerating the bayesian inference thanks to iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos described in the previous chapter. Theoretical convergence is established and illustrated on several test-cases. The last chapter consists in the application of the above materials to a complex and ambitious compressible gas dynamics problem (Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube configuration) together with a deepened study of the physico-numerical phenomenon at stake. Finally, in the appendix, we also present some interesting research paths we quickly tackled during this thesis. (author) [fr

  17. Analysis of a gas absorption system with soluble carrier gas and volatile solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanak, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of column diameter, carrier gas coabsorption, and solvent vaporization on the performance of a packed gas absorption column are examined. The system investigated employs dichlorodifluoromethane as a solvent to remove krypton from a nitrogen stream and is characterized by substantial nitrogen coabsorption. Three columns with diameters of 2, 3, and 4 inches were constructed and packed with 34.5 inches of Goodloe packing. In addition to the more conventional data, the experimental evaluation of these columns included the use of a radioisotope and a gamma scanning technique which provided direct measurement of the columns' molar krypton profiles. A multicomponent gas absorption model was developed, based on the two-film mass transfer theory, that allows the fluxes of all species to interact. Verification of this model was achieved through comparison of the calculated results with experimental data. With the feed gas flow rate between 6 and 36 lb moles/hr-ft 2 and the solvent feed rate between 40 and 400 lb moles/hr-ft 2 , column diameter was found to have no significant impact on the mass transfer efficiency of this system when carried out in columns with diameters of 2 inches or greater. The absorption of krypton was found to be enhanced and inhibited, respectively, by carrier gas coabsorption and solvent vaporization. An injector system to add gaseous solvent to the feed gas stream prior to its introduction into the packed bed was proposed to eliminate the detrimental effects of solvent vaporization.Using this injector to supersaturate the feed gas stream with solvent enhanced absorber performance in the same manner as carrier gas coabsorption

  18. Simulation of the fuzzy-smith control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deheng; Xu Xiaolin; Zheng Jie; Guo Renjun; Zhang Guifen

    1997-01-01

    The Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller to solve the control of the big delay system is developed, accompanied with the development of the mathematical model of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled test reactor (HTR-10) and the design of its control system. The simulation results show the Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller has the advantages of both fuzzy control and Smith pre-estimate controller; it has better compensation to the delay and better adaptability to the parameter change of the control object. So it is applicable to the design of the control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

  19. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  20. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  1. Gas generation and migration analysis for TRU waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kenichi; Noda, Masaru; Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    In TRU waste disposal system, significant quantities of gases may be generated due to metal corrosion, radiolysis effect and microorganism activities. It is therefore recommended that the potential impact of gas generation and migration on TRU waste repository should be evaluated. In this study, gas generation rates were calculated in the repository and gas migration analysis in the disposal system were carried out using two phase flow model with results of gas generation rates. First, the time dependencies of gas generation rate in each TRU waste repositories were evaluated based on amounts of metal, organic matter and radioactivity. Next, the accumulation pressure of gases and expelled pore water volume nuclides in the repository were calculated by TOUGH2 code. After that, the results showed that the increase of gas pressure was the range of 1.3 to 1.4 MPa. In the repository with and without buffer, the rate of expelled pore water was 0.006 - 0.009 m 3 /y and 0.018 - 0.24m 3 /y, respectively. In addition, the radioactive gas migration through the repository and geosphere are evaluated. And re-saturation analysis is also performed to evaluate the initial condition of the system. (author)

  2. On the stability of boundary layers in gas mantle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1978-10-01

    In this thesis a systematic investigation of the stability properties of the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems for a large class of dissipative magneto-hydrodynamic modes is presented. In the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems several strong stabilizing mechanisms arise due to coupling between various dissipative effects in certain parameter regions. The presence of neutral gas strongly enhances the stabilizing effects in a dual fashion. First in an indirect way by cooling the edge region and second in a direct way by enhancing viscous and heat conduction effects. It has, however, to be pointed out that exceptions from this general picture may be found. The stabilizing influence of neutral gas on a large class of electrostatic as well as electromagnetic modes in the boundary regions of gas blanket systems is contrary to what has been found in low density weakly ionized plasmas. In these latter cases presence of neutral gas has even been found to be responsible for the onset of entirely new classes of instabilities. Thus there is no universal stabilizing or destabilizing effect associated with plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. (author)

  3. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  4. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  5. Applicability of the local field concept for the electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, D.; Sjoelander, A.; Swierkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The static exchange-correlation hole surrounding an electron in an electron gas at metallic densities has been a highly successful and useful concept. The properties of the static exchange-correlation hole can be accurately reflected by the construction of a static local field. This field surrounds each electron and modifies it interaction with the other electrons in the system. An important limitation of the local field concept is that it does not handle the time-dependent relaxation of the surrounding electron cloud in a particularly transparent way. At metallic densities this is if no consequence since relaxation effects are only small corrections anyway, but at lower densities and in two-dimensional systems they become increasingly important. Approaches which attempt to address these problems are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  6. Novel microelectrode-based online system for monitoring N2O gas emissions during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2014-11-04

    Clark-type nitrous oxide (N2O) microelectrodes are commonly used for measuring dissolved N2O levels, but have not previously been tested for gas-phase applications, where the N2O emitted from wastewater systems can be directly quantified. In this study, N2O microelectrodes were tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to their temperature, gas flow, composition dependence, gas pressure, and humidity. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was found, whereas gas flow, composition, pressure, and humidity did not have any influence on the signal. Two of the sensors were tested at different N2O concentration ranges (0-422.3, 0-50, 0-10, and 0-2 ppmv N2O) and exhibited a linear response over each range. The N2O emission dynamics from two laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors performing ammonia or nitrite oxidation were also monitored using one of the microsensors and results were compared with two other analytical methods. Results show that N2O emissions were accurately described with these microelectrodes and support their application for assessing gaseous N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems. Advantages of the sensors as compared to conventional measurement techniques include a wider quantification range of N2O fluxes, and a single measurement system that can assess both liquid and gas-phase N2O dynamics.

  7. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  8. Gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membranes for ammonia recovery in bio-electrochemical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Zamora, P.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of a gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membrane in bio-electrochemical systems enables efficient recovery of ammonia (NH3) from their cathode compartments. Due to a hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode, no chemical addition was required to increase the pH for

  9. Measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow in gas-water-hydrate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, G.; Husebo, J.; Graue, A.; Kvamme, B. [Bergen Univ., Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Baldwin, B. [Green Country Petrophysics LLC, Dewey, OK (United States); Stevens, J.; Howard, J. [ConocoPhillips, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in natural gas hydrate reservoirs may offer stable long-term storage of a greenhouse gas while benefiting from methane production, without requiring heat. By exposing hydrate to a thermodynamically preferred hydrate former, CO{sub 2}, the hydrate may be maintained macroscopically in the solid state and retain the stability of the formation. However, there is concern over the flow capacity in such reservoirs. This depends on several factors, notably thermodynamic destabilization of hydrate in small pores due to capillary effects; the presence of liquid channels separating the hydrate from the mineral surfaces; and, the connectivity of gas or liquid filled pores and channels. This paper described a technique for measuring gas permeability in gas-water-hydrate systems. It reported on several experiments that measured gas permeability during stages of hydrate growth in sandstone core plugs. Interactions between minerals and surrounding molecules were also discussed. The formation of methane hydrate in porous media was monitored and quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of hydrate growth within the porous rock were provided along with measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow effects at various hydrate saturations. Gas permeability was measured at steady state flow of methane through the hydrate-bearing core sample. Significant gas permeability was recorded for porous sandstone even when hydrates occupied up to 60 per cent of the pore space. It was concluded that MRI imaging can be used effectively to map and quantify hydrate saturation in sandstone core plugs. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  11. High-speed cinematography of gas-tungsten arc welding: theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, L.D.; Key, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    High-speed photo-instrumentation theory and application are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-speed cinematography, for the engineer who has not acquired an extensive background in scientific photography. Camera systems, optics, timing system, lighting, photometric equipment, filters, and camera mounts are covered. Manufacturers and other resource material are listed in the Appendices. The properties and processing of photosensitive materials suitable for high-speed photography are reviewed, and selected film data are presented. Methods are described for both qualitative and quantitative film analysis. This technology is applied to the problem of analyzing plasma dynamics in a gas-tungsten welding arc.

  12. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    , and they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the peak hour......Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system...... characteristics of the electricity and gas systems will be investigated. The point is here that the two systems will tend to have peak demand during the same hours. This is the typical situation, since load is high during the same hours of the day and of the year. Moreover, the random variations in the load...

  13. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  14. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  15. Gas management of measurement system; Sistema informatizado de programacao e controle integrado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedersberg, Luis Carlos [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programacao e Controle Integrado; Gomes, Lea Visali [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia Executiva de Logistica de Operacoes

    2008-07-01

    This paper has for objective to present the software developed for control of measurement of natural gas in the Gas Company of the Rio Grande do Sul State - Sulgas. This paper will be presented the previous control system, developed as Microsoft Excel and the new system developed in Company's ERP. This software automated great part of the process, reducing possible mistakes, reducing the reverse-work index and improving the quality of the measurements considerably and of the revenue of the Company. (author)

  16. MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards

  17. Novel applications of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kasabov, Nikola; Filev, Dimitar; Jotsov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this carefully edited book some selected results of theoretical and applied research in the field of broadly perceived intelligent systems are presented. The problems vary from industrial to web and problem independent applications. All this is united under the slogan: "Intelligent systems conquer the world”. The book brings together innovation projects with analytical research, invention, retrieval and processing of knowledge and logical applications in technology. This book is aiming to a wide circle of readers and particularly to the young generation of IT/ICT experts who will build the next generations of intelligent systems.

