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Sample records for garcinia kola heckel

  1. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and eight standard antibiotics were tested in-vitro for comparative activity against 10 isolates of each of six bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas ...

  2. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... stomach ache and gastritis (Ajebesone and Aina, 2004). The phytochemical compounds isolated from G. kola include oleoresin (Onayade et al., 1998), ..... remarkable activity in cancer prevention and anticancer. (Li et. al., 2003). In addition to this Motar et al. (1985) showed tannins to be useful in treatment ...

  3. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  4. Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia kola plays an important socioeconomic role in the Africa culture. Inspite of this, the plant only exists in the wild or as part of left over in the Agroforestry farms. Therefore, this research examined the phenology in seed germination for possible plantation establishment. G. kola seed dormancy and growth was ...

  5. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Key words: Garcinia kola, lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, macrophage, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. The seeds of Garcinia kola heckel commonly called bitter kola in Nigeria ... Ebola virus in its tract in laboratory tests and it has been ... medicine to successfully treat the virus that causes Ebola.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    isolates against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus in already set blood agar with gentamicin as the reference ... micro-organism (Streptococci) enters the blood stream via small wounds and causes ... fractionation and isolation of antimicrobial constituents of Garcinia kola Heckel seed ...

  7. Antibacterial and cytotoxic cytochalasins from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. harbored in Garcinia kola (Heckel) nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Douala-Meli, Clovis; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-11-14

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of our antibiotic armory and consequently, increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for bioactive constituents from endophytic fungi against MDR bacteria became a necessity for alternative and promising strategies, and for the development of novel therapeutic solutions. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Garcinia kola nuts. The fungus Phomopsis sp. was isolated from the nut of Garcinia kola. The crude extract was prepared from mycelium of Phomopsis sp. by maceration in ethyl acetate and sequentially fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies and comparison with published data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticancer properties by broth microdilution and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide methods respectively. The samples were also tested spectrophotometrically for their hemolytic properties against human red blood cells. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded three known cytochalasins including 18-metoxycytochalasin J (1), cytochalasins H (2) and J (3) together with alternariol (4). The cytochalasin compounds showed different degrees of antibacterial activities against the tested bacterial pathogens. Shigella flexneri was the most sensitive microorganism while Vibrio cholerae SG24 and Vibrio cholerae PC2 were the most resistant. Ampicillin did not show any antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae NB2, Vibrio cholerae PC2 and Shigella flexneri at concentrations up to 512 μg/mL, but interestingly, these multi-drug resistant bacterial strains were sensitive to the cytochalasin metabolites. These compounds also showed significant cytotoxic properties against human cancer cells (LC

  8. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 l of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 l of 100 ng/ml phorbol ...

  9. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15 at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18 at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30 at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.

  10. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of production with the view to improving the trade. Farmers have Garcinia trees on their farm and these were spared during land preparation for farming. Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the producers ...

  11. Drought Tolerance Of Garcinia kola And Garcinia afzelii At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Forestry ... Garcinia kola and Garcinia afzelii are very useful forest tree species for chew stick and medicinal purposes in West Africa. ... afzelii can be established in any of the forest zones, whereas Garcinia kola should preferably be established in Wet/Moist Forest and moist semi deciduous forest zones.

  12. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) as an Antimicrobial Agent: Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days 1-5 decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva ...

  13. Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the economic value of Garcinia Kola nut marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. It had 3 objectives, namely description of the marketing channel of Garcinia kola nut, determination of the costs and returns and identifying and determining the Socio-economic variables that affect the marketers net returns.

  14. Gastroprotective potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Induced Oxidative. Gastric Mucosa Damage in Rats by Kolaviron, A Natural. Biflavonoid of Garcinia kola Seed. Phytother Res. 2006;20:14-20. 8. Ibironke GF, Olaleye SB, Balogun O and Aremu. DA. Antiulcerogenic effect of diet containing seeds of.

  15. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    Because petroleum is a non-renewable resource, studies have recently been focused on getting alcohol through renewable resources such as agricultural sources6,7,8. Garcinia kola (bitter kola) is a tropical plant that grows well in Nigeria, producing fruit that is usually reddish-yellow when ripe. It is however cultivated in the ...

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Garcinia kola and Cola nitida Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections. Key word: Garcinia kola, Bitter Kola, ...

  17. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola using an in vitro adsorption study. Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. kola was conducted at 37 ± 0.1 °C. Adsorption of quinine (2.5 - 40 μg/ml) to 2.5 % w/v G. kola suspension was studied. Thereafter, quinine desorption process ...

  18. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acid hydrolysis of bitter kola (Garcinia kola) pulp wastes on the production of CM-cellulase and -glucosidase using Aspergillus niger was investigated. Hydrolysis for 3 h with 2.5 M sulphuric acid yielded highest fermentable sugar. Acid hydrolysis enhanced CM-cellulase and -glucosidase levels by 500% at 96 h and ...

  19. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study (8 weeks). The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and ...

  20. Protective Effect Of Garcinia kola (Kolaviron) Extract On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the cardiovascular effect of administration of antimalarial drugs amodiaquine and artesunate and the efficacy of Garcinia kola extract (kolaviron) in protecting against such possible effect. Thirty (30) adult male albino rats divided into six (6) groups were used in this study. Groups D, E ...

  1. in-vitro antifungal effect of garcinia kola and garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA AND GARLIC (ALLIUMS. SATIVUM) ON VAGINAL ISOLATES OF CANDIDA. Adejare O. Y.1, Oduyebo O. O.2, Oladele R. O.2 , Nwaokorie F. O.3, Ogunsola F. T.2. 1Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Lagos ...

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola on blood glucose concentration, lipid profile and liver enzymes activities of wistar albino rats was investigated. The study was carried out using fourty four (44) wistar albino rats, divided into eleven (11) groups with four (4) rats in each groups. The rats ...

  3. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar ...

  4. Antibacterial Interaction of Crude Methanol Extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed (GKS) which is chewed habitually as a masticatory ...

  5. Optimization of ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline hydrolysis with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide has no significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar and ethanol yield. Acid hydrolysis with 2.5 M sulphuric acid and saccharification using Aspergillus niger are better methods for optimizing ethanol production from bitter kola pulp waste. Solar drying of the bitter kola ...

  6. Effect Of Dietary Garcinia Kola Seed On Selected Serum Electrolytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes (K+, Na+, CI-, HCO- 3, Mg2+ and Ca2+) and trace metals (Cu2+ Zn2+ and Mn2+) were studied in ...

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiacea) Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the bioactive constituents of the extracts using TLC analysis revealed the presence of steroids/triterpenes and phenolic compounds with phenolic compounds appearing in all extracts irrespective of the solvent polarity used for extraction. Anthraquinone and alkaloids were confirmed absent on TLC.

  8. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of G. kola on glucose ...

  9. Capillary Electrophoresis Determination of Biflavanones from Garcinia Kola in Three Traditional African Medicinal Formulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okunji, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the quantification for four biologically active biflavanones present in three different traditional "African medicinal preparations from the seeds of Garcinia kola was developed...

  10. The Effect of Crude Extract of Garcinia Kola Seed on the Histology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Garcinia Kola (G. kola) on various organs has been widely reported in literature, however, there is a dearth of literature on its effect in the reproductive system. 45 adult Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats were used. The animals were divided into two experimental groups, 'A' and 'B' and a control group 'C'.

  11. Garcinia Kola Seeds: Is the Aqueous Extract a True Aphrodisiac in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically ...

  12. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Middle East African Journal .... monkey and guinea pig), occurring as both ascorbic acid and .... Data Analysis. Results. Egbeahie et al. JNOA.2018;20(1): 20 - 29. Ascorbic acid only or Garcinia kola plus Ascorbic acid) belonging to the par cipant's group was then administered ...

  13. effects of crude alkaloid extract of garcinia kola seed on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    including diarrhea and menstrual cramps (Dalziel,. 1937). Preliminary investigation of the action of alkaloid fractions of the Garcinia kola seeds indicated marked dose dependent reversible spasmolytic and antispasmogenic effects on smooth muscle activity (Braide, 1989). Orie and. Ekon (1993) showed that ingestion of the ...

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron (a Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats. Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of ...

  15. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined intake of Garcinia kola and Ascorbic acid on Intraocular pressure (IOP) of normotensive Nigerians. A total of one hundred and sixty (n= 160) parcipants, males, and females within the age range of 18-50 years (Mean age = 29.29± 8.74) were used for this study.

  16. Evaluation of the anti-fertility effect of Garcinia Kola Seeds on male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    semen analysis was carried out for each set of animals using sodium bicarbonate formalin diluting fluid viewed under x 10 power Olympus microscope. From the results of this study, Garcinia Kola seed produced decreased serum testosterone levels, decreased semen counts, decreased semen motility, all these effects ...

  17. Some Physical Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of polymer concentrations on some of the physicochemical properties of Vernonia amygdalina (Linn) and Garcinia kola (Heckel) extracts loaded microspheres was evaluated. Microspheres of the aqueous extracts was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation using polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixtures of ...

  18. The use of bitter kola Garcinia kola dry seed powder as a natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein efficiency ratio and feed efficiency were higher in fish fed with G. kola seed meal and lowest in the controls. No differences occurred in fish carcass moisture, protein or ash content among the treatments (p > 0.05). The results suggest that dietary supplementation with G. kola seed powder improved growth rate, feed ...

  19. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (Pmales.

  20. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  1. 6447 Volume 12 No. 5 August 2012 EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs NELLY EGONTE

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... diet. In this study, the larval of the fish fed on diets 150 and 200 g kg. -1. G. kola seed powder survived better than the fish fed other supplemented diets. The results ... G. Kola is a popular plant in southern Nigeria with a myriad of medicinal uses in different part of ..... fed on fish meal – based diet. Sule and ...

  2. Effects of diet containing Garcinia Kola seeds on the liver of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the experimental period, the animals were euthanised by chloroform inhalation and their liver dissected out and processed for H&E, and Best Carmine stains. The cell morphology of the hepatocytes was not deranged due to consumption of G. kola seed. The Best Carmine stained slides showed a dose ...

  3. The methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola attenuated angiotensin II- and lipopolyssacharide-inducedvascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, cardiovascular diseases are a risk factor for poor health and early death with predisposing factors to include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution. It is envisaged that herbal products that can stem this trend would be of great benefit. Garcinia kola (GK, also known as bitter kola is one of such plants. Generally used as a social snack and offered to guests in some cultural settings, bitter kola has been indicated in the treatment of laryngitis, general inflammation, bronchitis, viral infections and diabetes. In this study, the effects of methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola on the proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs in cell culture by Angiotensin II (Ang II and LPS-induced NO production were carried out. Confluent VSMCs were exposed to GK (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml before or after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (100μg/ml, and Angiotensin II (10-8-10-6M. Cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay and NO production by Griess assay. Treatment with Angiotensin II (10-8, 10-6 or LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of VSM cells while LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with GK (25, 50 & 100 μg/ml attenuated VSM cell proliferation. The results indicate that GK has potential to inhibit mitogen activated vascular cell growth and possibly inhibit inflammatory responses to LPS. Thus GK may be useful in condition that is characterized by cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses.

  4. Garcinia kola seeds may prevent cognitive and motor dysfunctions in a type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model partly by mitigating neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Farahna, Mohammed; Satti, Gwiria M H; Bushara, Yahia M; El-Tahir, Ahmed; Hamza, Muaawia A; Osman, Sayed Y; Dibia, Ambrose C; Vecchio, Lorella

    2017-04-15

    Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G. kola extract from the first to the 6th week post-injection. Then, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using holeboard and vertical pole behavioral tests, and animals were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out, cut, and processed for Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. Results Hyperglycemia (209.26 %), body weight loss (-12.37 %), and T1DM-like cognitive and motor dysfunctions revealed behavioral tests in diabetic control animals were not observed in insulin and extract-treated animals. Similar, expressions of inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), iba1 (CD68), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as decreases of neuronal density in regions involved in cognitive and motor functions (-49.56 % motor cortex, -33.24 % medial septal nucleus, -41.8 % /-37.34 % cerebellar Purkinje /granular cell layers) were observed in diabetic controls but not in animals treated with insulin or G. kola. Conclusions Our results indicate that T1DM-like functional alterations are mediated, at least partly, by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in this model. The prevention of the development of such alterations by early treatment with G. kola confirms the neuroprotective properties of the plant and warrant further mechanistic studies, considering the potential for human disease.

  5. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-05

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analyse de l'intérêt socio-économique des graines de Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essentially women (90%). They have no or under education level. They are also citizens of seven (07) ..... Au regard du coût de vente du kilogramme de G. kola, entre 1 000. XOF et 1 500 XOF, il s'établit une relation de proportionnalité entre les recettes journalières de ces acteurs du commerce et les quantités écoulés par ...

  7. Biflavonoid fraction from Garcinia kola seed ameliorates hormonal imbalance and testicular oxidative damage by anti-tuberculosis drugs in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Aderemi; Adefisan, Adedoyin; Adebayo, Olayinka; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. The effects of anti-TB drugs on male reproductive system have not been properly evaluated. We investigated the effects of anti-TB drugs on testicular antioxidant indices, sperm characteristics and hormonal levels in rats, and the protective role of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seed. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups and orally treated with corn oil (control), anti-TB drugs [4-Tabs=isoniazid (5 mg/kg), rifampicin (10 mg/kg), pyrazinamide (15 mg/kg) and ethambutol (15 mg/kg) in combination], anti-TB drugs +KV and KV alone (200 mg/kg). Anti-TB drugs and KV were given three times per week for 8 weeks. In vitro, reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO), diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of KV were examined. KV at 10, 20, 50 and 100 μg/mL showed strong reducing potential and effectively scavenged DPPH and OH radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, KV significantly inhibited LPO in rats' liver homogenate. In vivo, administration of 4-Tabs caused a significant (phormone and testosterone. Co-administration of KV with 4-Tabs normalized body weight, enhanced antioxidant system and improved sperm characteristics. Kolaviron protects male reproductive system from oxidative damage by anti-tuberculosis drugs via the antioxidative mechanism.

  8. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  9. Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramoye, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in γ-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

  10. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was investigated. Albino wistar rats were divided into three groups. Groups A rats had normal rat chow and water ad-libitum while groups B and C rats had Garcinia kola diet of 10% w/w and 15% w/w respectively, their blood pressures were ...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Guttiferae) for dental caries-related health problems while the isolated ... 1 Dental caries, also known as tooth decay is an infectious disease that damages the ... disorders while the fruit yield favorite bitter chewing sticks sold in small bundles in ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of NPK fertilizer on the seedlings of Dialium guineense (Wild) and proximate analysis of the fruit. Abstract · Vol 11, No 2 (2013) - Articles Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel. Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2014) - Articles Biomass accumulated by Garcinia kola Heckel. seedlings under different ...

  13. Aspects of Garcina kola Toxicity to a Wild Strain of Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bitter cola (Garcinia kola) powder and its ethanolic extract were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a brewery environment. The iso-alpha acid contents of the G. kola powder, G. kola extract and hop extract were determined as 5.85 mg/l, 6.34 mg/l and 7.65 ...

  14. A critical evaluation of the Heckel equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Great differences between published Heckel parameters, obtained from 'at pressure' data or the 'in-die' method, are outlined. The general validity of the concept of yield pressures derived from slopes of such Heckel plots is questioned. When the ability of the Heckel and the Walker equations...... is compared to fit density/pressure data from tabletting different pharmaceutical powders, a generally better fit is obtained with the Walker equation in the region of 5-100 MPa. The ability to discriminate between materials by data from the compression phase is improved by using the Walker model....... For Emcompress®, apparent yield pressures derived from Heckel plots are dependent strongly on the maximum pressure of the compression process....

  15. Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Pfundstein, B; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-08-01

    Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography/thermal energy analysis (GC/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all kola nut varieties, while pyrrolidine, piperidine and isobutylamine were detected in one or more varieties. Estimated average total daily intake of aliphatic amines by a typical kola nut chewer varied from 260 to 1040 micrograms/day for secondary amines and from 2430 to 9710 micrograms/day for primary amines. Methylating activity of the nitrosated kola nuts, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was also determined by GC/TEA. Methylating activity was significantly higher in kola nuts (170-490 micrograms/kg) than has ever been reported for a fresh plant product. These data suggest that the possible role of kola nut chewing in human cancer aetiology should be explored in countries where kola nuts are widely consumed as stimulants.

  16. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... plastic bags, seeds were washed abundantly with tap water. Cleaned seeds were then subjected to different treatments (mechanical scarification, chemical and soaking). Treatments applied were based on previous results of germination experiments in several plant species (Bradbeer, 1988; Yang et al., ...

  17. Collection and marketing of Bitter Cola ( Garcinia kola ) in Nkwerre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints encountered by collectors and marketers include rot and decay during storage (99%), poor storage facilities (97%), pest and diseases (88.2%) and labour costs (68.2%). Recommendations based on the findings include providing financial resources in form of loans, grants or incentives in order to boost bitter ...

  18. Effect Of Gavage Treatment With Pulverised Garcinia Kola Seeds On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packed red cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and red blood cell count (RBC) showed significantly (P < 0.05, Student's t-test) increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red ...

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of Garcinia kola seed against hepatotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    purchased from. Choba market in Rivers State, Nigeria) were peeled, sliced and dried .... liver damage12, 13. These enzymes are located in the cell cytoplasm and are emptied into the circulation once the cellular membrane is damaged 14, 15.

  20. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry,, College of Medicine,. University of Ibadan ... possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats .... layer chromatography (TLC) using Silica gel GF 254- coated plates and ...

  1. Gastroprotective potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Male and female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) of. Wistar strain of comparable weights were used for the study. Rats were housed in clean standard metabolic cages with free access to rat chow and tap water free of contaminants. The cages were contained in a well-ventilated standard housing conditions (temperature: ...

  2. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Tannin, Saponin, and Cardiac glycoside, Flavonoid, Terpenoid, Phenols, Anthraquinone and Steroid. However, reducing sugar is absent. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against the isolates showed that ethanol extract is more ...

  3. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pumped through the column (Eclipse XDB-C18 reverse phase; 5μm particle size and 150 x 4.6 mm, i.d., Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara,. California) at a flow rate of 1.6 ml/min at ambient temperature while monitoring the effluent at 254 nm. Quinine stock (1 mg/ml) was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of the pure quinine ...

