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Sample records for garlic extract supplemented

  1. Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood Parameters of Grazing Lambs. ... Treatment 1 (T1) served as control with no garlic extract, Treatment (T2) were given 5ml garlic extract weekly and Treatment T3 received 5ml garlic extract every 2 weeks. Results of haematological analysis showed that PCV ...

  2. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safithri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in dairy cows in Indonesia. A filtrate of fresh garlic was used to determine the antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% w/v, whereas, the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts was determined against S. agalactie, E. coli, and S. aureus at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% w/v. Results showed that antibacterial activity of 30% garlic filtrate was equivalent to 10% tetracycline. Meanwhile, antibacterial activity of garlic aqueous extract on mastitis bacteria was better than that of the garlic ethanol extract. Aqueous extract of garlic at 20% had the same antibacterial activity as 0.01% ampicillin on mastitis bacteria. Filtrates of fresh garlic can be used to inhibit growth of S. typhimurium and mastitis bacteria.

  5. by fermented plant extracts of neem leaf and wild garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombiti

    1Department of Soil Science, Plant Production and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Science and Agriculture,. University of ... Additionally, due to frequent use of .... Average number of whitefly adults as affected by fermented plant extracts of garlic, neem and garlic + neem (CarNeem) at five sampling intervals. Application.

  6. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

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    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  7. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, garlic, onion, leek, antifungal activity. ..... Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) ... activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigants against.

  8. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knasmueller, S.; Szakmary, A.; Domjan, G.; de Martin, R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of γ-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells

  9. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly ( P concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly ( P antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were related to mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 related genes.

  10. Fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.

  11. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in canned artichokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, E; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Rollo, M R; Perretti, G

    2016-10-01

    The effects of adding supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of garlic (at two different concentrations of allicin) on select chemical indices in extra-virgin olive oil used to canned artichokes were studied. Tests were performed after processing and over a storage period of 1 year. A sensorial test was also conducted on the canned artichokes to establish the impact on flavor (in particular perceptions of rancidity and garlic flavor). Acidity, peroxide levels and p -anisidine values were measured as quality analytical parameters. Radical scavenging activity was also evaluated using the DPPH assay. The samples containing supercritical garlic extracts were compared with several other formulations, including control sample (prepared by mixing artichokes with powdered chili pepper and fresh garlic), artichokes with only garlic or only chili pepper, and artichokes treated with the synthetic antioxidant BHT. The results suggested that the allicin extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving canned artichokes as demonstrated by its positive effects on oxidative stability and sensory profile.

  12. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafizzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004. Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003 and rosemary (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2001. Their use as additives for animal feeding may be a valid alternative to synthetic antioxidants since they show beneficial effects also on animal welfare and other physiological functions (Tedesco, 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether garlic and rosemary dietary supplementation as compared with vitamin E affects lamb meat colour and lipid stability during storage.

  13. phytochemical and antibacterial properties of garlic extracts 45

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The antibacterial potency of aqueous and methanol extracts of garlic was determined invitro against three bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by agar well diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, ...

  14. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of garlic extracts | Garba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, carbohydrate, protein, saponin, alkaloid and glycoside in the plants while anthraquinone was absent. Both the aqueous and methanol extract of garlic were observed to be more potent against E. coli with maximum zone of growth inhibition of ...

  15. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  16. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.V.; Kerscher, P.; Brown, R.M.; Morella, J.D.; Kitchens, C.L.; McAllister, W.; Dean, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature, where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray chemical analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that allicin and other carbohydrates in the garlic extract are the primary nanoparticle stabilizing moieties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomedical applications, owing to (1) enhanced stability in biological media, (2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H 2 O 2 , (3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and (4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, confirming that silver nanoparticles synthesized with garlic extract are potential candidates for future experimentation and implementation in the biomedical field.

  17. Radioprotective effect of garlic extract on some bacterial strains with different radiation sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Abushady, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of garlic on four bacterial strains with different degrees of radiation sensitivities was investigated. The presence of garlic led to an increase in d-10 value of Ps. Aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhimurium by 160%, 50%, and 30% respectively. The protective efficiency of garlic against radiation was noticed to be proportional to its concentration in a given inoculum size. Garlic extract up to 180 micro liter per 10 8 inoculum size of B. cereus showed no protective effect. This fact was attributed to the existence of sulphur compounds in the given strain. Higher garlic concentrations appeared to affect the cloning efficiency of a given strain. 4fig., 2tab

  18. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  20. Garlic and Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ravi; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suru, Stephen M; Ugwu, Chidiebere E

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing claims of functional health benefits in folkloric medicine, the safety of chronic/elevated intakes of onion and garlic cannot be assumed. Therefore, this study assesses oral administration of varied doses of onion and garlic on some biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions in rats. Animals were divided into five groups: control group received vehicle and extract-treated groups received varied doses of onion or garlic extract (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL/100 g bwt/day) for 6 weeks. Both doses of onion caused marked (pgarlic elicited similar trend except in hepatic CAT, renal SOD and GST levels. A high dose of garlic only caused marked (pgarlic significantly (pgarlic, while high dose of garlic elicited pro-oxidant conditions.

  2. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  3. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  4. Effects of ethanolic extract of garlic, roselle and ginger on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... Efficiency of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and roselle on quality attributes of ... with food containing natural additives, which might be more healthful. ..... properties and mycotoxins contents of Tilapia fish-fillets after solar.

  5. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  6. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

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    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  7. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells.

  8. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

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    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  9. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  10. Identification of antifungal activity substances on seedborn disease from garlic and taxus extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, I.M.; Paik, S.B. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Antifungal substances were isolated and identified from garlic and taxus extracts to develop safe and broad fungicide. The inhibitory effect of seedborn disease of sesame, pepper, radish, chinese cabbage by formulation of antifungal substances was investigated. The antifungal substance isolated through column chromatography from garlic and taxus extracts was confirmed by GC-MS as allicin (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}OS{sub 2}) and taxol(C{sub 47}H{sub 51}NO{sub 14}) and the quantified content from each extracts by HPLC analysis was 0.62%, 0.29%, respectively. The formulation composed of garlic and taxus extracts controlled effectively the seedborn fungi tested in this study at 10X dilution, but at 100X dilution the inhibitory effect decreased. Phytotoxicity of these formulations did not recognized. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  12. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  13. Effect of garlic and neem leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Rajendra Kharde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder (NLP on growth performance and carcass yields in broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 210-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ven Cobb were procured and randomly distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. Growth trial was conducted in a randomized block design comprising seven dietary treatments. T1 was served as control. T2 and T3 were fed with garlic powder (GP 0.5, 1 g/kg feed respectively. T4 and T5 were given with NLP 1, 2 g/kg feed respectively. T6 was fed with 0.5 g/kg GP and 1.0 g/kg NLP. T7 was treated with 1.0 g/kg GP and 2.0 g/kg NLP. The body weight, feed consumption of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval and the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated. At the end of 42 day, six birds from each dietary group were sacrificed to estimate the dressing yield and relative weights of giblet (liver, heart and gizzard. Results: Supplementation of garlic and NLP alone and their combination significantly (p0.05 influence was observed in carcass parameters like dressing yield and giblet yield (heart, gizzard and liver in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Supplementation of GP alone showed poor performance, but when it was supplemented in combination with NLP there was improvement in performance parameters. These results indicated that the combination of GP and NLP can be used as alternates to coccidiostats for improving the performance. Such meat can be used as a designer meat as fetch higher price if marketed as branded item.

  14. Extraction of garlic with supercritical CO2 and conventional organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. del Valle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. and garlic extracts have therapeutical properties that stem from their sulfur-containing compounds, mainly allicin. The main objective of this work was to compare conventional and "premium" garlic extracts in terms of yield and quality, with the latter being obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as the solvent. Yield ranged between 0.65 and 1.0% and increased with extraction pressure (150-400 bar at a constant temperature of 50°C. Extraction temperature (35-60°C, on the other hand, had little effect at a constant pressure of 300 bar. Based on yield and quality considerations, the best extraction conditions using SC-CO2 were 35-50°C and 300-400 bar. A yield of 5.5% was obtained by conventional extraction using ethanol as the solvent, but ethanol appeared to be less selective for valuable components than SC-CO2. The use of fresh garlic resulted in extracts that more closely resembled commercial products, possibly because of thermal and oxidative degradation of valuable microconstituents during drying.

  15. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  16. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  17. Comparative study of the effects of artesunate and garlic extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crown gall disease causes great economic losses worldwide by reducing crop yields and increases susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. The anti-malarial Artesunate which is a derivative of artemisinin from Artemisia annua leaf and Garlic extracts known for their inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of ...

  18. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Saikun; Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, the polysaccharides were prepared from garlic by using a cellulase-assisted extraction method and the antioxidant activity of garlic polysaccharides (GPs) was evaluated. To improve the yield of GPs, the influences of the several factors such as extraction time, temperature, pH, and cellulase amount on the extraction efficiency were studied. The optimal conditions for extraction of GPs were determined as follows: time, 80 min; temperature, 45 °C; pH, 5; cellulase amount, 8000 U/g. Under the optimised extraction conditions, the yield of GPS reached up to 35.34%. The GPs product exhibited strong antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The results suggest that the GPs could be used as potential antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  20. Potency of Garlic Extract Against Koi Herpesvirus (KHV in Common Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of koi herpesvirus (KHV infection using chemicals or medicines was ineffective way.  In this study garlic extract was used to prevent KHV infection.  Virus suspension of 0.1 ml and garlic extract of 0.1 ml in different dosage, i.e., 100, 200 and 300 ppt, was injected into common carp body.  Hemoglobin concentration, red and white blood cell numbers, and leukocyte number were counted.  The results of study showed that administration of 300 ppt of garlic extract could produce higher survival rate (67.5%, good blood parameters and clinical symptoms compared to other treatments. Keywords: garlic, KHV, common carp   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan wabah Koi Herpesvirus (KHV menggunakan bahan-bahan kimia atau obat-obatan adalah tidak efektif. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemberian ekstrak bawang putih untuk menanggulangi infeksi KHV.  Suspensi virus sebanyak 0,1 ml ditambahkan dengan 0,1 ml ekstrak bawang putih dengan berbagai konsentrasi, yaitu 100, 200 dan 300 ppt, disuntikkan ke dalam tubuh ikan mas.  Kadar hemoglobin, jumlah sel darah merah dan sel darah putih jenis dan jumlah leukosit diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak bawang putih sebanyak 300 ppt menghasilkan kelangsungan hidup (67,5% yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya, dan begitu pula dengan gambaran darah serta gejala klinisnya.   Kata kunci: bawang putih, KHV, ikan mas

  1. Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mela Obinna Okoro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying dietary supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture on semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks aged 35-41 weeks. The experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but with different supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. The three dietary supplemental levels based on garlic and onion supplemental inclusion levels were Q0 (0 g onion and 0 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, Q1 (2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, and Q2 (5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed with each treatment having three replicates. A quadratic type equation was used to determine the onion and garlic levels for optimum semen quality characteristics. Daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased progressive motile cells (%, actual life sperm count (×106/nl, and live sperm (% by 221.20%, 301.51%, and 352.43%, while 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced them by 28.67%, 12.69%, and 19.00%, respectively. However, daily supplementation with 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased sperm count (×106/nl by 12.82%, whereas daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced it by 10.26% in Koekoek breeder cocks. Dietary onion and garlic supplemental inclusion levels of 3.009, 3.191, 4.621, 6.601, 6.719, 2.327, 2.385, and 2.247 g per 600 g DM feed supported optimum progressive motile cells (%, immotile sperm cells (%, actual dead sperm count (×106/nl, actual live sperm count (×106/nl, live sperm (%, acrosome morphology defects (%, acrosome detachment (%, and acrosome swelling (%, with probability values ranging from 0.003 to 0.783, whereas minimum progressive motile cells (% increase was achieved at an optimum onion and garlic supplementation levels of 3.009 g per 600 g DM feed. These findings have a lot of

  2. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  3. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  4. Effect of different aqueous extracts of garlic on some electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the effect of fresh and dried aqueous extracts of garlic (cold and hot) on Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and urea levels of rats were carried-out. Animals were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Groups I and II were treated with fresh cold and hot extract respectively, while groups III and IV received dried cold and hot ...

  5. The protective effects of black garlic extract for blood and intestinal mucosa to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Do Young; KIm, Joon Sun; Choi, Hyeong Seok [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Hyeok; Park, Won Suk; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The radiation has been utilized in a number of fields, even though the use of plenty cause a variety of side effects. This study was confirmed for radiation protective effects of aged garlic to contribute to the prevention of disasters that are radiation exposure. We studied the Complete Blood cell Count(CBC) and the small intestine after feeding aged garlic extract into Sprague Dawley Rat which irradiated X-ray beam 7 and 13 Gy. Garlic extract was administered to the results in the experimental group showed a notable difference in the CBC of platelets (p<0.05), red blood cells (p<0.05) and early damaged white blood cells (p<0.05). In addition, it was confirmed that experimental group's small intestine crypt is more survival than irradiation group significantly. And experimental group has small intestine villi length almost similar to the normal group. result of the aged garlic study will be able to be of great benefit for the radiation relevant emergency management.

  6. The protective effects of black garlic extract for blood and intestinal mucosa to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Do Young; KIm, Joon Sun; Choi, Hyeong Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Park, Won Suk; Min, Byung In

    2016-01-01

    The radiation has been utilized in a number of fields, even though the use of plenty cause a variety of side effects. This study was confirmed for radiation protective effects of aged garlic to contribute to the prevention of disasters that are radiation exposure. We studied the Complete Blood cell Count(CBC) and the small intestine after feeding aged garlic extract into Sprague Dawley Rat which irradiated X-ray beam 7 and 13 Gy. Garlic extract was administered to the results in the experimental group showed a notable difference in the CBC of platelets (p<0.05), red blood cells (p<0.05) and early damaged white blood cells (p<0.05). In addition, it was confirmed that experimental group's small intestine crypt is more survival than irradiation group significantly. And experimental group has small intestine villi length almost similar to the normal group. result of the aged garlic study will be able to be of great benefit for the radiation relevant emergency management

  7. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain

  8. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  9. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  10. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L. and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines’ production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12 and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  11. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseni, Seyed V.; Mohebzadeh, J.; Mehrabani, D.; Amini, M.; Kumar, Perikala V.; Bagheri, Mohammad H.; Sadjjadi, Seyed M.; Amini, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to the effects of 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in the bile ducts of rabbits. During a 6-months period from April to September 2006 in Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Research Center, we selected 3 equal groups of rabbits. We injected 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline into the bile ducts of each group. The animals were euthanized and autopsied after 4 months and the liver and bile ducts were removed and studied histopathologically. Cholangiography was undertaken to evaluate the presence and extent of any sclerosing cholangitis. Animals showed sclerosing cholangitis in silver nitrate group (7 [58%]), one (8%) in chloroformic garlic extract group and one (7%) in normal saline group. The difference between silver nitrate and chloroformic garlic extract groups were statistically significant and similar results were noticed between chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline groups. Twenty percent of chloroformic garlic extract had fewer complications such as sclerosing cholangitis, compared to other materials. (author)

  12. Effect of different levels of garlic alcoholic extract on the performance and survival of Rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s.j Mortazavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of garlic on the function and survival of rainbow trout 600 pieces of fish with an average weight of 15±5 g were randomly divided into four groups, each with three replicates. The fish were fed with 0.1. 0.15 and 0.2 percent alcoholic extract of garlic for 40 days. At the end of the production period, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were evaluated. The results of this study showed a significant difference in the overall growth and feed intake between treatments so that the highest absolute growth and feed intake was observed in the control group. Also significant differences between treatments in terms of feed conversion ratio and survival, so that the lowest FCR rates were observed in treatment with 0.15% garlic extract and lowest mortality rate observed in the control group and treatment group with 0.15% garlic extract and highest mortality was observed in treatment group with 0.2% garlic extract. The results of this study showed that the use of different amounts of alcoholic extract of garlic treatments had a significant effect compared to the control treatment, so that except FCR, in these amounts, negative impacts were observed on the overall growth rate, feed intake and survival of rainbow trout.

  13. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, V.E.; Bosnic, M.; Rozinova, E.; Boehm-Wilcox, C.

    1993-01-01

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  14. Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voin Petrovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE. We show that GE inhibits growth of several different cancer cells in vitro, as well as cancer growth in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic breast cancer model. Multiple myeloma cells were found to be especially sensitive to GE. The GE was fractionated using solid-phase extractions, and we identified allicin in one GE fraction; however, growth inhibitory activities were found in several additional fractions. These activities were lost during freeze or vacuum drying, suggesting that the main anti-cancer compounds in GE are volatile. The anti-cancer activity was stable for more than six months in −20 °C. We found that GE enhanced the activities of chemotherapeutics, as well as MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, GE affected hundreds of proteins involved in cellular signalling, including changes in vital cell signalling cascades regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and the cellular redox balance. Our data indicate that the reduced proliferation of the cancer cells treated by GE is at least partly mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.

  15. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

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    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic

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    Weidong WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P > 0.05. With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P > 0.05. The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P < 0.05. In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P < 0.05, and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05. BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.

  17. Antibacterial activity of garlic and lime on isolates of extracted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) on seven bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Norcadia asteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus and Veillonella alcaligens) isolated from 240 extracted, carious ...

  18. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  19. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract

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    Yukihioro Kodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (S1PC is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (SAC, an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE. The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960’s. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88–100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  20. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

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    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  1. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

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    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  2. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  3. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of ... correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 ... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and then dried at room temperature ..... the authors named in this article and all liabilities ... health maintenance: A review.

  4. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell death was ...

  5. Effect of dietary heated oil and garlic supplementation on the meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A total number of 360 Japanese quail (14 days old) were used to study the effect of using 2% garlic as a supplement in order to overcome the adverse effect of adding 4% heated oil on their meat and egg quality. The chicks were equally and randomly arranged into 4 groups, each of three replicates. The first and second groups were supplemented with 4% cotton seed oil and 4% cotton seed oil + 2% garlic, respectively, while in both third and forth groups, cotton seed oil was replaced by 4% heated oil. The body weight and mortality rate were examined weekly. At 42 day of age, 9 birds from each group were slaughtered. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, T3 and T4 were determined by RIA besides to cholesterol and fatty acid in meat. The experiment was completed with the remaining chicks for another 6 weeks for analysis of egg cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids. The data revealed that addition of 2% garlic to both cotton seed and heated oil significantly decreased serum and egg cholesterol and triglycerides and meat cholesterol. In addition, total unsaturated fatty acid showed improvement in both meat and egg

  6. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  8. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Hajimoradi, Monire; Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Roudbary, Maryam; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2011-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis. Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of garlic were purified. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in culture supernatants of macrophages by Griess reagent and furthermore, the cytotoxicity study of culture supernatants was carried out on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell line as tumor necrosis factor-α bioassay. MTT assay results for both 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of stimulated macrophages were not significant (P > 0.05). Both 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions significantly suppressed production of NO from macrophages (P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cytotoxicity of macrophages' supernatant on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells was not affected by garlic protein fractions (P = 0.066 for 14-kDa and P = 0.085 for 47-kDa fractions). according to our finding, 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions of aged garlic extract are able to suppress NO production from macrophages, which can be used as a biological advantage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

  10. Possible Role of Garlic Oil and Parsley Extract in Ameliorating Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.; El-Sabbagh, W.; Kenawy, S.

    2011-01-01

    To Investigate the possible protective effect of garlic oil and parsley extract against bone loss resulted in female virgin rats exposed to fractionated doses of gamma-radiation (1 Gy 3 times weekly for 5 weeks). Urinary calcium (U Ca), calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), hydroxyproline and serum phosphorus were measured as bone resorption bio markers, while serum osteocalcine (OST) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as bone formation bio markers. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) which represents the balance in bone remodeling was measured. Malondiadehyde level (MDA) as well as superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was measured as oxidative stress bio markers. Female irradiated rats in the present study had significant increases in both bone resorption and bone formation bio markers after 6 weeks from the last exposure to gamma-radiation. Irradiated rats also had significant decreases in plasma NO indicating imbalance in bone remodeling as well as significant increase in oxidative stress bio markers. Daily treatment with garlic oil extracted in olive oil improved all measured parameters except OST level, while the vehicle used for garlic oil (extra virgin olive oil) significantly decreased bone resorption bio markers. Parsley extract induced normalization to all bone resorption and formation parameters measured in irradiated rats. Daily administration of garlic oil and parsley extract protected the bone from degeneration induced by exposure to fractionated doses of gamma radiation.

  11. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  12. The effect of garlic extract on the expression of genes elastase and exotoxin A in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Batoul Kavyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant bacteria make many problems in clinical therapy, design and manufacture of synthetic drugs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important multidrug-resistance bacteria leads to variety infections in human especially in immunocompromised, patients with severe burns, and nosocomial infections. It Recent years, this organism makes a big challenge in clinical treatment of infections using a wide range of antibiotics. Medicinal herbs for thousands of years to prevent or treat infectious diseases were considered. Today, pharmacists have high interest of using medicinal herbs to prepare a new antimicrobial compounds. The goal of this study was to investigation the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of fresh garlic on the expression of genes encoding elastase and exotoxin A virulence factors, in P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Methods: Present study was an experimental study and performed from 2015 to 2016 in Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous and alcoholic extract of garlic was determined. Then in order to investigation the gene expression of elastase and exotoxin A genes, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR method was performed at sub-MBC concentrations. Results: According to the results aqueous extracts of garlic had better impact in comparison with alcoholic alone. At concentration of 64 and 8 mg/ml of aqueous extract the expression of both elastase and exotoxin A genes were decreased. Although, the expression of elastase gene was most affected by garlic at different concentrations than exotoxin A. Conclusion: The results suggested that the compositions of garlic extracts can inhibit the production of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. So in order to treat infectious diseases in the near future, medicinal plants known as new antimicrobial drugs can be used alone or with antibiotic drugs

  13. Garlic in dermatology

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    Nader Pazyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF GARLIC AND OREGANO EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST DIFFERENT BACTERIAL STRAINS

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    Ionica Deliu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is often concerned about the bacterial diseases and the diversity of treatment possibilities. The herbal medicines overreach the medical world because the less number of side effects than synthetic drugs and their low costs. In addition to conventional drugs, the natural remedies can solve exceptional health problems. In this study the antibacterial actions of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous plant extracts (Allium sativum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were tested. Also, we tested the antimicrobial effects of garlic and oregano essential oils against three bacterial strains. The extracts were tested by diffusion method and certain variants were used. The antibacterial effects were read after 24h of incubation at 37°C. The most obvious effect was observed for oregano essential oil and the smallest growth inhibition was registered for aqueous extracts. The alcoholic extracts were more efficient after concentration by evaporation. The most sensitive bacterial strain was Staphylococcus aureus strain. However the Citrobacter freundii clinical strain had not so high sensitivity at plant extracts, we shall consider the plant extracts as a good alternative to synthetic drugs.