  18. Casemix systems and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Casemix systems are used in many countries around the world. The reasons for the popularity of casemix systems will be clear once their design features and applications are explained. The specific design issues for acute and other health care settings are discussed, along with their application to paying for care, utilisation review, quality assurance and clinical governance. The quality of the data is important to the integrity of these systems, and the chapter closes with a discussion of the causes of errors in the data and how the quality can be improved.

  19. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  20. Vermont Yankee advanced off-gas system (AOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, P.S.; Miller, S.R.; DerHagopian, H.

    1975-01-01

    Early in 1971 the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation decided to modify the existing off-gas delay system to reduce the release of noble gas isotopes from its boiling water reactor. This modification included a subsystem for recombining the radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen from the reactor and a series of adsorber tanks filled with activated carbon to delay the noble gas isotopes from the condenser air ejectors. The off-gas system and its operating history from initial operation in November 1973 to the present time are described. Data are also presented on the measured dynamic adsorption coefficient of the ambient carbon subsystem. Laboratory adsorption tests were conducted on the carbon prior to AOG startup and the results are compared with the effective coefficients obtained under operating conditions. (U.S.)

  1. Nanowire field-effect transistors for gas sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios

    Sensing BTEX (Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene) pollutants is of utmost importance to reduce health risk and ensure public safety. The lack of sensitivity and selectivity of the current gas sensors and the limited number of available technologies in the field of BTEX-sensing raises the demand for the development of high-performance gas sensors for BTEX applications. The scope of this thesis is the fabrication and characterisation of high-quality field-effect transistors (FETs), with functionalised silicon nanowires (SiNWs), for the selective sensing of benzene vs. other BTEX gases. This research addresses three main challenges in SiNW FET-sensor device development: i) controllable and reproducible assembly of high-quality SiNWs for FET sensor devices using the method of dielectrophoresis (DEP), ii) almost complete elimination of harmful hysteresis effect in the SiNW FET current-voltage characteristics induced by surface states using DMF solvent, iii) selective sensing of benzene with up to ppb range of sensitivity using calix[4]arene-derivatives. It is experimentally demonstrated that frequency-controlled DEP is a powerful tool for the selection and collection of semiconducting SiNWs with advanced electrical and morphological properties, from a poly-disperse as-synthesised NWs. The DEP assembly method also leads to a controllable and reproducible fabrication of high-quality NW-based FETs. The results highlight the superiority of DEP, performed at high signal frequencies (5-20 MHz) to selectively assemble only high-quality NWs which can respond to such high DEP frequencies. The SiNW FETs, with NWs collected at high DEP frequencies, have high mobility (≈50 cm2 V-1 s-1), low sub-threshold-swing (≈1.26 V/decade), high on-current (up to 3 mA) and high on/off ratio (106-107). The DEP NW selection is also demonstrated using an industrially scalable method, to allow establishing of NW response characteristics to different DEP frequencies in a very short time

  2. Performance analysis of a small regenerative gas turbine system adopting steam injection and side-wall in finned tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Young; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop

    2009-01-01

    Small gas turbines in power range of several MWs are quite suitable for application in distributed generation as well as Community Energy Systems (CES). Humidification is an effective way to improve gas turbine performance, and steam injection is the most general and practically feasible method. This study intended to examine the effect of steam injection on the performance of several MW class gas turbines. A primary concern is given to the regenerative cycle gas turbine. The steam injection effect on the performance of a system without the regenerator (i.e. a simple cycle) is also examined. In addition, the influence of bypass of some of the exhaust gas on the performance of the gas turbine, especially the regenerative cycle gas turbine, is evaluated.

  3. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG, and is a customer of the Cameron... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-161-LNG] Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  4. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-547-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas..., filed in Docket Number CP11-547-000, pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an...

  5. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  6. Operation and management of aging gas distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNorgan, J.D. (Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Southern California Gas Company, transports billions of cubic feet of natural gas through large-diameter, high-pressure transmission lines, across hundreds of miles of varying terrain, to satisfy the needs of over four and a half million customers. Operating an aging gas system can be truly expensive. Repair costs are very high. Recent figures experienced by our company show that it cost over $800 to repair a main leak, $400 to replace a service, and over $40 a foot to replace even small sized mains. A hidden cost is the effect of the physical limitations imposed by an aging system. It could be under-sized, or limited to a low pressure, thus restricting the volume of gas that can be delivered. Additionally there is the potential loss of valuable gas through leaks or blow downs when making repairs or replacements, and the damage it could do to the environment. For some years Southern California Gas Company has had on-going special and routine pipe replacement programs. The special pipe replacement program is driven primarily to increase the safety of the system, while at the same time improving reliability of service to the customers and reducing their total costs.

  7. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Woong Sup

    1999-02-01

    Fission gas products accumulated in irradiated fuel rod is 1-2 cm 3 in CANDU and 40-50 cm 3 in PWR fuel rod. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system can be used for both CANDU and PWR fuel rod. This system comprises puncturing device located at in cell part and monitoring device located at out cell part. The system has computerized 9 modes and can calculate both void volume and mass volume only single puncturing. This report describes techniques and procedure for operating fuel rod puncturing and gas monitoring system which can be play an important role in successful operation of the devices. Results obtained from the analysis can give more influence over design for fuel rods. (Author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  8. Gas flows in S-E binary systems of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, N. YA.

    1990-01-01

    Tidal interaction between the galaxies in binary systems leads to important consequences. Some peculiarities in galactic morphology as well as the transfer of matter from one galaxy to another may be due to this factor. In particular, gas flows in intergalactic space may be formed. Such flows enriching one component with gas from the other may play a substantial role in the evolution of mixed (S-E) pairs. One can mention several facts corroborating the possibility of the gas transfer from the spiral to the elliptical galaxy. High HI content (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) solar mass) is detected in nearly 40 E galaxies (Bottinelli and Gougenheim, 1979; Knapp et al., 1985). Such galaxies are often members of pairs or of multiple systems including an S galaxy, which may be the source of gas (Smirnov and Komberg, 1980). Moreover, the gas kinematics and its distribution also indicate an external origin for this gas (Knapp et al., 1985). In many cases there is an outer gaseous disk. The directions of the disk and of stellar rotation don't always coincide (van Gorkom et al., 1985; Varnas et al., 1987). The galaxy colors in S-E pairs are correlated (the Holmberg effect): bluer ellipticals have spiral components that are usually bluer (Demin et al., 1984). The fraction of E galaxies with emission lines (N sub em) in S-E pairs showing traces of tidal interaction is twice as large (N sub em approx. equals 0.24) as in pairs without interaction (N sub em approx. equals 0.12) (Sotnikova, 1988b). Since the presence of emission lines in a galaxy spectrum strongly depends on gas content, this fact also leads to the conclusion that ellipticals in interacting S-E pairs are enriched with gas. These facts may be considered as a serious indication of the existence of gas transfer. Hence, investigation of this process is of interest.

  9. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  10. Semiconductor type n for applications in gas sensing film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerón Hurtado, Nathalie Marcela; Rodríguez Páez, Jorge Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductors are materials commonly used in the conformation of the active material in gas sensors, in this paper the synthesis routes are shown for obtaining raw material Sn02-Ti02 system, n-type semiconductor material, methods of characterization the same and the formation of thick films. The synthesis was performed using the methods of precipitation Controlled Polymeric Precursor, characterization of ceramic powders are made using techniques of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric (DTA / TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM ) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Finally they settled in thick films by screen printing method and microstructurally characterized by Optical Microscopy (M0) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), besides this electrically characterized. The ceramic powders obtained are nanoscale high chemical purity and respond favorably formed films in the presence of oxygen and carbon monoxide.

  11. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  14. Fast reactor primary cover gas system proposals for CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.M.T.