  4. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a considerable evidence linking kolaviron (KV), a biflavanoid-complex of Garcinia kola Heckel seed (gKola) to smooth muscle relaxation. The present study was designed to characterize the mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation on contractile responses in ring preparations of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of ...

  5. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... biosphere. It occurs in almost pure form and in combination with other materials such as lignin and hemicellulose in plant pulps, leaves, and stalks. Cellulose is a biopolymer consisting of thousands of glucose units linked with β-glucosidic bonds, and the resulting biopolymers are associated by means of ...

  6. Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola): Is it truly the Wonder Seed? | Labo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KV is known to inhibit α-amylase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, thereby reducing fasting plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats. KV is a known chemo preventive agent against testicular damage caused by several toxicants. Experiments on the longevity effect of KV and involvement of regulator genes is on-going.

  7. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Owoeye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.

  8. Bio-Research - Vol 7, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Different Brands of Fruit Juice with Emphasis on their Sugar and Trace Metal Content · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Evaluation of the In-Vitro Combined Antimicrobial Activities of Garcinia kola Heckel and Honey · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  9. Antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract of seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were studied on smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The influence of the extract on rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum was investigated using acetylcholine and barium chloride as agonists. The extract exhibited ...

  10. Effect of Storage Materials on Viability and Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    /ja. Effect of Storage Materials on Viability and Proximate Composition of Garcinia kola. Heckel. *1OLAYINKA ... amount of crude fat (4.18%), crude fibre (2.88%) and crude protein (2.09%) as well as negligible amount of ash content. (0.78%).

  11. Comparative Demand Analysis for Rice in Three States of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dauda Omoba

    et al., 2005; Obikaonu, 2009) could be of value in poultry diets. Garcinia kola, Heckel, commonly called bitter kola is an indigenous medicinal tree belonging to .... 0.073. Micro elements (mg/g). Fe. 0.21. Zinc. 0.03. Cupper. 0.52. Manganese. 0.12. A.C. Esiegwu, G. E. Enyenihi, O.O. Emenalom, I.C. Okoli and A.B.I. Udedibie ...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Symphysodon discus Heckel (1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongliang; Chen, Zaizhong; Li, Zhongpu; Wang, Lei; Luo, Xiaoxi; Gao, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Symphysodon discus Heckel was 16 544 bp in length, consisting of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rRNA genes, and a control region or displacement loop (D-loop). With the exception of 8 tRNAs and ND6 genes, the others were encoded on H-strand. The base composition on H-strand was 30.04% C, 28.39% A, 26.49% T and 15.07% G, exhibiting an A + T rich pattern. The codon usage was consistent with the other vertebrate mitochondrial pattern, i.e. start codon is ATG or GTG and stop codons are TAA, TAG or T- -. Stop codon TAG was only found in the ND6. There were 8 regions of gene overlapped with the length of 26 bp in total and 12 intergenic spacer regions (99 bp in total).

  13. The effects of different dietary inclusion levels of bitter kola ( Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v23i2.4571 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  14. Effect of graded dietary levels of Garcinia Kola seed meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each diet was fed to a group of 9 grower rabbits for 56 days, in completely randomized design (CRD) experiment. Each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 3 rabbits each. Faecal samples were collected from four rabbits per treatment at the first and last weeks of the experiment and used to determine ...

  15. Keanekaragaman persebaran dan potensi jenis-jenis Garcinia di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahan Uji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a high species richness of Garcinia (Garcinia spp. and it is as a important basic materials for breeding of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana. Based on examination of herbarium collections and literature study, there are 64 species of Garcinia encountered in Indonesia. Twenty-five of which occur in Kalimantan, 22 species in Sumatera and Sulawesi respectively, 17 species in Moluccas and Papua respectively, 8 species in Java, and 5 species in Lesser Sunda Island. Six species of those are as cultivation plants (Garcinia atroviridis, G. beccari, G. dulcis, G. mangostana, G. nigrolineata and G. parviflora, 58 species as the wild plants, 22 species as edible fruits, and 21 species as timber plants. Some members of Garcinia, e.i. G. malaccensis, G. picrorhiza and G. beccari are reported as rootstock potential species to be wedge-grafting by mangosteen (G. mangostana seedlings.

  16. Review of the cichlid genus Crenicichla Heckel, 1840 from Surinam, with descriptions of three new species (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Surinam representatives of the cichlid genus Crenicichla Heckel, 1840 are reviewed. Seven species, among which three new to science, have been found, viz.: C. albopunctata Pellegrin, 1904, C. coppenamensis sp. n., C. nickeriensis sp. n., C. saxatilis (L., 1758), C. sipaliwini sp. n., C. lugubris

  17. Fuel consumption organization at the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.A.; Ignatenko, E.I.; Volkov, A.P.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Problems of using NPPs in the power systems including hydroelectric power plants and NPPs are considered on the example of the Kola power system. The methods of the WWER-440 reactor fuel loading formation, reactor power forcing, optimization of volumes and time of the NPP main equipment planned maintenance are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal methods for the WWER-440 reactor fuel loading formation are the following: reactor make-up with the lesser number of fuel assemblies with maximum designed enrichment; for the case of decreased loading energy capacity displacement of make-up fuel with 2.4% enrichment by the fuel with 3.6% enrichment when preserving the designed number of make-up fuel assemblies [ru

  18. Larval development of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae of Itaipu reservoir (Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshiyu Nakatani

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the larval development of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 morphometrically, collected at Itaipu reservoir from March 1988 to April 1990. It was obtained the samples monthly, with a conic-cylindrical plankton net with 0.5mm mesh. The morphological description of the larvae of P. squamosissimus was based on different stages of development. The specimens less than 6mm long present a moderate sized head and those that are larger than this length, present a large head. The pectoral fins are in an elevated position, near the operculum bones, and the ventral fins are in thoracic positions, the body has a moderate height, the eyes are small to moderate and the mouth is large with caniniform teeth. This species presents a proportional growth among the different parts of the body, as can be seen by the high correlation coefficient values (r>0.98; p<0.001.

  19. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  20. Atividade alimentar da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae no rio Paraná Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Peciformes, Sciaenidae feeding activity in Parana river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A atividade alimentar anual, estacional e diária da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi avaliada para a planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (município de Porto Rico-PR e para o reservatório de Itaipu. Os peixes foram capturados com redes de espera de diferentes malhagens, sendo as coletas realizadas mensalmente, de outubro de 86 a setembro de 88, no primeiro ambiente, e de novembro de 83 a fevereiro de 89, no segundo. Os aparelhos de pesca ficaram expostos por 24h, com despescas ao amanhecer (7h, durante o dia (15h e ao anoitecer (23h e a cada três horas, em coletas especiais, para determinação do ritmo diário. Foi utilizado o grau de enchimento do estômago e a freqüência de estômagos com alimento como indicadores de repleção estomacal. Registrou-se alta incidência de estômagos vazios, em ambos os ambientes. As variações anuais desses indicadores foram mais pronunciadas no reservatório de Itaipu. Em relação às variações sazonais, a atividade alimentar foi sempre mais elevada nos períodos mais quentes, em contraste com o inverno. A tomada de alimento no período de 24 horas foi mais intensa nas primeiras horas da manhã, revelando-se uma espécie predadora tipicamente diurna, utilizando estímulos visuais para a detecção e perseguição das presas.Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 feeding activity at the upper Paraná river floodplain (Porto Rico region, state of Paraná, Brazil and Itaipu reservoir was investigated. The fishes were collected monthly with different mesh-sized gill nets October, 1986 through September, 1989 at upper Paraná river and November, 1983 through February, 1989 at Itaipu reservoir. The nets were set for 24 hours and the fishes were collected at sunrise (7A.M., afternoon (3P.M. and night (11P.M. at Itaipu reservoir and each, three hours at upper Paraná river floodplain to determine daily feeding rhythm. Stomach repletion degree and food update frequency

  1. Surface Ozone Dynamics in the Kola Peninsula Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazov, M. I.; Karpechko, A. Yu.; Nikulin, G. N.; Roumjantsev, S. A.

    Measurements of surface ozone from the centre of the Murmansk Region (Apatity, Kola peninsula) and its southern part (Kovda, White Sea coast) give a picture of the behaviour of this air component on the Kola peninsula and surrounding vicinity. Simultaneous measurements in Apatity and Kovda have shown that the ozone concentration in Apatity is roughly twice as much as in Kovda. This fact may be explained by the local wind circulation and the presence of bromine near the coast of the Kola Peninsula. An inverse correlation is found between the ozone and nitrogen oxide concentrations from observations near motorways in Apatity. A decrease of nitrogen oxide concentration accompanies the growth of ozone on average. Thus, Apatity is a northern city in which the air pollution by traffic emissions decreases the ozone content.

  2. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J.; Rathmann, O.; Lundsager, P. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  3. Mesoarchean Gabbroanorthosite Magmatism of the Kola Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Mokrushin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Kola peninsula is the region marked with development of anorthosite magmatism in the NE Baltic Shield. The Archaean gabbroanorthosites intrusions - Tsaginsky, Achinsky and Medvezhe-Schucheozersky - have the age of 2.7-2.6 Ga (Bayanova, 2004). The Patchemvarek and Severny gabbroanorthosites intrusions are located in the junction zone of the Kolmozero-Voronja greenstone belt and the Murmansk domain. Age data for sedimentaryvolcanogenic rocks of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt and Murmansk domain granitoids are 2.8-2.7 Ga. The gabbroanorthosites intrusions have more calcic composition (70-85% An) of normative plagioclase, and low contents of TiO2, FeO, and Fe2O3. In terms of chemical composition, the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs are close to the rocks of the Fiskenesset Complex (Greenland) and to the anorthosites of the Vermillion Lake Complex (Canada). U-Pb zircon dating established Mesoarchean ages of 29257 and 29358 Ma for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs, respectively. It was shown that the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs have fairly low REE contents (Cen = 2.2-4.2, Ybn = 1.6-2.6) and distinct positive Eu anomaly. Comagmatic ultrabasic differentiates have practically unfractionated REE pattern, low total REE contents (Cen = 1.2, Ybn = 1.1, La/Ybn = 1.32), and no Eu anomaly. The studied samples of the Archean gabbroanorthosites are characterized by positive "Nd= + 2.68 for the gabbroanorthosites of the Severny Massif and from + 2.77 to + 1.66 for the Patchemvarek Massif. The rocks of the Severny and Patchemvarek massifs has 87Sr/86Sri = 0.702048 and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70258_8, respectively. The oldest U-Pb zircon ages for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs marking the Mesoarchean stage in the evolution of region. The differences in the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios between the Neoarchean and the Mesoarchean gabbroanorthosites suggest the existence of two mantle sources. One of them produced

  4. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyue Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the most popular tropical fruits (called the “Queen of Fruits”, and is a rich source of oxygenated and prenylated xanthone derivatives. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G. mangostana. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. The new one was further tested for cytotoxic activity against seven cancer cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, A549, H490, PC-3, SGC-7901, U87, displaying the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values 3.35, 4.01, 4.84, 7.84, 6.21, 8.09, and 6.39 μM, respectively. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1.26 μM. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines.

  5. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Haematological response of snow barbell, Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel, naturally infected with a new Trypanosoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Aamir; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2016-09-01

    The present study deals with the description of a new piscine trypanosome species found infecting the fresh water fish Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel from river Jhelum, Srinagar, J&K, India and evaluating the haematological parameters of the infected fish. Haematological examination of S. plagiostomus revealed 61.1 % infection with an intensity of 1-9 trypanosomes/100 RBC's. Small (26.9 ± 1.39 µm) and large (47.17 ± 3.50 µm) forms of the trypanosome were observed in light microscopy investigations, revealing the dimorphic nature of the species. The trypanosome species was found to be distinct from the other related dimorphic species in morphometric dimensions including cell length, cell breadth, kinetoplast index, flagellar index, and cytological peculiarities, respectively. The detailed descriptions of the two morphological forms found in the blood of S. plagiostomus are provided. Based on the geographical location, morphometrics, cytological peculiarities, host status and comparative study, the new species is named Trypanosoma kashmirensis n. sp. The parasitic infestation caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in red blood cell counts, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations while, the leucocyte (WBC) count, mean cellular volume and mean cellular haemoglobin showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the infected fish as compared to the non-infected. The above alterations of the haematological parameters could be used as an important tool for the indication of Trypanosoma infection in the fish.

  7. The Comparative Effects Of Chronic Consumption Of Kola Nut (Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The comparative effects of chronic (28 days) consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. 30 adult Swiss white mice (15- 30g body weight), were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of ...

  8. Effect of Buchholzia coriacea ( Wonderful kola) on Microflora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Buchholzia coriacea (wonderful kola) was washed, extracted (using water and ethanol) and screened for phytochemical compounds. Swaps collected from banana, guava, tomato and spinach were cultured using nutrient agar, microorganisms characterized culturally and morphologically and subjected to biochemical ...

  9. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,

  10. Isolation of fungal endophytes from Garcinia mangostana and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to screen the antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and small branches of Garcinia mangostana plant found in Indonesia. The crude extracts of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) of the 24 fermentation broths from 24 endophytic fungi were tested for their antibacterial ...

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Ocular Antiviral Effect of Garcinia Kolanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The claim of an Octogenarian on Garcinia kolanuts crude water extract on his open angle glaucoma has opened up a series of researchers into the native nuts as to their pharmocotherapeutic properties. Some of these have been reported as pressure lowering effects on laboratory animals and as antibacterials ...

  12. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V.

    (table 3) indicating successful cross amplification of SSR markers in Garcinia. The present study describes the isolation and characterization of microsatellites isolated from whole-genome sequence data of G. gummi-gutta. The NGS and mining of the G. gummi- gutta genome helped in identification of thousands of SSR.

  14. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V. RAVISHANKAR

    Abstract. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb. (Clusiaceae) is an endemic, semidomesticated, fruit-yielding tree species distributed in the. Western Ghats of India and Sri Lanka. Various bioactive phytochemicals, such as garcinol, benzophenones and xanthones are isolated from G. gummi-gutta and have shown antibacterial, ...

  15. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  16. Marketingový mix firmy ALU KOLA CB

    OpenAIRE

    URBAN, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on a marketing mix practical application in my own company ALU KOLA CB. My company sells alloy wheels and tyres for personal cars. In a literary review are introduced and explained terms marketing, marketing mix and its parts - product, price, place and promotion. In a practical part of this thesis are these terms applied on my company. The end of this part contains results and improvement suggestions.

  17. Results of storm activity registration in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtsev A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of storm activity registration processing in the Kola Peninsula during 2013-2014 have been given. Considerable fluctuations of storm activity and unevenness of lightning discharges distribution across the region territory have been noted. It has been proposed to use a cloud-to-ground discharge density indicator taking into account their distribution in the region at an assessment of lightning protection efficiency of power generation facilities in areas with low thunder-storms intensity

  18. The status of nuclear cooperation with Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant; Status for atomsikkerhetssamarbeidet med Kola og Leningrad kjernekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Norway has since 1993 participated in joint projects with Russia to improve nuclear safety at the Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant. The project have been funded under the Government's nuclear action under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has completed most of the projects. NRPA is the authority responsible for assessing the implementation of the projects. (eb)

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Derajat Matra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  20. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  1. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  2. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MATOS

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  3. Cytotoxic Isobractatin (Prenylated Xanthone Epimer Mixture of Garcinia eugenifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In search of bioactive anti-cancer compounds from natural products has been found isobractatin from n-hexane extract of Garcinia eugenifolia. Isolation was done through the stages of maceration and column chromatography. Elucidation of the structure was analyzed by spectroscopy of UV-Vis, FTIR, LC-MS, NMR proton and carbon one and two dimension data. The results found three compounds isolated from G. eugenifolia. The three compounds were stigmasterol, prenylated xanthone isobractatin and its epimer (in a mixture. The mixture of isobractatin and its epimer showed cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line T47D with IC50 = 17 µg/mL.

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Oon Chuah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL” at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.

  7. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  8. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Hyperglycemic and Antituberculosis Activities of Phylogenetically Related Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) and Garcinia hombroniana (Seashore Mangosteen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamila, N.; Kim, K.S.; Khan, A.A.; Khan, S.N

    2016-01-01

    Species of genus Garcinia belonging to family Clusiaceae are traditionally known for the treatment of ulcer, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea and abdominal pain. This genus is also reported to be a rich source of xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, biflavonoids and triterpenes showing significant pharmacological activities. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) and Garcinia hombroniana Pierre (seashore mangosteen) are evergreen tropical trees grown in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and other tropical countries. The fruits of G. mangostana (queen of fruits), and roots and leaves decoction of G. hombroniana are commonly used for skin allergies, infections after childbirth, trauma and diarrhea. This study aimed to evaluate the bark and fruit extracts of G. mangostana and G. hombroniana for phytochemicals analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and antituberculosis activities. Total phenolic contents were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent colorimetric method. For antioxidant activities, radical scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used. Anti-hyperglycemic activity was determined using a-glucosidase and a-amylase enzymes. In quantitative phytochemical analysis, the extracts of G. mangostana showed significantly higher content of phenolics (3498.7 micro M GAE/g (gallic acid equivalent per gram), ethyl acetate; bark), carbohydrates (14.2 g/100g, aqueous; fruit) and reducing sugars (13.9 g/100g, aqueous; fruit). Also, in antioxidant activities, G. mangostana showed comparatively high activities with the ethyl acetate extract as the most potent showing IC50 2.78 micro g/ml in DPPH, 1.19 micro g/ml in ABTS, and 8742.7 micro M TE/g in FRAP assays. G. mangostana was also more potent in anti-hyperglycemic properties (IC50 182.9 micro g/ml, a-glucosidase, 247.8 micro g/ml, a-amylase) compared to G. hombroniana

  9. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos

  10. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  12. The reliability improvement plan of hot cell examination data by introducing of Kolas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Song, Wung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byung Ok; Baik, Seung Je; Lim, Nam Jin; Nam Ju Hee

    2000-01-01

    For enhancement of hot cell data reliability produced at Irradiated Material Examination Facility in KAERI,Korea a project to introduce Kolas of National Quality Assurance Institute. By Kolas introduction the examination data currently produced would be reinforced by additional function of uncertainty evaluation and would obtained more reliable data. The all of data collected would be quality controlled, so that it would be re-traceable. Presently at IMEF shock test, tension test, dimension measurement test, hardness test, density test, and composition analysis test will be subject to Kolas. It is also planned to expand the number of test items in near future. At the end of 2000 year IMEF aims to secure the certificate issued by the National Quality Assurance Institute. (Hong, J. S.)