  15. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  16. Effects of Supplementation Time of L-Carnitine and Garlic Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

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    Ali Khatibjoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006. It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996. AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998. Materials and Methods Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks and long time (total production period. Dietary treatments were 1 Basal diet (BD: no supplementation, 2 ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control, 3 ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management

  17. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  18. Amelioration of lead induced changes in ovary of mice, by garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, N.; Butt, S. A.; Hamid, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of lead acetate and protective role of garlic extract on the histomorphology of the ovary in an animal model. Methods: The experimental trial was conducted at the Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, in association with the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from April to June 2013. It comprised 30 adult non-pregnant female mice (BALBc strain) weighing 25-27gms. They were divided into three equal groups of 10 mice each. Group A, taken as control, was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for two months. Animals were dissected a day after the last dose. Size, shape, colour and consistency of the ovary was observed. The right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Primary follicles were counted and noted. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The primary follicular count decreased significantly in Group B while it relatively increased in Group C. Morphology of the ovary was affected after exposure to lead acetate in Group B, while in Group C results were the same as in the Group A controls regarding gross architecture of the ovary. Conclusion: Lead alters the normal histology and affects the physiology of the ovary. It interferes with the development of growing follicles in the ovary. Lead, being a reproductive toxicant, can be a cause of infertility in exposed females. (author)

  19. Effect of Garlic, Gingko, and St. John's Wort Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: A Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkanovic, Jasmina; Ward, Michael B; Gerber, Jacobus P; Milne, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control), or Milli-Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats either were administered fexofenadine (orally or i.v.), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or had their small intestines divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analyzed for P-gp and Oatp1a5. In vivo, SJW increased the clearance of i.v. administered fexofenadine by 28%. Garlic increased the area under the curve 0-∞ and maximum plasma concentration of orally administered fexofenadine by 47% and 85%, respectively. Ginkgo and SJW had no effect on the oral absorption of fexofenadine. In the perfused liver, garlic, ginkgo, and SJW increased the biliary clearance of fexofenadine with respect to perfusate by 71%, 121%, and 234%, respectively. SJW increased the biliary clearance relative to the liver concentration by 64%. The ratio of liver to perfusate concentrations significantly increased in all treated groups. The expression of Oatp1a5 in SI was increased by garlic (88%) and SJW (63%). There were no significant changes in the expression of P-gp. Induction of intestinal Oatp1a5 by garlic may explain the increased absorption of orally administered fexofenadine. Ginkgo had no effect on the expression of intestinal P-gp or Oatp1a5. A dual inductive effect by SJW on opposing intestinal epithelial transport by Oatp1a5 and P-gp remains a possibility. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  1. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil...

  3. Effect of lead acetate on follicular count of mice ovary and the protective role of garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, N.; Hamid, S.; Butt, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lead acetate and protective role of garlic extract on the histomorphology of the ovarian follicles in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of Health from April-June 2013 Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Mice were randomly divided into three groups. 10 animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral lavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60th day. Length and width of the ovary were measured, right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Primary, secondary and graafian follicles were counted and noted. Results: There was reduction in the number of primary and graafian follicles in group B when compared to group A. In group C there was relatively increase in number of follicles, when compared to group B. Number of secondary follicles was almost same in all the groups. The length of ovary was higher in group A as compared to group B. In group C results were same as group A regarding length of the ovary. Width of ovary was same between the respective groups. Conclusion: The follicular count was markedly affected in lead acetate treated group which improved when co treated with garlic extract in experimental group C. Hence, garlic had a protective role against lead induced changes in mice ovary. (author)

  4. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic, it was close to the normal level (p garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  5. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  6. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Puneet; Prasad, Y.; Patra, A.K.; Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C.; Pal, Satya

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl 2 .H 2 O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl 2 .H 2 O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to

  7. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE on cardiovascular functioning (CF in metabolic syndrome (MS remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS, MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning plus saline solution (MS + SS, control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01. Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05. Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05. Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001. Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation and AGE improved it (p = 0.001. Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001. Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01. In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  8. Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) and gamma irradiation on some Bacterial Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awny, N.M; Tawfik, Z.S; Abu Nor, S.M; El-Saled, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the sensitivity of four bacterial strains; Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus were tested towards the antibacterial effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) with different concentration. The results indicated that, the Gram positive spore forming strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus treated with AGE from 0 to 70μ1/m1 were more resistant than Gram negative non-spore forming ones, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli treated with AGE from 0 to 24 μ1/m1. The effect of AGE treatment on the radiosensitivity of the tested bacterial strains showed that, AGE treatment before γ-irradiation induced a higher protection than treatment immediately after γ-irradiation. The ultrastructure configuration of untreated strains, treated with AGE or irradiation and combination between AGE and Irradiation, were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that, ultra-structures configuration of the cells treated with AGE before irradiation appeared with less damage than those of cells irradiated without AGE treatment

  9. Effect of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xiuming; Lan, Haili; Wang, Weijia

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by using the terms garlic and T2DM up to April 2017. The quality of included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane tool of risk of bias, and data of outcomes were pooled by REVMAN 5.3. Clinical factors were handled by meta-regression and subgroup analysis, and risk of publication bias was explored by inverted funnel plots. Nine RCTs involving 768 T2DM patients were included in the meta-analysis, and the dose of daily garlic (allicin) supplement ranged from 0.05g to 1.5g. A significant reduction in the level of fasting blood glucose in 1-2 weeks [SMD = -1.61, 95%CI (-2.89, -0.32)], 3-4 weeks [SMD = -2.87, 95%CI (-4.74, -1.00)], 12 weeks [SMD = -9.57, 95%CI (-12.39, -6.75)], and 24 weeks [SMD = -21.02, 95%CI (-32.47, -9.57)] was achieved in favour of the garlic group rather than the control group. Significantly decreased fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin (both in 12 and 24 weeks) were also found in garlic group. Meanwhile, significantly improved blood liquids of total cholesterol [SMD = -1.93, 95%CI (-2.98, -0.87), 3-4 weeks], high density lipoprotein [SMD = -0.41, 95%CI (-0.83, -0.00), 3-4 weeks] and low density lipoprotein [SMD = -3.47, 95%CI (-5.76, -1.18), 12 weeks] were confirmed after garlic administration. There was no significant difference in complications. Current data confirms that garlic supplement plays positive and sustained roles in blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high/low density lipoprotein regulation in the management of T2DM. Abbreviations : T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMD = standard mean difference; CI = confidence interval; FBG = fasting blood glucose; HbA1c = glycated

  10. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Aged garlic extract and S-allylcysteine prevent apoptotic cell death in a chemical hypoxia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Orozco-Ibarra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aged garlic extract (AGE and its main constituent S-allylcysteine (SAC are natural antioxidants with protective effects against cerebral ischemia or cancer, events that involve hypoxia stress. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2 has been used to mimic hypoxic conditions through the stabilization of the α subunit of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-Ια and up-regulation of HIF-1a-dependent genes as well as activation of hypoxic conditions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. The present study was designed to assess the effect of AGE and SAC on the CoCl2-chemical hypoxia model in PC12 cells RESULTS: We found that CoCl2 induced the stabilization of HIF-1a and its nuclear localization. CoCl2 produced ROS and apoptotic cell death that depended on hypoxia extent. The treatment with AGE and SAC decreased ROS and protected against CoCl2-induced apoptotic cell death which depended on the CoCl2 concentration and incubation time. SAC or AGE decreased the number of cells in the early and late stages of apoptosis. Interestingly, this protective effect was associated with attenuation in HIF-1a stabilization, activity not previously reported for AGE and SAC CONCLUSIONS: Obtained results show that AGE and SAC decreased apoptotic CoCl2-induced cell death. This protection occurs by affecting the activity of HIF-1a and supports the use of these natural compounds as a therapeutic alternative for hypoxic conditions

  12. The Usage of Garlic Extract (Allium sativum to Cure Pangasius Fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Infected by Aeromonas hydrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Muslim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know effectivity of the garlic extract to cure Pangasius catfish that infected by A. hidrophylla bacteria. This research was done on February to April 2007, at Aquaculture Laboratory FP UNSRI. This research used Completely Randomised Design (CRD with five treatments and three replications. The concentration of the garlic extract that used were 0 % (control, 0.2 %, 0.4 %, 0.6 %, 0.8 %. The parameters inspected include SR of fish that infected; SR of fish had been treatment, Relative Percent Survival (RPS, clinical symptom and water quality. The highest survival rate percentage is treatments A4 (0.8 % with average value 66.66 %. The best concentration of garlic extract that can heal the fish until ≥ 50 % (RPS value from totally sample of fish were treatments A4 (0.8 %, A3 (0.6 %, and A2 (0.4 %. The clinical symptom after cure and care as long as fourteen days indicated in control (without garlic extract has been found hard damage bodies organ and the mortality fish effect, but in treatments A1 (0.2 %, A2 (0.4 %, A3 (0.6 %, and A4 (0.8 % recover after submerged with garlic extract. The water quality parameters during experiment in each treatments such as temperature was 27 - 29 oC, pH 6-6.5, Dissolved Oxygen 5.24 - 6.87 mg/l, and Ammonia 0.09 - 0.46 mg/l. Keywords: garlic extract, pangasius fish, A. hydrophylla bacteria   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak bawang putih untuk mengobati penyakit bakterial pada ikan patin yang disebabkan A. hidrophylla. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari - April  2007, di Laboratorium Budidaya Perairan, FP UNSRI. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap,  5 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan.  Konsentrasi ekstrak bawang putih yang digunakan adalah  0 % (kontrol, 0,2 %, 0,4 %, 0,6 %, 0,8 %.  Parameter yang diamati meliputi SR ikan yang terinfeksi, SR ikan setelah diberi perlakuan, RPS, gejala klinis serta kualitas air. Persentase SR

  13. The effect of different levels of garlic extract administration at various time periods on the extent of serumic lipid peroxidation in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed rasoulinejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are involved in molecular changes and mutation and if they are not inactivated the resultant lipid peroxidation will damage all types of cellular macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Natural diet containing antioxidants plays an important role in health, reproduction, performance, safety and growth in poultry. Garlic extract with a high antioxidant effect very useful against free radicals and infective agents. In this study, the effect of concentration of 0.01 and 0.02% of garlic extract in drinking water with periods of 2, 4 and 6 days a week were evaluated on lipid peroxidation. In addition to assessing the best concentration, economic aspects were also considered. So at the end of the third week, the best effect on reducing lipid peroxidation was seen in T3 which had received the concentration of 0.02% of garlic extract, two days a week.  After six weeks of trial, Group T7 which had received the concentration of 0.02% garlic extract for 6 days a week, showed the best effect on reducing lipid peroxidation. Our studies also showed that garlic extract improved mass production in all groups compared to the control group.  Considering the amount of lipid peroxidation at the end of the sixth week, herd performance in six weeks and calculating the average sale price of mass production, minus the cost of feed consumed per group, it is concluded that group T4 which received garlic extract concentration of 0.01% for 4 days a week (Saturday, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday showed the best option in view of the economic conditions.

  14. Efficacy of Garlic and Other Plant Extracts In the Control of Septorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attempt by man to improve crop yield in order to produce enough food for consumption by the increasing population is a decision in the right direction which has led to search of biopesticides of plant origin. The research work studied the effect of different rates of garlic juice in the control of septorial leaf spot of tomato ...

  15. Anti-cancer potential of a mix of natural extracts of turmeric, ginger and garlic: A cell-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Vemuri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related morbidity and mortality is a major health care concern. Developing potent anti-cancer therapies which are non-toxic, sustainable and affordable is of alternative medicine. This study was designed to investigate the aqueous natural extracts mixture (NE mix prepared from common spices turmeric, ginger and garlic for its free radical scavenging potential and anti-cancer property against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75 and MDA-MB 231. Qualitative analysis of their bioactive constituents from turmeric, ginger and garlic were done using liquid chromatography-ESI- mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. To the best of our knowledge, NE mix with and without Tamoxifen has not been tested for its anti-cancer potential. We observed that the NE mix induced apoptosis in all the breast cancer cell lines, but it was more prominent in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cell lines in comparison to MDA-MB 231 cell line. The extent of apoptosis due to combined treatment with NE mix-Tamoxifen was higher than Tamoxifen alone, indicating a potential role of the NE mix in sensitizing the ER-positive breast cancer cells towards Tamoxifen. In support to MTT assay, cell cycle analysis, our RT-PCR results also prove that the NE mix 10 μg, Tam 20 μg and combination of NE mix 10 μg-Tam 20 μg altered the expression of apoptotic markers (p53 and Caspase 9 leading to apoptosis in all three cell lines. Our data strongly indicate that our NE mixture is a potential alternative therapeutic approach in certain types of cancer. Keywords: Breast cancer, Antagonists, Natural extracts, Tamoxifen, Turmeric, Ginger, Garlic, LC-ESI-MS/MS

  16. Antifungal property of chili, shallot and garlic extracts against pathogenic fungi, Phomopsis spp., isolated from infected leaves of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawan Sittisart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal property of extracts of chili, shallot and garlic (local varieties in Sisaket, Thailand against pathogenic fungi, Phomopsis spp., which were isolated from infected leaves of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Seven isolates of Phomopsis spp. namely Phomopsis sp. SSK1.1, SSK1.2, SSK3.1, SSK4.1, SSK5.1, SSK5.2 and SSK7.1 were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics. Fresh plants were extracted with water to obtain crude extracts and their antifungal properties were tested on potato dextrose agar (PDA media. The study demonstrated that increasing the concentrations (20%, 40%, 60% or 80% of the chili extract exhibited a dependent increase in the inhibitory level on mycelial growth of Phomopsis spp. SSK3.1, SSK4.1 and SSK5.2. The inhibitory level on mycelial growth of shallot extract also increased in a dose-dependent manner in all isolates of Phomopsis. The garlic extract had significant inhibition on the growth of all isolates with complete inhibition at 80% concentration. The highest levels of percentage inhibition of mycelial growth were with garlic extract followed by shallot and chili extracts, respectively. The study also showed that these plant extracts contained some polyphenols (apigenin, gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannic acid which are well-known compounds possessing antifungal activity. Therefore, it is possible that the antifungal properties of these plant extracts were partly due to these polyphenols or unknown active compounds which could not be analyzed in this study. Collectively, these results suggest that local varieties of both shallot and garlic possess strong antifungal properties. Keywords: Chili, Garlic, Para rubber, Phomopsis, Shallot

  17. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P 0.05). © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  20. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. → Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. → The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. → Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 ± 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained

  1. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  2. Aged garlic extract modulates the oxidative modifications induced by γ-rays in mouse bone marrow and erythrocytes cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Elshamy, E.; Sallam, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray generate hydroxyl radicals in cells and induce cellular DNA damage which leads to genotoxicity and chromosomes aberrations. The radioprotective and therapeutic efficacy of aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated with micronucleus method as a reliable method for the detection of chromosomes damage induced by chemical and radiation. The frequency of micronuclei found in bone marrow erythroblast cells of the Protected and treated groups with 1.0 ml/20 g body wt/day for 10 consecutive days were significantly much lower than that of the exposed groups to γ-irradiation without protection or treatment. In addition, the enzyme activities of mouse erythrocyte antioxidant defense mechanism: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) were markedly decreased after irradiation while in protected and treated groups with Age showed significant increase but did not reach the control level except for Gash-R activity of protected group

  3. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

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    Benjamin Yong Qing Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil on soft tissue injury (swelling. Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation. The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury.

  5. Modulation of heart redox status by garlic based on route of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G4ES5

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... diet supplemented with aqueous extract of garlic (5 g/kg bw), group. III was i.p. injected with 9‰ ..... Misra HP, Fridovich I (1972). The role of ... 102: 199-204. Taratinsev AV, Vrizheshch PV, Schegolev AA et al. (1992). Ajoene.

  6. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karin Ried, Peter Fakler National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO, which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Keywords: garlic, S-allylcysteine, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitric oxide (NO, redox signaling, hypertension

  7. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  8. Dormancy break with garlic extract and hydrogen peroxide in rootstock vine ‘SO4’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilla Juan Saavedra del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic product is used to help overcome dormancy of the buds of vines in tropical and sub-tropical climate, but the product currently available in Brazil has the highest level of toxicity to humans. The objective was to study some alternatives to break the dormancy of the buds of the rootstock vine ‘SO4’. The sprayed treatments were: T1 = water (control; T2 = hydrogen cyanamide (3%; T3 = garlic (33% and; T4 = Hydrogen Peroxide – H2O2 – (3%. The cuttings were immersed in a indole acetic acid (IAA of 5 ppm for 15 seconds and placed in plastic bags (19 cm× 5 cm× 8 cm with 50% sand + 50% commercial substrate (H. Decker® . After 04 months, were evaluated: percentage of live cuttings, aerial part height (cm, length of roots (cm and dry matter of aerial parts and root (g. Regarding the roots, root dry weight and dry matter of aerial parts, stood out the cuttings treated with H2O2 at a concentration of 3% (T4. In the present work conditions, preliminarily concluded that H2O2 at a concentration of 3% can assist in breaking dormancy of the buds of the roostock vine ‘SO4’.

  9. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  10. Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, E H; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Hameed, N E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO 2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg -1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO 2 (5 g kg -1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO 2 gavage. TiO 2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T 3 and T 4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO 2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO 2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO 2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO 2 toxicity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

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    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  12. Effect of aged garlic extract on immune responses to experimental fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, M Abouhosseini; Ebrahimpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has many biological activities including radical scavenging, antioxidative and immunomodulative effects. In this research work, the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of AGE against fibrosarcoma implanted tumor were studied. WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into the right flank of 40 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in two separate groups: First received AGE (100 mg/kg, IP), second group as the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Treatments were carried out 3 times/week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flow cytometry. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 cytokines were measured. The mice received AGE had significantly longer survival time compared with the control mice. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in AGE treated mice. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE group. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes from AGE mice was also significantly increased at 25:1 E: T ratio. Administration of AGE resulted in improved immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. AGE showed significant effects on inhibition of tumor growth and longevity of survival times.

  13. Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehoon; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-11-01

    ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is the major bioactive compound in garlic. ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is metabolized to ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide after oral administration. An accurate LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma, and the feasibility of using it in pharmacokinetic studies was tested. The analytes were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. Because significant quantitative interference was observed between ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine as a result of the decomposition of N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine at the detector source, chromatographic separation was required to discriminate ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites on a reversed-phase C 18 analytical column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The calibration curves of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were linear over each concentration range, and the lower limits of quantification were 0.1 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine] and 0.25 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide]. Acceptable intraday and inter-day precisions and accuracies were obtained at three concentration levels. The method satisfied the regulatory requirements for matrix effects, recovery, and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine the concentration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma samples after the administration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine or aged garlic extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  15. Development of an Analytic Method for Sulfur Compounds in Aged Garlic Extract with the Use of a Postcolumn High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Sulfur-Specific Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Garlic and its processed preparations contain numerous sulfur compounds that are difficult to analyze in a single run using HPLC. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and convenient sulfur-specific HPLC method to analyze sulfur compounds in aged garlic extract (AGE). We modified a conventional postcolumn HPLC method by employing a hexaiodoplatinate reagent. Identification and structural analysis of sulfur compounds were conducted by LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance. The production mechanisms of cis-S-1-propenylcysteine (cis-S1PC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were examined by model reactions. Our method has the following advantages: less interference from nonsulfur compounds, high sensitivity, good correlation coefficients (r > 0.98), and high resolution that can separate >20 sulfur compounds, including several isomers, in garlic preparations in a single run. This method was adapted for LC-MS analysis. We identified cis-S1PC and γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-mercaptocysteine in AGE. The results of model reactions suggest that cis-S1PC is produced from trans-S1PC through an isomerization reaction and that SAMC is produced by a reaction involving S-allylcysteine/S1PC and diallyldisulfide during the aging period. We developed a rapid postcolumn HPLC method for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulfur compounds, and this method helped elucidate a potential mechanism of cis-S1PC and SAMC action in AGE. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts | Irkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by ...

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  18. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  19. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Allium Sativum Methanolic Extract (garlic) Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Albendazole Against Hydatid Cyst: In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mohammadi, K H; Heidarpour, M; Borji, H

    2018-04-25

    After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared methanolic extract of Allium sativum, 40 laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into four treatment groups, including 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L); 3- A. sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L) + Albendazole (50 mg /kg); and 4- untreated control group. After 30 days of daily treatment, total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst as well as blood serum bilirubin and liver enzymes were compared between the mice of different groups. The total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst were significantly lower in treated groups A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 and Albendazole 100 in comparison to those of the control group (p sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50, when compared to the control group. In addition, bilirubin concentration revealed significant decrease in A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 groups, when compared to the Albendazole group. In conclusion, administration of A. sativum 10 mL/L improved the anti-hydatidosis activity of Albendazole 50 mg /kg, due to parasitological effects similar to Albendazole 100 mg /kg but less hepatotoxic effects.