    1987-01-01

    A primary sodium gas cover has been designed for CDFR, it comprises plant to maintain and control; cover gas pressure for all reactor operating at fault conditions, cover gas purity by both blowdown and by a special clean-up facility and the clean argon supply for the failed fuel detection system and the primary pump seal purge. The design philosophy is to devise a cover gas system that can be specified for any LMFBR where only features like vessel and pipework size need to be altered to suit different design and operating conditions. The choice of full power and shutdown operating pressures is derived and the method chosen to control these values is described. A part active/part passive system is proposed for this duty, a surge volume of 250 m 3 gives passive control between full power and hot shutdown. Pressure control operation criteria is presented for various reactor operating conditions. A design for a sodium aerosol filter, based on that used on PFR is presented, it is specifically designed so that it can be fitted with an etched disc type particulate filter and maintenance is minimised. Two methods that maintain cover gas purity are described. The first, used during normal reactor operation with a small impurities ingress, utilises the continuous blowdown associated with the inevitable clean argon purge through the various reactor component seals. The second method physically removes the impurities xenon and krypton from the cover gas by their adsorption, at cryogenic temperature, onto a bed of activated carbon. The equipment required for these two duties and their mode of operation is described with the aid of a system flow diagram. The primary pump seals requires a gas purge to suppress aerosol migration. A system where the argon used for this task is recirculated and partially purified is described. (author)

  15. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    technique for applications that demand extremely high purity grades, i.e. = 99.999 % H{sub 2}(g), such as for example the electronic industry and the metallurgic industry. For the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry, for which the purity grade demand is somewhat lower (i.e. = 99.5 % H{sub 2}(g)), PSA may also be a choice of consideration. According to the results obtained in this work, S, CO, halogens, ammonia and oxygenated hydrocarbons seems to be the impurities of concern in the case of PEMFC applications. To remove at least S, CO and oxygenated hydrocarbons, Catator's regenerative adsorbents, installed upstream a PROX reactor, seems to be an efficient, compact and non-expensive way for gas-clean-up. For also eliminating components such as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, a PSA or a Pd-alloy membrane have to be used. In the latter cases, the PROX reactor can be eliminated. A disadvantage of using PSA or Pd-alloy membrane units is however that the reformation needs to be carried out at an elevated pressure which in turn results in that the weight of the fuel processor significantly increases. In the case of PSA, a compact so called Fast Cycle PSA is recommended, since conventional PSA systems are today way to large and heavy for being of interest for small-scale hydrogen production. However, Fast Cycle PSA systems for reformate purification are still not commercially available and therefore, still expensive. Furthermore, in order to further examine the suitability of using a Pd-alloy membrane for reformate purification, a relatively non-expensive Pd-Cu membrane has been ordered from the company ATI Wah Change. The membrane will be evaluated in combination with Catator's reformer technology in the beginning of 2005. Coke and S are the critical impurities in the case of SOFC applications.. The coke formation can be suppressed by the use of pre-reforming (internal reforming is assumed). The system can also become more coke-tolerant by exchanging the anode

  16. The evaluation study for gas target system in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2009-06-01

    The object of this study is an improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, the deep hole grid and the hex grid are compared for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM analysis, it was verified that the hex grid design is more effective than the hole grid. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, two type of mixture gas (N 2 +H 2 /N 2 +O 2 ) lines was installed for CH 4 /CO 2 production. Use the mixture gas than the He gas, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Compare the target yields : For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. Also, we tested the production yield variation with impurity of the mixture gas. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production

  17. Case study on natural gas application for district heating and cooling in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (IE/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Energia; Akiyama, Junichi [Mitsui Gas e Energia do Brasil Ltda., Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The distributed cogeneration applying natural gas consists in an excellent alternative to use this source, but it is limited by a compatible heat demand that must be found in its application. District heating and cooling solutions can overcome this hurdle, especially in Brazil, a tropical country, where new industrial and commercial enterprises usually install central air conditioning systems. By 2020 natural gas demand shall reach a value of more than 200 MM m{sup 3} per day, accordingly to the Brazilian Energy Research Office (EPE, 2011). An expressive part of it could be consumed in cogeneration systems like the one described in this paper. This project had a special taxes exception rule applied. The chilled water and heated thermal oil produced were not taxed at all. But these two DHC utilities could obtain a different treatment if someone considers this is a tricky way of power and heat trading, which should be taxed as electricity and natural gas normally are. A bolder legislation with respect to the export of energy surplus would facilitate the project and operation of this kind of system, because the basic premise would be to attend the thermal demand with the electrical power installed, maximizing the global efficiency of the installation. An average 8 GW of Brazilian power demand, with roughly 50 MMm{sup 3}/day of natural gas consumption, could be attended by distributed energy gas cogeneration enterprises. If this prediction were totally accomplished it would bring the Brazilian participation of distributed energy in total power generation to values close to 10% in 2020, value already reached in average by the world biggest electricity's consumer countries (WADE, 2006). This also would mean an equivalent investment economy of approximately 11,000 MW in transmission and distribution lines capacity (author)

  18. Applications of laser-photoacoustic gas analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Stenberg, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) was studied using two high speed gas analysis systems during combustion of coal, peat and wood chips. Time resolved concentrations of some pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S) were measured using laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPS). A zirkonia cell based probe (lambda-probe) was used in synchronization with the LIPS-probe to measure fluctuations between reducing and oxidizing conditions. The two probes were positioned in the same measurement volume on the center-line of the combustion chamber of the CFB. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the behavior of the LIPS in a combustion chamber containing large amounts of other unburnt hydrocarbons. The correlations between oxidizing and reducing conditions and concentrations at three locations in the combustion chamber are presented. The best correlations were found in the upper part of the CFB combustion chamber. In some cases the correlations between reducing conditions and the LIPS signal were caused by hydrocarbons. Comparison of the average values obtained by the LIPS-system for NO and SO{sub 2} with the result from a sampling probe system connected to on-line analysers was also carried out. (author)

  19. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  20. Cool gas micropropulsion system for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, E. van; Sanders, B.H.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    CubeSats are becoming more mature and many capabilities previously associated with microsatellites and bigger platforms are coming to the CubeSat. Moreover, they are becoming available as commercial off the shelf systems with standardized interfaces. TNO Defence and Security of the Netherlands is in

  1. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H. Jr.; Hunt, A.L.; Clower, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  3. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  4. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Lacking a detailed characterization of the resource base and a comprehensive borehole-to-burnertip evaluation model of the North American natural gas system, past R ampersand D, tax and regulatory policies have been formulated without a full understanding of their likely direct and indirect impacts on future gas supply and demand. The recent disappearance of the deliverability surplus, pipeline deregulation, and current policy debates about regulatory initiatives in taxation, environmental compliance and leasing make the need for a comprehensive gas evaluation system critical. Traditional econometric or highly aggregated energy models are increasingly regarded as unable to incorporate available geologic detail and explicit technology performance and costing algorithms necessary to evaluate resource-technology-economic interactions in a market context. The objective of this research is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the natural gas system, including resource base, exploration and development, extraction technology performance and costs, transportation and storage and end use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level and the impact of alternative extraction technologies on well productivity and economics. GSAM evaluates the complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives in the context of the evolving gas markets. Scheduled for completion in 1995, a prototype is planned for early 1994. ICF Resources reviewed relevant natural gas upstream, downstream and market models to identify appropriate analytic capabilities to incorporate into GSAM. We have reviewed extraction technologies to better characterize performance and costs in terms of GSAM parameters

  5. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  6. 77 FR 23472 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 4, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in the..., Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002...

  7. 75 FR 8051 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application February 12, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas, 77002, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an abbreviated application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as...

  8. 78 FR 6313 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 14, 2013, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in... directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana...

  9. 77 FR 8247 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application Take notice that on February 2, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket... Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713) 420...

  10. 77 FR 64972 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a...

  11. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP13-498-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7...

  12. Advanced technologies, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Avdaković, Samir

    2017-01-01

    This volume spans a wide range of technical disciplines and technologies, including complex systems, biomedical engineering, electrical engineering, energy, telecommunications, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, and computer science. The papers included in this volume were presented at the International Symposium on Innovative and Interdisciplinary Applications of Advanced Technologies (IAT), held in Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina on June 26 and 27, 2016. This highly interdisciplinary volume is devoted to various aspects and types of systems. Systems thinking is crucial for successfully building and understanding man-made, natural, and social systems. .

  13. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhongwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhou, Qulan; Hui, Shi'en

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO 2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO 2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  14. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  15. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg... pursuant to sections 7(c) and 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for authorization for Petal to acquire the...

  16. Comprehensive applications of the gas flow proportional counters for radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.; Raman, Anand; Ashokkumar, P.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gas Flow Proportional Counters (GFPC) have been developed indigenously for various radiation protection applications. These detectors can be fabricated for 2 inches diameter filter paper sample counting applications to large area (∼1500 cm 2 ) detectors for surface contamination applications. Thin entrance windows allow non penetrating type of radiations like alpha and low energy beta particles, Efficiencies (for alpha and beta radiations) are comparable to conventional detectors used to measure these radiations. Poor gamma efficiency ( 2 /γ ratio, a high figure of merit and enables efficient gamma background rejection. These detectors are quite suitable for Indian environmental conditions. Three systems have been developed and successfully incorporated in to the radiation surveillance program at various nuclear facilities. The systems based on GFPC detectors include: a) Multiple sample gross alpha counting system; b) Laundry monitoring system; c) Alpha hand contamination monitoring system. The first of these enables simultaneous gross alpha counting of five air activity filter paper samples. The area of the detector surface is optimized to cover the 2 inches sized filter paper samples routinely used for the purpose. Five numbers of GFPC 's are arranged sequentially coupled to five individual amplifiers - micro controller modules to process the signal from the five counters. The laundry monitor which is micro controller based system consists of four large area multiwire GFPC detectors (700 cm 2 sensitive area) used to monitor alpha contamination of decontaminated laundry, Each detector uses a charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to I 2 C counter. The alpha hand monitoring system consists of four large area multiwire gas flow proportional detectors (330 cm 2 sensitive area each). A micro controller-based module is employed to initiate the counting process automatically when the hands are inserted in to the suitably designed window slots and provides audio and

  17. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  18. The radiation gas detectors with novel nanoporous converter for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, H.; Saramad, S.