  13. SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Aspergillus niger OF THE STEM BARK OF KANDIS GAJAH (Garcinia griffithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout. Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic. Aspergillus niger cultured in media 5L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB for 8 weeks and filtered. Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L (twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal. The molecular structures of isolated compounds are determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY. The compound was determined as phenolic (1.

  14. PHENOLIC COMPOUND FROM THE STEM BARK OF MANGGIS HUTAN (Garcinia bancana Miq. AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharni Muharni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic compoud, (--epicatechin, was isolated from  the stem bark of Garcinia bancana. The structure of this compound was determined base on spectroscopic  data such as including UV, IR, 1-D, 2-D NMR, and comparison with the reported data. Biological activity of this compound at free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and inhibitory xanthine oxidase(XO activity showed that (-- epicathechin active at two methods with IC50 value 8.1 and 8.6 mg/mL respectively.   Keywords: phenolic, (--epicatechin, Garcinia  bancana, DPPH, XO

  15. Chiral resolution and anticancer effect of xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cui-Cui; Xue, Jing-Jing; Gong, Chi; Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-21

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane-soluble portion of the stems of Garcinia paucinervis led to the isolation of eight new xanthones, including three pairs of enantiomers, (+) and (-) paucinervins L-N (1a-3a, and 1b-3b), one optically pure compound, (-) paucinervin O (4), and one new analogue, paucinervin P (5), as well as thirteen known xanthones (6-18). Their structures were established by detailed analysis of extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were confirmed by ECD calculations. All the isolates 1-18 displayed antiproliferative effect against HL-60 with IC 50 values ranging from 0.87 to 29.14 μM, of which compound 5 was the most active. Compounds 6, and 14 exhibited potential inhibitory activity against PC-3 cells, while compounds 5-7, 14, and 16-17 displayed cytotoxic potency against Caco-2 cells. A preliminary structure-activity relationship was also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniari Poeloengan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangos teen peel had been used as traditional medicine to treat dysentery, diarrhea,and uric acid.. This study was done to determine chemical compounds of mangos teen peel extract and its antibacterial activity by diffusion paper disk method. Its chemical compounds were determine by phytochemical screening while the antibacterial test was done against Gram Positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus A TCC 25922 and S. epidermidis, and Gram Negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium B 2284 and Eschericia coli B2245. Extract concentration used for the study were 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125%, in which every concentration had three replicates. Result ofphytochemical screening of mangos teen peel extract showed that the extract contained alkaloid, saponin, triterpenoid, tannin, phenol, flavonoid, glicoside and steroid. Mangos teen peel extract at the concentration up to 3.125 % had growth inhibition area on Gram Positive bacteria (Staph, aureus and Staph, epidermidis, and there were no growth inhibition area on Gram Negative bacteria (S.typhimurium and E.coli . Increasing extract concentration resulted in increasing growth inhibition area.   Keywords : mangos teen (Garcinia mangostana, Staphylococcus aureus, S, epidermidis. Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli and antibacteria

  17. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  18. Evaluation of machine-building enterprises of the Kola Peninsula for developing of the Arctic communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchaninova T. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research of engineering enterprises with a single and small-batch manufacturing of the Kola Peninsula has been carried out. The possibilities of satisfying demands for their products and services in the regional market have been determined, that is very important for understanding the prospects for the development and exploitation of the Arctic communications

  19. Genes related to the metabolism of nutrients in the Kola Sami population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrew; Borinskaya, Svetlana; Vershubsky, Galina; Vasilyev, Eugeny; Popov, Vasily; Sokolova, Maria; Sanina, Ekaterina; Kaljina, Nina; Rebrikov, Dmitry; Lisitsyn, Dmitry; Yankovsky, Nikolay

    2008-02-01

    The environmental and life-style conditions of the Kola Sami could have influenced the population-specific frequencies of the AGXTProIILeu allele, and certain alleles of APOE and LCT genes, involved respectively, in the metabolism of animal proteins, lipids and milk sugar. Study Design. DNA samples were collected from the Sami population of Lovozero settlement (Murmansk Region) in 2005. The analysis of the traditional diet of the Kola Sami was made using the data of ethnographic studies conducted in the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Frequencies of the AGXT ProllLeu, APOE*e4 alleles and LCT gene CC w9 genotype were defined by molecular-genetic analysis. The specificity of the Kola Sami gene pool is in the lower frequency of APOE*e4 allele compared with the Sami of Finland (0.205 and 0.310, respectively) and when compared with other groups (except the Skolt) in the higher frequency of hypolactasia conditioned by the CC(-13910) genotype of the LCT gene (0.484). The high prevalence of the AGXT allele T bearers among Kola Sami (0.273) does not contradict the hypothesis of the adaptive role this allele plays in populations with a traditionally high intake of meat.

  20. Effects of Caffeine from Different Kola Nut Extracts on Kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caffeine from different kola nut extracts on kidney and liver functions of male wistar rats were investigated using standard methods. Twelve male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D made up of 3 rats each. The control group (A) received water + food ad ...

  1. Texture controlled elastic anisotropy of amphibolites from the Kola Superdeep Borehole SG-3 at high pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Ullemeyer, K.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Pros, Zdeněk; Klíma, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2001), s. 37-45 ISSN 1069-3513 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : amphibolites * Kola superdeep borehole * elastic anisotropy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia and their antidiabetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Quach, Tam T. T.; Bui, Dung N.

    2017-01-01

    Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H ( 1 - 3 ), along with eight known xanthones ( 4 - 11 ), were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The a...

  3. Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... indicated significant HIV-1 protease inhibition (Chen et al., 1996). Garcinia livingstoneii has been reported to produce gutifferone A, being an anti-HIV ..... Abe F, Estrada MJ, Soler C, Chilpa RR. (2004). HIV-1 inhibitory compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27: 1471-1475.

  4. Preussianone, a New Flavanone-Chromone Biflavonoid from Garcinia preussii Engl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bringmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1, has been isolated from the leaves of Garcinia preussii, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  5. Preussianone, a new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid from Garcinia preussii Engl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messi, Bernadette Biloa; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Hertlein-Amslinger, Barbara; Lannang, Alain Meli; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Hostettmann, Kurt; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2012-05-21

    A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1), has been isolated from the leaves of Garcinia preussii, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  6. Cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities of some Tanzanian Garcinia species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    Abstract: Cancer and HIV/AIDS remains the greatest public health and humanitarian challenges in the current world's health sector. For many decades now, millions of lives have been compromised by the two diseases. This study has evaluated ethanol extracts from nine Garcinia plant species collected in Tanzania for their ...

  7. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The diversity present in biological activities and the medicinal significance of natural products provide a renewed interest in the use of natural compounds and, more importantly, their role as a basis for drug development. Advancements in the field of natural product chemistry provide valuable information on Garcinia fruits which revealed the presence of biologically important secondary metabolites named as polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs). They are mainly present in the genus Garcinia (Guttiferae) which occupies a prominent position in the history of natural products. Compared to the long history of medicinal uses and widespread research on Garcinia, the study of polyisoprenylated benzophenones was relatively limited. During recent years, these PIBs have been recognized as interesting and valuable biologically active secondary metabolites as many of the isolated polyisoprenylated benzophenones exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in in vitro and in vivo assay. During past decades, some promising advances had been achieved in understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. However, there has been not any systematic review on the ethnobotanical importance, chemistry, isolation techniques, structure activity relationships and the biological activities of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. In this review, the biological activity of different structures of polyisoprenylated benzophenones isolated from genus Clusia, Garcinia, Vismia, Allanblackia, Moronobea, Symphonia, Hypericum, Tovomita, Tovomiptosis and Ochrocarpus have been described. Therefore, the goal of this review article would be a valuable reference for the natural product chemists and biologists working on these PIBs. Furthermore, the review article on polyisoprenylated benzophenones would also be useful from the drug discovery point of view as cytotoxic agents in near future. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of Garcinia

  8. Taxonomic remarks on Barbus moulouyensis Pellegrin, 1924 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae with the description of a new species of Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Doadrio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Barbus Cuvier and Cloquet, 1816 has been reviewed in the last years and as consequence some species traditionally included in genus Barbus sensu lato have been assigned to different genera. In North Africa the species of the former genus Barbus have been included in the genera Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843, Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 and Enteromius Cope, 1867. We studied populations of the former genus Barbus of the Moulouya river basin in Morocco through molecular, morphometric, and osteological data. Our data clearly showed that populations from Moulouya river basin described originally as Barbus moulouyensis Pellegrin, 1924 belong to the genus Carasobarbus and not to Luciobarbus. Moreover, populations of the genus Luciobarbus exist in the Moulouya river basin and could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe a new Luciobarbus species from the Moulouya river basin.

  9. Pilot scale trials of irradiation preservation of maize, kola nuts and dried fish, and preliminary market test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akingbohungbe, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Various studies were conducted to determine the possibility of utilizing gamma irradiation to disinfect cowpea, maize, kola nuts and smoked fish in Nigeria. The studies included the determination of radiosensitivity of important storage insect pests such as the cowpea seed beetle, 'Callosobrucus maculatus', the cigarette beetle, 'Lasioderma serricorne', the kola weevils, 'Balanogastris kolae' and 'Sophrorhinus gbanjaensis'. They also included consumer acceptance and or sensory evaluation of irradiated cowpea, maize and smoked-dried fish. The results showed that irradiation could be integrated with the traditional peasant farmers' method of storing unshelled dry cowpea in granaries; and such an integration can completely eliminate seed beetle infestation. Irradiation at a dose of 0.2-1.0KGy was quite effective in preventing development of 'L. Serricorne'. All stages of development of 'B.kolae' and 'S. gbanjaensis' were very sensitive to irradiation; and a dose of 0.1KGy-0.2KGy was found to be adequate for disinfecting kola nut of the weevils. Irradiation up to 0.2KGy also did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of kola nuts. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation tests on cowpea, maize and smoke-dried fish showed that Nigerian consumers did not have any aversion to irradiated foods. A high percentage of respondents indicated their willingness to purchase samples

  10. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  11. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel, 1840): distribution extension and first record for Uruguay River basin, and state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lanés, Luis; Maltchik, Leonardo; Lucena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The present study records for the first time the small cichlidae fish Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel, 1840) at Uruguay River basin and state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, previously known from Amazon, Paraná and Paraguay River basins. Although the ichthyofauna of Uruguay River basin is relatively well known, this record suggests that there are still unexplored environments, such as wetlands, where there may be species not yet reported, and found in other hydrographic systems.

  12. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva A. M.; Plotitsyna N. F.

    2017-01-01

    The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic (As) in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan) by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air) and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements incl...

  13. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  14. Analisis keragaman manggis (Garcinia mangostana diiradiasi dengan sinar gamma berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi dan anatomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Widiastuti A, Sobir, Suhartanto MR. 2010. Analisis keragaman manggis (Garcinia mangostana diiradiasi dengan sinar gamma berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi dan anatomi. Bioteknologi 7: 85-98. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah meningkatkan keragaman genetik manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. yang diiradiasi dengan sinar gamma dosis 0 Gy, 20 Gy, 25 Gy, 30 Gy, 35 Gy dan 40 Gy. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah biji yang dikumpulkan dari Kampung Cegal, Desa Karacak, Kecamatan Leuwiliang, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat. Data dihasilkan dari karakteristik morfologi dan anatomi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis sinar gamma dapat menghambat pertumbuhan benih, sehingga membutuhkan waktu lebih lama untuk tumbuh dan menurunkan viabilitas benih. Secara morfologi, hal itu juga menurunkan tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, ukuran daun, dan jumlah daun. Secara anatomi, kepadatan stomata berkorelasi positif dengan tinggi tanaman dengan nilai korelasi adalah 90% dan 74%. Iradiasi sinar gamma dapat meningkatkan keragaman morfologi hingga 30%. Pemotongan benih setelah iradiasi dapat meningkatkan keragaman dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup manggis.

  15. Phytochemical and biological investigation of the bark of Garcinia fusca Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tri Hieu

    2015-01-01

    NMR-guided fractionation of the petrolium ether- and ethyl acetate extracts of the bark of Garcinia fusca Pierre led to the isolation of thirty one phenolic compounds using various chromatographic methods such as TLC, flash column chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques such as UV, HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR as well as the optical rotation, comprising ...

  16. Two New Chemical Constituents from the Stem Bark of Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene See

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1, one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2, and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3 and mangostenol (4. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.

  17. RNA-seq assembly and analysis of Garcinia mangostana transcriptome during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Diyana Kamal Azlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit plant rich in antioxidant and bears recalcitrant seeds. The extent of water loss and low temperature tolerable by recalcitrant seed varies from regular orthodox seeds. Present study generates transcriptome resources for G. mangostana to postulate potential transcriptome differences between recalcitrant and orthodox seeds during seed germination process. Raw reads of pooled samples used for the assembly have been deposited in genbank accession SRR5412332.

  18. Optimasi Waktu Maserasi untuk Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Rind Menggunakan Pelarut Etil Asetat

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Ni Putu Ayu Dewi; LPMK, Dewi; KW, Astuti; NPE, Fitri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maceration is a non-heating extraction method the result of which is affected by the type of solvent and the maceration time. Objective: To get the higher alpha-mangostin concentration (Garcinia mangostana L.) rind that was macerated using ethyl acetate solvent and to determine the optimum maceration time needed to produce high concentration of alpha-mangostin. Methods: the mangosteen rind was macerated using ethyl acetate with the variation of the maceration time of 6, 12, 24 and...

  19. Triterpenoids from n-hexane extract of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiek Soemiati

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of n-hexane extract of dried Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark (Cluciaceae furnished two triterpenoids, identified as 3oxo-7,24-euphadien-26oic acid (1, 3β-hydroxy-7,24-euphadien-26 oic acid (2. The structure of compounds were determined by using UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  20. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  2. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Abstract. The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of production with the view to improving the trade. Farmers have Garcinia trees on their farm and these were spared during land preparation for farming. Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the ...

  3. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  4. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  5. A Comparative Study of Actinidia deliciosa and Garcinia mangostana in Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Vellapandian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antiosteoporotic activity of the fresh juice mixtures obtained from Actinidia deliciosa and Garcinia mangostana as well as the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana on postmenopausal osteoporosis. 3-month-old female Wistar rats were ovariectiomized and the treatment began 14 days after ovariectomy and continued for 40 days. Statistically significant changes were noticed in body weight, ash weight, bone mineral content, and femur length and weight followed by serum evaluation and histopathology of femur bone. Administration of the fresh juice mixtures of the fruits of Actinidia deliciosa and Garcinia mangostana prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss. The administration of the fresh juice mixtures resulted in an increase in the femur length and weight, followed by an increase in the body weight as well as the calcium content obtained from the ash of the femur bone. It is evident that the fresh juice mixtures can be used as a remedy as well as a prophylactic for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The present study showed that the combined effect of the fruit juice mixtures of Actinidia deliciosa and Garcinia mangostana was found to be a better treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis when compared to the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana.

  6. Experience of the chronological correlation of the Holocene sea coastal landforms in the Tuloma River valley and the Kola Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstobrov D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a continuation of studies of the Earth's crust neotectonic movements within the north-western part of the Kola region. New radiocarbon data of the lake bottom sediments in the Tuloma River valley allowed to modify diagram of the relative uplift lines of the Earth surface in the north-western part of the Kola region and to compare them with previously constructed epeirogenic spectra of coastal landforms for the study area. The dynamics and nature of the area uplift have been established and the dating of the ancient shorelines within the Tuloma River valley and the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea during the Holocene has been carried out

  7. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in region of discharge of warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayanov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    The 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in trout cultivated in warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station (APS) in the period 1974-1979 were 30-70 pCi/kg. This is one-quarter to one-third of the radionuclide concentrations in wild fish living in this region and one-tenth of that in commerical fishes from other waters on the Kola Peninsula. The low radionuclide concentrations can be attributed to the absence of pollution in the coolant reservoir of the Kola APS during this period of operation, and also to the fact that the main mode of entry of radionuclides into the fish's body is through food. The investigations lead to the very important conclusion that fish-farming based on the warm effluents of atomic power stations is a feasible proposition

  8. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body.

  9. Investigation and design concepts for a nuclear waste repository in the Kola Peninsula of Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.N.; Sharp, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Murmansk and Archangelsk regions located in northwestern Russia have accumulated large quantities of radioactive waste products from nuclear power plants, military ships (submarines, aircraft carriers and cruisers), ice breakers and light ships of the Murmansk Merchant Marines. This nuclear waste and associated byproducts are temporarily stored in surface facilities which lack long-term safety and containment assurances. Due to the lack of temporary storage facilities, the Russian Navy accumulates nuclear waste on floating ships and continues to dump liquid wastes into the Arctic Sea. The extent and nature of the problem is presently unknown. Waste producing organizations have neither facilities for the treatment and disposal, nor the capital necessary to construct such facilities. If urgent measures are not taken soon, the increasing quantity of waste will create an even more serious danger not only to the local population but also to the neighboring countries. The problem is one of global concern. This paper describes work being done at the Kola Mining Institute to mitigate problems of the past and to assure the continued safe production of energy from nuclear resources. The Kola Peninsula provides a natural location for the storage of nuclear materials and as a site for the production of abundant, inexpensive nuclear power. Recent studies support the theory that Kola is an ideal location for both the production of nuclear power and as a site to store and recycle radioactive materials. However, there exists today in Russia several potential long-term, world-threatening environmental problems if they are not addressed and resolved within the next few years. The problem is not due to the lack of technical solutions, but rather a lack of political and capital commitment

  10. Modeling of the regional and global transport of radionuclides from the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, G.I.; Aloyan, A.E.; Arutyunyan, V.O.; Louzan, P.I.; Bergman, R.

    2000-05-01

    This Technical Report belongs to the INTAS project 96-1802: Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia. The aim of this INTAS project is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in northwest Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The main aim in this technical report is to calculate and describe radioactive contamination levels in the Kola Peninsula resulting from a hypothetical accidental release from the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The method of assessment of radioactive contamination in the Kola Peninsula described here is based on the mathematical models developed at the Institute for Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). Model validation was performed several times on a wide variety of actual problems and case studies. The validation procedure indicated good capabilities in predicting the qualitative and quantitative contamination patterns resulting from the processes under consideration. Various scenarios reflecting typical meteorological conditions in a specific area are used in the numerical simulation. The conclusions resulting from analysis of such scenario calculations are of rather general character, and can be extrapolated in time provided that climate remains relatively stable. The employed 3D numerical model of radionuclide transport in the Northern hemisphere takes into account the interaction between boundary layers of the ocean and atmosphere, long term tracing of the radionuclides evolution in the atmosphere, their deposition on the earth surface, and migration in soil and sea water

  11. Field experience of new nuclear fuel types on the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Burlov, S.; Panov, A.; Saprykin, V.