  1. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of

  2. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  3. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  4. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2012-01-01

    the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic...

  5. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary ... Allium sativum commonly known as garlic is a specie in the onion ..... nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

  6. Are there ingredients in the garlic protecting from cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knasmueller, S.; Martin, R. de; Wottawa, A.; Szakmary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenity tests, with and without an aqueous garlic extract, were performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells, on the bacteria salmonella typhimurium TA 102, TA 98 and TA 100 and Escherichia coli. Gamma rays and chemical agents were used as mutagens. Hypotheses on the observed reduction of mutations by the garlic extracts are put forward. 13 refs., 4 figs. (qui)

  7. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Garlic can play an essential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the research addressing the effect of garlic on the concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations through systematic review of literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. The literature search included SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to March 10, 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Overall, the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) levels was reported in six trials. Meta-analysis did not suggest a significant alteration in plasma Lp(a) levels after garlic consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 16.86%; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 38.31; P = 0.124). This result was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. When the studies were categorized according to the duration of supplementation, there was no effect in the subgroup of trials lasting ≤12 wk (WMD = 2.01%; 95% CI, -14.67 to 18.68; P = 0.813) but a significant elevation of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was found in trials lasting >12 wk (WMD = 54.59%; 95% CI, 30.47-78.71; P meta-regression suggested an inverse association between the changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and duration of supplementation (slope 1.71; 95% CI, 0.46-2.97; P = 0.007). The present meta-analysis did not suggest a significant effect of garlic supplementation on the reduction of Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  9. Extrato de alho no controle in vitro e in vivo da antracnose da videira Garlic extract in the in vitro and in vivo control of anthracnose of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Leite

    2012-01-01

    was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the crude extract of garlic in controlling anthracnose of grapevine (Elsinoe ampelina. In the first experiment in vitro, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mL L-1 crude extract of garlic were added to potato-dextrose-agar medium (PDA before autoclaving for sterilization and to melting media. After 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of incubation at 24 ± 2ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours, the mycelial growth of E. ampelina was measured. In the second experiment in vitro, we repeated the methodology of adding the extract to the melting medium plus 2.5 mL-1 of vegetable oil and an absolute control with PDA only. After two and four hours of incubation at 24ºC and constant light, germination of E. ampelina was assessed. The experimental design for in vitro experiments was completely randomized with four replicates and the experimental plot consisted of a Petri dish. In the field experiment, after pruning of the grapevine cv. Isabel, the levels of crude extract of garlic plus oil were weekly sprayed on the leaves of the plant, except on the absolute control (no treatment. From the first symptoms of anthracnose of grapevine, the severity that was expressed as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was evaluated. The design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The crude extract of garlic reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen, especially when added to the culture medium prior to sterilization, when it expressed its maximal antifungal potential. When the vegetable oil was added to the extract levels, there was complete inhibition at the levels 25 or 30 mL L-1. This additive effect of these compounds was also noted for the germination test of E. ampelina. Under field conditions, the crude extract of garlic reduced the AUDPC by 83.59% at 25 mL L-1.

  10. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  11. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L −1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic

  12. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L{sup −1} of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic.

  13. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30 min and the solvent extracts were analyzed

  14. Garlic biodiversity and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic

  15. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Rasmussen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated....... P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic......-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology...

  16. Antibacterial effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Staphyloccus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has had an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Africa and in Ethiopia. Ethiopian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious disease and some other cases. The present study tested the aqueous extract ...

  17. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.

  18. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. The Mathematics of Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  20. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  1. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  2. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pchicken diets with garlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  3. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  4. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Yi; Hu, Yi-Wang; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Meng-Wen; Li, Dan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-11-07

    To conduct an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies addressing the association between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer. Eligible cohort studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and screening the references of related articles published up to October 2013. Meta-analyses were conducted for colorectal cancer in relation to consumption of raw and cooked (RC) garlic and garlic supplements, separately. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95%CI were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity among studies. A total of 5 prospective cohort studies were identified. In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, no significant associations were found between consumption of RC garlic (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.95-1.19) or garlic supplements (RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.96-1.31) and risk of colorectal cancer. A non-significant protective effect of garlic supplement intake against colorectal cancer was observed in females (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.64-1.11), but the opposite was the case in males (RR: 1.24; 95%CI: 0.96-1.59). Consumption of RC garlic or garlic supplements is not significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk.

  5. Characterization of Active Compounds of Different Garlic (Allium sativum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szychowski Konrad A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has a reputation as a therapeutic agent for many different diseases such as microbial infections, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Health benefits of garlic depend on its content of biologically-active compounds, which differs between cultivars and geographical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of aqueous extracts from nine garlic varieties from different countries (Poland, Spain, China, Portugal, Burma, Thailand and Uzbekistan. Antioxidant properties were evaluated through free radical scavenging (DPPH•, ABTS•+ and ion chelation (Fe2+, Cu2+ activities. The cytotoxicity of garlic extracts was evaluated in vitro using Neutral Red Uptake assay in normal human skin fibroblasts. The obtained results revealed that garlic extracts contained the highest amount of syringic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives. The lowest IC50 values for DPPH•, ABTS•+ scavenging and Cu2+ chelating ability were determined in Chinese garlic extracts (4.63, 0.43 and 14.90 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts from Spanish cultivar Morado and Chinese garlic were highly cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts as they reduced cellular proliferation by 70–90%. We showed diverse contents of proteins and phenolic components in garlic bulbs from different varieties. The obtained results could help to choose the cultivars of garlic which contain significant amounts of active compounds, have important antioxidant properties and display low antiproliferative effect and/or low cytotoxicity against normal human skin fibroblast BJ.

  6. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  7. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  8. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  9. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  10. Garlic for Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention or Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Feras Q; El-Elimat, Tamam; Khalid, Lila; Hudaib, Reema; Al-Shehabi, Tuqa Saleh; Eid, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality with a substantial economic impact. The annual deaths are expected to increase in the next decade. An array of dietary supplements is being used by people worldwide to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a top-selling herbal dietary supplement, is renowned for its wide range beneficial effects, particularly in the treatment and prevention of CVD. This review aims to present a thorough discussion of the available evidence-based data which support the use of garlic in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are dissected as well. This review supports the notion that garlic has the potential to treat mild hypertension, to decrease hypercholesterolemia, and to prevent atherosclerosis. More clinical studies are essential to unequivocally understand the mechanisms underlying treatment or prevention of these cardiovascular conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  13. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  14. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Fatima; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), an important medicinal spice, displays a plethora of biological effects including immunomodulation. Although some immunomodulatory proteins from garlic have been described, their identities are still unknown. The present study was envisaged to isolate immunomodulatory proteins from raw garlic, and examine their effects on certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils) in relation to mitogenicity and hypersensitivity. Three protein components of approximately 13 kD (QR-1, QR-2, and QR-3 in the ratio 7:28:1) were separated by Q-Sepharose chromatography of 30 kD ultrafiltrate of raw garlic extract. All the 3 proteins exhibited mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes, murine splenocytes and thymocytes. The mitogenicity of QR-2 was the highest among the three immunomodulatory proteins. QR-1 and QR-2 displayed hemagglutination and mannose-binding activities; QR-3 showed only mannose-binding activity. Immunoreactivity of rabbit anti-QR-1 and anti-QR-2 polyclonal antisera showed specificity for their respective antigens as well as mutual cross-reactivity; QR-3 was better recognized by anti-QR-2 (82%) than by anti-QR-1 (55%). QR-2 induced a 2-fold higher histamine release in vitro from leukocytes of atopic subjects compared to that of non-atopic subjects. In all functional studies, QR-2 was more potent compared to QR-1. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two major proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Induction of mutations in garlic by combined use of gamma-rays and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rou, Zhen Hai [Horticultural Research Inst., Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    1997-07-01

    Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of garlic on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l KIN + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Plantlets were induced from leaf calli on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/l IAA. Bulblets were induced from plantlets on MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l ITA. Callus growth and plantlets induction were remarkably inhibited with irradiation doses of 8 and 10 Gy. It was found that doses of 3 and 5 Gy were suitable to induce variation. Somatic embryos were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 500 mg/l casein, 1000 mg/l yeast extract and 3 to 5% sucrose. (author). 11 tabs.

  17. Induction of mutations in garlic by combined use of gamma-rays and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Hai Rou

    1997-01-01

    Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants of garlic on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l KIN + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Plantlets were induced from leaf calli on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/l IAA. Bulblets were induced from plantlets on MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l ITA. Callus growth and plantlets induction were remarkably inhibited with irradiation doses of 8 and 10 Gy. It was found that doses of 3 and 5 Gy were suitable to induce variation. Somatic embryos were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 500 mg/l casein, 1000 mg/l yeast extract and 3 to 5% sucrose. (author). 11 tabs

  18. Extrato de alho como alternativa na quebra de dormência de gemas em macieiras cv. Fuji Kiku Garlic extract as alternative on bud dormant break of apple trees cv. Fuji Kiku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do extrato de alho (Bioalho® na quebra de dormência de gemas de macieiras 'Fuji Kiku', em comparação ao uso convencional de cianamida hidrogenada (H2CN2, na região de Guarapuava-PR. Logo após a poda de inverno, em setembro de 2005, os seguintes tratamentos foram pulverizados nas plantas durante o estádio fenológico de gema dormente: 1 Testemunha (sem tratamento; 2 EA (extrato de alho 1%; 3 EA 5%; 4 EA 10%; 5 OM (óleo mineral 2%; 6 EA 1% + OM 2%; 7 EA 5% + OM 2%; 8 EA 10% + OM 2%; 9 H2CN2 0,4% + OM 4%. Os tratamentos com extrato de alho e óleo mineral apresentaram efeitos similares ao tratamento convencional com cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral, atingindo mais de 90% de brotação das gemas aos 50 DAT, enquanto o tratamento com óleo mineral isoladamente a 2% e a testemunha atingiram apenas 62,5 e 42,7%, respectivamente. Os tratamentos com EA 5% ou 10%, com ou sem óleo mineral, foram os que apresentaram menores valores para as variáveis número de frutos, produção por planta e produtividade por área, não por ineficiência na quebra de dormência, mas, possivelmente, pela antecipação da floração que coincidiu com período bastante chuvoso no início da primavera.This study aimed to examine the effects of garlic extract (Bioalho® on bud break of 'Fuji Kiku' apple trees in comparison to the conventional use of hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2 at the region of Guarapuava-PR, Brazil. Soon after winter pruning, in September 2005, the following treatments were sprayed on plants at dormant bud stage: 1 control (untreated; 2 1% GE (garlic extract; 3 5% GE; 4 10% GE; 5 2% MO (mineral oil; 6 1% GE + 2% MO; 7 5% GE + 2% MO; 8 10% GE + 2% MO; 9 0.4% H2CN2 + 4% MO. The treatments with garlic extract and mineral oil showed similar effects in comparison to the hydrogen cyanamide treatment, achieving up to 90% of bud sprouting at 50 DAT, while only 2% mineral oil and control, attained only 62

  19. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhila, Eh.D.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  20. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  1. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and selenite (SeO 3 2− ) or selenate (SeO 4 2− ). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO 3 2− or SeO 4 2− ) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg 2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH) 2 and Hg(Met) 2 . Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH) 2 , together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se

  2. Energy and tannin extract supplementation for dairy cows on annual winter pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pansard Alves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supplementation can increase the consumption of metabolizable energy and substrate for microbial growth, while condensed tannins aid in increasing the duodenal flow of foodborne metabolizable proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation and the inclusion of tannin extract (TE from Acacia mearnsii (Weibull Black, Tanac S. A., Montenegro, Brazil on the production performance of dairy cows grazing on winter pastures. Nine multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were distributed in a 3 × 3 Latin square experimental design over three periods of 28 days (21 adaptation and 7 sampling. The treatments were: without supplementation (WS, supplementation with 4 kg of corn grain (CG, and corn grain + 80 g of tannin extract (TE. The dry matter (DM intake from pastures was similar among treatments, but the consumption of DM of the supplement was higher in the CG treatment than that in the TE treatment. The total DM intake was higher for the supplemented animals (17.3 kg?day-1 than that for the unsupplemented animals (14.9 kg?day-1 and in the TE treatment (17.7 kg?day-1 than in the CG treatment (16.7 kg day-1. Milk production increased from the unsupplemented to the supplemented animals (20.9 to 23.5 kg, respectively, while the content of urea N in the milk decreased (12.6 to 10.5 mg?100 mL-1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production or content of milk urea N between the CG and TE treatments. Energy supplementation is a tool for improving the nutritional profile and the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation grazing on annual winter pastures, while tannin extract aids in improving the energy balance.

  3. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (ppepper powder combinations (ppepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  4. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  5. Garlic used as an alternative medicine to control diabetic mellitus in alloxan-induced male rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, H.; Bhutto, M.A.; Khand, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used because of their effectiveness, less side effects and low cost, so investigation on such agents from traditional medicinal plants has become more important in present day studies on medical sciences. Garlic is one of the most popular herbs used as an anti-diabetic agent. In present study possible anti diabetic effects of garlic were studied in alloxan induced diabetic male rabbits, compared to normal control and diabetic control male rabbits. The blood samples were collected every third day and anti-diabetic effects of garlic were observed every time. The serum cholesterol level and body weight were also studied. With an aqueous extract of garlic (1% solution/Kg) body weight for 30 days significantly lowered serum glucose level (38.88%) and serum cholesterol level (57%). Results and Conclusion: The results indicate that garlic possesses a beneficial anti-hyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced rabbits. (author)

  6. An umbrella review of garlic intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Missbach, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Georg

    2016-10-15

    To gain further insight into the strength of evidence and extent of possible biases in the scope of studies investigating the impact of garlic and garlic supplement intake on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, we performed an umbrella review of all published meta-analyses synthesizing data from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Electronic database PubMed (between 1966 and June 2015) was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using following search terms: ("garlic" OR "allium sativum" OR "allicin" OR "organosulfur") AND ("cardiovascular" OR "coronary" OR "cholesterol" OR "triglyceride" OR "atherosclerosis" OR "blood pressure" OR "hypertension" OR "blood glucose") AND ("systematic review" OR "meta-analysis"), with no restriction to calendar data and language. Hand-search of reference lists and relevant clinical guidelines was performed as well. Nine systematic reviews investigated the effects of garlic on lipid parameters and eight systematic reviews analyzed the effects on blood pressure parameters were identified. Eight of nine meta-analyses synthesizing the effect of garlic on blood lipids reported significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. Inconsistent results could be detected for HDL-cholestrol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. The effect of garlic on systolic blood pressure showed consistent results across publications with 7 out of 8 meta-analyses demonstrating a substantial decrease in systolic blood pressure. Similar results could be reported regarding the effect of garlic on diastolic blood pressure, i.e. 6 out of 8 meta-analyses detected significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure levels following interventions with garlic. According to the data summarized in the present umbrella review, garlic preparations as well as garlic exerted some positive effects on indicators and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, typically without causing any serious side effects. However, with regard to the

  7. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma...

  8. Hypoglycemic and anti apoptotic effect of garlic in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by many factor include oxidative stress that leads to apoptosis of beta cells of the pancreas and so the antioxidant therapy strongly correlated with decrease risk of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract of raw garlic in controlling serum ...

  9. Investigation of antibacterial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ), mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Menthe spp.) and onion (Allium cepa) in in vitro conditions against the Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. E. coli was isolated from the infected tissues of the chickens which were ...

  10. Effect of Mineral Composition on Thermoluminescence Analysis of Irradiated Garlics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookkasem, Atitaya; Wanwisa, Sudprasert; Vitittheeranon, Arag

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the most popular techniques used for identification of irradiated foods such as spices, herbs and dried fruits in accordance with the Codex Standards. TL analysis is based on the determination of TL of adhering or contaminating minerals in foods. This research aimed to study the effect of mineral composition on the TL intensity. The composited minerals were extracted from 3 types of non-irradiated and irradiated garlic powders by sodium polytungstate solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the type and amount of minerals present in garlic powders. TL of separated minerals were analysed using a Harshaw 4500 TL reader. The results showed that the mineral composition of garlic powders was mainly quartz of varying amounts depending on types of garlics. The TL intensity linearly increased with the amount of quartz present in the samples. It can be concluded that the amount of minerals affect the TL intensity which might influence the identification of irradiated tretment of garlics by thermoluminescence

  11. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  12. Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Productive Performance and Certain Biochemical Aspects of Laying Hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty six, 37-wk-old laying hens, of Lohmann strain, were used in the current study to evaluate the effects of dietary garlic powder (GP) on productive performance and certain biochemical aspects of laying hens. Hens were randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatment groups, a control (no garlic addition) and 3 and 6 % GP additions to the basal diet on weight: weight ratio basis and fed for six week. Body weights (BW), egg weight (EW) and feed consumption were determined weekly. Daily egg production was recorded. Serum concentrations of lipids profile ( triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (Chol), high density lipids (HDL) and low density lipids (LDL) cholesterol levels) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration were measured. Results indicated that feed efficiency and BW gain were significantly increased as garlic powder percentage increased in the diet. Garlic powder supplementation at 3 and 6 % lower serum Chol concentrations on an average by 15.3 and 22.3%, respectively, as compared to the control group. Serum Trig concentration was significantly lower by 18 and 33% respectively as compared to the control group. TLs were highly significantly decreased as the garlic powder increase by 13.9 and 27.8% respectively, and as compared to the control group. Moreover, HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased and LDL- cholesterol was significantly decreased with garlic powder increased in the diet. Serum T3 concentration was significantly higher on average by 23.2 and 28.4%, in laying hens given the 3 and 6 % garlic powder supplementation as compared to the control group. It could be concluded from the results of the current study that supplementing the diet with 3 and to a greater extent with 6 % of garlic powder decreases the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease by lowing concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides concentrations, and HDL cholesterol, and increasing levels of HDL

  13. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  14. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  15. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic

  16. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    1. Claims for beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, fibrinolytic activity, and platelet aggregation are attributed both to fresh garlic and onions (or their extracts) and to commercially available preparations. 2. Regarding fresh garlic, the claims have been confirmed, but so far only at very

  17. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  18. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage.

  19. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina da Silva Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS prebiotic and three levels of pacari extract – 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 mg kg-1of feed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments and seven replicates of four hens each. The pacari standardized in tannin extract presented a percentage of albumen and an egg weight similar to the antibiotic (p < 0.04. The supplementation with the extract improved the shell quality, verified by the specific gravity (p < 0.03 and promoted the metabolizability of ether extract similar to antibiotic and MOS (p < 0.04, allowing its indication as a phytogenic additive.

  20. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the α-tocopherol concentration were studied. The α-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The α-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic α-tocopherol content. (author)

  1. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de extratos de alho nirá (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. In vitro antibacterial activity of "Nira" garlic extracts (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex-Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Araújo

    2009-01-01

    extract of those different sources (alcoholature obtained with the evaporation of ethanol in rotavapor system with aseptic hydric-reconstitution was assessed through dilution tests in multiple tube series against standardized inocula of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19.433, Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11.076 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11.229. Tests revealed selective antibacterial activity against the different Gram-negative inocula, which reached maximum and permanent inhibition and inactivation for Salmonella after 48 hours and for Escherichia coli after 72 hours of exposition. The Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, presented total resistance to the ethanol extracts. There were no significant differences among activity times for Salmonella and Escherichia, as well as between presence and absence of bacterial non-inhibitors. However, there were significant differences among "Nira" garlic sources.

  3. The influence of supplementation with artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on selected redox parameters in rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Anna; Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Lucia; Basta, Piotr; Deskur-Smielcka, Ewa; Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, Magorzata

    2008-06-01

    High-intensity physical exercise decreases intracellular antioxidant potential. An enhanced antioxidant defense system is desirable in people subjected to exhaustive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementation with artichoke-leaf extract on parameters describing balance between oxidants and antioxidants in competitive rowers. This double-blinded study was carried out in 22 members of the Polish rowing team who were randomly assigned to a supplemented group (n = 12), receiving 1 gelatin capsule containing 400 mg of artichoke-leaf extract 3 times a day for 5 wk, or a placebo group (n = 10). At the beginning and end of the study participants performed a 2,000-m maximal test on a rowing ergometer. Before each exercise test, 1 min after the test completion, and after a 24-hr restitution period blood samples were taken from antecubital vein. The following redox parameters were assessed in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances concentrations. Creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and serum lipid profiles were assessed. During restitution, plasma TAC was significantly higher (p artichoke-leaf extract, a natural vegetable preparation of high antioxidant potential, resulted in higher plasma TAC than placebo but did not limit oxidative damage to erythrocytes in competitive rowers subjected to strenuous training.

  4. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  5. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  6. Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ≤ 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

  7. Induction of Cellular Metallothionein in Irradiated Rats Supplemented with Egyptian Propolis Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.SH.; Azab, KH.SH.