    2018-02-01

    For many reason it is tried to improve the quantum efficiency (QE) of position sensitive gas detectors. For energetic X-rays, the imaging systems usually consist of a bulk converter and gas amplification region. But the bulk converters have their own limitation. For X-rays, the converter thickness should be increased to achieve a greater detection efficiency, however in this case, the chance of escaping the photoelectrons is reduced. To overcome this limitation, a new type of converter, called a nanoporous converter such as Anodizing Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane with higher surface to volume ratio is proposed. According to simulation results with GATE code, for this nanoporous converter with the 1 mm thickness and inter pore distance of 627 nm, for 20-100 keV X-ray energies with a reasonable gas pressure and different pore diameters, the QE can be one order of magnitude greater than the bulk ones, which is a new approach for proposing high QE position sensitive gas detectors for medical imaging application and also high energy physics.

  19. An on-line gas control system using an artificial intelligence language: PROLOG II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.

    1990-01-01

    An application of Artificial Intelligence to a real physics experiment is presented. This allows comparison with classical programming techniques. The PROLOG language appears as a convenient on-line language, easily interfaced to the low level service routines, for which algorithmic languages can still be used. Steering modules have been written for a gas acquisition and analysis program, and for a control system with graphic human interface. This system includes safety rules and automatic action sequences

  20. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, L.; Swagerman, D.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  1. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  2. Balance sheet for the gas system in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2014: 2014, France's warmest year ever observed (2014, warm / 2013, cold). Total Consumption 2014 vs 2013: -16.5% gross consumption, -5.4% climate adjusted. Public Distribution Consumption 2014 vs 2013: -19.2% gross consumption, -2.2% climate adjusted. Power Generation: -60% since 2011, 2014 vs 2013: -34%. Industrial Consumption has remained stable over the past 10 years. Stable industrial capacity subscriptions (excluding power generation). Transported Quantities by GRTgaz 2014 vs 2013 (-8.4%). Increasing flows from North to South. Imports fall connected to consumption fall, but soften by gas transit flows. Very low LNG imports but LNG was back at the end of 2014. Largely increasing gas transit 2014 vs 2013: +41%. Good level in the UGS at the beginning of the winter 2014/2015. Congestion on North-South link, Congested European North-South corridor. Price spread between North and South disappeared in November and December 2014. In 2014, Gas gross consumption fell by 16.5% in comparison with 2013, essentially because of exceptionally warm climatic conditions. Industrial consumption excluding power generation resists and has remained relatively stable over the past ten years. However gas consumption for power generation continued to fall since 2011. In 2014, GRTgaz's gas transmission network ran under unusual gas flow conditions, especially with a continuing decrease of

  3. Optimization of a radiative membrane for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Anthony; Boutami, Salim; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Benisty, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To engineer a cheap, portable and low-power optical gas sensor, incandescent sources are more suitable than expensive quantum cascade lasers and low-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Such sources of radiation have already been realized, using standard MEMS technology, consisting in free standing circular micro-hotplates. This paper deals with the design of such membranes in order to maximize their wall-plug efficiency. Specification constraints are taken into account, including available energy per measurement and maximum power delivered by the electrical supply source. The main drawback of these membranes is known to be the power lost through conduction to the substrate, thus not converted in (useful) radiated power. If the membrane temperature is capped by technological requirements, radiative flux can be favored by increasing the membrane radius. However, given a finite amount of energy, the larger the membrane and its heat capacity, the shorter the time it can be turned on. This clearly suggests that an efficiency optimum has to be found. Using simulations based on a spatio-temporal radial profile, we demonstrate how to optimally design such membrane systems, and provide an insight into the thermo-optical mechanisms governing this kind of devices, resulting in a nontrivial design with a substantial benefit over existing systems. To further improve the source, we also consider tailoring the membrane stack spectral emissivity to promote the infrared signal to be sensed as well as to maximize energy efficiency.

  4. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  5. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  6. UNSTABLE PLANETARY SYSTEMS EMERGING OUT OF GAS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  7. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...... promising cycle setups are identified. The findings illustrate the resulting trade-offs between the system performance and investment costs, which differ significantly with the type of refrigeration cycle. Although these configurations are suitable for small-scale applications, mixed-refrigerant processes...... thermodynamic models leads to relative deviations of up to 1% for the power consumption and 20% for the network conductance. Particular caution should thus be exercised when extrapolating the results of process models to the design of actual gas liquefaction systems....

  8. System analysis and planning of a gas distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Edwin F.M.; Farias, Helio Monteiro [AUTOMIND, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Carla V.R. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand by gas consumers require that projects or improvements in gas distribution networks be made carefully and safely to ensure a continuous, efficient and economical supply. Gas distribution companies must ensure that the networks and equipment involved are defined and designed at the appropriate time to attend to the demands of the market. To do that a gas distribution network analysis and planning tool should use distribution networks and transmission models for the current situation and the future changes to be implemented. These models are used to evaluate project options and help in making appropriate decisions in order to minimize the capital investment in new components or simple changes in operational procedures. Gas demands are increasing and it is important that gas distribute design new distribution systems to ensure this growth, considering financial constraints of the company, as well as local legislation and regulation. In this study some steps of developing a flexible system that attends to those needs will be described. The analysis of distribution requires geographically referenced data for the models as well as an accurate connectivity and the attributes of the equipment. GIS systems are often used as a deposit center that holds the majority of this information. GIS systems are constantly updated as distribution network equipment is modified. The distribution network modeling gathered from this system ensures that the model represents the current network condition. The benefits of this architecture drastically reduce the creation and maintenance cost of the network models, because network components data are conveniently made available to populate the distribution network. This architecture ensures that the models are continually reflecting the reality of the distribution network. (author)

  9. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  10. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  11. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsubota, T. [Tokyo KOATSU Co., Ltd., 1-9-8 Shibuya, Shibuyaku, Tokyo 150-0002 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  12. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  13. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  14. The Gas6/TAM System and Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Mattia; Pirisi, Mario; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo

    2016-10-28

    Growth arrest specific 6 (Gas6) is a multimodular circulating protein, the biological actions of which are mediated by the interaction with three transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors: Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK, collectively named TAM. Over the last few decades, many progresses have been done in the understanding of the biological activities of this highly pleiotropic system, which plays a role in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, coagulation, cell growth, and clearance of apoptotic bodies. Recent findings have further related Gas6 and TAM receptors to neuroinflammation in general and, specifically, to multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, we review the biology of the Gas6/TAM system and the current evidence supporting its potential role in the pathogenesis of MS.

  15. Emergency cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; Burylo, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The site of the gas-cooled reactor with direct-circuit gas turbine is preferably the sea coast. An emergency cooling system with safety valve and emergency feed-water addition is designed which affects at least a part of the reactor core coolant after leaving the core. The emergency cooling system includes a water emergency cooling circuit with heat exchanger for the core coolant. The safety valve releases water or steam from the emergency coolant circuit when a certain temperature is exceeded; this is, however, replaced by the emergency feed-water. If the gas turbine exhibits a high and low pressure turbine stage, which are flowed through by coolant one behind another, a part of the coolant can be removed in front of each part turbine by two valves and be added to the haet exchanger. (RW/LH) [de

  16. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  17. A Computationally Efficient Equation of State for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    the production of geologic accumulations of gas hydrates have historically suffered from relatively slow execution times, compared with other multifluid, porous media systems, due to strong nonlinearities and phase transitions. The phase equilibria for the ternary gas hydrate system within the gas hydrate stability range of composition, temperature and pressure, includes regions where the gas hydrate is in equilibrium with gas, nonaqueous liquid, or mixtures of gas and nonaqeuous liquid near the CO2-CH4-N2 mixture critical point. In these regions, solutions to cubic equations of state can be nonconvergent without accurate initial guesses. A hybrid tabular-cubic equation of state is described which avoids convergence issues, but conserves the characteristics and advantages of the cubic equation of state approaches to phase equilibria calculations. The application of interest will be the production of a natural gas hydrate deposit from a geologic formation, using the guest molecule exchange process; where, a mixture of CO2 and N2 are injected into the formation. During the guest-molecule exchange, CO2 and N2 will predominately replace CH4 in the large and small cages of the sI structure, respectively.

  18. Cascade Chaotic System With Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yicong; Hua, Zhongyun; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C L Philip

    2015-09-01

    Chaotic maps are widely used in different applications. Motivated by the cascade structure in electronic circuits, this paper introduces a general chaotic framework called the cascade chaotic system (CCS). Using two 1-D chaotic maps as seed maps, CCS is able to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Examples and evaluations show the CCS's robustness. Compared with corresponding seed maps, newly generated chaotic maps are more unpredictable and have better chaotic performance, more parameters, and complex chaotic properties. To investigate applications of CCS, we introduce a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a data encryption system using a chaotic map generated by CCS. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the proposed PRNG has high quality of randomness and that the data encryption system is able to protect different types of data with a high-security level.