    2008-01-01

    Specificity of the Kola nuclear power plant geographical position, conditions of region economics determine fuel management strategy. Isolation of Kola power supply system and, as a consequence, generating capacities redundancy cause operation of the nuclear power plant on reduced power level. At the same time there is a need to operate the power unit on the maximum power level in the case of not planned conditions. The basis of in-core fuel management is an achievement of the maximal burnup under providing of high installed capacity. At present there are not abilities to improve the fuel cycle based on traditional implementation fuel assemblies. Burnup maximum in these fuel cycles is achieved. At the core periphery installed highest possible quantity of the burned-up assemblies in the view of safety operation margins satisfaction. Works on application of the second generation fuel have been carried out on the Kola NPP since 2002. Fuel assemblies of this type are profiled. Burnable absorber, changed lattice spacing in relation to standard fuel, changed height of a fuel column, thickness of fuel pin clad are applied. In CR fuel followers modernized docking unit (with hafnium plates are intended for energy-release splash suppression) is used. At present 2-nd generation fuel is in experimental operation on unit 3 (18-21 fuel cycles, 2002-2007 years) and unit 4 (18-19 fuel cycles, 2005-2007 years). Safety margins did not exceeded. Coolant activity did not exceed the limiting value. There were not damaged fuel assemblies of second generation. Originally in the project of applications of new fuel it was supposed to refuel annually 78 fresh assemblies. At the moment annual refueling consists of 66 assemblies with effective enrichment 3.82 %. Cycle duration does not exceed 250-260 effective days. The part of assemblies is left on 5-th cycle of operation. In a similar fuel cycle in 2007 on the unit 1 operation with profiled fuel (enrichment of 3.82 %) of shakeproof type

  12. Stavovi nastavnika osnovnih škola o inkluzivnom odgoju i obrazovanju u Republici Makedoniji

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova-Radojičić, Daniela; Čičevska-Jovanova, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Cilj je ovog istraživanja utvrditi kakvi su stavovi nastavnika/ca razredne i predmetne nastave u 25 redovnih osnovnih škola prema uključivanju učenika s posebnim odgojno-obrazobnim potrebama (POOP) u njihove razrede. Korišten je upitnik koji je posebno napravljen za ovo istraživanje. Podatci su dobiveni od ukupno 879 nastavnika/ca. Ovim smo istraživanjem htjeli utvrditi broj učenika s POOP uključenih u redovnim školama, stavove nastavnika/ca o inkluzivnom obrazovanju kao i njihovo mišljenje o...

  13. FORMULASI GEL ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L dengan BASIS CARBOPOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L. contains xanthones which is a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that neutralize free radicals that can protect the body from the biological system adverse effects arising from the process or reaction that causes excessive oxidation. The purpose of this study is to formulate extract of mangosteen rind with a particular concentration in the form of gel formulation of antioxidants and determine physical and chemical properties. The research is experimental research. Object studied is mangosteen rind extract (Garcinia mangostana L. were extracted using maceration. Formula made with mevariasikan 3 concentration of the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% use a gelling agent carbopol 940 0.5%. Tests carried out on organoleptic gel formulation (odor, color, texture, homogeneity, pH, skin irritation, and the gel dispersive power of antioxidants. Results of testing physical properties, gel ethanol extract of mangosteen rind using a base of carbopol 940 in formula I with a concentration of 0.2% extract of yellow vaginal discharge, formula II with a 0.4% concentration of yellow-brown, formula III with a concentration of 0.6% yellow brown and smelled each formula oleum citri and smooth creamy texture, has a pH value of 6 with good homogeneity and does not irritate. Dispersive power generated at each antioxidant gel formula has a value that does not meet the requirements of the spread. From this study it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of the skin of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L. can be formulated as a gel antioxidants. The best antioxidant gel formula is the formula I with a 0.2% concentration of the extracts from the results of testing physical properties are quite stable and has a color more transparent.

  14. ISOLASI SENYAWA AKTIF “BRINE SHRIMPS“ AKAR Garcinia cowa Roxb FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afdhil arel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavonoid compound has been isolated as yellow crystalline which has melting point at 218-220˚C from root of Garcinia cowa Roxb. The compound was isolated by using column chromatography and characteristic with ultra violet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.   The indicated this compound was hegoflavon (B. Anticancer activities of aethyl acetat fraction and hegoflavon (B using “Brine Shrimps“ gave LC50 37,325 µg/ml and 1,95 µg/ml.

  15. Inhibition of acidic sphingomyelinase by xanthone compounds isolated from Garcinia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, C; Ikeda, Y; Kondo, S; Furuya, S; Hirabayashi, Y; Koyano, T; Saito, Y; Umezawa, K

    2000-01-01

    Sphingomyelinase is considered to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell growth. In the course of our screening for acidic sphingomyelinase inhibitors we isolated three xanthone compounds, alpha-mangostin, cowanin, and cowanol, from the bark of Garcinia speciosa. These compounds competitively inhibited bovine brain-derived acidic sphingomyelinase with IC(50) values of 14.1, 19.2, and 10.9 microM, respectively and inhibited the acidic sphingomyelinase more effectively than the neutral sphingomyelinase of bovine brain. alpha-Mangostin inhibited the acidic sphingomyelinase in the most selective manner. alpha-Mangostin was chemically modified and its structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  16. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  17. Current and perspective on the radioactive waste management at territory of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amazova, Ludmila

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, 25 thousand cubic metres of solid radioactive waste of one million Ci activity has accumulated in the Murmansk Region because of previous civilian and military activities and more will come as a result of the coming decommissioning of nuclear submarines and nuclear power plants. Only a part of the solid radioactive waste is reprocessed at the Kola nuclear power plant and at the repairing and technological enterprise Atomflot. Compaction and incineration are used to decrease the volume of waste. An incineration facility at Atomflot fails to satisfy new requirements and even releases more radioactivity to the atmosphere than what used to come from the Kola nuclear power plant operation. Solid radioactive waste is stored non-reprocessed Spetscombinat special plant Radon. This plant collects and stores radioactive waste produced by the civil industry and at the bases of the Northern Fleet. It is emphasised, however, that during the observation period there were no cases of dangerous increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Soil and vegetation contamination by long-lived radionuclides was at the background level. The establishment of a common reprocessing and regional storage facility for long-term storage has been proposed by the Ministry for Atomic Energy

  18. Radioactive sources of main radiological concern in the Kola-Barents region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    1998-07-01

    This overview focuses on some major issues for risk analysis appearing in our recent study surveying radioactive sources on the Kola Peninsula, along with adjacent parts of the Arctic seas. The main issues of the parts are as follows: An introduction to the presence of radioactive sources and environmental contamination in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the current status as regards various significant studies. Radioactive contamination in man and the environment on the Kola Peninsula, as well as radioactive transfer during the last three decades from external sources to the Kola-Barents region. The main conclusion from the findings is that the contamination is generally relatively low and that neither the activity levels in samples of soil, vegetation, and the important food-chains, nor the content in man indicate any changes since 1986 that could not be explained by the combined effect of the cumulative deposition from the nuclear weapons testing and the accident in Chernobyl. The radioactive sources of main concern in the region belong to the following categories: nuclear power submarine and cruiser naval bases; civil nuclear power ice-breaker fleet; building and repairing shipyards; nuclear power plants; radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel storage facilities; sunken reactors/ships; liquid radioactive waste dumping; solid radioactive waste dumping; nuclear weapon bases; nuclear weapon tests; civil nuclear explosions; nuclear accidents; mining radioactive ore deposits and plants; new projects and others. Several case studies concerning releases in the Kola-Barents region are reviewed, and followed by consequence analyses for the categories of primary interest covering: a) airborne releases from the Kola NPP, and from submarines or spent nuclear fuel; b) releases from objects in the marine environment including submarines, dumped reactors, and various other radioactive objects and waste; c) releases from liquid and solid wastes stored on land or during

  19. Radioactive sources of main radiological concern in the Kola-Barents region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Baklanov, A

    1998-07-01

    This overview focuses on some major issues for risk analysis appearing in our recent study surveying radioactive sources on the Kola Peninsula, along with adjacent parts of the Arctic seas. The main issues of the parts are as follows: An introduction to the presence of radioactive sources and environmental contamination in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the current status as regards various significant studies. Radioactive contamination in man and the environment on the Kola Peninsula, as well as radioactive transfer during the last three decades from external sources to the Kola-Barents region. The main conclusion from the findings is that the contamination is generally relatively low and that neither the activity levels in samples of soil, vegetation, and the important food-chains, nor the content in man indicate any changes since 1986 that could not be explained by the combined effect of the cumulative deposition from the nuclear weapons testing and the accident in Chernobyl. The radioactive sources of main concern in the region belong to the following categories: nuclear power submarine and cruiser naval bases; civil nuclear power ice-breaker fleet; building and repairing shipyards; nuclear power plants; radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel storage facilities; sunken reactors/ships; liquid radioactive waste dumping; solid radioactive waste dumping; nuclear weapon bases; nuclear weapon tests; civil nuclear explosions; nuclear accidents; mining radioactive ore deposits and plants; new projects and others. Several case studies concerning releases in the Kola-Barents region are reviewed, and followed by consequence analyses for the categories of primary interest covering: a) airborne releases from the Kola NPP, and from submarines or spent nuclear fuel; b) releases from objects in the marine environment including submarines, dumped reactors, and various other radioactive objects and waste; c) releases from liquid and solid wastes stored on land or during

  20. Assessment of the uncertainty and the proficiency test for accrediting KOLAS of ISO 17025 for a neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.; Sim, C.M.; Lim, I.C.; Hong, K.P.; Choi, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    KOLAS(Korea of Lab Accreditation Scheme) is the charter member of ILAS (International Lab Accreditation Scheme) and APLAS (Asia Pacific Lab Accreditation Scheme), which originates from ISO 17025. KATS (Korea Agent of Technology Standard) governs the KOLAS. The KOLAS describes the basis of satisfying those issues related to a quality assurance and management system. The requirements specify an organization, the accommodation and environmental conditions, an uncertainty in the measurement and an inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program. The evaluation process of the requirements of certifying KOLAS for HANARO NRF has been proceeded by a neutron radiography laboratory, NRT level II course of SNT-TC-1A II is opened, with 20 persons attending for certification. An inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program is conducted through with Kyoto University in accordance with ASTM method for determining the imaging quality in direct thermal neutron radiographic testing (E545-91). In order to determine the uncertainty, dimensional measurements for the calibration fuel pin of the RISO using a profile project is performed with the ASTM practice for thermal neutron radiography of materials (E748-95) (orig.)

  1. A ground-validated NDVI dataset for monitoring vegetation dynamics and mapping phenology in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.S.A.; Jonsson, P.; Hogda, K.A.; Karlsen, S.R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Eklundh, L.

    2007-01-01

    An NDVI dataset covering Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula was created for vegetation and climate studies, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 16-day maximum value composite data from 2000 to 2005. To create the dataset, (1) the influence of the polar night and snow on the NDVI

  2. Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Anatolian Khramulya, Capoeta tinca (Heckel, 1843 from Çamlıgöze Dam Lake, Sivas, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Dirican

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn were analyzed in muscle, skin and liver of Anatolian Khramulya, Capoeta tinca (Heckel, 1843 from Çamlıgöze Dam Lake located at Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The heavy metal analysis of samples was carried out by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Ag, Cd, Co, Pb and Zn were found in all of the examined tissues. Cu and Ni were not determined in all tissues studied. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in all of the examined tissues of Capoeta tinca were as follows: Ag: 0.057 ± 0.038–0.120 ± 0.051, Cd: 0.020 ± 0.004–1.451 ± 0.879, Co: 0.127 ± 0.067–0.205 ± 0.086, Pb: 1.939 ± 0.477–2.604 ± 0.393 and Zn: 0.056 ± 0.014–0.530 ± 0.129 μg/g in Çamlıgöze Dam Lake. According to international criterias and Turkish regulation, heavy metal concentrations especially Cd and Pb in Çamlıgöze Dam Lake were found above the permissible levels for examined tissues of Capoeta tinca. Furthermore, frequent consumption of contaminated fish is able to offer a serious public health risk. Therefore, the concentrations of metals accumulated in the fish, which are commonly consumed by public, should be monitored periodically in Çamlıgöze Dam Lake

  3. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  4. IFPE/KOLA-3-MIR-RAMP, KOLA-3 MIR test temperature during ramp, FGR and pressure at EOL, Bu up to 55 MWd/kg UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Description: In 1996-97 a number of tests with the high burn up VVER-440 fuel under transient conditions were carried out in the MIR reactor (SSC RIAR). Fuel rods that had operated under normal operating conditions at the Kola NPP Unit 3 during 4- and 5 fuel cycles up to the maximum burnup of about 50 and 60 MWd/kgU were tested. The tests were carried out under single ramp conditions (RAMP experiment) and step by step power increase (FGR-1 and FGR-2 experiments). The objective of the experiments was to determine the power ramp influence on fuel rods state, to evaluate FGR induced-threshold linear power values, to study dependence between the linear power, temperature, structure and properties of the fuel. Nine re-fabricated fuel rods were tested in the above mentioned tests. All of these re-fabricated fuel rods (RFRs) were cut from fuel rods of the FA's 198 and 222. The positions of the RFRs, the average linear heat rate of the FAs 198 and 222 fuel rods during base irradiation, the operating conditions of the FA-198 and FA-222 fuel rods, details of the design values of the FA's 198 and 222 fuel rods and the main operating conditions of the Kola 3 during 5-9 fuel cycles are provided. RAMP test: The test rig with RFRs was installed for testing in the research reactor MIR in February 1996. During the RAMP experiment 3 non-equipped RFRs were tested under power ramp conditions. The RAMP test was divided into 3 stages: stage 1 - irradiation at initial power level (duration - ∼346 hours); stage 2 - power ramp from initial to maximal level (duration - ∼23 min); stage 3 - hold stage after ramp (duration - ∼107 hours). FGR-1 test: The FGR-1 experiment started in March 1996 and finished in April 1996. The test rig included three RFRs. Two were instrumented with pressure sensors while the third was not instrumented. FGR-2 test: The FGR-2 experiment was the second of the tests series directed to investigation of the thermal physical behaviour of VVER fuel at the different

  5. 52 - 55 Indabawa - Antibacterial paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Kola nut) against. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied. Results showed that alcohol extract of Garcinia kola was active against Staphylococcus aureus and. Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  6. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Allium cepa, Baphia nitida, Carissa spinarum, Elaeis guineensis, Garcinia kola, Kigelia africana, Monodora myristica, Morinda lucida, Musa sapientum, Olax subscorpioidea, Pupalia lappacea, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Piper guineense, ...

  7. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  8. Potencial inibitório in vitro de biflavonoides de Garcinia gardneriana : um estudo sobre monoamina oxidades e CYP19 (aromatase)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angélica Recalde Gil

    2015-01-01

    The plant Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi, popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari" has traditionally been used for various types of inflammatory diseases and the evaluation of their chemical composition, mainly of leaves, has resulted in biflavonoids as major compounds. These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant. In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that...

  9. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  10. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  11. Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2014-05-01

    Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

  12. Lead isotopes in rocks of granulitic belt of the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zykov, S.I.; Stupnikova, N.I.; Sidorenko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    From the data on lead isotopes in eclogites of granulitic rocks of the Kola Peninsula Salnye tundras a multistage development of rocks is shown and the age of metamorphism granulitic facies is determined. Results of lead isotope dating have shown that, in all probability the time of metamorphism manifestation corresponds to 2780+-150 mln. years and granulitic rocks are the products of polymetamorphism which have endured metamorphic transformations 1800 mln. years ago. Besides, a supposition is made on a possible age of initial ancient rocks within 3700-4100 mln. years. In interpreting the isotopic dating data the dependence expressing variation in the /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratio versus the values of /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 232/Th//sup 238/U ratios has been used.

  13. Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  14. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Abebe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

  15. Structure of settlements of Macoma balthica in the southern knee of the Kola Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova A. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of seasonal dynamics of size-mass structure of Macoma balthica settlements has been investigated on the littoral zone of the southern part of the Kola Bay. Age structure has been calculated; data on the density and biomass of settlements have been obtained; the distribution of the mollusk on the littoral has been shown. On the littoral zone of the Kola Bay makoms are found everywhere, mostly inhabiting the lower and middle horizons of the littoral; this distribution depends on the content of food particles, which is an indirect indicator of the granulometric composition of soil and total organic content. The highest indicators of biomass and the number of settlements have been marked in the intertidal zone near the village of Abram-mys. This is due to the presence of silty-sandy soil – the most suitable habitat for shellfish, as the abundance of settlement figures increases as the silting of sand. The increase in the density of makom settlements in autumn occurs due to the active settling of juveniles. Shellfish from the right bank settlements surpass others on the morphometric parameters. Large shell sizes are explained by the presence of streams ensuring the inflow of food particles. Researches of the size-distribution of Macoma balthica mass parameters have shown that their values are increased from the upper to the lower horizon littoral as in the lower horizon the enhanced water exchange contributes to the self-cleaning processes and provides shellfish by food. The dominance of mollusks of younger age groups (0–3 years is characteristic for all settlements. Clams with the maximum age of 8 years have been found in the New Bridge area. The presence in the samples of large number of mollusks of younger age groups indicates the normal development of Macoma balthica settlements.