    2005-01-01

    Proplis, a resinous yellow to dark substance collected by worker honeybees has been extensively used in folk medicine for management of a wide spectrum of disorders. The current study was conducted to evaluate the role of Egyptian propolis extract in modification of metallothionen (MT) induction in rats exposed to whole body fractionated gamma irradiation (delivered as 1.5 Gy every day up to 7.5 Gy total dose) and the relevance of certain metals (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn and Fe) for metallothionein induction. In addition, lipid peroxides (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; TEARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were observed in different subjected tissues. Metal content of crude propolis and certain related natural forms (bee pollen and honey) were also identified. Propolis extract was supplemented daily to rats (10 ml/kg body wt/day) by stomach tube, 15 days before and during exposure to gamma radiation. Experimental investigations were carried out on the 1st and 10th days after the last irradiation fraction in liver, kidney, brain, heart, lung and spleen tissues. The results obtained reveal that the administration of propolis extract increased significantly the metallothionein (MT) concentration in all examined tissues as compared with control rats. Records on all subjected tissues imparted that propolis extract supplementation has significantly minimized the radiation-induced increases in the amount of TBARS, maintained GSH con centration within normal levels except for lung and spleen and increased MT levels comparing to irradiated rats. Furthermore, significant amelioration in the levels of trace metals was observed such as zinc and copper in liver, kidney and brain. It could be postulated that the prolonged administration of Egyptian propolis extract attenuates the lipid peroxidation process in different rat's tissues and that might attributed to its antioxidant potency partially expressed through MT induction, maintenance of GSH levels and the

  8. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-León, M R; Aranda-González, I; Mut-Martín, M; García-Miss, M R; Dumonteil, E

    2007-11-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the main causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico. Control of this disease is associated with a Th1-type immune response and garlic extract has been reported as a Th1 immunomodulator in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. In this study, we investigated the effect of garlic extracts on L. mexicana infection in vivo and in vitro. Garlic extract reduced footpad lesions in L. mexicana-infected BALB/c mice by inducing IFN-gamma production from T cells. In vitro, garlic extract reduced macrophage infection through induction of nitric oxide (NO) production. Garlic extract may thus act on both T cells and macrophages to stimulate IFN-gamma production and NO synthesis for parasite killing. A 10- to 14-kDa fraction was identified as responsible for the in vitro effect of the whole extract and may lead to the identification of novel immunomodulating drugs and therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  9. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  10. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  11. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  12. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Janaina da Silva; Stringhini, José Henrique; Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso da; Arhnold, Emmanuel; Noleto, Raiana Almeida; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) pre...

  13. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  14. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted.

  15. Effect of addition of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) on the quality of kefirs from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znamirowska, Agata; Szajnar, Katarzyna; Rożek, Przemysław; Kalicka, Dorota; Kuźniar, Piotr; Hanus, Paweł; Kotula, Krzysztof; Obirek, Marcin; Kluz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Sheep’s milk has a high content of total solids, which qualifies it as a very good raw material for the production of fermented milk drinks. Currently, there are commercially produced kefirs and yogurts from sheep’s milk in the countries of the Mediterranean region. The growing interest in the consumption of these products is justified not only by their taste merits, but also because of their health-promoting proper- ties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of 1% of lyophilized wild garlic powder on the properties of kefirs from sheep’s milk. Sheep’s milk was pasteurized (85°C, 30 min), cooled down, enriched with 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic powder, inoculated with a Commercial VITAL kefir culture and fermented for 16 hours (26°C). The influence of wild garlic on acidity (pH, °SH), syneresis (%), texture (TPA test), colour (L*a*b*) and the sensory profile of kefirs was conducted. Wild garlic could be used as a taste and flavour modifier in the production of kefir from sheep’s milk. The addition of 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic slowed down the fermentation of kefir, changed colour and reduced syneresis. Wild garlic could be used as a valuable supplement and a modifier of taste and flavour in kefir from sheep’s milk.

  16. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  17. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”.

  18. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Detection of irradiated potato and garlic by thermoluminescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.W.; Kwon, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Potato and garlic irradiated with gamma ray and electron beam at sprout-inhibition doses, 0.15 and 0.30 kGy were subjected to the detection whether they are irradiated or not by measuring thermoluminescence(TL) for the minerals adhering to the samples. Minerals extracted from the samples showed a high correlation coefficients between absorbed doses and corresponding TL responses. Nonirradiated samples, however, did not exhibit characteristic TL glowcurves. Major glowcurve peaks were observed at 200 to in all irradiated samples. TL intensity was proportional to irradiated doses, but it varied with the samples tested even at the same dose. It can be concluded from the results that detection of irradiated potato and garlic is possible by measuring TL for extracted minerals from the unknown samples

  20. Dietary supplementation with an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes does not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Tomatoes are rich in lycopene and other carotenoids which have shown beneficial effects on CVD in epidemiological and intervention studies. In the present study the effect of an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes, Lyc-O-Mato (R) on atherosclerosis was studied in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic...... rabbits. The rabbits were fed a control diet, a control diet supplemented with the tomato extract or a control diet supplemented with a mixture of plant oils for 16 weeks. Lycopene was detected only in plasma of rabbits receiving tomato extract. The tomato extract had no effect on cholesterol...... and triacylglycerol levels measured in total plasma, lipoprotein fractions and on aortic atherosclerosis evaluated biochemically and by microscopy. Oxidation of lipids in unfractionated plasma also was unaffected by the intake of tomato extract. In conclusion, the tomato extract increased plasma levels of lycopene...

  1. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Clinical Outcome And Arginine Serum of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Supplemented by Snakehead Fish Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal

    2018-02-01

    Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L pgender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum levels in AIS patient with snakehead fish extract supplementation.

  3. METABOLIC AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE IN MILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH RYE FLAKES AND MALT EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bărăscu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye flakes and malt extract were added to milk in order to stimulate growth and fermentative activity of probioticbacteria and to obtain a probiotic product with pleasant sensory attributes. Probiotic culture used in this study containsbifidobacteria, Lb. acidophilus, Lactobacilus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.Rye flakes have a stimulating effect more pronounced than malt extract on acidification capacity of the probioticculture, and to achieve an increase of the milk acidity of 7g lactic acid /dm3 (in 6h at 39oC the two ingredients must beadded in concentration of 2% and, respectively, 0.2%..The probiotic culture reach the greatest proteolytic activity when rye flakes are added in the proportion of 3% andmalt extract in the proportion of 0.1% and the amino acids released rate was 764.6 μg%. The lactose bioconversionrate was greater in the milk supplemented with rye flakes 3% and malt extract 0.1% and residual lactose was 3.84%.

  4. Apoptotic efficiency of aqueous extracts of turmeric, garlic and their active compounds in combination with Tamoxifen in lung and oral cancers: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Vemuri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer treatment against oral and lung cancers has caught the eye of oncologist and researchers worldwide as most common cause deaths in India and worldwide is due to these cancers and most of the treatment strategies employed are not showing any effectiveness against neoplastic ability of the cancers. One of the reasons for cancer deaths could be because of poor prognosis and associated therapies. The existing cancer agents are being re-evaluated and development of new mechanisms of treatment being explored continuously, but it’s inadequate in offering treatment. Therefore, endeavors for new anticancer agents with high efficacy and considerable side effects still going on. The literature reviews shows numerous medicinal plants exhibiting anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties and these effects were reported by conducting both in vitro experiments and animal studies. Use of natural phytochemical compounds in cancer chemoprevention is an emerging strategy to forestall the cancer progression or cure cancer.In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of Curcumin longa and Allium sativum aqueous extracts individually and in combination with its active compounds (Curcumin and Quercetin and also with Tamoxifen hydrochloride. Our results suggest that aqueous extracts of Curcumin longa and Allium sativum were effective in inducing apoptosis and cell death in two immortal cell lines i.e. A549 and SCC-9 (Adeno carcinoma of lung, squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, but there was no apoptosis or cell senescence in normal cell line (HEK 293. There was significant increase in apoptosis and cell senescence in combination therapy. Hence a combination of natural extracts along with Tamoxifen can be considered an alternate in cancer treatments but this requires more research. Keywords: Curcumin longa, Allium sativum, Tamoxifen hydrochloride, A549, SCC-9, HEK 293 cell lines

  5. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  6. The effect of dietary garlic powder and a low temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs are a rich source of protein having, a primary advantage in satisfying human nutritional needs. However, the loss in egg quality within a short time during storage calls for more research to improve their condition following storage. This study investigated the potential of garlic powder as a feed supplement and low ...

  7. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  10. Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-masry, F.S.H.; El-sayed, N.M.; Hussein, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

  11. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  antioxidant capacity between groups. Furthermore, thyme supplementation significantly ( p  extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  13. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Black grape extract supplementation attenuates blood oxidative stress in response to acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich active compound in grapes is claimed to be one of the most important natural products. Hence, the objective of our research was to study parameters of the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in athletes supplied with Panace-Vid 2000® preparation consisting of black wine grape extract (Vitis vinifera. The study was carried out on 22 male rowers. The subjects from the supplemented group (n=10 were given one gelatin capsule containing Panace-Vid 2000® three times a day, for six weeks, while the control group (n=12 was given placebo. Before and after the supplementation period, the athletes performed a physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power. Each 3-min exercise session was followed by thirty seconds of rest. Blood was sampled from the rowers before the exercise test, one minute after its completion, and after a 24-h recovery period. The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase was determined and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was measured in the hemolysate of red blood cells. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was determined in the blood plasma. The concentration of lactic acid was measured in the whole blood. An analysis of the results revealed that the supply of grape extract, in the form of Panace-Vid 2000® preparation, contributed to a significant increase in plasma antioxidative capacity and to an insignificant increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced concentration of lipid peroxidation product levels.

  15. Garlic accelerates red blood cell turnover and splenic erythropoietic gene expression in mice: evidence for erythropoietin-independent erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Akgül

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been valued in many cultures both for its health effects and as a culinary flavor enhancer. Garlic's chemical complexity is widely thought to be the source of its many health benefits, which include, but are not limited to, anti-platelet, procirculatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuro-protective, and anti-cancer effects. While a growing body of scientific evidence strongly upholds the herb's broad and potent capacity to influence health, the common mechanisms underlying these diverse effects remain disjointed and relatively poorly understood. We adopted a phenotype-driven approach to investigate the effects of garlic in a mouse model. We examined RBC indices and morphologies, spleen histochemistry, RBC half-lives and gene expression profiles, followed up by qPCR and immunoblot validation. The RBCs of garlic-fed mice register shorter half-lives than the control. But they have normal blood chemistry and RBC indices. Their spleens manifest increased heme oxygenase 1, higher levels of iron and bilirubin, and presumably higher CO, a pleiotropic gasotransmitter. Heat shock genes and those critical for erythropoiesis are elevated in spleens but not in bone marrow. The garlic-fed mice have lower plasma erythropoietin than the controls, however. Chronic exposure to CO of mice on garlic-free diet was sufficient to cause increased RBC indices but again with a lower plasma erythropoietin level than air-treated controls. Furthermore, dietary garlic supplementation and CO treatment showed additive effects on reducing plasma erythropoietin levels in mice. Thus, garlic consumption not only causes increased energy demand from the faster RBC turnover but also increases the production of CO, which in turn stimulates splenic erythropoiesis by an erythropoietin-independent mechanism, thus completing the sequence of feedback regulation for RBC metabolism. Being a pleiotropic gasotransmitter, CO may be a second messenger for garlic

  16. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, P. Ø.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant......-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology...... and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections....

  17. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan; Pereira Dachi Ângela; Nogueira Fernandes Elizeu; Lais Hamm Bruna; Corrêa de Almeida Fabiane; Moreira Silveira Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control); T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant...

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis extracts on hematological parameters and parasitism in Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dotta

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of diet supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis on hematological parameters and parasitism in tilapia. One hundred and eighty fish were distributed among 12 water tanks forming four treatments: fish supplemented with a 1:1 mixture of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% propolis and aloe extracts. After the fish had been fed on the experimental diets for 15 and 21 days, blood samples were taken and parasites collected. The monogeneans Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. halli, C. thurstonae and Scutogyrus longicornis were identified in the gills. Between the sampling times, there were increases in the numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes, as observed after 21 days, possibly due to the stress level over the course of the assay and/or accumulation of substances in the organism. Supplementation with the mixture of propolis and aloe for 15 days showed the highest efficacy against the parasites. This was possibly due to the association between the two compounds. The results demonstrated that supplementation with mixtures of extracts did not produce hematological alterations and also favored a significant reduction in the number of gill parasites. The best results were achieved after 15 days of feeding with a diet with 0.5% and 1% supplementation with the extract mixture, which increased efficiency by 83 and 85% respectively

  19. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (pVimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative Characteristics and Determining Shelf-Life of Milk Beverage Product Supplemented with Coffee Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Jun-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Duk-Geun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period. Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli , yeast, and mold were not detected in the products during an 8 wk storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that after 4 wk of storage overall acceptance was less than 3 points on a 5-point scale. In this study, PV was used as an indicator of the shelf-life of the milk beverage product. PV analysis revealed that a value of 20 meq/kg was the end of the shelf-life using the Arrhenius equation and the accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT). Assuming that the beverages are kept at 4°C during distribution, calculation of when the PV reached the quality limit point (20 meq/kg) was done with the equation ln(PV) = 0.3644X - 2.21834 and, using that equation, PV = e 0.3644X-2.21834 was calculated. Therefore, 14.3086 wk was determined to be the shelf-life of the milk beverage supplemented with coffee when stored at 4°C.

  2. Bone marrow extract as a growth supplement for human iliac apophyseal chondrocyte culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Balakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Human bone marrow is rich in various growth factors which may support the chondrocyte growth. This study was conducted to compare the culture characteristics of human growth plate chondrocyte in foetal bovine serum (FBS and human autologous bone marrow extract (BME in monolayer culture. Methods: Iliac crest apophyseal cartilage was harvested from four donors, aged between two and nine years, undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were propagated under two culture conditions, with 10 per cent FBS and 10 per cent autologous BME harvested from the same donors. Cells were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days to assess viability, morphology, cell count and immunocytochemistry. Results: With an initial seeding density of 2500 cells/cm 2 , the average yield in monolayer cultured with FBS was 3.35 × 10 5 , 5.9 × 10 5 , 14.1 × 10 5 and BME was 0.66 × 10 5 , 1.57 × 10 5 and 3.48 × 10 5 at 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Viability was 98.21 per cent with FBS and 97.45 per cent with BME at 21 days. In BME supplemented cultures, hyaline phenotype was maintained up to 21 days. The yield was higher in the FBS supplemented group; however, the phenotype could not be maintained by the FBS group as long as BME group. Interpretation & conclusions: Autologous BME was found to be a safer alternative to FBS for human studies. BME could maintain the hyaline phenotype for a longer time. Ways to enhance the cell yield needs to be explored in future studies.

  3. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  4. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  5. Efeito do extrato de alho na quebra de dormência de gemas de videiras e no controle in vitro do agente causal da antracnose (Elsinoe ampelina Shear Effect of garlic extract on bud break of grapevines and in vitro control of causal agent of antracnose (Elsinoe ampelina Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a redução ou eliminação do uso de substâncias sintéticas que preconizam os sistemas sustentáveis de produção de frutas, este trabalho teve como objetivo a busca de novas alternativas para a quebra de dormência e o controle de doenças em videiras. Estacas de videira contendo uma gema foram pulverizadas com os seguintes tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 OV (óleo vegetal 1%; 3 extrato de alho (EA 3%; 4 EA 3% + OV 1%. Posteriormente, as estacas foram mantidas em câmara de crescimento (25±2.5ºC por 56 dias. O único tratamento que estimulou a brotação das estacas de videira cv. Isabel Precoce foi o EA 3% + OV 1%, que atingiu 35% de brotação, diferindo estatisticamente dos tratamentos- testemunha (12,5%, OV 1% (17,5% e EA 3% (15,0%. Provavelmente, o estádio de endodormência profunda das gemas, após apenas 90 horas de frio ( Considering the reduction or elimination of synthetic compounds used in sustainable fruit production systems, this work aimed to search for new alternatives for bud break dormancy and diseases control in grapevines. Single-bud cuttings of grapevines were sprayed with the following treatments: 1 control, 2 1% SO (soybean oil, 3 3% GE (garlic extract, 4 3% GE + 1% SO. After that, the cuttings were kept in a growth chamber (25±2.5ºC for 56 days. The unique treatment that stimulated sprouting of grapevines cv. Isabel Precoce was 3% GE + 1% S, that reached 35% sprouting, differing statistically from the control (12.5%, 1% SO (17.5% and 3% GE (15.0%. Probably, the stage of deep endodormancy of buds, after only 90 chilling hours (< 7.0ºC, avoided better results of bud breaks treatments. Three experiments were carried out in vitro, with different garlic extract doses aiming to evaluate the control of the fungus Elsinoe ampelina. In all trials, there were quadratic effects on mycelial growth, without differences between garlic extract treatments, evidencing its fungicide effect, even for the lowest dose of 0

  6. Changes in Cholinesterase Activity in Blood of Adolescent with Metabolic Syndrome after Supplementation with Extract from Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Duchnowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are growing problems among children and adolescents. There are no reports of changes in the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome especially after supplementation with extract from Aronia melanocarpa. Materials studied included plasma and erythrocytes isolated from peripheral blood of patients with MetS and healthy subjects. We have estimated the following parameters: acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity, lipid peroxidation and lipids levels in plasma, and erythrocytes membrane. In patients with MetS, a significant increase in AChE and BChE activity, higher LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and lower HDL-cholesterol level were observed. Supplementation with A. melanocarpa extract resulted in mild but statistically significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol levels and caused an increase in HDL-cholesterol level and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in plasma patients with MetS. Additionally, a decrease in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level and a decrease in AChE activity in the erythrocyte membranes after supplementation with A. melanocarpa were noted. Summarizing, an increase in AChE and BChE activity and disruption of lipid metabolism in patients with MetS were observed. After supplementation of MetS patients with A. melanocarpa extract, a decrease in AChE activity and oxidative stress was noted.

  7. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  8. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Kerr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  9. Experimental Study On The Optimization Of Extraction Process Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. Materials and Methods: CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of ...

  10. The Effect of Plant Supplements on the Development of Artificially Weaken Bee Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Al. Mărghitaş

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, infusions from nettle, thyme and Echinacea, fresh juice of onion and garlic, and Protofil (alcoholic extract of different plants enriched with vitamins and mineral elements, were used in supplementary feeding of artificially weaken bee families. Correlation between total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the supplements used in honeybee feeding and uncapped, capped and total brood surface of experimental groups were established. The highest content of biologically active compounds exhibit nettle infusion, which present the most effective growth in field experiments.

  11. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

  12. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Yeon; Paek, Ju Eun; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Dong-Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2014-12-01

    Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct and EMBASE through May 2014. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 22 trials reporting total cholesterol (TC), 17 trials reporting LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), 18 trials reporting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), 4 trials reporting fasting blood glucose (FBG), 9 trials reporting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 trials reporting diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The overall garlic powder intake significantly reduced blood TC and LDL-C by -0.41 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69, -0.12) (-15.83 mg/dL [95% CI, -26.64, -4.63]) and -0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.40, -0.03) (-8.11 mg/dL [95% CI, -15.44, -1.16]), respectively. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was -0.96 mmol/L (95% CI, -1.91, -0.01) (-17.30 mg/dL [95% CI, -34.41, -0.18]). Evidence for SBP and DBP reduction in the garlic supplementation group was also demonstrated by decreases of -4.34 mmHg (95% CI, -8.38, -0.29) and -2.36 mmHg (95% CI, -4.56, -0.15), respectively. This meta-analysis provides consistent evidence that garlic powder intake reduces the CVD risk factors of TC, LDL-C, FBG and BP.

  13. Effect of Supplementation with n-3 Fatty Acids Extracted from Microalgae on Inflammation Biomarkers from Two Different Strains of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Gutiérrez-Pliego

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus is considered a chronic noncommunicable disease in which inflammation plays a main role in the progression of the disease and it is known that n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties. One of the most recent approaches is the study of the fatty acids of microalgae as a substitute for fish oil and a source rich in fatty acids EPA and DHA. Objective. To analyze the effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae on the inflammatory markers from two different strains of mice. Methods. Mice of two strains, db/db and CD1, were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae in lyophilized form and added to food; the experiment was carried out from week 8 to 16 of life. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Results. Supplementation with microalgae fatty acids decreased the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α and increased the ones producing IL-17A and IL-12 in both strains; on the other hand, supplementation decreased percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IL-4 and increased the ones producing TGF-β. Conclusions. Microalgae n-3 fatty acids could be a useful tool in the treatment of diabetes as well as in the prevention of the appearance of health complications caused by inflammatory states.

  14. Dietary supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill extract prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Mylène; Philippe, Erwann; Everard, Amandine; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Denom, Jessica; Takeda, Yorihiko; Uchiyama, Shoji; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Migrenne, Stéphanie; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill (ABM) extract could have an effect on diet-induced obesity in rats. Wistar rats were fed with control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) and either with or without supplemented ABM for 20 weeks. HF diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to CD. In addition HF-fed rats developed hyperleptinemia and insulinemia as well as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In HF-fed rats, visceral adipose tissue also expressed biomarkers of inflammation. ABM supplementation in HF rats had a protective effect against body weight gain and all study related disorders. This was not due to decreased food intake which remained significantly higher in HF rats whether supplemented with ABM or not compared to control. There was also no change in gut microbiota composition in HF supplemented with ABM. Interestingly, ABM supplementation induced an increase in both energy expenditure and locomotor activity which could partially explain its protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In addition a decrease in pancreatic lipase activity is also observed in jejunum of ABM-treated rats suggesting a decrease in lipid absorption. Taken together these data highlight a role for ABM to prevent body weight gain and related disorders in peripheral targets independently of effect in food intake in central nervous system. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddeb, Wiem

    2008-01-01

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of Gracilaria extraction fractions on growth performance, fillet quality, oxidative stress and immune responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peixoto, Maria-João; Magnoni, Leonardo; Goncalves, J.; Twijnstra, Robert Hendrik; Kijoa, A.; Pereira, R.; Palstra, A.P.; Ozorio, R.O.A.