  19. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  20. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  1. Application of Conductive Carbon Nanotube Fibers and Composites: Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    changes in Raman spectroscopy data when single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are immersed in various liquids, including common organics (12). In...Resistance -- (82) 2007 Su H2O MWNT PMMA, KOH Gas Impedance -- (83) 2011 Tang H2O MWNT PI Gas Resistance -- (84) 2003 Wang H2O2, NADH SWNT

  2. Application of gas chromatography in hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqiu; Sang Ge; Peng Lixia; Xue Yan; Cao Wei

    2008-01-01

    The principle of gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes was briefly introduced. The main technology and their development of separating hydrogen isotopes, including elution chromatography, hydrogen-displacement chromatography, self-displacement chromatography and frontal chromatography were discussed in detail. The prospect of hydrogen isotope separation by gas chromatography was presented. (authors)

  3. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  4. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  5. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Six thermodynamic models used for evaluating gas liquefaction systems are compared. • Three gas liquefaction systems are modelled, assessed and optimised for each equation of state. • The predictions of thermophysical properties and energy flows are significantly different. • The GERG-2008 model is the only consistent one, while cubic, virial and statistical equations are unsatisfying. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use. They demonstrate as well that

  6. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  7. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton......–Raphson method. Both the unification of units and the per-unit system are proposed to simplify the system description and to enhance the computation efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing an IEEE-9 test system integrated with a 7-node natural gas network. Later, time...

  8. Tribological Behavior of HNBR in Oil and Gas Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winoj Balasooriya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The common usages of elastomeric components in oil and gas field applications are in dynamic atmospheres; especially sealing appliances that are in relative motion when interacting with surfaces. Therefore, their performance and service life mainly depend on the wear and friction characteristics in use. The objective of this scientific work is to identify the effect of swelling-induced ageing on the tribological properties and surface damage mechanisms of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR in contact with different liquids. Furthermore, the investigation of the co-relation between mechanical properties and surface properties in the tested conditions is indispensable. In the swollen state, deteriorated mechanical properties were observed; however, in de-swollen conditions, the mechanical properties were restored. As far as the surface characterization is concerned, when the HNBR was swollen by a standard IRM 903 solvent, its wear was greater compared with the un-swollen specimen (1.1 times despite the lower coefficient of friction (COF (reduced by ~25% and surface temperature (reduced by ~2.4 °C. In the de-swollen condition, wear was even greater (6 times, but the COF and surface temperature were situated in between those recorded in the swollen and un-swollen conditions. With swelling, greater wear damage and lower COF were observed; higher surface ageing (softness, which eases crack growth, created bigger debris. Under the conditions used, in the de-swollen states, the bulk mechanical properties were almost recovered, in contrast to the surface properties, which were still significantly impaired.

  9. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Energy from biomass based gasifier-engine integrated systems are ..... an almost linear electrical signal of 40 /lVrc. ..... The diesel and ROME can be used as injected fuel in dual fuel mode with producer gas induction and this feature does not.

  10. Greenhouse gas footprints of different biofuel production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the impact of different assumptions and methodological choices on the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of biofuels by providing the results for different key parameters on a consistent basis. These include co-products allocation or system expansion, N2O

  11. ADASAGE, ADA Application Development System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. ADASAGE applications may vary in size from small to large multi-program systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. Each of the capabilities is integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, the desired ADASAGE capabilities are chosen and included along with any requirements unique to that application. 2 - Method of solution: All ADASAGE applications which use the database, forms (windows, menus, etc.), or reporting functions require a file with a suffix of .DFL. This file contains the database schema, the various forms and windows, and report definitions. The THOR editor is used to create and maintain the .DFL file. This editor operates on a file with the suffix .SRC and creates and edits schemes, forms, and report formats and compile the .SRC file into the .DFL file used by the application. The application will have unique requirements not satisfied by the selected utilities of ADASAGE. The code for these along with the code necessary to import and use the selected ADASAGE utilities constitutes the p rogrammed application . The completed application system will contain the .DFL file produced by the THOR editor, the required ADASAGE utilities, and the programmed application. During the course of

  12. Transient behavior of ASTRID with a gas power conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.; Mauger, G.; Bensalah, M.; Gauthé, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CATHARE2 transient calculations have been performed for ASTRID with a gas PCS. • The behavior of the reactor is close for gas and for water PCS in case of LOOP. • The gas PCS enables to cool the core for at least 10 h for pressurized transients. • The depressurization of the PCS induces an over-cooling for breaches on low pressure pipes. • The spurious opening of a by-pass line of the turbomachine can be controlled without scram. - Abstract: The present article is dedicated to preliminary transient studies carried out for the analysis of the system overall behavior of the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) demonstrator developed in France by CEA and its industrial partners. ASTRID is foreseen to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. Among the innovative options, a gas power conversion systems (PCS) is envisaged. In this innovative PCS, the working gas is nitrogen whose flow rate delivers power to a turbine driving with the same shaft two compressors (low and high pressure) separated by an intercooler. The other part of the work delivered by the gas is used to drive the alternator that produces electricity. The main objective of such a PCS consists in avoiding physically the possibility of a sodium/water reaction with the secondary circuit but the impact of this PCS on the control of incidental and accidental transients has also been studied. The main purpose of the studies presented in the paper is to assess the dynamic behavior of ASTRID including a gas PCS with the CATHARE2 code. The first transient presented deals with a loss of off-site power and has been calculated for the gas PCS but also for a classical steam/water PCS for comparison purpose. Then typical transients of gas system have been investigated. Several families of

  13. Transient behavior of ASTRID with a gas power conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, F., E-mail: frederic.bertrand@cea.fr; Mauger, G.; Bensalah, M.; Gauthé, P.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CATHARE2 transient calculations have been performed for ASTRID with a gas PCS. • The behavior of the reactor is close for gas and for water PCS in case of LOOP. • The gas PCS enables to cool the core for at least 10 h for pressurized transients. • The depressurization of the PCS induces an over-cooling for breaches on low pressure pipes. • The spurious opening of a by-pass line of the turbomachine can be controlled without scram. - Abstract: The present article is dedicated to preliminary transient studies carried out for the analysis of the system overall behavior of the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) demonstrator developed in France by CEA and its industrial partners. ASTRID is foreseen to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. Among the innovative options, a gas power conversion systems (PCS) is envisaged. In this innovative PCS, the working gas is nitrogen whose flow rate delivers power to a turbine driving with the same shaft two compressors (low and high pressure) separated by an intercooler. The other part of the work delivered by the gas is used to drive the alternator that produces electricity. The main objective of such a PCS consists in avoiding physically the possibility of a sodium/water reaction with the secondary circuit but the impact of this PCS on the control of incidental and accidental transients has also been studied. The main purpose of the studies presented in the paper is to assess the dynamic behavior of ASTRID including a gas PCS with the CATHARE2 code. The first transient presented deals with a loss of off-site power and has been calculated for the gas PCS but also for a classical steam/water PCS for comparison purpose. Then typical transients of gas system have been investigated. Several families of

  14. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  15. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  16. Optimization of gas mixing system of premixed burner based on CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tian-Hu; Liu, Feng-Guo; You, Xue-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-ejectors gas mixing system for premixed combustion burner is provided. • Two measures are proposed to improve the flow uniformity at the outlet of GMS. • Small improvement of uniformity induces significant decrease of pollutant emission. • Uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of ejector increases 234.2% and 2.9%. • Uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of ejectors increases 1.9% and 2.2%. - Abstract: The optimization of gas mixing system (GMS) of premixed burner is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is proved experimentally to have strong influence on pollutant emission. To improve the uniformity at the outlet of GMS, the eleven distribution orifice plates and a diversion plate are introduced. The quantified analysis shows that the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is improved significantly. With applying the distribution orifice plates, the uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of single ejector is increased by 234.2% and 2.9%, respectively. With applying the diversion plate, the uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of different ejectors is increased by 1.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The optimal measures and geometrical parameters provide an applicable guidance for the design of commercial premixed burner

  17. Hydrolysis of a mixture of saccharides by cellulase from Aspergillus niger and its application for visible-light-induced hydrogen gas production system using Mg chlorophyll-a and platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amao, Yutaka; Hirakawa, Takamasa [Department of Applied Chemistry, Oita University, Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Cellulase obtained from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze a mixture of saccharides containing sucrose, maltose, and cellobiose; the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), which is NADH, was produced during hydrolysis of the mixture of saccharides in the presence of NAD{sup +} and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). We have developed a visible-light-induced enzymatic biohydrogen production system involving the combination of cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of the mixture of saccharides and hydrogen production by platinum nanoparticles using photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a). Continuous production of hydrogen gas was observed when the reaction mixture containing saccharides, cellulase, GDH, NAD{sup +}, Mg Chl-a, methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}, an electron donor), and platinum nanoparticles was irradiated by visible light. After 120 min of irradiation, the amount of hydrogen produced from the mixture of saccharides was approximately 2.8 {mu}mol. (author)

  18. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTS has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: (1) torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and (2) tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses

  19. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTS has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses

  20. Applications of Nd:YAG laser micromanufacturing in high temperature gas reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Smal, C.A.; Steyn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques demonstrated. ► Firstly an alumina jig to contain multiple 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres. ► Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining. ► ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal. ► Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. - Abstract: Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques are demonstrated in this publication. Research projects to determine the fission product transport mechanisms in TRISO coated particles necessitate heat treatment studies as well as the manufacturing of a unique sealed system for experimentation at very high temperatures. This article describes firstly the design and creation of an alumina jig designed to contain 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres intended for annealing experiments at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Functional requirements of this jig are the precision positioning of spheres for laser ablation, welding and post weld heat treatment in order to ensure process repeatability and accurate indexing of individual spheres. The design challenges and the performance of the holding device are reported. Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining is reported. ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal fit for application in a high temperature environment. The technique is described along with a discussion of the problems experienced during the sealing process. Typical problems experienced were seating dimensions and the relative small size (∼200 μm) of these plugs that posed handling challenges. Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. In conclusion, this article demonstrates the application of Nd-YAG micromachining in an innovative way to solve practical research