  16. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg and arsenic (As in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements include Pb, Cd, As, and Hg. It is believed that 90 % of lead, 70–80 % of cadmium, and arsenic, over 30 % of mercury in the atmosphere are of anthropogenic origin, and emissions of these elements in the atmosphere are almost completely manufactured in the Northern Hemisphere. The main sources of income in the Barents Sea are waters of the North Atlantic current and the large-scale atmospheric transport from industrialized Central Europe. As a rule the spatial distribution of trace elements is in good agreement with the granulometric composition of bottom sediments and the content of organic carbon. The contents of most of the listed trace elements in samples of bottom sediments on the standard section "Kola Meridian" in the Norwegian classification are consistent with background levels with the exception of Ni, Cr, and As. Their content in bottom sediments at some stations has met the criteria for "slight" and "moderate" pollution. The obtained results confirm the insignificant levels of contamination of bottom sediments of some trace elements. On the status of stocks of commercial species of aquatic biological resources, the observed levels of contamination of bottom sediments in the investigated areas of the Barents Sea will have no significant effect

  17. Fennoscandia in the Phanerozoic: Paleogeodynamic Reconstructions Based on the New Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Data from the Kola Magmatic Province (kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    During last four years we studied more than 100 dolerite and alkaline dykes, which are widely spread on the Kola Peninsula and belong to the Devonian magmatic province. Within the scope of our researches some of these dykes have been dated and their precise isotopic ages (Ar/Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) lie in the range of 390-360 Ma (Veselovskiy et al., 2013). The age of other sampled dykes can be considered as Devonian due to similarity of their paleomagnetic, geochemical and petrological characteristics to the dated ones. Paleomagnetic directions have been obtained from more than 80 dykes. Almost all dykes yielded (a) a low-temperature component that is aligned along the present-day field and is likely of viscous origin; (b) a well defined dual-polarity intermediate-temperature component with steep eastward directions that accounts for a main part of the NRM and often decays to the origin on orthogonal plots; and (c) a dual-polarity high-temperature component with shallow inclinations and ENE declinations of presumed primary origin. The presence of the primary high-temperature component makes us possible to calculate preliminary Baltica's paleomagnetic pole for the Middle-Late Devonian. In view of the obtained microprobe data we believe that intermediate component is a result of unknown hydrothermal process, which age can be estimated from the comparison of corresponding paleomagnetic pole with the Baltica's APWP as Jurassic. We believe that both mentioned episodes of endogenous activity within the large stable craton were connected with plume-lithospheric interaction in the Devonian and Jurassic. In this presentation we use the obtained paleomagnetic, petrological and geochronological data to determine the paleogeography of Baltica in the Devonian and Jurassic times and to find its position within the global paleotectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 12-05-00216, 13-05-12021, 13-05-12030 and grant MK-3383.2012.5.

  18. Cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 caged xanthones from the resin and fruits of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Vichai; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Pohmakotr, Manat; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Sophasan, Samaisukh; Yoosook, Chalobon; Kasisit, Jittra; Napaswat, Chanita; Santisuk, Thawatchai; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2007-01-01

    Three new caged xanthones, 7-methoxydesoxymorellin (1), 2-isoprenylforbesione (2) and 8,8a-epoxymorellic acid (3), together with nine known caged xanthones were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of resin and fruits of Garcinia hanburyi. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Most of the isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxicities against a panel of mammalian cancer cell lines. Compound 3, together with the known compounds desoxymorellin, morellic acid, gambogic acid, hanburin, forbesione and dihydroisomorellin, exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity in the reverse transcriptase (RT) assay while the known compounds desoxygambogenin and dihydroisomorellin were found moderately active in the syncytium assay. This work represents the first report on the anti-HIV-1 activities of caged xanthones.

  19. Rapid determination of polyprenylated xanthones in gamboge resin of Garcinia hanburyi by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing-Zheng; Yip, Yue-Keung; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2007-02-01

    A rapid ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of eight polyprenylated xanthones including three pairs of epimers, namely morellic acid (MA), 30-hydroxygambogic acid (HGA), 30-hydroxyepigambogic acid (HEGA), isogambogic acid (IGA), epiisogambogic acid (EIGA), gambogenic acid (GNA), gambogic acid (GA), and epigambogic acid (EGA), in gamboge resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The separation was performed on a narrow bore C8 column with isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol-ACN-40 mM KH2PO4 buffer (37.5:37.5:25 v/v/v, containing 0.1% tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The newly developed method was used to determine the contents of the eight compounds present in the gamboge. Results showed that GA and EGA are the dominant components of gamboge. The content ratio of each epimer pair remained constant, indicating that the content ratio of epimers can be used as a specific characteristic for the quality control of gamboge.

  20. SECONDARY METABOLITE OF Aspergillus fumigatus, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT Garcinia griffithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Indah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the tissues of the fruits of Garcinia griffithii. The fungalstrain was identified from the colony, and it was characteristic of cell morphology. The ethyl acetate extracts derivedfrom fungus cultures showed major spots on TLC under UV light, which was continued to the isolation of thesecondary metabolites. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of NMR analyses (1H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and H-H COSY. The compounds were identified as: 4,6-dihydroxy, 3,8a-dimethyl-1-oxo-5-(3’-oxobutan-2’-yl-1,4,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl-1”,2”-dimethyl-5”-(2”’-methylprop-1”’-enylcyclopentanecarboxylate.

  1. Data on RNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mazlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. has exceptional potential for commercial and pharmaceutical applications due to its delicious fruit and medicinal properties. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of mangosteen seed development is poorly understood. In this study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of four seed developmental stages; eight, ten, twelve and fourteen weeks after anthesis. Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 sequencer was used to generate raw data of approximately 68 Gb in size. From 451,495,326 raw reads, 406,143,756 clean reads were obtained. The raw data were uploaded to SRA database and the BioProject ID is PRJNA395504. These data provide the basis for further exploration and understanding of the molecular mechanism in mangosteen seed development.

  2. Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana fruit for breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo eLi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported finding there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  4. Analisis keragaman genetik manggis (Garcinia mangostana diiradiasi dengan sinar gamma berdasarkan penanda ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Widiastuti A, Sobir, Suhartanto MR. 2013. Genetic variability analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana irradiated by gamma ray based on ISSR marker. Bioteknologi 10: 15-22. The aim of the research was to know the increasing of genetic variation within mangosteen based on banding pattern of ISSR marker as a response to some doses of irradiation gamma rays. Five dosages of irradiation gamma rays were 0 Gy, 20 Gy, 25 Gy, 30 Gy, 35 Gy and 40 Gy. The source of the seed that have been irradiated was from Cegal, Leuwiliang, Bogor. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation affecting mangosteen genetic changed. Because the randomize of gamma irradiation, it changed was individually. Gamma irradiation successfully increase genetic variability (5%.

  5. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested.

  6. Determinación de biflavonoides en diferentes partes de la especie Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Shaghdari

    Full Text Available Introducción: el género Garcinia produce una gran variedad de metabolitos secundarios representados por xantonas, acilfloroglucinoles y biflavonoides fundamentalmente. Sin embargo, existe muy poca información sobre la composición química de las especies cubanas pertenecientes a este género. Objetivo: determinar la presencia de 11 biflavonoides en las hojas, la corteza del tallo y el látex de Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi. Métodos : los extractos de las hojas, látex y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana fueron comparados empleando un método de cromatografía líquida de ultra alta eficacia (CLUAE y 11 biflavonoides como sustancias de referencia. Resultados: los biflavonoides GB-1A, GB-2A, glicósido de GB-2A, glicósido de morelloflavona, 4´´´metoxi- I3,II8-biapigenina, I3,II8-biapigenina, amentoflavona y 4´´´-metoxiamentoflavona fueron detectados como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana. Conclusiones: la especie G. bakeriana presenta biflavonoides como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo. Además, la metodología de trabajo desarrollada contribuye al conocimiento de la composición química de la flora cubana y podría constituir una alternativa, rápida y de bajo consumo de disolventes, para el estudio comparativo de especies endémicas cubanas de escasa distribución y abundancia.

  7. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Vasselli, J R; Pietrobelli, A; Greenfield, D; Nunez, C

    1998-11-11

    Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase. As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans. To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects. Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient weight control research unit. Overweight men and women subjects (mean body mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], approximately 32 kg/m2). Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound (1500 mg of hydroxycitric acid per day) or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet. The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and 12. Body weight change and fat mass change. A total of 135 subjects were randomized to either active hydroxycitric acid (n = 66) or placebo (n = 69); 42 (64%) in the active hydroxycitric acid group and 42 (61%) in the placebo group completed 12 weeks of treatment (P = .74). Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the 12-week treatment period (P<.001); however, between-group weight loss differences were not statistically significant (mean [SD], 3.2 [3.3] kg vs 4.1 [3.9] kg; P = .14). There were no significant differences in estimated percentage of body fat mass loss between treatment groups, and the fraction of subject weight loss as fat was not influenced by treatment group. Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.

  8. Moving to a new residence: the item semantisation in modern culture (on materials of the Kola Polar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya A. Suleymanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the study of the meanings and functions of family items when moving to a new place among the residents of the Kola North. The change of residence is always connected with the interruption of established lifestyle and placement of items. It revealed that while moving, the items environment of the family was reorganized and transformed completely or partially. It means the accelerated change of meaning and status of the moved family items.

  9. The U-Pb System in Schorlomite from Calcite-Amphobole-Pyroxene Pegmatite of the Afrikanda Complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Stifeeva, M. V.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Glebovitsky, V. A.; Reguir, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The geochronological U-Pb study of shorlomite from igneous rocks of the alkali-ultramafic Afrikanda massif (Kola Peninsula) was performed. The results demonstrate the reliability of calcium garnet as a mineral for the U-Pb geochronology of a wide range of igneous rocks, i.e., carbonatite, syenite, foidolite, foidite, melilitolite, melilitite, lamprophyres, micaceous kimberlites, etc., and associated rare earth and trace elements (REE, Nb, Zr) mineralization.

  10. Cyclicity of forest fire occurrence at Kola Peninsula (North-Western Russia) in connection to meteorological and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Knyazev, N. V.; Lukina, N. V.

    2010-05-01

    The cyclicity of forest fire number for the period 1958-2007 at Kola Peninsula was investigated. We used the data of regular aerial surveying. The frequency of forest fires was compared with regional meteorological and dendrochronological records. Spectral analysis with help of MEM and wavelet revealed a clear cyclic character of fire occurrence with two main maxima. The main one occurred at frequencies around 18-20 years and the other in the band 2.8-4 year. Detailed analysis showed that fire occurrence at Kola Peninsula was a result of a complicated mixture of both anthropogenic and climatic forcings (temperature and precipitation). Climatic forcing is influenced by variations of solar activity (solar radiation, cosmic rays, cosmic dust etc.). Two maxima in the fire occurrence spectrum seem to be connected to one of the main cycles of solar activity (22 y) and NAO oscillation (3-4 y). As it is well known the NAO variations are rather tightly connected to cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic region. The enhanced numbers of fires were observed close to minima of solar activity. These results may be applied for fire forecasting at Kola Peninsula. This work is financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  11. ?-Mangostin Extraction from the Native Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Binding Mechanisms of ?-Mangostin to HSA or TRF

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ming; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Hongzheng; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) an...

  12. Extraction of α-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana L. using alternative solvents: Computational predictive and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bundeesomchok, Kunnitee; Filly, Aurore; Rakotomanomana, Njara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of alternative green solvents, i.e. D-limonene, dimethylcarbonate (DMC), ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) compared to the petroleum based dichloromethane, for extraction of alpha-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps. The Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) were used to explain the dissolution behavior of the solutes and solvents, and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation. The (COSMO-RS), a...

  13. Ecological aspects of ectoparasites from the gills of Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Cichlidae from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil = Aspectos ecológicos dos ectoparasitos branquiais de Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Cichlidae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The gills of 34 specimens of Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 were analyzed, all of which had been collected from the upper Paraná river floodplain in Brazil, between March 2004 to June 2005. Five species of parasites were found: two digenean (metacercariae, only one monogenean, one cestode (plerocercoid and one copepod. The monogenean Sciadicleithrum sp. was the most abundant and prevalent, followed by the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. The results did not show any significant difference in relation to host sex with regard to the prevalence and abundance of parasites between males and females. Only Sciadicleithrum sp. presented a significant positive correlation between standard host length and the abundance and prevalence ofparasitism. The metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. presented a significant positive relation only between standard host length and abundance. Through the results, a great abundance was observed forSciadicleithrum sp. and the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. in connected lagoons. These differences suggest this type of environment can favor parasitism, especially in the case of monoxenic cycle ectoparasites, such as the monogenean. According to the importance value, only theSciadicleithrum sp. and the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. were considered secondary, while the others were considered satellites. The typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation from the parasitesystem was observed for Sciadicleithrum sp., the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. and the metacercariae Diplostomum sp.Foram examinadas brânquias de 34 espécimes de Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840, coletados na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, Brasil, entre março de 2004 a junho de 2005. Foram encontradas cinco espécies de parasitos: dois digenéticos (metacercária, apenas um monogenético, um cestóide (plerocercóide e um copepoda. O monogenético Sciadicleithrum sp. foi a espécie mais abundante e a mais prevalente, seguida pela metacerc

  14. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock

  15. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

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    Abd Eltawab Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD or 35% fat (HFD for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI. Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC and malondialdehyde (MDA. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea, TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase. Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production

  16. Frequency electromagnetic sounding with industrial power lines on Karelia-Kola geotraverse

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    А. Н. Шевцов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes theory, method and first experimental results of research on the interaction between electromagnetic waves of extremely low and ultra low frequency (0.1-200 Hz, the Earth crust and ionosphere in the field of two mutually orthogonal industrial power lines, 109 and 120 km long, in the course of FENICS experiment (Fennoscandian Electrical conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source soundings. The main focus was on the observation results along the line of Karelia-Kola geotraverse over a distance of 700 km from the source. High horizontal homogeneity of geoelectrical lithosphere section has been detected in the eastern part of the Baltic shield at depth range from 10-15 to 50-70 km. Parameters of «regular» lithosphere section have been specified to the depth of 60-70 km. As a result of inverse problem solution for the western part of Karelia and Central Finland, a zone of decreased transverse resistivity has been detected at the depth of 50-60 km, corresponding to the area, detected by seismic methods, where Moho boundary reaches the same depth.

  17. International aid is needed in resolving the military nuclear waste problems in Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forss, S.

    1995-01-01

    Information about military nuclear waste problems in the counties of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has become public on an unprecedented scale since the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Relevant technical details about the nuclear waste problem are still unclassified. The amount of knowledge is, however, steadily increasing despite military secrecy. It is now possible to perform a fairly reliable evaluation of the scope and magnitude of the nuclear waste problem that stems from more than three decades of operation of nuclear submarines and ships of the former Soviet Northern Fleet. The former Soviet Navy built some 240 nuclear submarines, most of them with twin reactors. About 180 nuclear submarines will have to be disposed of in the coming years. Since the late eighties the Soviet/Russian Navy has retired about twenty nuclear submarines a year. Approximately one hundred nuclear submarines now lie in Russian harbours in the North and in the Far East, awaiting disposal. More than seventy are in the Kola and Arkhangelsk areas. Most of the retired submarines still carry nuclear fuel in their reactor. (orig.)

  18. Community assessment for identification and prioritization health problems in Navai Kola village, Babol, Iran

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    Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attracting community participation is the most important developmental solution in various sectors of the society. In this regard, the community evaluation is the process during which researchers and community members get the right understanding of health, living concerns, and community health care system by collecting and analyzing data and determining the strengths, resources, and the needs of society. Navai Kola is a village in the Babol, Iran, in which this research has been done to identify and prioritize problems. Methods: This research is based on the model of the Northern Carolina. In this model, the process of community assessment is done in an eight-stage process that the first seven stages include: identification and classification of problems and the eighth involves drawing up operational plans for solving high priority problems. Results: In this study, a total of 40 different problems were identified in order, and the main were lack of sports facilities and entertainment, waste disposal, dangerous U-turn point in the entrance of the village, worn out power and water utilities, and youth unemployment. Conclusion: Most of the problems identified were issues not directly related to health, but had effects that differently appeared in community health.

  19. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula

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    O. A. Tarasova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between local meteorological conditions and the surface ozone variability was studied by means of statistical modeling, using ozone and meteorological parameters measured at Lovozero (250 m a.s.l., 68.5°N, 35.0°E, Kola Peninsula for the period of 1999-2000. The regression model of daily mean ozone concentrations on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed explains up to 70% of day-to-day ozone variability in terms of meteorological condition changes, if the seasonal cycle is also considered. A regression model was created for separated time scales of the variables. Short-term, synoptical and seasonal components are separated by means of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering. The synoptical scale variations were chosen as the most informative from the point of their mutual relation with meteorological parameters. Almost 40% of surface ozone variations in time periods of 11-60 days can be explained by the regression model on separated scales that is 30% more efficient than ozone residuals usage. Quantitative and qualitative estimations of the relations between surface ozone and meteorological predictors let us preliminarily conclude that at the Lovozero site surface ozone variability is governed mainly by dynamical processes of various time scale rather than photochemistry, especially during the cold season.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Joe

    Treatment group two received 10% boiled Garcinia kola seed, while group three received 10% raw. Garcinia kola seed in addition to basal feed (Vital starter and ..... at inclusion levels in poultry feed at 10% and / or above tend to limit the growth performance of broiler chicks. Since heat treatment does not affect much of the.

  1. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  2. Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. javanica Boerl leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahayasih, Putu Gita Maya Widyaswari; Elya, Berna; Hanafi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity. The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. lateriflora leaves extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods and Feric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) to determine the antioxidant properties. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are 13.95 and 19.65 µg/mL by DPPH and FRAP methods respectively. E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 37.14 µg/mL and 34.46 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method. Meanwhile M3 fraction was the most active fraction in methanol extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 50.02 µg/mL and 37.32 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method.

  3. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels

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    Kar Xin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana. An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111, (200, (220, and (311 planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

  4. Antibacterial and EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activities of Polyhydroxylated Xanthones from Garcinia succifolia

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    Susawat Duangsrisai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6. All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1, as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  5. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RNA-seq analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit ripening

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    Azhani Abdul-Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is known for its delectable taste and contains high amount of xanthones which have been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other bioactive properties. However, stage-specific regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening has never been studied in detail. We have performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of three ripening stages (Stage 0, 2 and 6 of mangosteen. We have obtained a raw data from six libraries through Illumina HiSeq 4000. A total of ~40 Gb of raw data were generated. Clean reads of 650,887,650 (bp were obtained from 656,913,570 (bp raw reads. The raw transcriptome data were deposited to SRA database, with the BioProject accession number of PRJNA339916. These data will be beneficial for transcriptome profiling in order to study the regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening. The lack of a complete sequence database from this species impedes protein identification. These data sets provide a reference data for the exploration of novel genes or proteins to understand mangosteen fruit ripening behaviour.

  7. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswal Nikhil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent.