    2017-01-01

    By-products generated from the seaweed (SW) industry´s extraction processes have potential applications as feed supplements for aquafeeds. SW extracts contain natural pigments and compounds with antioxidant and immune-stimulant properties [1, 2]. In spite of their beneficial effects, SW extracts may

  17. Gamma irradiation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1975-01-01

    Technological and economic feasibility of gamma irradiation of onions and garlic on an industrial scale are studied. Statistical data on production, consumption, exportation and losses during storage are analyzed. Traditional methods of food preservation are reviewed and gamma irradiation techniques are presented as an alternative to sprout inhibition. Requirements for the irradiation of onions and garlic on a commercial scale including a cost benefit analysis are discussed. Some conclusions are formulated on licensing and prospects

  18. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  19. Evaluating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Capacity of Raw and Steamed Garlic as Well as Five Organosulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chen Ho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Effect of Noni Leaves Extract (Morinda citrifolia L. Supplementation in Feed on Physical Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Sukoco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to know the effect of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. supplementation in feed on physical quality of broiler breast meat such as pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness. Ninety six 8-days old broiler chickens strain Lohmann and of undifferentiated sex (unsexed were used in this research. The broiler chickens will be reared until 35-days old. The research method was experimental using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and four replications, each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. The treatments consisted of P0 (Basal Feed, P1 (Basal Feed + tetracycline 0.05%, P2 (Basal Feed + noni leaves extract 0.05%, P3 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.1%, P4 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.15%, P5 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.2%. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD test if there was significantly different result. The results showed that noni leaves extract did not give significant effect (P>0.05 on meat pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and tenderness. However, these results were still acceptable normally such as pH between 5.38-5.57, water holding capacity 34.13-45.64%, cooking loss 33.05-36.97%, but tenderness 16.22-20.57N were less acceptable. The research concluded that supplementation of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. in feed did not increase physical quality of broiler breast meat on pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness.

  1. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. Conclusion: These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. PMID:26423732

  3. An Investigation of the Effects of Raw Garlic on Radiation-induced Bystander Effects in MCF7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is a phenomenon in which radiation signals are transmitted from irradiated cells to non-irradiated ones, inducing radiation effects in these cells. RIBE plays an effective role in radiation response at environmentally relevant low doses and in radiotherapy, given its impact on adjacent normal tissues or those far from the irradiated tumor. Reactive oxygen species contribute to RIBE induction. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of garlic, as an antioxidant-containing plant, on RIBE. Materials and Methods MCF7 cells, treated with raw garlic extracts, were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays, and their culture medium was transferred to non-irradiated autologous bystander cells. Percentage cell viability and micronucleus formation in both irradiated and bystander cells were examined and compared with corresponding cell groups, not treated with garlic. Results Treatment with garlic extract reduced the number of micronucleus-containing cells in both irradiated and bystander cells. However, it only increased the percentage cell viability in bystander cells, not the irradiated ones. Conclusion RIBE was effectively suppressed by raw garlic extracts. Inhibitory effects of raw garlic may be of particular importance for exposure to environmentally relevant low doses, where RIBE dominates direct radiation effects. They are also partially important for addressing the limited therapeutic gain of radiotherapy, as they may only increase the percentage cell viability of bystander cells, not the directly irradiated tumor cells. However, more comprehensive in-vivo research regarding garlic treatment duration is required to support the obtained results.

  4. The Influence of Chlorella and Its Hot Water Extract Supplementation on Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-control, randomized, and open-label clinical trial was performed to test the effects of the unicellular green algae Chlorella and hot water extract supplementation on quality of life (QOL in patients with breast cancer. Forty-five female patients with breast cancer who were living at home and not hospitalized were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving vitamin mix tablet (control, Chlorella granules (test food-1, or Chlorella extract drink (test food-2 daily for one month. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B, the Izumo scale for abdominal symptom-specific QOL, and a narrative-form questionnaire were used to determine outcomes. Data of thirty-six subjects were included for final analysis. FACT-B scores at presupplementation found no significant group differences in all subscales. Scores on the breast cancer subscale in the Chlorella granule group significantly increased during the supplementation period (P=0.042. Fifty percent of the Chlorella extract group reported positive effects by the test food such as reduction of fatigue and improvements of dry skin (P<0.01 versus control group. The findings suggested the beneficial effects of Chlorella on breast cancer-related QOL and of Chlorella extract on vitality status in breast cancer patients. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  6. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described.

  7. Technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang

    1999-01-01

    Study on technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting was carried out. The results are as follows. 1. the suitable irradiation time of garlic could be prolonged when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C). When the garlic was stored till the end of the year and then irradiated, the sprouting could be checked effectively. When the garlic was stored till the next March, the effect of sprouting inhibition decreased; 2. When garlic was irradiated at suitable time and then subsequently stored at low temperature, the effect of sprouting inhibition was the same as that with cold storage before irradiation. However, if the cold storage period was rather long, the effect was not as good as that with cold storage after irradiation; 3. Browning of irradiated garlic did not occur when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C), indicating that the browning of sprout and bud was caused by higher storage temperature

  8. Effect of garlic's mode of administration on erythrocytes and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP HP

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Among all such agents, garlic (Allium sativum L.) has attracted the attention of modern medical science because of its widespread over the counter use. .... Asdaq SM, Inamdar MN (2011). The potential benefits of a garlic and.

  9. Garlic Consumption Alters Testicular Histology and Anti-Oxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent fashion. These histological observations and the depletion in endogenous anti-oxidant status associated with the administration of garlic could result in significant affectation of male reproductive functions. Keywords: garlic, superoxide ...

  10. Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D274 Updated: September 2016 Print ...

  11. Duodenum Histomorphology and Performance as Influenced by Dietary Suplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Garlic (Allium sativum) and its Combinations as a Feed Additives in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanti, Sri; -, Zuprizal; Yuwanta, Tri; -, Supadmo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on performance, and duodenum histomorphology. Affectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE) which were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were duodenum histomorphology (villi height, villi surfac...

  12. Comparison of meristem culture and heat therapy to clean garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment to detect garlic-infecting virus for three improved garlic varieties and to clean the virus were conducted in Ethiopia. Garlic cloves were planted in screen house at Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute Hub Nairobi, Kenya in 2014. Reverse Transcription polymerase ...

  13. Effect of various management strategies and garlic granules on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of Ninety (90) day old broiler birds were assigned to five (5) treatments, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The five treatments were; Treatment A (No drugs, No vaccines, No garlic; Control), Treatment B (Drugs + Vaccines + Garlic), Treatment C (Drugs + Vaccines), Treatment D (Garlic + Vaccines), ...

  14. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic... contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  15. effects of garlic on some haematological and biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    and packed cell volume significantly (P<0.05). The same dose (100mg) of garlic similarly and significantly increased total white blood cell count (TWBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (P<0.05). Garlic thus promote leucopoiesis and increases neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio. Garlic increased sodium and potassium serum ...

  16. Effect of garlic's mode of administration on erythrocytes and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to erythrocytes parameters, p.o. garlic treatment was found to have beneficial effects as it increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Garlic i.p. treatment showed detrimental activity as it decreased these parameters. Our results reveal that garlic administered by p.o. does not involve any significant variation on ...

  17. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Salmaan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s with the drug(s alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist.

  18. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  19. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina da Silva Moreira; José Henrique Stringhini; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Emmanuel Arhnold; Raiana Almeida Noleto; Fabyola Barros de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) prebiotic and...

  20. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  1. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of Pre and Post Supplementation Green Tea Extracts to MDA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Goenawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High intensity exercise (HI induces oxidative stress. Running for 2400 meters is one of the simple exercise form which can be counted as HI. During HI, increase of oxygen consumption happened in muscle cell resulted in an increase of oxidant level. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of Indonesian green tea supplementation, before and after HI to the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARSMalonyldialdehyde (MDA. The subjects of study were 42 male students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran (FMUP and Faculty of Physical Exercise, Indonesia University of Education (FPOK-UPI. The subjects were divided into trained and untrained subject. Subjects were divided into groups using Astrand Harvard step test. The purpose of this test was measuring the level of VO2 max. Blood samples for MDA level were collected at 3 hours before and after high intensity aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress was induced by 2400 meters run. The result showed that green tea supplement-ation was effective to decrease MDA plasma level especially after exercise. Green tea could serve as natural antioxidant resources, which potentially can be used as potential sport supplemental drink.

  3. GarlicESTdb: an online database and mining tool for garlic EST sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Haeng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium, which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is highly increasing due to nutritional and pharmaceutical value including high blood pressure and cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cancer. For all that, there are no comprehensive databases available for Expressed Sequence Tags(EST of garlic for gene discovery and future efforts of genome annotation. That is why we developed a new garlic database and applications to enable comprehensive analysis of garlic gene expression. Description GarlicESTdb is an integrated database and mining tool for large-scale garlic (Allium sativum EST sequencing. A total of 21,595 ESTs collected from an in-house cDNA library were used to construct the database. The analysis pipeline is an automated system written in JAVA and consists of the following components: automatic preprocessing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences, storage of the analyzed information into MySQL databases, and graphic display of all processed data. A web application was implemented with the latest J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition software technology (JSP/EJB/JavaServlet for browsing and querying the database, for creation of dynamic web pages on the client side, and for mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways, the AJAX framework was also used partially. The online resources, such as putative annotation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and tandem repeat data sets, can be searched by text, explored on the website, searched using BLAST, and downloaded. To archive more significant BLAST results, a curation system was introduced with which biologists can easily edit best-hit annotation

  4. GarlicESTdb: an online database and mining tool for garlic EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Jung, Tae-Sung; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kwon, Hyuk-Ryul; Kim, Aeri; Chae, Sung-Hwa; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ryong Nam; Park, Hong-Seog

    2009-05-18

    Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium), which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is highly increasing due to nutritional and pharmaceutical value including high blood pressure and cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cancer. For all that, there are no comprehensive databases available for Expressed Sequence Tags(EST) of garlic for gene discovery and future efforts of genome annotation. That is why we developed a new garlic database and applications to enable comprehensive analysis of garlic gene expression. GarlicESTdb is an integrated database and mining tool for large-scale garlic (Allium sativum) EST sequencing. A total of 21,595 ESTs collected from an in-house cDNA library were used to construct the database. The analysis pipeline is an automated system written in JAVA and consists of the following components: automatic preprocessing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences, storage of the analyzed information into MySQL databases, and graphic display of all processed data. A web application was implemented with the latest J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) software technology (JSP/EJB/JavaServlet) for browsing and querying the database, for creation of dynamic web pages on the client side, and for mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways, the AJAX framework was also used partially. The online resources, such as putative annotation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and tandem repeat data sets, can be searched by text, explored on the website, searched using BLAST, and downloaded. To archive more significant BLAST results, a curation system was introduced with which biologists can easily edit best-hit annotation information for others to view. The Garlic

  5. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    and AST activities were also observed. As well as, significant increase in both TSH and T4 levels were noticed, while T3 level was not affected. These biochemical alterations were ameliorated when tomato, garlic and their combination was administered to rats fed diet supplemented with frying oil. It appears that adequate amounts of tomato and/or garlic might protects against cardiac injuries induced by feeding frying oil

  6. Evaluation of the effect of a chicken comb extract-containing supplement on cartilage and bone metabolism in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Masafumi; Aoba, Yukihiro; Watari, Taiji; Momomura, Rei; Watanabe, Keita; Tomonaga, Akihito; Matsunaga, Michitaka; Suda, Yoshimasa; Lee, Woo Young; Asai, Katsuhito; Yoshimura, Kaori; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Nagaoka, Isao

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study, we revealed that a commercially available product of dietary supplement containing a chicken comb extract (CCE), which is rich in hyaluronan, not only relieves joint pain and other symptoms, but also potentially improves the balance of type II collagen degradation/synthesis in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Since soccer is one of the sports most likely to cause knee osteoarthritis (OA), we evaluated the effect of a CCE-containing supplement on cartilage and bone metabolism in athletes. Fourteen and 15 subjects (all midfielders) were randomly assigned to receive the test product (test group) and the dummy placebo containing only vehicle (placebo group), respectively, for 12 weeks. The daily oral intake of the CCE-containing test product clearly decreased the urinary levels of both C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of cartilage-specific type II collagen (CTX-II) as a type II collagen degradation marker and the N-terminal telopeptides of bone-specific type I collagen (NTx) as a marker of bone resorption at 12 weeks after the initiation of the intervention. By contrast, no significant reduction was detected in the placebo group at any timepoint during the intervention. These observations indicate that the test product is effective in inhibiting, not only cartilage degradation, but also bone remodeling. Thus, the CCE-containing supplement may be useful for the management of joint health in athletes.

  7. Effect of pollen extract supplementation on the varroatosis tolerance of honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piou, Vincent; Tabart, Jérémy; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis; Vétillard, Angélique

    2018-01-01

    As the main source of lipids and proteins in honey bees, pollen is a major nutrient provider involved in development and health and has been studied for tolerance stimulation against pathogens and parasites. In the case of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari, Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitization, the lack of a complete laboratory system to rear both the bee larva and the acarian parasite limited the studies concerning larval nutrition effects on the bee tolerance and resistance against varroatosis. Due to the development of this complete rearing protocol, we managed to feed young honey bee larvae with pollen supplemented solutions and to study the effect on their later development under parasitism conditions. In our experimental conditions, pollen influences neither the deformity rate, nor the survival of bees both parasitized and unparasitized. However, pollen extract supplementation seems to significantly impact the weight of the spinning bee larvae without having an effect on the physiological weight loss during pupation, so the differences found at the larval stage remain the same as at emergence. Varroa has a deleterious effect on bee pupae and led to a steady increase of the physiological weight loss experienced during metamorphosis. Interestingly, this ponderal loss associated with Varroa parasitization seems to be reduced in the polyfloral pollen supplementation condition. Altogether, this work is to our knowledge the first to study in laboratory conditions the impact of larval nutrition on the tolerance to parasitism. A diverse pollen diet may be beneficial to the bees' tolerance against V. destructor parasitism.

  8. Potential application of garlic on heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuai; Zhang Hong; Liu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Garlic has beneficial effects to protect against many diseases. It can not only protect normal cells from lesion, but also prevent tumorigenesis, proliferation, adhesion, invasion and metastasis. In this paper, the mechanisms of these functions of garlic were summarized and compared with radioprotector and radiosensitizer. We presented that garlic has both radioprotective effect on normal cells and radiosensitive effect on tumor cells. By right of its superiority, garlic can improve biological effect in the therapy of heavy ion. Therefore, it has potential value in clinical practice. That is worth for us to explore whether garlic has radioprotective and radiosensitive effect or not. (authors)

  9. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG possesses more protective ability than MCG against CCl 4 -induced liver injury and might be an effective alternative medicine against acute oxidative liver toxicity.

  10. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-08-01

    To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r (2)=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  11. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  12. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  14. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K K; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7(th) day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  15. The Effect of Experimental Supplementation with the Klamath Algae Extract Klamin on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonte, Maurizio; Sisti, Davide; Maraucci, Ilaria; Giribone, Simona; Colombo, Evelin; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Scoglio, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin ® extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Klamin extract in treating a group of subjects diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects, aged 6-15, who had been diagnosed with ADHD according to the DSM-IV TR criteria, were enrolled. The supplement was administered to all the subjects, who reported to an ADHD clinic for routine follow-up visits. Observations were made and data collected over a 6-month period. After 6 months of therapy the subjects appeared to show significant improvements based on assessments of their overall functioning, behavioral aspects related to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, attention functions in both the selective and sustained component and executive functions. The study appears to confirm the initial hypothesis that the Klamin extract may positively affect the expression of ADHD symptoms. Additional larger studies on the effects of Klamin on ADHD are needed to further investigate the potential of this extract in ADHD treatment.

  16. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, Hayley L.; Astell, Katie J.; Mathai, Michael L.; Su, Xiao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants wer...

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract on antioxidant indexes of small intestine in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Shi, Binlin; Sun, Dengsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Tong, Manman; Zhang, Pengfei; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yan, Sumei

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract (AAE) on antioxidant indexes in the small intestine. A total of 192 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (one-day-old) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 8 chickens. These 4 diets were formulated by adding 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg AAE to the basal diet. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in ileum for the 2,000 mg/kg treatment group was significantly increased at 21 days of age ( P  < 0.05); the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased in broilers supplemented with 500 mg/kg AAE at 42 days of age ( P  < 0.05), and the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly improved in 1,000 mg/kg treatment group ( P  < 0.01). 2) At 21 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the catalase (CAT) activity of small intestine, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of jejunum was improved ( P  < 0.01), meanwhile, the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity of duodenum and jejunum were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P  < 0.05); supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum and the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and jejunum ( P  < 0.05), and the ileum GSH-Px activity was significantly increased ( P  < 0.01); supplementation of 2,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum ( P  < 0.05). At 42 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the GSH-Px activity of ileum and the T-SOD activity of duodenum ( P  < 0.05), meanwhile, the T-SOD activity of jejunum was significantly increased ( P  < 0.01); supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of jejunum and the T-SOD activity of ileum ( P  < 0.01), and the GSH

  20. The Effect of 4 Weeks of Flaxseed Extract Supplementation on Serum Concentration of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Omega-3 Supplementation has different effects on the body. Terefore, this study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of 4 weeks of flaxseed extract supplementation on serum concentrations of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods: In this double-blind study, 24 male students (mean age, 23.21±1.98 were randomly divided into two groups, including flaxseed extract (n=12 and placebo (n=12. After 4 weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract, serum levels of BDNF and CRP was measured in fasting state. BDNF level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit, and CRP level was measured using an immunoturbidimetric assay kit. Data were analyzed using t-test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: After four weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract the mean serum level of BDNF significantly increased (p<0.001, but no significant change was observed in the serum level of CRP (p<0.591. Conclusion: It seems that supplementation with flaxseed extract through increasing BDNF level is useful for the improvement of cognitive and functional benefits of the brain.

  1. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEVROSIMA STEVANOVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy. Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  2. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran; Simeunovic, Predrag; Lakic, Nada; Radovic, Ivica; Sokovic, Marina; Griensven, Leo J L D VAN

    2018-01-01

    This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  3. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salmonella survival during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Qi, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shaokang; Deng, Xiangyu

    2017-12-18

    Salmonella survival was characterized and modeled during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. In our experiments that simulated commercial dehydration processing at 80±5°C, moderate level of Salmonella contamination (4-5logCFU/g) on fresh garlic was reduced below the enumeration limit (1.7logCFU/g) after 4.5h of dehydration and not detectable by culture enrichment after 7h. With high level of contamination (7-8logCFU/g), the Salmonella population persisted at 3.6logCFU/g after 8h of processing. By increasing the dehydration temperature to 90±5°C, the moderate and high levels of initial Salmonella load on fresh garlic dropped below the enumeration limit after 1.5 and 3.75h of processing and became undetectable by culture enrichment after 2.5 and 6h, respectively. During the storage of dried garlic products, Salmonella was not able to grow under all tested combinations of temperature (25 and 35°C) and water activity (0.56-0.98) levels, suggesting active inhibition. Storage temperature played a primary role in determining Salmonella survival on dehydrated garlic flakes. Under a typical storage condition at 25°C and ambient relative humidity, Salmonella could persist over months with the population gradually declining (4.3 log reduction over 88days). Granular size of dehydrated garlic had an impact on Salmonella survival, with better survival of the pathogen observed in bigger granules. At the early stage of dehydrated garlic storage (until 7days), rising water activity appeared to initially promote but then inhibited Salmonella survival, resulting in a water activity threshold at 0.73 where Salmonella displayed strongest persistence. However, this phenomenon was less apparent during extended storage (after 14days). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  6. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  7. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi ALABI; Mathew AYOOLA; Oyebola AKINOSO

    2017-01-01

    The performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens to oral supplementation with Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract (TOLE) at finisher stage were investigated. One hundred and twenty unsexed broilers of Arbor Acre strain at 28-day-old were randomly divided into four treatment groups of oral supplementation each with three replicates. The treatment groups are: T1=Water (control), T2=Vitalyte, T3=15% TOLE, and T4=30% TOLE. The experiment lasted for 70 days, during wh...

  8. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from several plants on postharvest pathogens of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Xu, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    China is one of the most important origin of citrus. Enormous economic losses was caused by fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage every year. The effective antimicrobial substances of garlic, ginger, celery and pepper were extracted by ethanol extraction and water extraction respectively. The inhibitory effects of the crude extract on Penicillium sp. caused fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage were also determined. The results showed that the extracts of garlic, ginger and celery had inhibitory effect on P. sp., but the extracts of pepper had no inhibitory effect on P. sp.. The garlic ethanol extracts had the best inhibitory effect on P. citrinum.

  9. EFFICACY OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may first try traditional remedies which can, and do lead to blindness . ... and may end up as scars or eye perforations leading ... eye drop. (0.3% Evril ) and Group C (GPC) was the control ... introduce 3 drops of different garlic dilutions and.

  10. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  11. Antibacterial Effects against Various Foodborne Pathogens and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Supplemented with Panax ginseng Marc Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Eun; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Panax ginseng marc is produced from fresh ginseng roots during processing and is generally treated as industrial waste. The primary aim of this study was to improve its utilization in the dairy industry as a potential high-value resource. Yogurt was prepared from 11% skim milk powder, 0.1% pectin, 10% sucrose, and ginseng marc ethanol extract (GME, 0.5% and 1.0%) in milk, and was inoculated with a 0.02% yogurt culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus). After fermentation at 40°C for 6-8 h, the physicochemical properties of samples were analyzed by the AOAC, Kjeldahl, and Soxhlet methods. Sensory evaluation was performed based on consumer acceptability scores with a 7-point scale, and antimicrobial effects were measured by the agar plate method. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents of yogurt supplemented with 1% GME were 85.06±0.06%, 4.41±0.01%, 4.30±0.05%, and 0.81±0.03%, respectively, with no significant changes noted from those of yogurt without GME (control), except for an increase in the crude fat content. The sensory scores of color, flavor, texture, overall taste, and overall acceptance of yogurt supplemented with below 1% GME did not differ significantly (pyogurt. In addition, the growths of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter sakazakii were inhibited during fermentation and storage. These results suggest that GME could be used in dairy products as a supplement and in the food industry as an antimicrobial material. PMID:29147103

  12. A note on the effect of dietary supplementation with herbal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the phytogenic product, Ruchamax® (Ayurvet, India), on the productivity of sows and the performance of their first litters. Ruchamax® contains a blend of herbal extracts from Adrographis paniculata, Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum ...