  1. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  2. An assessment of gas impact on geological repository. Methodology and material property of gas migration analysis in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Gas production in a geological repository has potential hazard, as overpressurisation and enhanced release of radionuclides. Amongst data needed for assessment of gas impact, gas migration properties of engineered barriers, focused on clayey and cementitious material, was evaluated in this report. Gas injection experiments of saturated bentonite sand mixture, mortar and cement paste were carried out. In the experiments, gas entry phenomenon and gas outflow rate were observed for these materials. Based on the experimental results, two-phase flow parameters were evaluated quantitatively. A conventional continuum two-phase flow model, which is only practically used multidimensional multi-phase flow model, was applied to fit the experimental results. The simulation results have been in good agreement with the gas entry time and the outflow flux of gas and water observed in the experiments. It was confirmed that application of the continuum two-phase flow model to gas migration in cementitious materials provides sufficient degree of accuracy for assessment of repository performance. But, for sand bentonite mixture, further extension of basic two-phase flow model is needed especially for effect of stress field. Furthermore, gas migration property of other barrier materials, including rocks, but long-term gas injection test, clarification of influence of chemicals environment and large-scale gas injection test is needed for multi-barrier assessment tool development and their verification. (author)

  3. Design of a new terminal gas stripper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Daniela E.; Amodei, Aldo J.; Bonino, Adrian G.; Bustos, Gustavo R.; Giannico, Matias A.; Serdeiro, Guillermo A.; Pomar, Cayetano

    2002-01-01

    A new terminal gas stripper, for the electrostatic FN tandem accelerator of the AMS system at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina, is being designed at present. Most of the vacuum, electrical and electronic components are already available. The remote control of the system is being developed at LABI (Eng. Faculty, Buenos Aires University, Argentina). In order to construct the vacuum chamber, a collaboration with the LNLS (Campinas Univ, Sao Paulo, Brazil) is under consideration. The status of the project is presented. (author)

  4. Gold Nanoparticle Chemiresistor Arrays for Micro-Gas Chromatography Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Elizabeth Laura

    Thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle (MPN) chemiresistors were studied as the sensing devices for micro-gas chromatography (microGC) systems. Because transport through chemiresistors is dominated by tunneling, they are highly sensitive. In order to improve their limit of detection, their fundamental noise was studied. Chemiresistors exhibit 1/f type noise where noise scales inversely with frequency. Chemiresistor noise was found to scale inversely with MPN film thickness. We lowered the noise prefactor of a 50x60 microm2 chemiresistor by coating a thick rather than monolayer MPN film. Electron beam induced crosslinking (EBIX) of the MPN film slightly reduced chemiresistor noise. A technique for patterning chemiresistor arrays with MPN films using EBIX was developed, and an array with four distinct MPNs was fabricated in an area ˜600 microm 2. This is the smallest chemiresistor array reported to date. Chemiresistors were exposed to vapors and provided differential sensitivities comparable to those from larger uncrosslinked chemiresistors. Chemiresistors were studied to assess their long term stability. Chemiresistors exhibited decreases in resistance over time that is likely caused by loss of MPN ligands. Temperature dependent current-voltage measurements verified the resistance change was not due to changes in the size of the MPN core. While resistance could change by orders of magnitude, vapor sensitivity did not show significant changes. Heating increased the change in resistance, but chemiresistors remained responsive after being held at 80°C for a cumulative 400 hours. It was unknown whether tunneling in the MPN film is through the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). A new technique was explored to distinguish tunneling through the HOMO and LUMO by measuring the induced thermoelectric voltage caused by a temperature difference across the MPN film. For integration into a microGC system, we

  5. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  6. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  7. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  8. Decision 99-27 application 1029022 - Petro-Canada Oil and Gas application to install compressors at the Wilson Creek gas plant and at LSD 3-19-43-4 W5M, Wilson Creek Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Petro-Canada Oil and Gas applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) for approval to add two new compressors at the existing Wilson Creek sour gas processing facility, and to construct and operate a new sour gas compressor station in Alberta. The application was made pursuant to Section 26 (1)(b) of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act and Sections 7.001, 9.020, and 15.050 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations. The applications and interventions were considered at a hearing at the Last West Hall, Rimbley, Alberta, commencing 7 April 1999. The issues concerning the applications were: the need for and location of the compressors, plant life, emissions, sulphur recovery, and noise. Petro-Canada will proceed with its commitment to local landowners to install and commission a sulphur recovery unit within 16 months of the date of this report. The sulphur recovery capability of the facility will meet guidelines defined in IL 88-13 for new sour gas plants based on either the current or an acceptable maximum daily inlet sulphur rate. Continuous-vent gas streams, including glycol regenerator, produced-water tank, and hydrocarbon condensate tank vents, at both the 3-29 compressor and at the Wilson Creek plant site will be burned in a flare or incinerator. Flare stacks at the 3-19 compressor site will be equipped with a suitable pilot and automatic igniter. The Wilson Creek plant flare system will be equipped with a suitable pilot, as well as automatic igniter and/or flame failure detection system. Petro-Canada will implement local ambient air quality monitoring and sound level monitoring consistent with its commitments to local landowners and regulatory requirements

  9. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental data revealed the sensors to be more selective to NO2 gas with satisfactory response and recovery time. .... energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, JEOL Model ... nm line of argon ion laser was used for excitation. 3.

  10. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  12. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. The development of a gas transmission system in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudian, Serko; Rickaert, Stefan [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Tractebel Engineering is undertaking for the Lebanese Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) advisory services for the launching and for the awarding of a DBOT (Design, Build, Operate and Transfer) contract for the development of a gas transmission system through Lebanon. The service embraces a global approach, integrating legal, market, technical and financial matters, to provide MEW with a clear strategy to its gas development program, aimed at attracting private investors willing to tender on this DBOT project.The Legal Framework Report examines the existing Lebanese legal system and analyzes its suitability to the regulatory framework required to operate gas networks; it also provides recommendations aimed at attracting potential DBOT developers, by facilitating bureaucratic procedures with possible enactment of new laws. The Gas Demand Due Diligence Report provides the market study for present and future demand of gas in Lebanon in the next 25 years (duration of the DBOT contract), with anticipated needs resulting from power generation, industrial sector, commercial and residential sectors. The Pipeline Alternative Solutions Report provides several alternative routing and configurations for the gas transmission pipeline, including surveys, in-land routing (through rough mountain and heavily populated areas), or off-shore routing (through rough marine canyons and sea water depth in excess of 1,500 meters). Basic technical economical study is elaborated for more than 30 options.The Pipeline Financial Optimization Report compares the economics and provides for each solution the expected postal tariff (the compensation that MEW would need to pay to the developer for the execution of the 25 year DBOT contract). The advisory services are completed with preparation of the Pre-Qualification Notice (aimed at selecting a short list of qualified Bidders), preparation of the Request For Proposal (bidding on the selected pipeline option), evaluation of proposal, selection of

  14. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  15. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  16. Coupled CFD - system-code simulation of a gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yizhou; Rizwan-uddin

    2011-01-01

    A generic coupled CFD - system-code thermal hydraulic simulation approach was developed based on FLUENT and RELAP-3D, and applied to LWRs. The flexibility of the coupling methodology enables its application to advanced nuclear energy systems. Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is a Gen IV reactor design which can benefit from this innovative coupled simulation approach. Mixing in the lower plenum of the GT-MHR is investigated here using the CFD - system-code coupled simulation tool. Results of coupled simulations are presented and discussed. The potential of the coupled CFD - system-code approach for next generation of nuclear power plants is demonstrated. (author)

  17. Z662-96: oil and gas pipeline systems; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S; Burford, G; Martin, A; Adragna, M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This Standard is part of the pipeline systems and materials segment of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)`s Transportation program. It covers the design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that carry (1) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas, (2) oilfield water, (3) oilfield steam, (4) carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes, or (5) natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic gas. tabs. figs.