  8. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-09-02

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent.

  9. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Carvalho-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test. In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay. Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  10. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  11. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

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    Peterson Menezes Terrazas

    Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE and normochromatic (NCE erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  12. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  13. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

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    V. V. Chashchin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  14. Fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) from silexites of the Keivy alkali granites, Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalina, L. M.; Zozulya, D. R.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Tarasov, M. P.; Selivanova, E. A.; Tarasova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of the morphology, anatomy, and chemical composition of fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) from silexites of the Keivy alkali granites in Kola Peninsula has shown that these minerals are the main REE concentrators in this area and that their content reaches 10-15 vol %. Britholite and yttrialite are associated with zircon, aeschynite-(Y), chevkinite-(Ce), fergusonite-(Y), thorite, monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and bastnaesite-(Ce). Three morphological types of fluorbritholite-(Y) have been identified: (I) subhedral crystals and grains, (II) anhedral grains intergrown with yttrialite-(Y), and (III) poikilitic crystals and skeletal aggregates. These morphological types of fluorbritholite-(Y) are characterized by successive (I to III type) decreases in P content down to the pure silicate fluorbritholite-(Y). Crystals of the first type are heterogenous: the P content decreases and the HREE content increases from core to rim. The total REE content increases insignificantly from types I to II and drastically decreases in fluorbritholite-(Y) of type III. The successive prevalence of HREE over LREE indicates the hydrothermal conditions of mineral crystallization. The chemical composition of yttrialite-(Y) is distinguished by the relatively high Th content and depletion in Al. The compositional trend (from core to rim) in heterogeneous grains of yttrialite-(Y) testifies that their heterogeneity was caused by metasomatic alteration of the mineral. The interrelation of fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) indicate that fluorbritholite-(Y) of types II and III were formed later than yttrialite-(Y). Evidence for fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) formation suggests the significant role of hydrothermal processes in the genesis of silexites.

  15. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Shutov, V.N.; Ya Bruk, G.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Pogorely, Ju.A.; Burkova, T.F.

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137 Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137 Cs and 90 Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137 Cs intake in this group were about 10 μSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 μSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137 Cs intake of about 0.5 μSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137 Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90 Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied

  16. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of

  17. Dataset of SSR markers for ISSR-Suppression-PCR to detect genetic variation in Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Sri A’jilah Samsir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset, we present 15 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers with the motifs (ACn, (GAn, and (ACn(AGn using a ISSR-Suppression-PCR technique in order to discriminate Garcinia mangostana from diverse geographical origins in Peninsular Malaysia. A few loci showed differences between 3 and 6 bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that may be useful for differentiate of genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the ISSR-Suppression-PCR is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of selected G. mangostana in Malaysia.

  18. Seismo- and neotectonics in Finnmark, Kola and the southern Barents Sea, part 2: Seismological analysis and seismotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, H.; Lindholm, C.

    1997-02-01

    A detailed review and analysis of seismological data acquired since 1979 from Finnmark, Kola and the southern Barents Sea has provided a much improved delineation of the earthquake activity in that region. In the Barents Sea the seismicity is confined only to the western areas, while the Finnmark-Kola coastal areas show some seismicity only north and east of Murmansk, in the Rybachi-Cape Tereberski region. Further inland there are several clear seismicity lineations that to some extent can be correlated with postglacial faults, including the NE-SW striking Stuoragurra Fault in Finnmark. The spatial correlation between seismicity and mapped faults is interpreted in general as a reflection of broad zones of weakness that respond to the present-day stress field. A detailed analysis of the earthquakes in this area has also shown a dynamic consistency in that they reveal a reverse faulting pattern that is consistent with a detailed geological study that includes a core drilling. The dominant horizontal stress direction in this region is NNW-SSE, consistent with the "ridge push" effect.

  19. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigina, Olga

    1998-07-01

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and

  1. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigina, Olga

    1998-01-01

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and degradation levels on permanent field

  2. The effect of ethanol extract of mangostene (Garcinia Mangostana Linn. peel on tongue cancer cells Supri's Clone-1 apoptosis, in vitro

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    Maria Aurora Titiana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death serves to regulate physiological and pathological conditions. Garcinia mangostana Linn. is one of the medical herbs that is widely used to suppress human tongue cancer growth by inducing apoptosis. The research aimed to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. on tongue cancer cells apoptosis Supri's Clone-1 (SP-C1. The type of the research was an experimental laboratory. Tongue cancer cells SP-C1 were treated by various ethanol extract concentrations (0, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 pg/ml of Garcinia mangostana Linn. to detect the apoptosis, which was done by acridine orange and ethidium bromide coloring tests. The number of tongue cancer cells SP-C1 2x104 cells/dish. Observation on cells apoptosis was observed by a fluorescent microscope with 40 x magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and was followed by Post Hoc test (Tukey-test with 95% significance level. The result showed that tongue cancer cells SP-C1 apoptosis treated by various ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana Linn. increase significantly. The highest effect of apoptosis was detected at the 700 pg/ml concentration that has an effect on the percentage of tongue cancer cells apoptosis by 65%.

  3. Molecular Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Garcinia cambogia Germplasm Accessions

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    C Tharachand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this work, the genetic relationship among twelveGarcinia cambogia (Gaertn. Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.28 (OPA18 to 0.37 (OPA9 and Marker Index (MI ranged between 3.61 (OPA12 and 5.93 (OPA3 among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49 between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.

  4. Antitumor effect of forbesione isolated fromGarcinia hanburyion cholangiocarcinomain vitroandin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-Ard, Sunitta; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2016-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with no effective therapy and poor prognosis. Forbesione, a caged xanthone isolated from Garcinia hanburyi , has been reported to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis in human CCA cell lines. The present study aimed to further explore the potential anticancer properties of forbesione by testing its effects against the hamster CCA cell line Ham-1 in vitro and in vivo . It was observed that forbesione inhibited the growth of Ham-1 cells in vitro and suppressed Ham-1 growth as allograft in hamsters by inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This was mediated by decreasing the protein expression of cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. In addition, increased expression of p21 and p27 was detected, which could possibly explain the reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and of the bile duct cell marker cytokeratin 19 observed in forbesione-treated Ham-1 cells in vitro and in tumor tissues of forbesione-treated hamsters. Furthermore, forbesione induced apoptosis through multiple pathways. The death receptor pathway was activated by increased expression of Fas, Fas-associated death domain and activated caspase-3, along with decreased expression of procaspase-8 and procaspase-3. The mitochondrial pathway was driven by increased expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like protein 4, activated caspase-9 and inhibitor of κB-α, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2, survivin, procaspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB/p65. The endoplasmic reticulum pathway was stimulated by increased expression of activated caspase-12 and decreased expression of procaspase-12. No side effects or toxicity were observed in forbesione-treated hamsters. Thus, forbesione is a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy that deserves further investigation.

  5. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  6. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

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    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  7. The effect of mundu fruit Garcinia dulcis Roxb Kurz methanol extract on lyphoprotein profile and trygliseride white rat Rattus norvegicus L

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    Arum Setiawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis (Roxb. Kurz (Guttiferae is a tropical fruit tree native to Indonesia and its known as an Asian medicinal plant used in folk medicines. In ethno pharmacology, Garcinia dulcis has been used in traditional medicine, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-malaria and anti-bacterial. The scientific studies of biological activity of Garcinia dulcis on lipide profile and trigliseride are relatively measly. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to know the effect of methanol extract of Garcinia dulcis fruit on total cholestrol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyseride rat hyperlipidemic. These studies using Garcinia dulcis fruit from Banyuasin, South Sumatra. In this observation, 30 male rat from Laboratory and Research Institute for Integrated Testing, Gadjah Mada University, 2 months old were used and divided into five groups randomly. The first group was given high cholesterol and lipid diet, as a normal group. The second group was given high cholesterol, lipid diet and simvastatin 3,6 mg/kg bow/day dosage, as a simvastatin group. The third, fourth and fifth groups was given high cholesterol, lipid diet and methanol extract 1.8; 2.7 and 3.6 mg/kg bow/day dosage. Total cholestrol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyseride contains using spectrophotometry method, were observed 1 and 30 days. The differences among groups were analyzed using Anova followed by LSD to locate the differences. LSD analysis showed that Garcinia dulcis methanol extract treatment doses of 3.6 mg/kg bw and simvastatin lowers total cholesterol levels highest in the amount of 32.17 mg/dL and 24.1 mg/dL, significantly different compared with the treatment dose of 1.8 mg/kg bw. Garcinia dulcis fruit methanol extract treatment doses of 3.6 mg/kg bw and simvastatin lowers triglyceride levels by 7.22 mg/dL and 24.58 mg/dL, significantly different compared

  8. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Kosem, Nuttavut; Kaslungka, Sineenart; Luanratana, Omboon; Pongpan, Narongchai; Neungton, Neelobol

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract (CME) from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (family Guttiferae) using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of CME at various concentrations (0-50 microg/ml) for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. CME showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation with ED(50) of 9.25+/-0.64 microg/ml. We found that antiproliferative effect of CME was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by determinations of morphological changes and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. In addition, CME at various concentrations and incubation times were also found to inhibit ROS production. These investigations suggested that the methanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that this substance can show different activities and has potential for cancer chemoprevention which were dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent.

  9. Diversity analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana irradiated by gamma-ray based on morphological and anatomical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUH RAHMAD SUHARTANTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Widiastuti A, Sobir, Suhartanto MR. 2010. Diversity analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. irradiated by gamma-ray based on morphological and anatomical characteristics. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 23-33. The aim of this research was to increase genetic variability of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. irradiated by gamma rays dosage of 0 Gy, 20 Gy, 25 Gy, 30 Gy,35 Gy and 40 Gy. Plant materials used were seeds collected from Cegal Sub-village, Karacak Village, Leuwiliang Sub-district, Bogor District, West Java. Data was generated from morphological and anatomical characteristics. The result indicated that increasing of gamma ray dosage had inhibited ability of seed to growth, which needed longer time and decreased seed viability. Morphologically, it also decreased plant heigh, stem diameter, leaf seizure, and amount of leaf. Anatomically, stomatal density had positive correlation with plant height by correlation was 90% and 74%. Gamma rays irradiation successfully increase morphological variability until 30%. Seed creavage after irradiation increased variability and survival rate of mangosteen.

  10. Biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã-AM, visando seu manejo sustentável Reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus Heckel,1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve (Amazonas, Brazil, aiming at sustainable management of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o principal objetivo de fornecer ferramentas para auxiliar na implementação do manejo sustentável de peixes ornamentais na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã, Amazonas, foi realizado o estudo da biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840, um ciclídeo com potencial ornamental e com poucos trabalhos sobre a sua biologia e ecologia, apesar de já ser comercializado em algumas regiões amazônicas. Coletas bimestrais foram realizadas de fevereiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007 em dez igarapés contribuintes do Lago Amanã e Urini, sendo utilizados três aparelhos de pesca (rede de arrasto, rapiché e armadilha tipo matapi e ainda galhadas artificiais nas amostragens realizadas próximas aos lagos. Foram capturados 140 exemplares de H. efasciatus, sendo 50 fêmeas, 42 machos, e 46 indivíduos cujo sexo não foi identificado devido ao pequeno tamanho. O tipo de crescimento encontrado foi isométrico, sendo que o maior indivíduo observado apresentava 174 mm e o menor 14 mm. Os resultados encontrados auxiliarão na adoção de medidas de manejo, como a determinação de tamanhos mínimos de captura, superiores aos tamanhos médios de maturação (97 mm para as fêmeas e o estabelecimento de períodos de defeso durante a época de sua reprodução (outubro a janeiro. A pequena abundância de indivíduos da espécie, quando comparada com o total de exemplares capturados (apenas 0,07% e a baixa fecundidade média, de 2502 ovócitos, indica que se deve trabalhar anualmente apenas com um pequeno número de indivíduos, a fim de garantir a continuidade do estoque.The aim if the present work is to supply basic information that may help the management of ornamental fishes in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazi. A study of the reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus, a cichlid fish with ornamental potential, was performed using specimens collected bi-monthly between February 2006 and January 2007 in ten creeks

  11. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  12. Assessment of some Hepatic Enzyme activities in adult rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of Garcinia kola (G. kola) have been extensively documented and several researches have asserted its protective uniqueness against liver disorders/diseases. It is the aim of this study to assess the level of some enzyme involved in liver cellular integrity in rabbits chronically fed G. kola. To achieve this ...

  13. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region.

  14. Tectonic and geomechanical control of dikes and sill-like bodies: Evidence from the northwestern part of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yu. A.; Galybin, A. N.; Mukhamediev, Sh. A.; Smul'skaya, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    A study of the meticulously documented Paleoproterozoic swarms of basic dikes and sill-like bodies, as well as granite veins crosscutting Archean granite-gneiss country rocks of the Central Kola Geoblock of the Fennoscandian Shield, elucidates the question of geomechanical control of the spatial location of syntectonic sheetlike magmatic bodies intruding into heterogeneous structured geomedium. Based on structural analysis and mapping results, the succession of emplacement of several dike generations has been reconstructed and linked to structural parageneses of the corresponding deformation stages. We evaluate the effect of geomechanical and tectonic factors as well as the structural elements of enclosing strata on the places of dike localization, the character of their spatial distribution, morphology of particular bodies, and patterns of swarm systems. Geomechanical problems on the intrusion of single bodies and their communities are solved taking into account their interaction and the heterogeneity of the medium. The conditions necessary for transition of nearly vertical dikes into sills are discussed.

  15. Soil catenas on denudation plains in the forest-tundra and northern taiga zones of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusevskaya, I. S.

    2017-07-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils of two catenas developed on sandy to loamy sandy moraine deposits in the forest-tundra and northern taiga zones on denudation plains of the Kola Peninsula are discussed. It is shown that these catenas are similar with respect to the major directions of soil formation, regularities of soil distribution by the elements of mesotopography, and the factors of the soil cover differentiation. The differences between the catenas are of quantitative character and are related to the intensities of manifestation of the particular processes and features. Both catenas are characterized by the pronounced differentiation of soils with respect to their moistening with hydromorphic peat bog soils in the subordinate positions and Al-Fe-humus podzols in the automorphic positions.

  16. Electromagnetic studies on the Kola peninsula and in Northern Finland by means of a powerful controlled source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, Ye. P.; Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Belkov, I. V.; Gorbunov, G. I.; Hjelt, S. E.; Lisin, A. S.; Vanyan, L. L.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Demidova, T. A.; Korja, T.; Kirillov, S. K.; Kuksa, Yu. I.; Poltanov, A. Ye.; Tokarev, A. D.; Yevstigneyev, V. V.

    1986-07-01

    Station "Khibiny", equipped with a powerful magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and/or diesel generator, has been successfully used since 1976 to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust in the northern part of the Baltic Shield. The present paper describes the techniques of measurement, data processing and interpretation of the five-component electromagnetic fields created by this source. A longitudinal conductance map for the upper 10 km of the Earth's crust has been constructed. Several blocks, with conductances varying from 0.1 to some thousands of Siemens, have been revealed on the Kola Peninsula, in northern Karelia and in northern Finland. The blocks of high conductance are connected with relatively young complexes of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean ages. In some places, they create thick and extensive conductive belts such as the Imandra-Varzuga and the Pechenga zones. More often, they appear in the shape of vast regions with enhanced conductivity (e.g., the granulite belts and the Allarechen region). The geoelectric cross-section of the Imandra-Varzuga ore-critical structure has been studied in detail, using the method of electromagnetic field migration. Its depth extent is approximately 10 km. Highly resistant blocks are associated with the most ancient geological units, of early Archean age. Resistant regions have been found in the Murmansk and Central Kola regions, as well as in the Kovdor massif and in the Central Finland granite area. These regions are the most promising ones for deep electromagnetic sounding of the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Earth.

  17. Ore geochemistry, zircon mineralogy, and genesis of the Sakharjok Y-Zr deposit, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozulya, D. R.; Lyalina, L. M.; Eby, N.; Savchenko, Ye. E.

    2012-04-01

    The Sakharjok Y-Zr deposit in Kola Peninsula is related to the fissure alkaline intrusion of the same name. The intrusion ˜7 km in extent and 4-5 km2 in area of its exposed part is composed of Neoarchean (2.68-2.61 Ma) alkali and nepheline syenites, which cut through the Archean alkali granite and gneissic granodiorite. Mineralization is localized in the nepheline syenite body as linear zones 200-1350 m in extent and 3-30 m in thickness, which strike conformably to primary magmatic banding and trachytoid texture of nepheline syenite. The ore is similar to the host rocks in petrography and chemistry and only differs from them in enrichment in zircon, britholite-(Y), and pyrochlore. Judging from geochemical attributes (high HSFE and some incompatible element contents (1000-5000 ppm Zr, 200-600 ppm Nb, 100-500 ppm Y, 0.1-0.3 wt % REE, 400-900 ppm Rb), REE pattern, Th/U, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios), nepheline syenite was derived from an enriched mantle source similar to that of contemporary OIB and was formed as an evolved product of long-term fractional crystallization of primary alkali basaltic melt. The ore concentrations are caused by unique composition of nepheline syenite magma (high Zr, Y, REE, Nb contents), which underwent subsequent intrachamber fractionation. Mineralogical features of zircon-the main ore mineral—demonstrate its long multistage crystallization. The inner zones of prismatic crystals with high ZrO2/HfO2 ratio (90, on average) grew during early magmatic stage at a temperature of 900-850°C. The inner zones of dipyramidal crystals with average ZrO2/HfO2 = 63 formed during late magmatic stage at a temperature of ˜500°C. The zircon pertaining to the postmagmatic hydrothermal stage is distinguished by the lowest ZrO2/HfO2 ratio (29, on average), porous fabric, abundant inclusions, and crystallization temperature below 500°C. The progressive decrease in ZrO2/HfO2 ratio was caused by evolution of melt and postmagmatic solution. The metamorphic zircon

  18. Voloshinite, a new rubidium mica from granitic pegmatite of Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Agakhanov, A. A.; Belakovsky, D. I.; Kazantsev, S. S.; Zubkova, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    Voloshinite, a new mineral of the mica group, a rubidium analogue of lepidolite, has been found from the rare-element granitic pegmatite at Mt. Vasin-Myl'k, Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It is closely associated with pollucite and lepidolite and commonly with muscovite, albite, and quartz; K,Rb-feldspar, rubicline, spodumene, montebrasite, and elbaite are among associated minerals as well. Voloshinite, a late mineral that formed after pollucite, commonly fills polymineralic veinlets and pods within the pollucite aggregates. It occurs as rims up to 0.05 mm thick around lepidolite, as intergrowths of tabular crystals up to 0.25 mm in size, and occasionally replaces lepidolite. The new mineral is colorless, transparent, with vitreous luster. Cleavage is eminent parallel to {001}; flakes are flexible. The calculated density is 2.95 g/cm3. The new mineral is biaxial (-), with 2 V = 25°, α calc = 1.511, β = 1.586, and γ = 1.590. The optical orientation is Y = b, Z = a. The chemical composition of the type material determined by electron microprobe (average of five point analyses; Li has been determined with ICP-OES) is as follows (wt %): 0.03 Na2O, 3.70 K2O, 12.18 Rb2O, 2.02 Cs2O, 4.0 Li2O, 0.03 CaO, 0.02 MgO, 0.14 MnO, 21.33 Al2O3, 53.14 SiO2, 6.41 F, -O = F2 2.70, total is 100.30. The empirical formula is: (Rb0.54K0.33Cs0.06)Σ0.93(Al1.42Li1.11Mn0.01)Σ2.54(Si3.68Al0.32)Σ4O10 (F1.40(OH)0.60)Σ2. The idealized formula is as follows: Rb(LiAl1.5□0.5)[Al0.5Si3.5O10]F2. Voloshinite forms a continuous solid solution with lepidolite. According to X-ray single crystal study, voloshinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.191, b = 9.025, c = 20.40 Å, β = 95.37°, V= 951.5 Å3, Z = 4. Polytype is 2 M 1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.1-60[001]; 4.55-80[020, 110, 11 bar 1 ]; 3.49-50[11 bar 4 ]; 3.35-60[024, 006]; 3.02-45[025]; 2.575-100[11 bar 6 , 131, 20 bar 2 , 13

  19. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1 and H (2, and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15–17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways.