  13. Studies on induced mutations in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, N.; Natarajan, S.; Ramaraj, B.

    2001-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most widely cultivated Allium - after onion. It has been recognised world-wide as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. The available types of garlic exhibit low variability due to repeated vegetative propagation. As garlic flowers are mostly sterile, restoration of fertility is a difficult process and hence there exists little scope for genetic improvement through hybridization. Induced mutagenesis with gamma rays has helped to overcome these genetic barriers. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and their combination treatments attempted to improve bulb yield in garlic varieties 'Mettupalayam' and 'Ooty-1' at the Horticultural Research Station, Ooty in Nilgiris. Based on radiosensitivity studies, two doses of gamma rays (2.5 and 5.0 Gy), four concentrations of EMS (15, 20, 25 and 30 mM for 8 h at temperature 25±2 deg. C) and four combined treatments (2.5 Gy + 20 mM, 2.5 Gy + 25 mM, 5.0 Gy + 20 mM and 5.0 Gy + 25 mM) were employed. Garlic bulb and clove characteristics and the varietal response were significantly influenced by the physical, chemical mutagens and their combination treatments. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutants identified in the present study are comprised of, albina, chlorina, straita, viridis and xantha. The proportion of the various mutants varied with the varieties and mutagen treatments. Increasing doses of gamma rays, EMS or combination treatments increased the rate of lethality, injury and clove sterility of treated populations. Mutations for plant, leaf and shoot morphology were more frequent than bulb characters in both varieties. Non-viable mutants were dose dependant and this increased with higher doses. Gamma treatments caused more non-viable mutants (mottled and crinkled leaves) followed by combined and EMS treatments

  14. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiezeh, Tony I; Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30(th) day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens.

  16. Supplementation with plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin): its effects on acid-base status and productive performance in growing/finishing bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luís; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; Méndez, Jesús; Sotillo, Juan; Castillo, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo effects of a commercial blend of plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin) on blood acid-base balance and serum lactate levels in a 148-day feedlot experimentwith 24 double-muscled Belgian Blue bull calves. Animals were allotted randomly to one of two experimental groups: 1) a control group (C, no supplementation; n = 10), and 2) a group receiving dietary supplementation with a combination of plant extracts (PE, 100 mg per kg DM of concentrate; n = 14). All animals received a high-grain ration, typical of diets fed commercially to feedlot cattle in Spain, consisting mainly of barley plus other components in proportions depending on the production phase. Production data (weight, DMI, ADG and feed-to-gain ratio) were recorded, and venous blood pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), Base Excess -BE- and serum L-lactate were determined. Apparently, beneficial effects of supplementation on production parameters were observed in both growing and finishing periods, though statistically significant effects were only observed in the finishing period. As regards blood parameters, no significant effects of supplementation (or the supplementation x time interaction) were observed, except for an effect on blood pH in the growing period, when supplemented animals showed significantly higher values than controls. A beneficial supplementation x time interactive effect was observed on serum L-lactate levels: from the first week of the study until the end, supplemented animals showed significantly lower levels than controls. These in vivo results support the utility of this dietary supplement in feedlot cattle receiving a barley-based high-grain diet.

  17. Garlic ameliorates histological changes in the uterine epithelium of lead induced mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, N.; Butt, S.A.; Hamid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of garlic extract on the histology of the uterine epithelium exposed to lead acetate in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of health from April to June 2013. Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Ten animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30 mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60 days. Right uterine horn was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Height of epithelium was measured. It was taken from apical to basal end of the cells. Results: There was increase in height of the lining epithelium of uterus in group B, mean value 19.70 ± 4.81 meu m when compared to Group A, with mean value 13.25 ± 2.37 meu m. The height of the epithelium was relatively reduced in group C, with mean value 14.50 ± 2.30 meu m when compared with group B. In group C results were same as Group A. The p values were 0.001 when group A was compared to group B, 0.688 when group A was compared to group C and 0.005 when group B was compared to group C. Conclusion: The height of epithelium was markedly increased in lead acetate treated group which returned to normal when co treated with garlic extract. Hence garlic ameliorated the changes induced by lead. (author)

  18. Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-12-01

    Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole cells and cell-free extracts, were carried out to determine the best time to harvest cells for use as an inoculum in cider. Cells harvested at the late exponential phase, the physiological stage of growth corresponding to the maximum values of specific malolactic activity, achieved a good rate of malic acid degradation in controlled cider fermentation. Under the laboratory conditions used, malic acid degradation rates in the fermentation media turned out to be near 2.0 and 2.5 times lower, compared with the rates obtained in whole-cell enzymatic assays, as useful data applicable to industrial cider production.

  19. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI. A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L. has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making the plant extract a potential candidate for preserving liquid animal semen during in vitro storage. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of Drosera extract on the motility, viability and superoxide production of bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6, 12 and 24h of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. The CASA analysis revealed that Drosera extract supplementation was able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 mg/mL (P<0.001 with respect to Times 6h, 12h and 24h. At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability throughout short-term (P<0.05 in case of Time 6h as well as long-term periods of the experiment (P<0.01 with respect to Time 12h, and P<0.001 in case of Time 24h. 10 and 5 mg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the intracellular superoxide production, particularly notable at Times 12h (P<0.01 and 24h (P<0.001. The results indicate that the Drosera extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the

  20. Effects of " vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Zahra Hassanzadeh Rostami; Mohammad Jafar Emami; Hamid Reza Tabatabaee

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. Material and Methods: In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1) one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnu...

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Supplementation on Yeast (Candida utilis Biomass Production by Using Pineapple (Ananas comosus Waste Extracted Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w/v. Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05 increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial yeast extract, peptone, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate was added into fermentation medium. Commercial yeast extract, Maxarome® which increased 55.2% of biomass production at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content, is the most suitable among the selected organic source. On the other hand, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content is comparable inorganic source which enhanced 53.7% of production. Total nitrogen content of each treatment at 0.05% (w/v showed that nitrogen supplied was not fully utilized as substrate limitation in the fermentation medium.

  2. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  3. Hypolipidemic action of garlic unsaturated oils in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with 74 KBq g -1 body weight of radiocalcium 45 Ca in the presence and absence of unsaturated oils of garlic, and changes in the total lipids and triglycerides contents of liver were observed at various intervals from 1 to 14 days. The results obtained indic ate that the garlic oils prevented rapid increase in hepatic total lipids and triglycerides induced by radiocalcium and the values reached normal values earlier in garlic-treated than in irradiated animals. Possible mechanism(s) underlying hypolipidemic action of garlic oil have been discussed. (author). 22 refs

  4. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  5. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  6. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  7. Recycling of lipid-extracted hydrolysate as nitrogen supplementation for production of thraustochytrid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-08-01

    Efficient resource usage is important for cost-effective microalgae production, where the incorporation of waste streams and recycled water into the process has great potential. This study builds upon emerging research on nutrient recycling in thraustochytrid production, where waste streams are recovered after lipid extraction and recycled into future cultures. This research investigates the nitrogen flux of recycled hydrolysate derived from enzymatic lipid extraction of thraustochytrid biomass. Results indicated the proteinaceous content of the recycled hydrolysate can offset the need to supply fresh nitrogen in a secondary culture, without detrimental impact upon the produced biomass. The treatment employing the recycled hydrolysate with no nitrogen addition accumulated 14.86 g L(-1) of biomass in 141 h with 43.3 % (w/w) lipid content compared to the control which had 9.26 g L(-1) and 46.9 % (w/w), respectively. This improved nutrient efficiency and wastewater recovery represents considerable potential for enhanced resource efficiency of commercial thraustochytrid production.

  8. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi ALABI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens to oral supplementation with Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract (TOLE at finisher stage were investigated. One hundred and twenty unsexed broilers of Arbor Acre strain at 28-day-old were randomly divided into four treatment groups of oral supplementation each with three replicates. The treatment groups are: T1=Water (control, T2=Vitalyte, T3=15% TOLE, and T4=30% TOLE. The experiment lasted for 70 days, during which data collection was carried out and blood obtained for analysis at the 70th day. Results revealed that average body weight gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P0.05 affected by oral TOLE. Measured blood parameters of the groups on TOLE were significantly (P0.05 by the oral supplementations. Apart from creatinine, uric acid and globulin, other serum metabolites investigated were significantly (P<0.05 affected by TOLE inclusions. No mortality was recorded during the experiment. Oral supplementation of TOLE compared well with conventional vitamin supplement based on measured parameters, 30% supplementation can be used as vitamin supplement in broiler chicken at finisher phase.

  9. Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle M. Berry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM. Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment.

  10. THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH STATUS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Chrenková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seventy two rabbits (Hycole, (♂+♀ 5 weeks old were divided into 2 experimental (EG and one control (CG group. The feed mixture A in control (CG did not contain any coccidiostat. In the first experimental group (EG1 was tested a complete granulated mixture B enriched with 30 g dry extract Eleutherococcus senticosus per 100 kg mixture. The animals were fed mixture B in combination with probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium EF AL 41 applied orally at a dose (10 9 CFU. ml-1 500 μl per animal in drinking water during 21 days. In the second group (EG2 was tested complete granulated mixture B. The experiment lasted 42 days. Body weight and feed consumption were registered weekly. Samples of faeces were taken at days 1, 21 and 42 to monitor the counts and effect of natural substances. Blood samples were also taken to check biochemical parameters using commercial kits. The samples for microbiological analyses were treated by the standard microbiological method according to ISO with appropriate media. Results presented in this study introduce different mechanisms of action for different classes of feed additives and how these may influence the observed live performance benefits. Application of Eleutherococcus extract in combination with EF AL 41 strain in rabbits was beneficial for performance. Additives reduced counts of S. aureus and Clostridium-like sp in faeces. Bioactive substances can be beneficial for animal health as was repeatedly confirmed by our results (mortality in EG1- 12%, EG2 - 8% compared to CG- 17%.

  11. Analysis of radicals of irradiated garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2010-01-01

    The detection method of gamma ray irradiated garlic using Electron Spin Resonance(ESR)spectroscopy was studied. The ESR spectrum was consisted of one singlet signal at g=2.00. This signal is due to an organic free radical. Upon irradiation, the intensity of the signal was increased. Also two signals due to cellulose radical were detected nearby the singlet. The intensity of the singlet signal was increased as depend on the increase of the irradiation dose level. (author)

  12. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  13. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this review is to update and assess the clinical evidence based on rigorous trials of the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum). Systematic searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Natural Standard, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (search date December 2006). Our own files, the bibliographies of relevant papers and the contents pages of all issues of the review journal FACT were searched for further studies. No language restrictions were imposed. To be included, trials were required to state that they were randomized and double blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of garlic were included if based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. The literature searches identified six relevant systematic reviews and meta-analysis and double-blind randomized trials (RCT) that were published subsequently. These relate to cancer, common cold, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and pre-eclampsia. The evidence based on rigorous clinical trials of garlic is not convincing. For hypercholesterolemia, the reported effects are small and may therefore not be of clinical relevance. For reducing blood pressure, few studies are available and the reported effects are too small to be clinically meaningful. For all other conditions not enough data are available for clinical recommendations.

  14. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  15. Physiological response and semen quality of rabbit bucks supplemented with Moringa leaves ethanolic extract during summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, N I; Hashem, N M; Elkomy, A; Abo-Elezz, Z R

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of rabbit bucks to summer heat stress reduces their homeostasis and semen quality leading to a temporal subfertility. The potentiality of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (M. oleifera ethanolic extract (MLEE)) to reduce negative impacts of heat stress on physiological and semen quality traits was investigated. A total of 28 adult V-line rabbit bucks were randomly distributed among four experimental groups of seven rabbits each. The first group received water (placebo) and served as a control (M0). The other three groups were given orally MLEE at levels of 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 150 (M150) mg/kg BW every other day for 12 consecutive weeks during the summer season. Chemical constituents of MLEE were detected by gas chromatography/MS. During the experimental period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily and were used to estimate temperature and humidity index. Feed intake, BW, rectal temperature were recorded and blood serum biochemical attributes were determined. Semen samples were collected weekly and were analyzed for semen quality traits. Results showed that MLEE contained high percentages of long-chain fatty acids and antioxidant agents. Feed intake and BW were not affected significantly by the treatment, however rectal temperature was decreased significantly by 0.42°C, 0.24°C and 0.40°C in the M50, M100 and M150 groups, respectively, compared with the M0 group. Treatment with 50 mg/kg BW increased concentration of serum albumin (115%; P<0.05), total antioxidant capacity (132%; P<0.05) and testosterone (160%; P=0.098) as well as seminal plasma initial fructose (127%; P=0.092) compared with the control group. Compared with the control, MLEE supplementation with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg BW increased significantly sperm concentration by 118%, 151% and 158%, sperm progressive motility by 117%, 120% and 118%, sperm viability by 129%, 137% and 127%, sperm normal morphology by 114%, 113% and 114%, intact acrosome sperm by

  16. Effect of garlic powder consumption on body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease that is becoming a public health problem in recent decades. Obesity and overweight play a key role in NAFLD pathogenesis. Thus, weight loss (especially body fat mass is one component of therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. Results from experimental studies have shown that garlic (Allium sativum L. can reduce body weight and body fat mass. However, the effect of garlic on body fat mass and weight in the human population, which is addressed in this study, is still obscure. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 110 subjects with NAFLD were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received two garlic tablets (containing 400 mg of garlic powder daily while the control group received placebo tablets. Dietary intake and physical activity of participants were obtained by a validated questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: In the intervention group, significant reductions were observed in body weight and body fat mass (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the percentage change in body weight was significantly greater than the control group (−2.6 vs. −0.7, P = 0.02. No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion: Our trial suggests that garlic supplementation can reduce body weight and fat mass among subjects with NAFLD.

  17. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  18. Aqueous calyxes extract of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn supplementation improves liver morphology in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazratun Nafizah, Akhtar Husin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zaryantey, Abd Hamid; Mariati, Abd Rahman; Santhana, Raj Louis; Osman, Mohamad; Muhd Hanis, Md Idris; Jamaludin, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The complex series of deleterious events among diabetes patients leads to multiple organ failure. Therefore, a holistic approach of treatment is urgently required to prevent worsening of complications. The present investigation was carried out to study the possible protective effects of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (HSL) calyxes aqueous extract, as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent against oxidative liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A single dose of streptozotocin (45mg/kg body weight, iv) was used to induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats which were then divided into two groups: Diabetic control (DC) and HSL-treated diabetic (DR) group. Normal rats were divided into normal control (NC), HSL-treated control (NR). Aqueous calyxes extract of HSL (100mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 28 consecutive days in the treated group. Weight, biochemical and histopathological (light and electron microscopic) parameters were compared in all groups. Supplementation of HSL significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in DR group compared to DC group (p<0.05). Alanine aminotransaminases and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes level were found to be significantly reduced in DR compared to DC. Microscopic examination demonstrated destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and signs of necrosis in diabetic rats. Moreover, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels with leucocytes adherence were detected. Ultrastructural study using electron microscope showed homogeneous substance accumulation in nuclear chromatin, a decrease of organelles and mitochondrial degeneration in the diabetic rats. Administration of HSL in diabetic rats causes significant decrease in hepatocyte destruction and prevented the changes associated with the diabetic condition. Thus, our findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of HSL as promising agent in preventing liver injury in

  19. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory... garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the...

  20. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Effect of chronic garlic feeding on some haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    200mg/kg) daily for thirty days. Garlic feeding for 30 days significantly (P<0.05) increased the red cell count, haemoglobin concentration and the PCV when compared with the control. Also garlic fed rat showed a significant increase in total white ...

  2. Whether co-administration of garlic has negative influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was to explore whether co-administration of garlic has negative influence on Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Scutellaria baicalensis) in treating models rats with pelvic inflammation. Twelve model rats were randomized into a Scutellaria baicalensis group and a Scutellaria baicalensis+garlic group with six in ...

  3. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  4. Quantitative determination of alliin in dried garlic cloves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To standardize the garlic samples and its products for alliin contents. Methods: A direct high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed to determine alliin in Chinese (CG) and Indian garlic (IG) and two other marketed products from USA and UK, respectively. Scanning and ...

  5. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats ...

  6. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  7. Genetic transformation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic yield and quality have decreased due to white rot disease caused by Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. A transformation protocol to introduce tobacco chitinase and glucanase genes into garlic embryogenic calli using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. LBA4404 strain having pC2301CHGLU plasmid with ...

  8. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  9. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King. Khalid University Hosptial between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and ...

  10. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  11. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  12. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sana; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Jahangir, Sajid; Jawaid, Khurshid; Shafique, Maryam; Khan, Huma; Faizi, Shaheen

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA), and MeOH (PELM) extracts of young leaves of Pseudocalymma elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1,2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulfide (35), 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), and diallyl trisulfide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC 50 values of 0.168 ± 0.001, 0.128 ± 0.002, 0.221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) and nystatin, respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all 55 chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the MeOH extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds, UV, IR, EI-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy were used. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  16. The effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan, Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1995-01-01

    The study of the effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in the garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide were carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant as stored for 10 months long. The main components of the garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which causes that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  17. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan; Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1996-01-01

    A study of the effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisufide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C . HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  18. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract with supplemental liquefied calcium on osteoporosis in calcium-deficient ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongkyun; Song, Hae Seong; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Cho, Se Min; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kang, Se Chan

    2017-12-20

    Extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, dysmenorrheal, neurasthenic insomnia, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-RANK signal effect of the combination of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge (SME) and liquefied calcium (LCa) supplement with ovariectomized (OVX-SML) mice, a osteoporosis animal model. Results were compared to 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) treatment. A total of 70 female ICR strain mice (7 weeks) were randomly divided into 10 groups with 7 mice in each group as follows: (1) sham-operated control mice (sham) received daily oral phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) of equal volumes through oral administration. (2) OVX mice received a daily oral administration of PBS (OVX). (3) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./ day of SME (4) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SME or (5) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SME via oral administration. (6) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./day of SML (7) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SML or (8) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SML via oral administration. (9) OVX mice treated daily with 10 ml/kg b.w./day of LCa (10) OVX mice received i.p. injections of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) (0.1 mg/kg b.w./day) three times per week for 12 weeks. micro-CT analysis revealed that oral administration of SML inhibited tibial bone loss, sustained trabecular bone state, and ameliorated bone biochemical markers. In addition, SML administration compared to SEM and LCa reduced serum levels of RANKL, osteocalcin and BALP through increased serum levels of OPG and E 2 in OVX mice. SML also had more beneficial effects on protection of estrogen-dependent bone loss through blocking expression of TRAF6 and NFTAc1 and produces cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor to develop osteoclast differentiation. These data suggest that S. miltiorrhiza Bunge combined with

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  20. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Wen Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC; SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE; exhaustive exercise (E; and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE. The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.

  1. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  2. Protective Effect Of Garlic Oil On Some Neurotransmitters And Physiological Parameters In Male Rats Exposed To electro pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.A.; Ali, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing exposure to electro pollution has become inevitable for people living in civilized and industrialized environments. This pollution can increase the production and life-span of free radicals which are causative factors in the oxidative damage of cellular structures and functions. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station on the oxidative status parameters, neurotransmitters, glycemic index and lipid profile in male rats and the protective role of garlic oil. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into three equal groups; group 1 served as control, group 2 exposed for 24 hr to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station founded on a roof of building for 4 weeks and group 3 exposed to electro pollution as group 2 then supplemented by stomach tube with garlic oil (250 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Exposure to electro pollution caused significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) while significant decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were observed. Significant decrease in serotonin (5-HT) and significant increase in dopamine (DA) were also noticed with significant increase in serum glucose and significant decrease in insulin hormone. In addition, the lipid profile showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant increase in triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Garlic oil supplementation ameliorates almost these disturbances leading to the conclusion that garlic oil exhibited significant protection against oxidative stress, neuro degeneration, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia produced by electro pollution

  3. Solid-phase extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet to determine sildenafil and its analogues in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Roh, Si Hun; Shaodong, Jia; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-01

    A novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the concentration of sildenafil and its five analogues in dietary supplements using solid-phase extraction assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet combined with ion-pairing liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector was developed. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the type of solid-phase extraction cartridge, pH of the extraction environment, and the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent. The method linearity was in the range of 5.0-100 ng/mL for sildenafil, homosildenafil, udenafil, benzylsildenafil, and thiosildenafil and 10-100 ng/mL for acetildenafil. The coefficients of determination were ≥0.996 for all regression curves. The sensitivity values expressed as limit of detection were between 2.5 and 7.5 ng/mL. Furthermore, intraday and interday precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were less than 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of sildenafil and its five analogues in complex dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  5. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  6. Garlic Sulfur Compounds Suppress Cancerogenesis and Oxidative Stress: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořáková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has long been considered a food with many health benefits. Several studies have confirmed that sulfur compounds are responsible for the positive effects of garlic on organisms. Garlic acts as an antioxidant by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, and protecting proteins and lipids from oxidation. Garlic suppresses carcinogenesis through several mechanisms: (1 it reduces oxidative stress, and therefore, prevents damage to DNA; (2 it induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cancer cells; and (3 it modifies gene expression through histon acetylation. The positive effects of garlic could be mediated by several mechanisms. It influences signalling pathways of gasotransmitters such as hydrogen sulfide. Garlic enhances hydrogen sulfide production both through its direct release and through an increase in activity of enzymes which produce hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a signalling molecule in various tissues and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes. We can presume that garlic, which is able to release hydrogen sulfide, exhibits effects similar to those of this gasotransmitter.

  7. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B₁ with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on garlic storage under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoubi, Zouhair; Sharabi, N.E.

    1993-02-01

    Garlic cloves were exposed to 30, 60, and 100 Gy of gamma radiation using Co 60 as a sources, to study the effect of different doses on the sprout inhibition of garlic. All the doses applied were effective. No sprout occurred in any of the treatments subjected to natural storage conditions. The effect of irradiation was evident in limiting the weight decrease. It reached 12 - 19% in 1987 and 1988 experiments respectively after 320 days of storage. Irradiation had no effect on the garlic consumptive specifications compared to the control. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Mul, M.F.; Pol, A.; Engel, B.; Wijdenes, J.W.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Wisseling, H.J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile

  10. In vitro Study of Noni Juice Extract Waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and Pineapple Industrial Wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as Energy Supplement in Dairy Goat Ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (Ppineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.