  18. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  19. A Study on the Evaluation of Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas for its Application to the CO2 Leak Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2015-01-01

    The leak can cause various mechanical and thermal problems. Moreover, CO 2 also reacts with sodium by producing some solid reaction products (i.e. Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 O, etc.), toxic gas (i.e. CO) and heat. Prior to applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to the SFRs, the important safety issues that can occur in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger should be evaluated. For this, it is essential to predict a CO 2 leak mechanism when the pressure boundary fails. The degree of sodium-CO 2 reaction is determined by several factors; a crack or rupture size, the interfacial area between sodium and CO 2 , the amount of released CO 2 , and so on. In order to simulate more reasonable and realistic CO 2 leak flow, one needs to evaluate and improve some limitations found from the previous studies. The dynamic response in the CO 2 side should be considered for varying mass flux at the nozzle exit over time. Thus, it is necessary to investigate more practical flow model to evaluate the system condition change and its consequences during the CO 2 leak. For the flow modeling, it is obvious that a real gas effect and friction force should be considered. However, due to its complexity and difficulty, it is generally assumed that CO 2 behaves as an ideal gas, and an isentropic critical flow without considering the friction force was applied for the analysis so far. In this paper, before incorporating the real gas effect and friction force to the model, gas properties are evaluated as the first step. The fluid properties of CO 2 is studied to observe how strong the real gas effect can be under SFR operating conditions. From this result, it is determined that which gas model is applicable to the CO 2 leak flow model for simulating the accident scenario in the given conditions of Na-CO 2 heat exchanger. The ideal gas law and the isentropic critical flow model are generally applied to predict the state and the flow rate of CO 2 leak in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger previously. However, to simulate a

  20. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  1. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.-PETROBRAS, Av. Almirante Barroso, 81, 12 andar, Centro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 20031-004 (Brazil); Eugenio Leal, Jose, E-mail: jel@puc-rio.br [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Fabricio [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: > We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. > The system may be applied to new or existing projects. > The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. > An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. > The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  2. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney; Eugenio Leal, Jose; Oliveira, Fabricio

    2011-01-01

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: → We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. → The system may be applied to new or existing projects. → The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. → An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. → The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  3. Principle and Performance of Gas Self-inducing Reactors and Applications to Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qin; Li, Zhimin; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gas-liquid contacting is an important unit operation in chemical and biochemical processes, but the gas utilization efficiency is low in conventional gas-liquid contactors especially for sparingly soluble gases. The gas self-inducing impeller is able to recycle gas in the headspace of a reactor to the liquid without utilization of additional equipment such as a gas compressor, and thus, the gas utilization efficiency is significantly enhanced. Gas induction is caused by the low pressure or deep vortex at a sufficiently high impeller speed, and the speed at which gas induction starts is termed the critical speed. The critical impeller speed, gas-induction flow rate, power consumption, and gas-liquid mass transfer are determined by the impeller design and operation conditions. When the reactor is operated in a dead-end mode, all the introduced gas can be completely used, and this feature is especially favorable to flammable and/or toxic gases. In this article, the principles, designs, characteristics of self-inducing reactors, and applications to biotechnology are described.

  4. Applications of a Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Laser in Gas Sensing Research

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Laser absorption based sensors are extensively used in a variety of gas sensing areas such as combustion, atmospheric research, human breath analysis, and high resolution infrared spectroscopy. Quantum cascade lasers have recently emerged as high resolution, high power laser sources operating in mid infrared region and can have wide tunability range. These devices provide an opportunity to access stronger fundamental and combination vibrational bands located in mid infrared region than previously accessible weaker overtone vibrational bands located in near infrared region. Spectroscopic region near 8 µm contains strong vibrational bands of methane, acetylene, hydrogen peroxide, water vapor and nitrous oxide. These molecules have important applications in a wide range of applications. This thesis presents studies pertaining to spectroscopy and combustion applications. Advancements in combustion research are imperative to achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency in practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and engines. Accurate chemical kinetic models are critical to achieve predictive models which contain several thousand reactions and hundreds of species. These models need highly reliable experimental data for validation and improvements. Shock tubes are ideal devices to obtain such information. A shock tube is a homogenous, nearly constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic and 0-D reactor. In combination with laser absorption sensors, shock tubes can be used to measure reaction rates and species time histories of several intermediates and products formed during pyrolysis and oxidation of fuels. This work describes measurement of the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide which is an important intermediate species controlling reactivity of combustion system in the intermediate temperature range. Spectroscopic parameters (linestrengths, broadening coefficients and temperature dependent coefficients) are determined for various transitions of

  5. ELEMENT DESIGN FOR AN INKJET SYSTEM OF HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Il'ina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel.

  6. Hydrogen generation from natural gas for the fuel cell systems of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew L.

    In most cases hydrogen is the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages. It is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. When catalytic steam reforming is used to generate hydrogen from natural gas, it is essential that sulfur compounds in the natural gas are removed upstream of the reformer and various types of desulfurisation processes are available. In addition, the quality of fuel required for each type of fuel cell varies according to the anode material used, and the cell temperature. Low temperature cells will not tolerate high concentrations of carbon monoxide, whereas the molten fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes contain nickel on which it is possible to electrochemically oxidise carbon monoxide directly. The ability to internally reform fuel gas is a feature of the MCFC and SOFC. Internal reforming can give benefits in terms of increased electrical efficiency owing to the reduction in the required cell cooling and therefore parasitic system losses. Direct electrocatalysis of hydrocarbon oxidation has been the elusive goal of fuel cell developers over many years and recent laboratory results are encouraging. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen, namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation; it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.

  7. Self-Test Procedures for Gas Sensors Embedded in Microreactor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Andreas; Hackner, Angelika; Zappa, Dario; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors sensitively respond to a wide variety of combustible, explosive and poisonous gases. However, due to the lack of a built-in self-test capability, MOX gas sensors have not yet been able to penetrate safety-critical applications. In the present work we report on gas sensing experiments performed on MOX gas sensors embedded in ceramic micro-reaction chambers. With the help of an external micro-pump, such systems can be operated in a periodic manner alternating between flow and no-flow conditions, thus allowing repetitive measurements of the sensor resistances under clean air, R0, and under gas exposure, Rgas, to be obtained, even under field conditions. With these pairs of resistance values, eventual drifts in the sensor baseline resistance can be detected and drift-corrected values of the relative resistance response Resp=(R0−Rgas)/R0 can be determined. Residual poisoning-induced changes in the relative resistance response can be detected by reference to humidity measurements taken with room-temperature-operated capacitive humidity sensors which are insensitive to the poisoning processes operative on heated MOX gas sensors. PMID:29401673

  8. Self-Test Procedures for Gas Sensors Embedded in Microreactor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Andreas; Hackner, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Zappa, Dario; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2018-02-03

    Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors sensitively respond to a wide variety of combustible, explosive and poisonous gases. However, due to the lack of a built-in self-test capability, MOX gas sensors have not yet been able to penetrate safety-critical applications. In the present work we report on gas sensing experiments performed on MOX gas sensors embedded in ceramic micro-reaction chambers. With the help of an external micro-pump, such systems can be operated in a periodic manner alternating between flow and no-flow conditions, thus allowing repetitive measurements of the sensor resistances under clean air, R 0 , and under gas exposure, R g a s , to be obtained, even under field conditions. With these pairs of resistance values, eventual drifts in the sensor baseline resistance can be detected and drift-corrected values of the relative resistance response R e s p = ( R 0 - R g a s ) / R 0 can be determined. Residual poisoning-induced changes in the relative resistance response can be detected by reference to humidity measurements taken with room-temperature-operated capacitive humidity sensors which are insensitive to the poisoning processes operative on heated MOX gas sensors.

  9. Film analysis systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool. (ERB)

  10. Film analysis systems and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool

  11. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly applicability to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), is operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The objectives of the TSTA project are to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the exhaust gas processing and tritium related safety systems for the magnetic fusion energy program. The applicability of these processes for the ITER Tokamak is discussed

  12. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantham, T.S.; Biancardi, F.R.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrail applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times

  13. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-6-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in the above referenced docket...

  14. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-76-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application March 15, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, pursuant to...

  15. Optimization techniques for the secondary development of old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshuang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 60 years of development, many old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin have come to middle–late development stages with low pressure and low yield, and some are even on the verge of abandonment, but there are plenty remaining gas resources still undeveloped. Analysis shows that gas fields which have the conditions for the secondary development are faced with many difficulties. For example, it is difficult to produce low permeable reserves and to unset the hydraulic seal which is formed by active formation water. In this paper, therefore, the technical route and selection conditions of old gas fields for the secondary development were comprehensively elaborated with its definition as the beginning. Firstly, geological model forward modeling and production performance inversion characteristic curve diagnosis are performed by using the pressure normalization curve and the identification and quantitative description method for multiple sets of storage–seepage body of complex karst fracture–cavity systems is put forward, after the multiple storage–seepage body mode of fracture–cavity systems is established. Combined with the new occurrence mode of gas and water in U-shape pipes, a new calculation technology for natural gas reserves of multiple fracture–cavity systems with strong water invasion is developed. Secondly, a numerical model of pore–cavity–fracture triple media is built, and simulation and result evaluation technology for the production pattern of “drainage by horizontal wells + gas production by vertical wells” in bottom-water fracture and cavity gas reservoirs with strong water invasion is developed. Thirdly, the geological model of gas reservoirs is reconstructed with the support of the integration technologies which are formed based on fine gas reservoir description. Low permeable reserves of gas reservoirs are evaluated based on each classification. The effective producing ratio is increased further by