  20. Two novel triterpenoids with antiproliferative and apoptotic activities in human leukemia cells isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-li; Li, Zhan-lin; Song, Dan-dan; Sun, Lin; Pei, Yue-hu; Jing, Yong-kui; Hua, Hui-ming

    2008-11-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-O-acetyllup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3- O-(4'- O-acetyl)-alpha- L-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid ( 2), together with two known triterpenoids, betulinic acid ( 3) and messagenic acid ( 4) were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. The structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative effects and the apoptosis induction abilities of compounds 1 and 2 were determined in four human leukemia cell lines. Compound 2 was more potent than compound 1 in inhibiting cell growth with IC50 values of 2.45, 2.69, 2.42, and 4.15 microM in HL-60, NB4, U937 and K562 cells, respectively.

  1. Virtual screening of compounds derived from Garcinia pedunculata as an inhibitor of gamma hemolysin component A of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarali Chowdhury

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens at alarming frequency, there has been an increase interest in the development of novel drugs from natural resources. The use of higher plants and preparations made from them to treat infections is a longstanding practice in a large part of the population, especially in the developing countries, where there is dependence on traditional medicine for a variety of ailments. The virtual screening method was used in this study to analyze the docking and inhibitory activities of some natural bioactive compounds present within Garcinia pedunculata against hemolysin toxin of Staphylococcus aureus, gamma-hemolysin component A hlgA. The study resulted in identifying compounds 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-xanthone and garcinone D with high binding affinity towards the target protein revealing them as potent inhibitors that could be further used to create new drug source in the treatment of staphyloccocal infections.

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK KULIT MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. TERHADAP TESTIS TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIBERI PAPARAN GELOMBANG ELEKTROMAGNETIK HANDPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartono Muhartono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelombang elektromagnetik handphone dapat menyebabkan peningkatan reactive oxygen species (ROS sehingga merubah struktur histopatologi testis. Untuk mengatasinya dibutuhkan senyawa antioksidan yang terkandung dalam kulit manggis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dalam memperbaiki gambaran histopatologi testis terhadap sel spermatozoa dan spermatogenik tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus galur Sprague dawley yang diberi paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone. Penelitian ini menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih galur Sprague dawley dengan berat badan 200-300 gram yang dibagi ke dalam 5 kelompok, yaitu kontrol 1 (K1 tikus yang tidak diberikan perlakuan, kontrol 2 (K2 diberikan NaCl 0,9% dan paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone, pada kelompok perlakuan (P1, (P2 dan (P3 diberikan ekstrak etanol kulit manggis dengan dosis bertingkat 50, 100, 200 mg/kgBB dan dilakukan paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone selama 3 jam/28 hari. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata jumlah sel spermatozoa pada K1=173,75±16,978 SD, K2=101,75±7,455 SD, P1=148,50±10,149 SD, P2=162,50±10,247 SD, P3=180,75±7,365 SD dan rerata jumlah sel spermatogenik pada K1=306,75±11,955 SD, K2=157,00±7,303 SD, P1=243,50±21,672 SD P2=266,75±10,340 SD P3=294,75±13,150 SD. Pada uji One Way Anova (p<0,005 didapatkan masing-masing sel spermatozoa dan sel spermatogenik menunjukkan hasil yang bermakna p=0,000. Ekstrak etanol kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dapat memperbaiki gambaran histopatologi testis dengan meningkatkan jumlah sel spermatozoa dan sel spermatogenik tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus galur Sprague dawley yang diberi paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone.

  3. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator.

  4. A pilot study on the distribution of 137Cs between vegetation and soil in an industrial pollution gradient at the Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, T.; Bergman, I.; Bergman, R.; Nikonov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The activity concentration of radiocesium in dwarf shrubs, mosses, organic and inorganic soil was studied in an industrial pollution gradient from the Monchegorsk smelter at the Kola peninsula. As expected the highest values for vegetation was found in mosses/lichens followed by dwarf shrubs. The transfer factor between organic and vascular vegetation was ten times higher in the control area (100 km from the smelter) than in the affected areas (7 to 31 km from the smelter). 3 refs

  5. An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R H L

    2013-01-01

    64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft.

  6. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E.; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. ?- mangostin (?-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  7. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  8. Experimental Studies for the VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser System for Kola NPP at the Integral Test Facility BC V-213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Davydov, M.V.; Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of Tacis Project R2.01/99, which was running from 2003 to 2005, the bubble condenser system of Kola NPP (unit 3) was qualified at the integral test facility BC V-213. Three LB LOCA tests, two MSLB tests, and one SB LOCA test were performed. The appropriate test scenarios for BC V-213 test facility, modeling accidents in the Kola NPP unit 3, were determined with pretest calculations. Analysis of test results has shown that calculated initial conditions and test scenarios were properly reproduced in the tests. The detailed posttest analysis of the tests performed at BC V-213 test facility was aimed to validate the COCOSYS code for the calculation of thermohydraulic processes in the hermetic compartments and bubble condenser. After that the validated COCOSYS code was applied to NPP calculations for Kola NPP (unit 3). Results of Tacis R2.01/99 Project confirmed the bubble condenser functionality during large and small break LOCAs and MSLB accidents. Maximum loads were reached in the LB LOCA case. No condensation oscillations were observed.

  9. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant

  10. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jing; Han, Quan-Bin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Ding, Li-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-11-23

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones.

  11. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yan [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Liu Xin [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Yang Jing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Han Quanbin; Song Jingzheng; Li Songlin; Qiao Chunfeng [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Ding Lisheng [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)], E-mail: lsding@cib.ac.cn; Xu Hongxi [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: xuhongxi@hkjcicm.org

    2008-11-23

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6 min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones.

  12. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG

  13. Long-term fluctuations in population of Semibalanus balanoides (L. (Crustacea in the estuarine zone of the Kola Bay

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    Svitina V. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intertidal population of the barnacles Semibalanus balanoides has been explored in the estuarine zone of the Tuloma River at the end of the Kola Bay for the first time. Barnacles S. balanoides are typical species for the littoral zone of the northern seas, they populate both the high and low salinity areas along the coast of the Barents Sea. The ecology and distribution of barnacle population in estuarine intertidal zones of the Barents Sea are not studied previously, and under the critical salinity conditions of any estuary, in particular. The investigation have been carried out on the littoral of the western (left shore of the southern tribe of the Kola Bay – the estuary section from the Tuloma bridge to the Cape Elovy. The studied site is a sandy-boulder beach with stony bars, its length is about 1 150 m, the area is about 126 500 m2. Counting the number of S. balanoides in clusters has been performed on site (without removal of the copepods from the population by the standard method for intertidal sampling. Simultaneously with the defining the number of barnacles for the period 2003–2014, the measurements of salinity and temperature of water and air have been made. The peculiarity of the estuarine barnacle population is their complete absence in the upper horizon of the littoral, and in the middle and the lower horizons they are found only within the channels of the littoral streams (3–20 specimens in the sample. For the first time the abundance and biomass of barnacles S. balanoides in this estuarine population has been determined, and the causes of their narrow-local distribution on the estuary littoral of the Tuloma River have been revealed. The main ecological factors determining the abundance and specific distribution of barnacles under the conditions of estuarine littoral have been established. The regular increase in the density of adult S. balanoides settlements along the gradient of water salinity from the Tuloma River to

  14. Predicting climate change impacts on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica in the Western Ghats, India

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    Malay Pramanik

    Full Text Available In recent years, climate change has become a major threat and has been widely documented in the geographic distribution of many plant species. However, the impacts of climate change on the distribution of ecologically vulnerable medicinal species remain largely unknown. The identification of a suitable habitat for a species under climate change scenario is a significant step towards the mitigation of biodiversity decline. The study, therefore, aims to predict the impact of current, and future climatic scenarios on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica across the northern Western Ghats using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modelling. The future projections were made for the year 2050 and 2070 with all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs scenario (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 using 56 species occurrence data, and 19 bioclimatic predictors from the BCC-CSM1.1 model of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change’s (IPCC 5th assessment. The bioclimatic variables were minimised to a smaller number of variables after a multicollinearity test, and their contributions were assessed using jackknife test. The AUC value of 0.956 ± 0.023 indicates that the model performs with excellent accuracy. The study identified that temperature seasonality (39.5 ± 3.1%, isothermality (19.2 ± 1.6%, and annual precipitation (12.7 ± 1.7% would be the major influencing variables in the current and future distribution. The model predicted 10.50% (19318.7 sq. km of the study area as moderately to very highly suitable, while 82.60% (151904 sq. km of the study area was identified as ‘unsuitable’ or ‘very low suitable’. Our predictions of Climate change impact on habitat suitability suggest that there will be a drastic reduction in the suitability by 5.29% and 5.69% under RCP 8.5 for 2050 and 2070, respectively. Objective and Significance: Primary objective of this study is to identify the potential distribution of medicinally and

  15. Seismo- and neotectonics in Finnmark, Kola Peninsula and the southern Barents Sea. Part 1: Geological and neotectonic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D.; Olesen, O.; Karpuz, M. R.

    1997-02-01

    As a background for assessing the seismo- and neotectonics of the Finnmark-Kola Peninsula region, emphasis has been directed towards the lineament framework, involving a careful examination of digital Landsat-TM imagery integrated with a variety of data-sets ranging from geophysics and digital elevation models to microtectonics. Based on a detailed field-structural control of many of the multiphase lineaments in this 70,000 km 2 area of the northeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield, as well as microscopic investigation of the fault mylonites and breccias, five principal lineament sets were distinguished. Of the NW-SE polyphasal megafractures, the Murmansk Shear Zone carries geological and isotopic evidence of an Archaean tectonothermal history, and demarcates an important terrane boundary. Lineaments, irrespective of their trends, were classified according to their significance in the regional-geological framework. Some lineaments are clearly associated with gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies and probably extend to deep crustal levels. Quite a few of the prominent faults within lineament zones were reactivated in post-glacial times. In one area in Finnmark, core drilling through a SE-dipping post-glacial reverse-fault has confirmed its listric shape at depth. Earthquake focal mechanisms for this same fault are presented in the second part of this dual contribution.

  16. The response of tundra springtails (Collembola, Hexapoda) to human activity on the Murman coast of the Kola Penisula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Izabella; Boniecki, Paweł; Kaliszewicz, Anita; Panteleeva, Ninel

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out in the Dalne Zelentsy settlement (69°07‧N, 36°03‧E) on the Barents Sea of the Kola Penisula in Russia. Three transects were established: the 'new garden transect'; the 'old garden transect'; and the 'settlement transect'. Overall, the number of springtails increased with distance from the 'settlement' and decreased from the 'old garden' towards the tundra. However, in the case of the 'new garden transect' there were no clear trends in springtail abundance. Eleven species of springtail were found, with Parisotoma notabilis being found at each of the studied areas along the transects. Trends in the species diversity of the springtail communities were not clear, and the values of H‧ ranged from 1.36 to 2.08. The springtail communities located 10 m from the 'new garden' and the 'old garden' were characterized by low species diversity compared with the other sites along the transects (H‧ values of 1.36 and 1.67, respectively). There were no differences in species diversity among the springtail communities along the 'settlement transect'.

  17. Raman spectra of impact zircons in the Jarva-varaka layered massif (the Monchegorsk ore region, the Kola Peninsula

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    Kaulina T. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zircon crystals from granophyre norites of the Jarva-varaka massif of the Monchegorsk ore region (the Kola Peninsula have been studied by means of back-scattered electron (BSE imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The Jarva-varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data has been compared with the Sudbury structure, for which an impact origin is assumed. Zircon study is stipulated by zircon ability to keep signs of shock metamorphism even under granulite-facies conditions, thus it can be used for identification of ancient impact structures. BSE images reveal complicated internal texture – darker central domains (cores and light rims without texture. Mineral inclusions in zircon are represented by sillimanite and plagioclase which indicates that the studied zircon grains were inherited from the host aluminous gneisses. Zircon crystals show variation of Raman spectra from the core of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. Mineral inclusions in zircon rims also have no Raman spectra. Such patterns may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon (and mineral inclusions in it to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, core domains were screened by rims and thus preserved their structure. The received data suggest the participation of the meteorite impact in the formation of the Jarva-varaka massif that requires further investigation.

  18. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  19. MASA SIMPAN BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN, SUHU DAN JENID KEMASAN [Shelf life of Manggis Fruit (Garcinia mangostana L. at Various Fruit Maturity Levels, Temperature, and Types of Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of manggis fruit maturity levels, temperature, and types of packaging on the shelf fife of manggis fruit (Garcinia mangostana L, The experimental design used was Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three factors consisting of manggis fruit maturity levels (tinged with purple and brown, packaging types (flexible and stretch film, and storage temperature (l50C and 250C using two replication for each treatment. The result showed that maturity level had significant effect on weight toss, color but had no significant effect on hardness, total sugar and total acid of manggis fruit during storage. The suitable packaging type to maintain the quality of manggis fruit with maturity level of tinged purple was the flexible type, which result n a shelf life of 33 days. Packaging suitable for manggis fruit with maturity level of brown was the stretch type, which had the shelf life of 39 days. Storage temperature to maintain quality was l50C.

  20. Assessment of Toxicity and Beneficiary Effects of Garcinia pedunculata on the Hematological, Biochemical, and Histological Homeostasis in Rats

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    Sudip Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli’s risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg. Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.

  1. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

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    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature, could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  2. Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders. essential oils in combination with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Lim, Jia-Qin; Afiqah, Fatin; Nik Mohamed Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni; Abdul Aziz, Fatin Athirah; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Leong, Chean-Ring; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders. is used as a medication agent in folkloric medicine. The present study was to examine the chemical composition of the stem bark and leaf of G. atroviridis as well as their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells. The constituents obtained by hydrodistillation were identified using GC-MS. The stem bark oil (EO-SB) composed mainly the palmitoleic acid (51.9%) and palmitic acid (21.9%), while the leaf oil (EO-L) was dominated by (E)-β-farnesene (58.5%) and β-caryophyllene (16.9%). Treatment of MCF-7 cells using EO-L (100 μg/mL) caused more than 50% cell death while EO-SB did not induce cytotoxic effect. EO-L has stimulated the growth of BEAS-2B normal cells, but not in MCF-7 cancerous cells. The IC 50 of EO-L in MCF-7 and BEAS-2B cells were 71 and 95 μg/mL, respectively. A combination treatment of EO-L and tamoxifen induced more cell death than the treatment with drug alone at lower doses.

  3. Potentials of some plant-derived foods in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... we propose that Cucuma longa (curcumin), Garcinia kola (kolaviron), Telfairia occidentalis and Parkia biglobosa be explored in the management of diabetes and its associated complications due to their outstanding beneficial effects. Keywords: Antioxidants, diabetes, diabetic complications, hyperglycemia, nutraceuticals, ...

  4. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 18, No 3 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Kolaviron (a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. GF Ibironke, AA Fasanmade, 217-223 ...

  5. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  6. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ 2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  7. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

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    R. S. Houmsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter, and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity. Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p=0.000. Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p=0.000, rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p=0.000, and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p=0.000 were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area.

  8. The origin of spheroidal patterns of weathering in the Pados-Tundra mafic-ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

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    A.Y. Barkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We document a new and unusual occurrence of patterns of protruding spheroidal weathering developed in a dunitic rock of the Pados-Tundra mafic-ultramafic complex of Early Proterozoic age, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It provides an example similar to that reported recently from a mineralized harzburgite in the Monchepluton layered complex in the same region. These patterns are genetically different from common results of “normal spheroidal weathering” sensu stricto. The spheroidally weathered dunite at Pados-Tundra consists of a high-Fo olivine, Ol (Fo 87. 5, which is, in fact, not altered. Accessory grains of aluminous chromite are present. Relief spheroids (1.5 to 4 cm in diameter; up to ~5 vol. % are distributed sparsely and heterogeneously. They are hosted by the olivine matrix and composed of talc, Tlc, and tremolite, Tr, (Mg# = 95-96 formed presumably at the expense of orthopyroxene, Opx, (i.e., pre-existing oikocrysts during a deuteric (autometasomatic alteration. In contrast, oikocrystic Opx (En 86.0 is quite fresh in related spheroids at Monchepluton, in which only minor deuteric alteration (Tlc + Tr are observed. We infer that (1 the ball-shaped morphology of the weathered surface is a reflection of the presence of oikocrysts of Opx, which crystallized after Ol at the magmatic stage; they were entirely replaced by the deuterically induced Tlc + Tr at Pados-Tundra. (2 Differential rates of weathering are implied for rock-forming minerals in these ultramafic rocks, with a higher resistance of Opx vs. Fo-rich Ol, and Tlc + Tr vs. Fo-rich Ol. (3 The ball-like shape of the large spheroids, produced by magmatic processes, may likely represent an additional factor of their higher stability to weathering in the superficial environment. Similar patterns can be expected in other mafic-ultramafic complexes, especially in layered intrusions.