  11. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  13. Effects of dietary polysavone (Alfalfa extract) and chlortetracycline supplementation on antioxidation and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Gao, W W; Su, J L; Tong, J M; Zhang, Q

    2011-06-01

    1. A total of 360 1-d-old male commercial Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 groups (6 replicates of 12 birds each) to evaluate the dietary effects of polysavone (0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 g/kg), a natural extract from alfalfa, and 0·15 g/kg chlortetracycline (CTC) on growth performance, antioxidation and meat quality of broiler chickens. 2. Over the 6-week study, feed intake increased significantly with CTC supplementation and final body weight (BW) was significantly higher for 1·0 g/kg polysavone and 0·15 g/kg CTC treatments. Feed:gain ratio was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. 3. At 3 weeks of age, serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity for all polysavone treatments was significantly higher than controls, liver T-SOD activity in 1·5 g/kg polysavone group was significantly higher than the control and CTC groups, and serum glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity for 1·5 g/kg polysavone and liver GSHPx activity in all polysavone groups were significantly higher than CTC. 4. At 6 weeks of age, serum and liver T-SOD activity in 1·5 g/kg polysavone group and liver GSHPx activity for all polysavone treatments were higher significantly than the control and CTC groups, and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content for all polysavone treatments was significantly lower than CTC. 5. Breast muscle T-SOD activity and pH value at 6 weeks of age were significantly higher and MDA content was significantly lower in 1·0 and 1·5 g/kg polysavone groups than in the control and CTC groups. Breast muscle shear force was significantly lower in l·5 g/kg polysavone group compared with the control, and drip loss for all polysavone treatments was significantly lower than CTC. 6. It was indicated that polysavone modulates antioxidation and modifies meat quality, but with no adverse effect on performance of broiler chickens, and that CTC can be beneficial to performance but has no beneficial effect on antioxidant function or meat quality.

  14. Garlic protects the glutathione redox cycle in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.M.; Osman, S.A.A.; Abbady, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible radioprotective role of garlic oil on the glutathione redox cycle (GSH, GSH-Px, GR and G6-PD) in blood and tissues (liver, spleen and intestine) of irradiated rats. Garlic oil was orally administered to rats (100 mg/Kg- b.w.) for 7 days before exposure to a fractionated of whole body gamma irradiation up to 9 Gy (3 Gy X 3 at 2 days intervals) and during the whole period of irradiation. The data showed that radiation exposure caused significant inhibition of the biochemical parameters in blood and tissue of irradiated rats all over the investigation periods (3,7 and 15 days). Garlic oil ameliorated the decrease in the tested parameters with noticeable effect on the 15 Th. day after radiation exposure. It is concluded that garlic oil could control the radiation induced changes in the glutathione redox cycle and provided some radioprotective effect

  15. Determination of crossed gamma doses for garlic improvement (Allium Sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.; Savin, V.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of four Cuban varieties of garlic was made so as to optimized the use of ionizing radiations in Cuba to breed vegetatively propagated crops such as garlic. The dose-effect regresion equation characterizing the radioinhibition zone of each crop was presented. We used a criteria to select the irradiation dose to be used in mutation breeding techniques based on obtaining height variability in the productive indicators, a survival and a number of garlic cloves high enough to allow and adequate reproduction of M1 plants. It was verified that this small inhibitor doses of radiations produced a higher percentage of good variability than the medium and high doses. With the use of small inhibitor doses (GR10-GR20) on the Guadalupe-15 garlic variety, 65 variety plants were obtained., 93.7% out of this number is higher than the control in the indicators considered

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic: A review | Mathew | Libyan Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is considered one of the best disease preventive foods, based on its potent and ... of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of garlic and its ...

  17. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for ... among the members of Liliaceae family 6 but also .... correlate well with the severity of clinical signs and ... This being a ... adolescents.

  18. Development of Biological Control for Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blossey, Bernd; Nuzzo, Victoria; Hinz, Harriet; Gerber, Esther

    2003-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata, garlic mustard, a biennial plant of European origin accidentally introduced to North America, has spread throughout much of eastern and midwestern North America and is now recorded...

  19. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  20. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Garlic Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing , economic and financial feasibility of a project for garlic irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of garlic was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method and distribution channels. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of A tote Box unit for the irradiation of garlic was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit-cost ratio, payback period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of garlic in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  1. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  2. 76 FR 19322 - Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc.) (collectively, Petitioners) requested an... section below), the parties addressed, in their case and rebuttal briefs, three surrogate valuation issues...

  3. Characterization of Pantoea ananatis Isolated from Garlic and Shallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Nurjanah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The new disease on garlic (Allium sativum and shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group have been found in several production centers of garlic and shallot in Tawangmangu and Temanggung, Central Java. The infected plants showed symptoms of leaf blight accompanied by chlorosis. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogen that causes leaf blight and chlorosis based on the phenotypic characterization and gyrB gene sequences analysis. The research started from the isolation of pathogen, physiological and biochemical test, DNA extraction, and sequence analysis of gyrB using gyrB 01-F and gyrB 02-R primer. The results showed that the isolated bacterial pathogen have a yellow pigment, slimy colonies with regular borders, convex, gram-negative, non-spore, facultative anaerobic, motile, catalase production, indole production, and acid production from D-glucose, D-mannitol, sucrose, and lactose. From the pathogenicity test, it was found that the bacteria produced the typical symptom of leaf blight. Characterization of pathogens based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that the pathogen was placed in the group of Pantoea ananatis.   Intisari Penyakit baru pada bawang putih (Allium sativum dan bawang merah (A. cepa L. aggregatum group telah ditemukan di beberapa sentra produksi bawang putih dan bawang merah di Tawangmangu dan Temanggung, Jawa Tengah. Tanaman yang terinfeksi menunjukkan gejala hawar daun disertai klorosis. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui karakter patogen berdasarkan fenotipik dan sekuen gen gyrB. Penelitian dimulai dengan isolasi bagian tanaman yang sakit, uji fisiologi dan biokimia, ekstraksi DNA dengan metode CTAB/NaCl dan amplifikasi gen gyrB menggunakan primer gyrB 01-F and gyrB 02-R. Hasil uji menunjukkan koloni berlendir, cembung, pigmen berwarna kuning, gram negative, tidak berspora, aerob fakultatif, motil, produksi katalase, indol, membentuk asam dari D-glukosa, D-monnitol, sukrosa dan laktosa, dan patogenesitas positif

  4. Extending the storage life of garlic by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.; Quaranta, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.03kGy) on garlic bulbs from local cultivars was studied. The treatment proved to be effective in reducing weight loss and spoilage percentage of the bulbs. After 10 months of storage the weight loss was found to be reduced by 37% in irradiated garlic. Irradiation reduced sprouting of the fresh bulbs but did not affect the rotting process. (author)

  5. Bioevaluation of garlic on growth, haematological and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 18 grower pigs aged 70 days were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the biological importance of feeding varying dietary levels of sun dried garlic to pigs. The 18 pigs were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (T1, T2 and T3) with 0, 100 and 200 g of garlic powder incorporated per 100 kg of ...

  6. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  7. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  8. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  9. A Natural Wonder Drug Helps to Prevent Cancer: Garlic Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the oldest and popular spices in the World that also contain very good nutritional value. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for this reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that garlic oil has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect and other pharmacological properties through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing glutathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S transferase, catalase, incubation of cytochrome p450 2E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type. Several hypotheses suggest that the anticancer mechanism may be due to DNA repair mechanism, prevention of chromosomal damage, antiproliferative effect and alteration of the cell cycle. Garlic and garlic oil should be considered as one of the most valuable food for good quality of life in general.

  10. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  11. Effects of dietary onion ( extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aditya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa extract (OE supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR, blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively. On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04 than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01 and ether extract (p = 0.04 linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p = 0.03 with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p<0.01 with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01 redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality.

  12. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  13. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.

  14. The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents ... The preservative effects of garlic and ginger was compared with that of sodium ... reduced health risks of infection and/or intoxication from their consumption.

  15. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  16. Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T 3 , testosterone and insulin.

  17. Oxidized LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia); Abete, I. (Itziar); Navas-Carretero, S. (Santiago); Massis-Zaid, A. (A.); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles)

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and results Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m2] were recruited to participate in a 4 week rando...

  18. Antibacterial activity of garlic and lime on isolates of extracted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... essential ingredient in the preparation of most herbal ... The antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of tangerine ... atherosclerosis (Durak et al., 2002), as well as high blood pressure and cancer (Nishino, 1990; Imai, 1994). As.

  19. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  20. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under..., has made application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the garlic... garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located in Baltimore, Maryland (Subzone 74C...

  1. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to... submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual members Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The...

  2. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  3. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  4. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron Adstringens and Pacari (Lafoensia Pacari Extracts on the Oxidative Stability and Quality of Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the antioxidant effects of barbatimão (BAR or pacari (PAC on chicken meat oxidative stability and quality, seven dietary treatments containing in three different BAR and PAC concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm plus a negative control (CONT were fed to 350 broilers from 1 to 41 days of age. Ten birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect breast and thigh meat to evaluate pH, color (L*, a*, b*, cooking weight loss (CWL, and shear force (SF 24 hours postmortem, and TBARS levels in precooked meatballs stored chilled for 8days. The dietary supplementation with BAR and PAC extracts did not affect pH and color, but reduced (p<0.05 SF in breast meat compared with CONT suggesting improved tenderness. PAC200 increased (p<0.05 L* and protected (p<0.05 yellow pigments (b* values of thigh meat from degradation compared with the CONT diet. At the end of the chilled storage period, BAR600 and PAC600 significantly reduced (p<0.06 MDA concentrations in breast meatballs compared to the CONT. The dietary supplementation of BAR and PAC improved (p<0.03 oxidative stability of thigh meatballs, except for BAR200. In conclusion, the dietary addition of BAR and PAC extracts may improve meat quality and prevent lipid oxidation in white and dark precooked and chilled chicken meatballs.

  6. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and domestic horse (Equus caballus) hindgut microflora demonstrate similar fermentation responses to grape seed extract supplementation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, N F; Naumann, H D; Kenny, A L; Kerley, M S

    2017-10-01

    The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation. Equine nutrition knowledge is used to assess supplements for rhinoceros; therefore, the second objective was to evaluate the domestic horse model for black rhinoceros fermentation and compare fermentation responses to GSE using a continuous single-flow in vitro culture system. Two replicated continuous culture experiments were conducted using horse and black rhinoceros faeces as inoculum sources comparing four diets with increasing GSE inclusion (0.0%, 1.3%, 2.7% and 4.0% of diet dry matter). Diet and GSE polyphenolic compositions were determined, and sodium sulphite effect on neutral detergent fibre extraction of CT-containing forages was tested. Increasing GSE inclusion stimulated microbial growth and fermentation, and proportionally increased diet CT concentration and iron-binding capacity. Horse and black rhinoceros hindgut microflora nutrient digestibility and fermentation responses to GSE did not differ, and results supported equine fermentation as an adequate model for microbial fermentation in the black rhinoceros. Interpretation of these results is limited to hindgut fermentation and further research is needed to compare foregut digestibility and nutrient absorption between these two species. Supplementation of GSE in black rhinoceros diets up to 4% is unlikely to

  7. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  8. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Hayley L; Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2015-11-17

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively) were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively) compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors.

  9. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley L. Loftus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15 or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C was significantly increased (p = 0.01 in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors.

  10. Research on sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; He Jianzhong; Li Ruijun

    2005-01-01

    This paper researches the sprout inhibition effect by irradiation on refrigerated garlic. The results shows that, the garlic is still in the period of dormancy within 7 days after taken out from the refrigerated warehouse, and irradiation have a good sprout inhibition effect on it. The irradiation dose is 40-90 Gy, the same as that of the post harvest irradiation treatment on garlic. Refrigerate the Zhongmu Garlic (at -2 degree C-0 degree C) until the middle ten days of February the next year, place it at the room temperature (10 degree C-15 degree C) for 1-7 days after taking it out of the warehouse, then use 60 Co γ-ray to irradiate it until the absorbed dose reaches 40-90 Gy, the sprout inhibition effect can be realized. The test also indicates that the deposited time after taking out of the refrigerated warehouse is crucial to the sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation. (authors)

  11. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  12. Comet assay in the detection of irradiated garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Delincee, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The increased claim for fresh produce has forced a consensus between nations to pay more attention to the phytosanitary regulations. Inhibition of sprouting of bulbs and tubers by applying ionising radiation is authorised by the National Food Codes in Brazil. The availability of methods for detection of irradiated food will contribute to increase consumers' confidence. A quick and simple screening test to indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not was utilised in this study. The DNA comet assay was applied to verify whether garlic imported from China had been irradiated or not. This test has already been adopted as a European Standard (EN 13784), for detection of irradiated food. Non-irradiated control samples of garlic and garlic treated with maleic hydrazide were compared with garlic samples irradiated in our department. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. If samples were irradiated, an increased DNA fragmentation was observed which permitted the discrimination between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Since the garlic samples from China showed only very limited DNA fragmentation, they were deemed non-irradiated. Thus, this simple screening test was shown to be successful for identification of an irradiation treatment. (author)

  13. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  14. Assessment of DNA damage using comet assay in middle-aged overweight/obese subjects after following a hypocaloric diet supplemented with cocoa extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Azqueta, Amaya; Lopez de Cerain, Adela; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a

  15. Antioxidant Activity of The Crude Carotenoid Pigment Extract from Yellow Ambon Banana (M. parasidiaca sapientum Peel: Its Potency as Vitamin A Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2012-06-01

    Method: The total vitamin A carotenoid in the banana peel was assessed using the double beam Varian Cary 50 spectrophotometer at 470 nm. Then it was converted to microgram per gram of the banana peel using the NAS-NRC equation. The extraction was conducted using acetone. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH (1.1-difenil-2-dipikrilhidrazil. The antioxidant activity of carotenoid crude extract was compared to that of marker â-karoten antioxidant (E-Merck, No. 1.02236. IC50 values were calculated using the regression formula. The dried carotenoid crude extract was encapsulated with dextrin filler. Result: The water content level of ambon banana was 50.68 % ± 3.35 %. The peel of the yellow ambon banana has a total carotenoid of 6.203 ± 0.004 μg/g. The converted carotenoid vitamin A was 124.06 ± 0.08 IU. The IC50 value of the yellow ambon banana crude extract was 2350.3 ppm meaning higher than the marker â-caroten (565.76 ppm. The encapsulation technique increased the pigment stabilization of the yellow ambon banana which will be used for vitamin A supplement. Conclusion: The crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow ambon banana peel has an antioxidant potential although it is less efficient compared to that of â-carotene. The IC50 value of the crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow banana ambon is 2350.3 ppm, higher than marker â -caroten (Sains Medika, 4(1:78-88.

  16. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  17. THE PRESERVATION OF MILK WITH THE ADDITION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND AROMATIC SUPPLEMENTS PRODUCED IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THE PRESERVATION OF MILK WITH THE ADDITION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND AROMATIC SUPPLEMENTS PRODUCED IN INDONESIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of milk with additional antibacterial and aromatic supplements, produced in Indonesia, was investigated. Organoleptic performances of milk with the addition of 10% supplements, made as juices, were tested by panellists, and the total bacteria, protease activities, lipase activities and acidities, were detected by total plate counts, azocasein method, modified dole extraction and base-acid titration, respectively. Out of the 27 supplemented skim and whole milk samples, 15 whole milk samples and 10 skim milk samples were selected as acceptable, based on their better organoleptic performances, their lower bacterial counts, protease and lipase activi -ties, and their acidities percentages which were not significantly different, compared to that of control, at 5 days after the expiry date (P<0.05. These 15 whole milk samples contained honey, cinnamon, citronella, ginger, turmeric, galingale, wild ginger, nutmeg, pepper, clove, galangale, green tea, bamboo leaf, garlic leaf and aloe vera; and the 10 skim milk samples contained honey, cinnamon, citronella, ginger, galingale, pepper, galangale, green tea, bamboo leaf and aloe vera.

  18. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of Withania somnifera leaf extract on the dietary supplementation in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Withania somnifera L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. W. somnifera extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 µL/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed to feed for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies did not show any significant delay in the loss of climbing ability nor reduced the oxidative stress in the brains of transgenic Drosophila as compared to untreated PD model flies. The results suggest that W. somnifera leaf extract is not potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  1. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    prevalence of 4.7% in our study represents a basal SL mix detection rate of 3.4% reinforced and safely supplemented by testing with the dandelion extract.

  2. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  3. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joongho Kwon; Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1 0 C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author)

  4. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  5. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Republic of Korea))

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of {gamma}-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3{plus minus}1{sup 0}C and 80{plus minus}5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author).

  6. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a potential antidote for cadmium and lead intoxication: cadmium and lead distribution and analysis in different mice organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massadeh, A M; Al-Safi, S A; Momani, I F; Alomary, A A; Jaradat, Q M; AlKofahi, A S

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and distribution of Pb and Cd in different mice organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart and blood were evaluated after treatment with different aqueous concentrations of garlic (12.5-100 mg/l). Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for analysis of Pb and Cd in these organs. Treatment of Cd-Pb exposed mice with garlic (12.5-100 mg/l) reduced Pb concentrations by 44.65, 42.61, 38.4, 47.56, and 66.62% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. Moreover, garlic reduced Cd levels by 72.5, 87.7, 92.6, 95.6, and 71.7% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. The suppressed immune responses in mice pretreated with Cd-Pb mixture were reversed by 48.85, 55.82, 81.4 and 90.7 in the presence of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml of garlic extract.

  7. Determining effective radiation mutagen dose for garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to get database for future garlic mutation breeding studies. For this aim, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses of Cs 137 (gamma-ray) were applied on garlic cloves as a physical mutagen. 50 cloves were used for each dose. Sixty days after treatment, germination rate and shoot development of cloves were determined. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED 50 ) was calculated by regression analyses. According to the results, 4.455 Gy dose was found to be effective as ED 50 . (author)

  8. Garlic (Alium sativum) preservation by application of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Casas G, L.

    1984-01-01

    Garlic preservation was studied during a period of eleveth months using doses of gamma radiation of 0,06 and 0,12 kGy. The product was stored in netted mesh bags, at room temperature and relative humidity. Sprouting, weight losses, microbiological damages, decoloration and emaciation were controlled periodically. The results of this study permit to conclude that with a dose of 0,06 kGy is possible to preserve garlic for a period up to ten months, with market quality. (Author)

  9. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  11. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  12. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol® and l-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction (SDys) are common problems that affect quality of life (QOL) in elderly men. In addition to prescribed drugs, many over-the-counter medications including supplements are used to treat QOL diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to be effective for both LUTS and SDys by increasing nitric oxide levels. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol ® , which is a potent nitric oxide donor, is reported to be effective for SDys. However, no reports have been published on whether it ameliorates LUTS. Open-labeled, randomized study. The effects of two supplements, Nokogiriyashi EX ® containing 160 mg saw palmetto (SP) extract per tablet and Edicare ® containing 10 mg of Pycnogenol ® , 115 mg of l-arginine and 92 mg of aspartate (PAA) per tablet on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), urinary 8-OHdG and uroflowmetry (UFM) of total 40 men with LUTS and SDys were examined. 19 subjects were instructed to take two tablets of SP, on the other 20 were on four tablets of PAA for 16 weeks. IPSS and IPSS-QOL showed statistically significant improvements in both groups. OABSS and IIEF5 were significantly improved in the PAA group. Conversely, ICIQ-SF, 8-OHdG and UFM did not change in either group. PAA might be an effective therapeutic alternative for elderly patients with LUTS and SDys.

  14. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (C-K is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  16. n Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of R10 Fraction of Garlic on Viability and Production of TNF-? in CD8+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ghazanfari; H. Rashidi; Sh. Jalaei; P. Alijani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: -cells, especially CD8+ T lymphocytes are the most important cells in anti-tumor response. Previously R10 fraction of garlic extract was reported as an immuno-modulator which induced an effective cellular immunity and Th1 responses. In this study the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of R10 on CD8+ T cells viability and production of TNF-? were evaluated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, using monoclonal antibodies attached to magnetic beads with isola...

  17. Antioxidant activity of mulberry stem extract: A potential used as supplement for oxidative stress-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phi Phuong Pham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is involved in many diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cancer, viral and bacterial infections as well as osteoarthritis. Although antioxidant activity of Morus alba L. has been investigated in various parts of this plant, a little attention has been paid to the stems of this plant. Therefore, the present study was designed to systematically investigate the antioxidant activity of M. alba stem extract using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems. The present data showed that the stem extract of M. alba exhibited a hydrogen-donating ability, an ability to quench hydroxyl radicals, having superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity as well as iron reducing capacity. This study highlights the potential of this plant for further development as a natural source of antioxidant or as an alternative treatment for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. Time to Talk: 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach, skin irritation, and garlic taste, breath, and body odor. Only minor side effects are associated with MSM in humans including allergy, upset stomach, and skin rashes. ... that is naturally produced in the body and is often taken as a dietary supplement; ...

  19. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  20. In vitro propagation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) through adventitious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Balady, Sids 40 and VFG 180 (3 - 1) as well as a garlic wild type through adventitious shoot organogenesis. Shoot and root apices were subjected to eight callus induction treatments. A combination of 1 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BA + 5 mg L-1 ...

  1. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  2. Comparative Analysis of the efficacy of Allium Savitum (Garlic) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative efficacy of garlic and erythromycin on streptococcus pyogenes was carried out in vitro using agar-well diffusion technique. The streptococcus pyogenes used were isolated fromthe conjunctiva of infected patients that visitedAbia StateUniversity,Optometry clinic. The isolated microorganisms were identified and ...