  16. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Bedside arterial blood gas monitoring system using fluorescent optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Daniel J.; Rymut, Russell A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe a bedside arterial blood gas (ABG) monitoring system which uses fluorescent optical sensors in the measurement of blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. The Point-of-Care Arterial Blood Gas Monitoring System consists of the SensiCathTM optical sensor unit manufactured by Optical Sensors Incorporated and the TramTM Critical Care Monitoring System with ABG Module manufactured by Marquette Electronics Incorporated. Current blood gas measurement techniques require a blood sample to be removed from the patient and transported to an electrochemical analyzer for analysis. The ABG system does not require removal of blood from the patient or transport of the sample. The sensor is added to the patient's existing arterial line. ABG measurements are made by drawing a small blood sample from the arterial line in sufficient quantity to ensure an undiluted sample at the sensor. Measurements of pH, PCO2 and PO2 are made within 60 seconds. The blood is then returned to the patient, the line flushed and results appear on the bedside monitor. The ABG system offers several advantages over traditional electrochemical analyzers. Since the arterial line remains closed during the blood sampling procedure the patient's risk of infection is reduced and the caregiver's exposure to blood is eliminated. The single-use, disposable sensor can be measure 100 blood samples over 72 hours after a single two-point calibration. Quality Assurance checks are also available and provide the caregiver the ability to assess system performance even after the sensor is patient attached. The ABG module integrates with an existing bedside monitoring system. This allows ABG results to appear on the same display as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, cardiac output, SpO2, and other clinical information. The small module takes up little space in the crowded intensive care unit. Performance studies compare the ABG system with an electrochemical blood gas analyzer. Study results demonstrated accurate and precise blood

  18. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  19. Cleanable sintered metal filters in hot off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Filters with sintered metal elements, arranged as tube bundles with backflush air cleaning, are the equivalent of bag filters for high-temperature, harsh environments. They are virtually the only alternative for high-temperature off-gas systems where a renewable, highly efficient particle trap is required. Tests were conducted which show that the sintered metal elements installed in a filter system provide effective powder collection in high-temperature atmospheres over thousands of cleaning cycles. Such a sintered metal filter system is now installed on the experimental defense waste calciner at the Savannah River Laboratory. The experimental results included in this paper were used as the basis for its design

  20. A prediction method of natural gas hydrate formation in deepwater gas well and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To prevent the deposition of natural gas hydrate in deepwater gas well, the hydrate formation area in wellbore must be predicted. Herein, by comparing four prediction methods of temperature in pipe with field data and comparing five prediction methods of hydrate formation with experiment data, a method based on OLGA & PVTsim for predicting the hydrate formation area in wellbore was proposed. Meanwhile, The hydrate formation under the conditions of steady production, throttling and shut-in was predicted by using this method based on a well data in the South China Sea. The results indicate that the hydrate formation area decreases with the increase of gas production, inhibitor concentrations and the thickness of insulation materials and increases with the increase of thermal conductivity of insulation materials and shutdown time. Throttling effect causes a plunge in temperature and pressure in wellbore, thus leading to an increase of hydrate formation area.

  1. Geochemical modeling of water-gas-rock interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geologic reservoirs; Modelisation geochimique des interactions eau-gaz-roche. Application a la diagenese minerale dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bildstein, O

    1998-03-13

    The Ph.D. report describes a conceptual and numerical model for simulating gas-water-rock interaction during mineral diagenesis of sediments. The main specific features of this model are the following: applicable to open systems, half-implicit resolution numerical method, feedback on the texture evolution (grain model), existence of a gas phase, oxido-reduction phenomena. (author) 217 refs.

  2. Application of partially diabatic divided wall column to floating liquefied natural gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-01

    The offshore operation of chemical plant requires the compactness of process equipments due to its harsh environment. A DWC (divided wall column), a compact ternary separator, is a good candidate for distillation process in the offshore operation. In this study the DWC is applied to the offshore FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) plant, but high utility cost is required in the application because of the large difference of boiling points among feed components. A partially diabatic DWC is proposed for the reduction of the operating cost here, and its design procedure is presented along with performance and economic evaluations and the examination of thermodynamic efficiency as well. The heating duty of the proposed DWC including tray heat transfer is 35% less than that of the conventional system, and the cooling duty is 18% less. The evaluation indicates that some 16% less utility cost is used in the DWC compared with the conventional system, though 7% more investment is required. The exergy loss is reduced by 12%, and the thermodynamic efficiency is improved by 3.3 percentage point over the conventional system. - Highlights: • Diabatic divided wall column for FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) plant. • Compact column for offshore operation. • 35% less heating duty required. • 16% lower utility necessary. • Exergy loss reduced by 12%

  3. Development of Gas Turbine Output Enhancement System Using Thermal Ice Storage (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byun Youn; Joo, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong; Kang, Myung Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soon [Korea Electric Power Corp. (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop a system which enhances gas turbine output using ice storage in summer peak days for power supply stability in domestic power system. This study represents conceptual design, system optimization, basic design and economic analysis of system. General equations which represents capacity of chiller and storage tank were drive. Pyungtaek power plant was selected as one suitable for system application due to its space availability. The system was optimized on the basis of economic analysis and power supply situation by determination of optimal inlet cooling hour. TRNSYS simulation program was used for optimal operating factor of ice harvester under partial load operating conditions. Basic design includes capacity calculation of component, cost survey, system flow diagram, plot plan, and system guide. The system has been evaluated on the basis of economic analysis which calculates NPV, payback period and levelized generation cost. (author). 34 refs., figs., tabs.

  4. A purification process for an inert gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, S.S.; Samanta, S.K.; Jain, N.G.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramaswamy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Special inert atmosphere is desired inside hot cells used for handling radioactive materials. In this report, details of experiments conducted to generate data required for the design of a system for maintaining very low levels of organic and acid vapours, oxygen and moisture in a nitrogen gas inert atmosphere, are described. Several grades of activated charcoals impregnated with 1% KOH were studied for the adsorption of acidic and organic vapours. A Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was developed to remove oxygen with greater than 90% efficiency. For the removal of moisture, a regenerable molecular sieve 4A dual-bed was provided. Based on the performance data thus generated, an integrated purification system for nitrogen gas is proposed. (author)

  5. Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generators. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan. (Author)

  6. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  7. First Study of Helium Gas Purification System as Primary Coolant of Co-Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2009-01-01

    The technological progress of NPP Generation-I on 1950’s, Generation-II, Generation-III recently on going, and Generation-IV which will be implemented on next year 2025, concept of nuclear power technology implementation not only for generate electrical energy, but also for other application which called cogeneration reactor. Commonly the type of this reactor is High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which have other capabilities like Hydrogen production, desalination, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor (HTR) produce thermal output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant, and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this report has been done study for design concept of HTR primary coolant gas purification system, including methodology by sampling He gas from Primary Coolant and purification by using Physical Helium Splitting Membrane. The examination has been designed in physical simulator by using heater as reactor core. The result of study show that the of Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on cogeneration reactor. (author)

  8. Functional requirements for gas characterization system computer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the Functional Requirements for the Computer Software operating the Gas Characterization System (GCS), which monitors the combustible gasses in the vapor space of selected tanks. Necessary computer functions are defined to support design, testing, operation, and change control. The GCS requires several individual computers to address the control and data acquisition functions of instruments and sensors. These computers are networked for communication, and must multi-task to accommodate operation in parallel

  9. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  12. Application of advanced data reduction methods to gas turbine dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of advanced data reduction methods to the evaluation of dynamic data from gas turbines and turbine components. The use of the Fast Fourier Transform and of real-time spectrum analyzers is discussed. The use of power spectral density and probability density functions for analyzing random data is discussed. Examples of the application of these modern techniques to gas turbine testing are presented. The use of the computer to automate the data reduction procedures is discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Tracer gas evaluations of push-pull ventilation system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A push-pull ventilation system is effective for hazardous material exhaustion. Although a push-pull ventilation system has advantages over a local exhaust hood, some laborious adjustments are required. The pertinence of the adjustments is uncertain because it is difficult to evaluate the performance of a push-pull ventilation system quantitatively. In this study, a measurement of the capture efficiency of a push-pull ventilation system was carried out by means of a tracer gas method. The capture efficiency decreased to 39.3-78.5% when blockage material, a dummy worker and a cross draft, were set in the ventilation zone, but the efficiency was 95.1-97.9% when the cross draft was stopped. The results suggest that the uniform flow of a push-pull ventilation system will detour a blockage and the performance of the system will not be reduced unless a cross draft disturbs the uniform flow.

  14. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-01

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production

  15. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-15

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  16. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Bindu, Hima; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here. (fusion engineering)

  17. 76 FR 36526 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....47-mile of 20-inch pipeline to transport natural gas for Virginia Power Services Energy Corp., Inc...- fired electric generation facility being constructed by Virginia Electric and Power Company d/b/a... expects to complete the construction and place the electric generation facility in service during 2014...

  18. Adsorbent filled polymeric membranes : applications to pervaporation and gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays research in membrane technology aims at improving the efficiency of the separation process to make it more competitive in comparison to conventional separation techniques. The improvement of the membrane material is a way to achieve this goal, especially in the case of pervaporation and gas

  19. Photoacoustic trace gas sensing : application to fruit and insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persijn, Stefan Timotheüs

    2001-01-01

    A novel photoacoustic spectrometer has been applied to study trace gas emissions by fruit and insects. The spectrometer is based on a newly designed CO laser that can operate on 400 laser lines between 5.1-8.0 and 2.8-4.1 micrometer (delta v=1 and 2 mode, respectively). The spectrometer is equipped

  20. Validation of OpenFoam for heavy gas dispersion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, A.; Spruijt, M.P.N.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper heavy gas dispersion calculations were performed with OpenFoam. For a windtunnel test case, numerical data was validated with experiments. For a full scale numerical experiment,a code to code comparison was performed with numerical results obtained from Fluent. The validationwas