  3. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  4. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  5. Differential responses of onion and garlic against plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oozunidou, G.; Asif, M.; Giannakuola, A.; Iliass, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Gibberellic acid-GA3, Prohexadione-Calcium, and Ethephon pre-harvest application on yield, biomass production, photosynthetic function, lipid peroxidation and quality characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants were investigated. Shoot length and biomass of onion and garlic, expressed either in fresh or dry weight, increased significantly under GA3, while a progressive decrease under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon occurred. Higher MDA (lipid peroxidation) values were recorded after Prohex-Ca and Ethephon supply on onion and garlic plants; it seems that GA3 treatment prevents lipid peroxidation as measured with the help of the TBARS method. Plants treated with Prohex-Ca and Ethephon revealed higher peroxidase activity compared to control and GA3 treated plants. Considering the results of MDA content and peroxidase activities it can be assumed that GA3 treated plants are slightly protected from the natural course of oxidative stress, which occurs during ageing as observed for control samples. The fluctuations of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters represent a general decline in chloroplasts function after plant growth regulators exposure, whereas in combination to the suppressed chlorophyll content, structural malformations of photo systems may also occur. The production of ascorbic acid, glucose and fructose content seems to be enhanced under GA3 in both species, while their values were depressed under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon. Overall, only GA3 supply leads to a vigorous onion and garlic growth and yield. (author)

  6. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  7. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat and fish, the most perishable foods need to be preserved preferably with natural preservatives. In our study, we have proven that spices like garlic and cinnamon that are used as regular ingredients in cooking can act as preservative due to their rich antibacterial and antioxidant profile. The minimum inhibitory ...

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic: A review | Mathew | Libyan Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic has been investigated extensively for health benefits, resulting in more than one thousand publications over the last decade alone. It is considered one of the best disease preventive foods, based on its potent and varied effects. Midlife risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as high serum total cholesterol, ...

  9. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  10. Genetic transformation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VICTOR

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... on the introduction of fungal resistance genes in garlic. Key words: Allium .... Then cloves were soaked with a chlorinated solution. (1.8% active ... were immediately inoculated with 50 µl of the bacterial suspension. Ten Petri ...

  11. Laboratory evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistically significant (P<0.05) reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN) was more lethal (causing 93% adult mortality), when applied topically on the freshly emerged S. zeamais adults, compared to the ...

  12. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  13. Fluorometric Assessment Of Lysosomal Enzymes In Garlic Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garlic oil on Lysosomal enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated fluorometrically. The serum lysosomal enzymes assayed include β-glucuronidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) β-D-galactosidase and α-D-galactosidase. The results of the study in nMole-4Mu/hr/ml show that ...

  14. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Garlic Oil on Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Induced in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltablawy, S.Y.; Elhifnawi, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and other medical benefits of garlic oil have been attributed to the presence of sulphides in it. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug resistance opportunistic human pathogen that infect many patients .To control these infections, there is a need for other agents with greater antimicrobial activity and less toxicity. In this study, the effect of irradiated and non-irradiated garlic oil has been evaluated. The irradiation of garlic oil at 10.0 kGy decreased slightly its antibacterial activity against the tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results revealed that there was no effect of garlic oil either irradiated or non-irradiated on the adherent cells formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested organism on tissue culture plate. Garlic oil (irradiated or nonirradiated) was administrated subcutaneously as treatment for a mouse infection model. Bacteriological examination and mortality rate were used as indicators. The treatment with non-irradiated garlic oil decreased the number of bacteria in the infected group in contrast with the placebo group (saline), while, irradiation of garlic oil with 10.0 kGy had no effect on the infected bacteria. Also, the results indicated that, the treatment with non-irradiated garlic oil decreased the mortality in comparison with irradiated garlic oil which did not show any effect. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that there were morphological changes in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with non- irradiated garlic oil in comparison with untreated one

  16. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  17. The Effect of Low Dose of Lead Acetate on the Fallopian Tubes and the Role of Garlic Extract—A Histomorphic Study on Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Waseem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of lead acetate on the fallopian tube of adult mice and the possible effect of garlic extract in a Laboratory Based Randomized Control Trial. In this study, 30 female BALBc mice were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Ten animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control received only the laboratory diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate at 30 mg/kg/day and garlic extract at 500 mg/kg/day. All treatments were given through oral gavage tube for 60 days. The mice were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60 days. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and fixed in 10% formalin for routine histological examination. The histological findings in experimental group B showed increase in epithelial height, whereas no such findings were observed in group A and there was slight increase in height in group C. The lead acetate affected the epithelial height in lead acetate treated group which improved when cotreated with garlic extract.

  18. [Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O I; Perederiaev, O I; Ramenskaia, G V

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).

  19. In vitro technique for selection of radiation induced mutants of garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro culture and radiation techniques were used for obtaining mutants tolerant to high temperature stress in garlic. Callus cultures and globular bodies were initiated from young leaves on MS medium containing 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate, 1000 mg/l yeast extract and 2mg/l 2,4-D. Globular bodies, resembling compact nodular calli, were irradiated with 5 to 10 Gy gamma rays. Plants and roots were obtained from globular bodies cultured on MS medium containing 2mg/l kinetin and 0.5 mg/l IAA. The plants produced bulblets (small bulbs) when cultured on MS medium containing IBA 2 mg/l and maintained at 32 deg. C. (author)

  20. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Watson, Anny Vannesa; Chacon Cerdas, Randall; Zuniga Vega, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author) [es

  1. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  2. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  3. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  4. Evaluation of crop residues on potassium kinetics in an acid soil and potassium use efficiency in potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted on an acid soil in order to evaluate the role of two crop residues i.e. paddy and wheat along with farmyard manure on potassium kinetics and its availability in the potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86 Rb. Under rapid equilibrium, application of crop residues of paddy, wheat straw and FYM were able to enhance soil pH and organic carbon content. In addition, their application helped in enhancing soil K availability indices like water soluble, available and non-exchangeable -K. This was further augmented by the Q/I studies using 86 Rb where application of organic residues helped in lowering the potassium buffering capacity of the soil. Greenhouse study supplemented the results obtained from laboratory study where application of crop residues/FYM were able to improve the potato yield significantly and maintained higher concentration of K in potato leaf at early growth stages. A significant correlation was obtained between leaf K and haulms-K with that of 86 Rb activities in potato leaf at 35 days and 86 Rb absorbed in the haulms, respectively. Residues/ FYM and PK application to potato left sufficient residual effect on succeeding garlic crop. In potato-garlic sequence, K recovery was highest with FYM while N and P recoveries were higher with wheat residues. The nutrient recoveries with PK application followed law of diminishing returns. (author)

  5. Metabolic adaptation to the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.-supplemented diet is related to the modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Ling; Kong, Ping; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD). The liver weight to body weight ratio was enhanced, and the ceca were enlarged in the LM group compared with the NCD group. LM-A-supplemented-diet mice elicited a uniform metabolic adaptation, including slightly influenced fasting glucose and blood lipid profiles, significantly reduced liver triglycerides content, enhanced serum lipopolysaccharide level, activated inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver, compromised gut barrier function, and broken intestinal homeostasis. Many metabolic changes in mice were significantly correlated with altered specific gut bacteria. Changes in Firmicutes, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, segmented filamentous bacteria, Enterococcus spp., and Sutterella spp. may play an important role in the process of host metabolic adaptation to LM-A administration. Our research provides an explanation of the adverse effects of LM-A administration on normal adult individuals in the perspective of microecology.

  6. GARLIC AMELIORATES THE HEPATOTOXIC EFFECT INDUCED BY THIOACETAMIDE IN FEMALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, H.F.; TAHA, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pretreatment effect of garlic on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in female albino rats.Sixty female adult albino rats were assigned equally into four groups; control group: animals without treatment, group ?: rats given daily oral dose of 250 mg/ kg garlic for 28 days, group ??: rats injected intraperitonealy by thioacetamide 20 mg ? kg for two weeks and group III: rats given 250 mg / kg garlic orally for 28 day followed by intrapertoneal injection of 20 mg / kg thioacetamide for two weeks. Liver enzymes were evaluated by measurements of AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase and also trace elements (Cu and Zn) were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were assessed. Also, histological studies on liver and stomach were carried out. The results indicated that treatment with garlic significantly decreased liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP). Cu showed high significant increase in groups treated with garlic and also garlic + TAA, while Zn was increased significantly in TAA group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased significantly in group I while TAA decreased it significantly. Glutathione peroxidase was decreased significantly in group II while its level in group IV reached near the control value. Similarly, malondialdehyde was decreased significantly in garlic group and garlic ameliorated the thioacetamide effect in garlic + TAA group. The treatment with TAA led to significant increase in T3 and significant decrease in T4 hormones. Garlic ameliorated T3 level to reach the control level. Histologically, pre-treatment with garlic induced a prophylactic activity against the thioacetamide in liver and stomach tissues.According to the obtained results, it could be conclude that garlic treatment may act as antioxidant or pro-oxidant in TAA treated animals besides decreasing the TAA toxic effects on liver enzymes, liver and

  7. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Tarak N; Borkar, Roshan M; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dinda, Amit K; Srinivas, R; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg -1 day -1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na + /K + -ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Oh, Y K; Ahmadi, F; Kwak, W S

    2017-01-01

    Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight) and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass) or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk). The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis) in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%), which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%). These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  9. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. Methods In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk. Results The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%, which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%. Conclusion These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  10. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  11. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effect of using garlic or curcumin or parsley on the growth performance, meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.; Wakwak, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two grams of powdered garlic or curcumin or parsley were added separately to each kg of the diet of unsexed Japanese quail aged one day old in an attempt to evaluate growth performance, serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine hormone, small intestine thickness and caecal microbial count to improve meat quality and egg production. The quails were hold in equal 4 groups; each group contained three replicates of 30 birds. Birds were watered and fed ad libitum for 7 weeks then 69 chicks from each group (6 males and 17 females for each replicate) were transferred into laying cages for another 6 weeks while 3 birds from each replicate were slaughtered for serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine, small intestine thickness, microbial count and carcass fatty acid determination. The data revealed that addition of each of the tested herb supplements caused significant increase in body weight, while there was non-significant changes in serum cholesterol, T3, small intestine thickness and total bacterial count. In addition, there was significant increase in unsaturated fatty acids and significant decrease in saturated fatty acids of carcass. The three additives caused remarkable increases in egg production and hatch ability %, besides augmenting the fertility % and number of ovarian follicles. It may be concluded that addition of 2g garlic or curcumin or parsley powder to each kg of the diet of Japanese quail favored consumer expectation in relation to meat quality and egg production and prolonged feed preservation

  13. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml).

  14. Effects of " vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. Material and Methods: In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1 one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10, 2 one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15, 3 placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12, or 4 placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14 per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured together with radiological bone assessment. Results: There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05, administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P < 0.05. Callus formation in the VAC + Mg group was higher than the other groups but the differences between the four groups were not significant (P = 0.39. No relevant side effect was observed in patients in each group. Conclusion : Our results suggest that administration of vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  15. Effects of "vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Zahra Hassanzadeh; Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1) one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus) plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10)), 2) one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15)), 3) placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12)), or 4) placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14)) per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured together with radiological bone assessment. There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05), administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  16. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto

    2009-01-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with 60 Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  17. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  18. Quantitative deviating effects of maple syrup extract supplementation on the hepatic gene expression of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Shimada, Kousuke; Kondo, Kaori; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Kondo, Takashi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-02-01

    Maple syrup contains various polyphenols and we investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich maple syrup extract (MSXH) on the physiology of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), an HFD, or an HFD supplemented with 0.02% (002MSXH) or 0.05% MSXH (005MSXH) for 4 weeks. Global gene expression analysis of the liver was performed, and the differentially expressed genes were classified into three expression patterns; pattern A (LFD 002MSXH = 005MSXH, LFD > HFD 005MSXH, LFD > HFD = 002MSXH 002MSXH HFD 005MSXH). Pattern A was enriched in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and folate metabolism. Pattern B was enriched in tricarboxylic acid cycle while pattern C was enriched in gluconeogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related event. Our study suggested that the effects of MSXH ingestion showed (i) dose-dependent pattern involved in energy metabolisms and (ii) reversely pattern involved in stress responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of lecithin nanoliposome or soybean lecithin supplemented by pomegranate extract on post-thaw flow cytometric, microscopic and oxidative parameters in ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Daghigh Kia, Hossein; Nazari, Maryam; Najafi, Abouzar

    2017-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of soybean lecithin 1.5% (wt/vol) (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l -1 pomegranate extract (PE)) or PE-loaded lecithin nanoliposome (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l -1 ) to Tris-based extender. Sperm motility (CASA), viability, membrane integrity (HOS test), abnormalities, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis status, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and antioxidant activities (GPX, SOD) were investigated following freeze-thawing. No significant differences were detected in motility parameters, viability, membrane integrity, and mitochondria activity after thawing sperm between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposomes. It was shown that PE5 significantly improved sperm total and progressive motility, membrane integrity, viability, mitochondria activity, TAC and reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration). Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic sperm in PE5 extenders was significantly the lowest among other treatments. Sperm abnormalities, SOD and GPX were not affected by the antioxidant supplements. For apoptotic status, no differences were observed between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposome. We showed that lecithin nanoliposome extender can be a beneficial alternative extender to protect ram sperm during cryopreservation without any adverse effects. It was also observed that regarding pomegranate concentration, PE5 can improve the quality of ram semen after thawing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in air saturated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Daud; Abdul Razak Daud; Zainal Abidin Sidi

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness in inhibiting corrosion by garlic, soya bean, and tobacco extracts and their combinations in air saturated water at ambient temperature were studied by using electrochemical corrosion test. The range of inhibitor concentration studied was from 0.1 to 1.0 g/l. The variations of corrosion potential and corrosion current density was recorded and the results showed that the extracts have inhibitive properties in the corrosion of mild stee. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is in the following order: extract mixture > tobacco > garlic > soya bean extracts. (author)

  1. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  2. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  3. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  4. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  5. Occurance and distribution of poty viruses infecting garlic in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Hameed, S.; Shah, H.

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test the samples collected from the farmer fields. Based on the DAS-ELISA poty viruses OYDV and LYSV were detected from both provinces although the percentage incidence varied from location to location. Few areas of district Punjab were found free of LYSV but OYDV was prevalent in all locations irrespective of the varieties cultivated. Maximum disease incidence was detected in Swabi (KPK) where OYDV was 90percent and LYSV was 38 percent while in Punjab major disease incidence of OYDV (87.14 percent) and LYSV (91.44 percent) was found in Sialkot. (author)

  6. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  7. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of..., through October 31, 2012. Scope of the Order The products covered by the order are all grades of garlic...

  8. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (the Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the... the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's...

  9. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... conducting three new shipper reviews (NSRs) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People... Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. (Jining Yifa) for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through...

  10. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), pursuant to section 751(c... the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section...

  11. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in...

  12. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

  13. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  14. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... of the administrative review are currently due no later than April 5, 2012. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From... Part, the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From...

  15. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and... duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  16. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department of Commerce (Department) initiated new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic..., 2008 through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

  17. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) meets the statutory and regulatory requirements... The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal...

  18. 76 FR 52315 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd... (Department) published a preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the...

  19. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (Department) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  20. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC.... 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

  1. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1... rescinding the NSRs of both Fuyi and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  2. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2007 through... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  3. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Commerce (the Department) issued the preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. and Shenzhen Bainong Co...

  4. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd.), Justin Neuman (Shenzhen Bainong Co... Department published the initiation of the new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic...

  5. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Greening. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

  6. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Ranch L.L.C., the Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc. (collectively, Petitioners... reconsideration of its valuation of the labor wage rate for this review. The Department gave interested parties... Valuation of Garlic Bulbs Issue 3: Use of India Wholesale Price Index as Inflator for Surrogate Values Issue...

  7. Effects of Pomegranate peel hydroAlcoholic extract and vitamin E supplementation on Paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase Activities and nitric oxide levels following an exhaustive exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Veiskarami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: free radicals produced as a result of heavy training exercise especially oxygen species (ROS damage to body tissues Which can be prevent from this by consuming antioxidant substances timely. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum peel hydro alcoholic on reduced of oxidative stress induced by an exhaustive exercise. Materials and Methods: Thirty two weight-matched male Wistar rats were evenly divided into: 1 control: received saline (0.2 ml saline/ rat by oral administration via epigastric tube. 2 Received oral administration of 200 mg/kg pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract (PPHE200. 3 Received oral administration of 250 mg/kg Pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract (PPHE250. 4 Received oral administration of vitamin E (vit E 5 mg/kg. Animals were submitted to swimming exhaustive exercise stress for an 8-week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for serum. Serum samples were analyzed for paraoxonase-1(PON-1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO activities and nitric oxide levels. Results: Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 activities serum were significantly increases in PPHE200 (23.03±1.47, PPHE250 (23.59±1.98 and vit E (25.38±2.65 than in the control (18.57±1.380 (p<0.05.In PPHE200 (32.76±9.97 ،PPHE250 (31.45±6.05 and vit E (24.94±4.65 treated animals was determined in serum where myeloperoxidase activities reduced significantly compared with control (40.70±6.14 (p<0.05. Levels of Nitric oxide levels were significantly lower in PPHE 200 (46.59±2.48, PPHE250 (40.27±2.62 and vit E (36.25±3.82 treated than in control (47.18±5.36 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that Pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract supplementations can strength antioxidant defense system and anti-inflammatory induced by exhaustive exercise.

  8. Intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected and uninfected fescue by heifers offered hay diets supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or laidlomycin propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, J B; Coffey, K P; Moyert, J L; Brazle, F K; Lomas, L W

    2002-01-01

    Tarentaise heifers fitted with a rumen cannula (539 +/- 7.5 and 487 +/- 15.7 kg avg initial BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were used in two Latin square metabolism experiments having 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangements to determine the effects of supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AO) or laidlomycin propionate (LP) on intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected (IF) or uninfected (FF) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hay diets consumed ad libitum. Heifers were housed in individual stanchions in a metabolism facility with ambient temperatures controlled to range between 26.7 and 32.2 degrees C daily. Total feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 21-d dietary adaptation period. In situ DM and NDF disappearance and ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. In Exp. 1, DMI was 24% greater (P or = 0.42). In Exp. 2, DMI was 18.9% greater (P < 0.01) by heifers offered FF than by those offered IF (6.6 vs 5.5 kg/d). Heifers fed LP (50 mg/d) consumed 10.6% less (P < 0.05) DM than those not fed LP (5.7 vs 6/5 kg/d). Digestibility of NDF tended to be greater (P = 0.08) and digestibility of ADF was greater (P < 0.05) from FF than from IF. Conversely, apparent N absorption (%) was greater (P < 0.05) from IF than from FF. Heifers fed LP had lower (P < 0.05) ADF digestibility than those not fed LP. In situ degradable DM and NDF fractions were greater (P < 0.01) from IF than from FF. Diets supplemented with LP had higher (P < 0.01) indigestible DM and NDF fractions than those without LP. Propionic acid and total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) from heifers offered FF than from those offered IF and from heifers fed LP than from those not fed LP. Therefore, it appears the major effect of N. coenophialum was a reduction in forage intake and total-tract fiber digestibility in certain situations. Response to the feed additives was similar whether heifers were offered IF or

  9. Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X J; Wang, P Q; Li, S J; Li, X K; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J

    2015-03-15

    In the past decade, garlic has become one of the most popular complementary therapies for blood pressure (BP) control used by hypertensive patients. Numerous clinical studies have focused on the BP-lowering effect of garlic, but results have been inconsistent. Overall, there is a dearth of information available to guide the clinical community on the efficacy of garlic in hypertensive patients. To systematically review the medical literature to investigate the current evidence of garlic for the treatment of hypertension. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for appropriate articles from their respective inceptions until August 2014. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing garlic vs. a placebo in patients with hypertension were considered. Papers were independently reviewed by two reviewers and were analyzed using Cochrane software Revman 5.2. A total of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified. Compared with the placebo, this meta-analysis revealed a significant lowering effect of garlic on both systolic BP (WMD: -6.71 mmHg; 95% CI: -12.44 to -0.99; P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (WMD: -4.79 mmHg; 95% CI: -6.60 to -2.99; P garlic is an effective and safe approach for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials focusing on primary endpoints with long-term follow-up are still warranted before garlic can be recommended to treat hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  11. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  12. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  14. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... merchandise at less than normal value (NV). The Department is also preliminarily determining that five...

  15. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...- Market Economy Unit regarding ``Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Deadline...'s Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  16. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  17. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of

  18. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and

  19. The Use of Herbal Supplements as One of Self Medications in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dika P. Destiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal supplements as one of self medications in Indonesia has not yet been well-documented since many people used these supplements in absence of medical consultation with pharmacist. This retrospective observational study was conducted at one of healthcare service centers in Bandung. Data related to the sale of herbal supplements during 2014 period was collected and analyzed. We found that 30.163 items of herbal supplements were sold in 2014. Approximately 1.277 sold items were specific supplements for chronic and degenerative diseases. Based on the category of therapy, the most sold item was a herbal supplement for hyperlipidemia with three major ingredients: garlic, lecithin, and spirulina. Despite the huge number of the use of herbal supplements in Indonesia, medical information from pharmacist about the use of herbal supplements is still scarce.

  20. "STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GARLIC ON THE IN VITRO ALBUMIN GLYCATION REACTION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheikh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, an antioxidant plant, can react with amino groups of proteins to form Schiff bases. As diabetes leads to glycation of various proteins and this in turn has some effects on the structure of proteins and biochemical activity of them, the inhibition of this process seems very vital. For several years researchers in this field have done their best to recognize the antidiabetic compounds. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of garlic on albumin glycation in vitro.In the presence of various concentrations of garlic, albumin was glycated and evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. The results showed that garlic has a statistically significant (P<0.05 effect in inhibiting or decreasing the reaction of albumin glycation. The findings of this research shows that garlic probably inhibits the reaction of glycation and decreases complications occurring in diabetes.