  9. Climatic response of stable isotope variations in wood cellulose of pine (Pinus sylvestris l.) and their tree-ring width on the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, T.; Hiller, A.; Gehre, M.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula region of northwestern Russia, adjacent to relatively well studied Scandinavian areas, is climatically affected by not only the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic but also the Eurasian continent. Living and subfossil pine trees from the Khibiny mountains on the Kola Peninsula were analysed for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition and for tree-ring width. Comparisons of local meteorological and tree-ring data revealed significant correlations. δ 13 C and δ 18 O values are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature in July and August and to precipitation in the winter months of the previous year, respectively. On average, 13 C in the cellulose of pine trees between c. 1000 and 1300 AD is enriched by δ values of around 1 per mille compared to the modern trees from this region. This indicates a distinctly warmer summer climate at that time (the Medieval Warm epoch in Europe) than recently observed. The δ 18 O values of wood cellulose and the δ 2 H values of non-exchangeable hydrogen of tree cellulose from both fossil and modern samples cover a wide range between around 22 and 29 per mille and between about -80 and -120 per mille vs. SMOW, respectively. This suggests variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation at that time, assuming its source has remained the same as in the past. (author)

  10. PEMBENTUKAN TUNAS DARI BIJI MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. ASAL BENGKALIS DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BAP DAN MADU SECARA IN VITRO

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    Mayta Novalida Isda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGarcinia mangostana L. merupakan salah satu spesies dari famili Guttiferae kaya senyawa dari golongan xanthon. Manggis memiliki juvenil yang lama. Salah satu metode yang dapat memecahkan masalah dalam perbanyakan tanaman manggis dalam jumlah yang banyak, bisa sepanjang musim dan menghasilkan tanaman yang seragam yaitu kultur in vitro. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi terbaik antara Benzil Amino Purin (BAP dan madu terhadap induksi tunas dari eksplan biji manggis yang belah tiga melintang  secara in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan BAP (0;3 mg/L dan madu (3;6 mg/L pada media MS (Murashige-Skoog dengan pengamatan 70 hari setelah tanam (hst. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian BAP maupun madu mampu meningkatkan pembentukan tunas. Pemberian BAP dan madu berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase terbentuknya tunas, waktu muncul tunas, jumlah tunas dan panjang tunas.  Jumlah tunas terbanyak terdapat pada perlakuan 3 mg/L BAP sebanyak 20 tunas per biji. Kombinasi perlakuan dengan penambahan 3 mg/L BAP + 3 ml/L madu menghasilkan persentase terbentuk tunas tertinggi (100%; waktu muncul tunas tercepat 12,75 hst; dan panjang tunas tertinggi 1,86 cm. Pada penelitian ini telah berhasil menginduksi tunas dari biji manggis yang dibelah tiga melintang asal Bengkalis dengan penambahan BAP dan madu.AbstractGarcinia mangostana L. is one of the species within the family Guttiferae that rich in compounds from the class of xanthon. Mangosteen has time juvenile problems. One method that can solve the problem in the mangosteen plant propagation which can be produced in a large number in all season and uniform is in vitro culture. The purpose of this study was to determine the best concentration of BAP and honey to induce the formation of shoot from explants of mangosteen seeds split transversely into three pieces by in vitro method. This study used a Completely Randomized Design

  11. Analýza pohybu jízdního kola při jízdě v přímém směru

    OpenAIRE

    Haluska, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce s názvem ,,Analýza pohybu jízdního kola při jízdě v přímém směru” se zabývá historií jízdního kola, rozdělením a popisem jednotlivých částí jízdního kola a analýzou nehodovosti. Hlavním cílem je analyzovat pohyb cyklisty (jízdního kola) v přímém směru při provádění úkonů, pro něj typických - šlapání, ukázání o změně směru jízdy, či ohlédnutí za sebe. Na závěr je uvedeno vyhodnocení, které může být následně využito při zpracování posudků soudními znalci. In this thesis entit...

  12. Formulation of Oil-in-Water Cream from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Pericarp Extract Preserved by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Isabella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract into oil-in-water (O/W cream which stable and durable. In order to improve the shelf life durability of the formula, the irradiation of formula using gamma rays from cobalt-60 was done. The concentrations of extract were varied to 1, 2 and 3% and were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of these formulas were carried out for 90 days stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C. It was found that both of physicochemical and microbiological properties of the formulas were changed by extract concentrations and after irradiation. The irradiated formulas with dose up to 7.5 kGy, which were stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C, presented acceptable physicochemical and microbiological stability for at least 90 days. Analysis by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography-densitometry to study decomposition of G. mangostana pericarp extract cream formulas was carried out 24 h after preparation and 90 day after storage. The result of TLC-densitometry analysis showed that G. mangostana pericarp extract in the cream formulas did not develope significant decomposition after 90 days of storage. Decontamination dose for all formulas was found to be about 7.5 kGy. At this condition, the bacteria and mold-yeast have been killed, without reducing the antioxidant activity

  13. Protective effect of magnesium lactate gluconate and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashishkumar Kyada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antiurolithiatic acitivity of magnesium lactate gluconate (MLG and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia (GC fruit was studied. Methods: Study was performed during December 2016 to April 2017. Urolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 0.75 % v/v ethylene glycol for 21 days. From 8th day onwards, intervention with MLG (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. and GC (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. was started. At the end of treatment period, biochemical parameters affecting renal stone formation were estimated in serum, urine, kidney homogenate and histopathology of harvested kidneys was performed. Results: From in vivo evaluation, it was observed that MLG 400 mg/kg b.w., GC 100 mg/kg b.w. and GC 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced nitrogenous waste products in serum (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid as well as calculogenic promoters in urine (phosphate, oxalate and kidney homogenate (calcium, phosphate, oxalate when compared to disease control animals. The MLG 200 and MLG 400 were ineffective in restoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity whereas GC 100, GC 200 and Cystone® 400 mg/kg b.w. significantly elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in urolithiatic rat kidney. Conclusions: MLG and GC extract are capable of preventing calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation and subsequent deposition in renal tubules. The principle mechanism underlying nephroprotective effect of test drugs might be attributed to their calcium ion cheating ability and CaOx crystallization inhibitory activity. It is further asserted that GC was more potent than MLG in overall kidney protection by virtue of its antioxidant potential. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 378-384

  14. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Korkmaz; Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Barbus is characterized by a complex taxonomical structure, due to high number of species and its morphological plasticity; it counts more than 25 species in Europe, displaying different ecological preferences. 21 taxon’s from Barbus genus including Barbus lacerta was used in phylogenetic analysis. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence analysis of Barbus lacerta is presented firstly in this study. A phylogenetic tree (neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analysis) was reco...

  15. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-11-01

    As a result, five clades come out from phylogenetic reconstruction and in phylogenetic tree Barbus lacerta determined to be sister group of Barbus macedonicus, Barbus oligolepis and Barbus plebejus complex.

  16. Rapid characterization of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using multiple mass spectrometric scanning modes: the importance of biosynthetic knowledge based prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Ding, Li; Hu, Linlin; Jin, Shaohong; Liu, Wenyuan; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-02-23

    Although the anticancer activities of the resin of Garcinia hanburyi have been well demonstrated, the chemical composition of this medicinal plant is still not fully understood. In this study, a highly effective qualitative method was developed for rapidly profiling the target and non-target caged xanthones in the resin of G. hanburyi. This method mainly involves three steps as follows: (1) prediction of the possible unknown caged xanthones in the resin of G. hanburyi according to the structure characters of the known ones and some well established biosynthetic knowledge; (2) structure classification according to the diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) of the known caged Garcinia xanthones; (3) detection and characterization of the target and non-target caged xanthones in the resin of G. hanburyi using multiple mass spectrometric (MS) scanning modes. By use of such procedures, mass spectrometric data can be used for confirming the rationally predicted chemical structure rather than sophisticated and time-consumed de novo structure elucidation of a completely unknown component. Finally, a total of 34 caged xanthones including 18 likely new ones from the resin of G. hanburyi were rapidly detected and characterized within one working day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought Tolerance Of Garcinia kola And Garcinia afzelii At The Seedlings Stage Abstract · Vol 26 (2010) - Articles A comparison of tree seedling growth in artificial gaps of different sizes in two contrasting forest types. Abstract · Vol 26 (2010) - Articles Wildfire incidence and management in the forest transition zone of Ghana: ...

  18. Assessing the Effect of Salinity on an Irrigated Land at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buba Apagu ANKIDAWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of salinity on an irrigated land was carried out at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government of Taraba State. The study area was divided into four (4 units designated as A, B, C and D, each unit was subdivided into five (5 parts, designated as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, respectively, made up of twenty (20 soil samples that were collected within the irrigated land for the laboratory analysis of salinity. The parameters analyzed were pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Hydrogen and Aluminum concentration. The results of the soil sample analysis shows that the mean value of pH is 5.99 which indicates that the soil is slightly acidic, the mean value of electrical conductivity (EC is 0.76 ds/m, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum and Hydrogen concentration were obtained to be 11.29, 7.89, 7.98 and 16.88 mg/l respectively, while Sodium and Potassium concentration were obtained to be 0.90 and 0.67 mg/l respectively with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.25 mEq/l. From the analysis it indicates that the soil is low in salinity. Similarly for water sample analysis the pH is 7.7 which indicate that the water is slightly alkaline, EC is 0.8 ds/m, calcium and magnesium concentration were 0.48 and 0.35 mg/l, while sodium and potassium were 0.57 and 0.71 mg/l respectively, with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.89 meq/l, which shows that the water sample were found within the safe limit for irrigation. It can be recommended that application of good quality water, choice of salt tolerant crops and gypsum be adopted in the study area.

  19. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  20. Yakubu and Quadri Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male ...

  1. Comparative Adsorption of Spiramycin on Veegum ® , Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the adsorptive interaction of Garcinia kola with spiramycin, since the kola is widely chewed as a tonic and spiramycin attains high concentrations in saliva. ... For each of the adsorbents, pH and ionic strength affected the extent of adsorption, due to their effect on adsorbent surface charge.

  2. Effect of pre-germination treatments on the dormancy breaking and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for bitter kola (Garcinia kola) is high in Nigeria market but the population of the species is low both in the wild and home gardens. Rapid deforestation, heavy exploitation in the natural forest and difficulties associated with its germination occasioned by seed dormancy have been blamed. The study on ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 3, No 4 (2014), Antibacterial activities of bitter kola (Garcinia kola) on upper respiratory tract isolates from students of Ambrose Alli University students, Ekpoma, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. EJ Uhunmwangho, O Okhia, HOT Blackies, OH Eruotor, A Uhunmwangho. Vol 3, No 1 (2014), Antibacterial Activity of ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Vol 40, No 1 (2013) - Articles Haematological, serum and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken fed `graded levels of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) used as phytobiotic. Abstract · Vol 40, No 1 (2013) - Articles Effect of dietary L- Carnitine supplementation of diets containing cashew nut reject meal by broiler chickens

  5. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resuki

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of.

  6. Lead isotopic evidence for interaction between plume and lower crust during emplacement of peralkaline Lovozero rocks and related rare-metal deposits, East Fennoscandia, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R. E.; Kogarko, L. N.

    2017-05-01

    The Lovozero alkaline massif—an agpaitic nepheline syenite layered intrusion—is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and belongs to the Kola ultramafic alkaline and carbonatitic province (KACP) of Devonian age. Associated loparite and eudialyte deposits, which contain immense resources of REE, Nb, Ta, and Zr, constitute a world class mineral district. Previous Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope investigations demonstrated that these rocks and mineral deposits were derived from a depleted mantle source. However, because the Sr, Nd, and Hf abundances in the Kola alkaline rocks are significantly elevated, their isotopic compositions were relatively insensitive to contamination by the underlying crustal rocks through which the intruding magmas passed. Pb occurring in relatively lower abundance in the KACP rocks, by contrast, would have been a more sensitive indicator of an acquired crustal component. Here, we investigate the lead isotopic signature of representative types of Lovozero rocks in order to further characterize their sources. The measured Pb isotopic composition was corrected using the determined U and Th concentrations to the age of the crystallization of the intrusion (376 ± 28 Ma, based on a 206Pb/204Pb versus 238U/204Pb isochron and 373 ± 9 Ma, from a 208Pb/204Pb versus 232Th/204Pb isochron). Unlike the previously investigated Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes, the lead isotopic composition plot was well outside the FOZO field. The 206Pb/204Pb values fall within the depleted MORB field, with some rocks having lower 207Pb/204Pb but higher 208Pb/204Pb values. Together with other related carbonatites having both lower and higher 206Pb/204Pb values, the combined KACP rocks form an extended linear array defining either a 2.5-Ga secondary isochron or a mixing line. The projection of this isotopic array toward the very unradiogenic composition of underlying 2.4-2.5-Ga basaltic rocks of the Matachewan superplume and associated Archean granulite facies

  7. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Su; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2017-01-01

    Mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene). Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs]) with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs]) had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (-18.92 to -34.77 mV) suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of gold or silver salts to their corresponding nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity (based on a water-soluble tetrazolium assay) demonstrated that GM-AgNPs were toxic to both A549 (a human lung

  8. Geochronology of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron'ya Greenstone Belt: U-Pb dating of zircon, titanite, tourmaline and tantalite (Kola Region, North-Eastern BAltic Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Gavrilenko, B.; Apanasevich, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Archaean Kolmozero-Voron’ya greenstone belt is one of the most ancient geological structures of the Kola Peninsula. It is located between Upper Archaean terrains: Murmansk, Central Kola and Keivy. Within the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt there are rare metal (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be), Cu, Mo, and Au deposits. All rocks were metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by granodiorites, plagiomicrocline and tourmaline granites and pegmatite veins. Four suites are distinguished within the belt: lower terrigenous formation, komatiite-tholeite, basalt-andesite-dacite and upper terrigenous formation. The U-Pb age of 2925±6 Ma on magmatic zircon was obtained for leucogabbro of differentiated gabbro-anorthosite massif Patchemvarak, situated at the boundary between volcanic-sedimentary units and granitoids of the Murmansk block. This age is the oldest for gabbro-anorthosites of the Kola Peninsula. Sm-Nd age of komatiites is ca. 2.87 Ga (Vrevsky, 1996). U-Pb age of zircon from biotite schist, which belongs to acid volcanites is 2865+/-5 Ma. Quartz porphyries, which are considered to be an intrusive vein analogous of acid volcanites has an age of 2828+/-8 Ma, that marks the final stage of the belt development. Dating of titanite from ovoid plagioamphibolites yielded an U-Pb age of 2595+/-20 Ma that probably is connected with the closure of the U-Pb isotopic titanite system during the regional metamorphism. The Porosozero granodioritic complex with an age of 2733+/-6 Ma is located between granites of the Murmansk domain, migmatites and gneisses of the Central Kola terrain and the Keivy alkaline granites. Tourmaline granites are found all over the Kolmozero-Voron’ya belt occurring among volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the belt. Their Pb-Pb age of 2520+/-70 Ma appears to denote the tourmaline crystallization at a post-magmatic stage of the complex formation. U-Pb zircon age from rare metal pegmatites is 1.9-1.8 Ga. Zircons from

  9. Main results on pilot operation during 5 years of the 3rd generation fuel in VVER-440 reactors of Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, V.; Sumarokov, M.; Gagarinskiy, A.; Sumarokova, A.; Adeev, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the report the results of comparison of main neutron-physical data of exploitation of nuclear fuel are presented for the average enrichment (on U - 235) of 4.87 for the 2nd and 3rd (12 piece) generations with the results of calculations by the complex of the programs KASKAD for 5 fuel loadings of Kola NPP Unit 4 with the reactor VVER- 440. The basic feature of fuel of the 3rd generation as compared with the 2nd is a presence of ribs of inflexibility at corners instead of cover of the fuel assembly and also the increased amount of uranium. The arrangement of fuel rods with different enrichment in fuel assemblies of the 2nd and 3rd generations is chosen identical for the convenient comparison of neutronic and thermohydraulic characteristics of the fuel of different generations. The fuel of 3rd generation was situated in the core symmetrically to the fuel of 2nd one

  10. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in fluid phase. Fluid influence lasted after zircon crystallization, this reflected in uneven composition of the mineral and in configuration of REE spectra, typical for metasomatic zircon. Similar zircon characteristics have been noted in zircons from other gold occurrences in greenstone belts in the Kola region

  11. Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.794(1), ɛ = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)Σ6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]Σ0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most

  12. kola 2.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nance of lime in the area as raw material may have accounted for the high differences in Ca observed in all the locations. This may be a reflection of abundance of lime as raw material for cement production in the area. Increase in the amount of lime is related to the increase in. pH of the polluted soil (Fabbri et al., 2004;.

  13. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  14. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  15. Demand and market pattern of selected medicinal plants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand and market pattern of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum, Garcina kola Heckel, Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Tetrapleura tetrapetra (Schum & Thonn) Taub., and Piper guineense Thonn & Schum for medicinal purposes were carried out among the states in the south-western part of Nigeria with the study area comprising of ...

  16. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    most intense free gas emission. The technical possibilities that are offered by Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the geomorphological investigation of inhospitable and inaccessible mountain areas Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are valuable tools for approximation of the real world's continuous surface. They allow a visual analysis of the earth's surface morphology, quanti?cation of sediment volumes and the calculation of topographic derivatives such as the slope gradient, slope aspect and pro?le curvature that consume ?eld investigations and optimize time The project has been sponsored by programmm Presidium of RAS P44. Reference Ivanyuk G, Kalashnikov A, Mikhailova J, Konoplyova N, Goryainov P, Yakovenchuk V, Pakhomovsky Y. Self-Organization of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). In Earth Sciences, Dr. Imran Ahmad Dar(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-861-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earth-sciences/self-organization-of-the-khibiny-alkaline -massif -kolapeninsula-russia INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012, Head7, P.131-156.

  17. Ti-Zr placer mineralization in Neoproterozoic (Uppe r Riphean rocks of Kildin Formation and in contemporary beach sands of Sredny and Rybachy Peninsulas, Kola Region

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    Chickiryov I. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration mechanisms of titanium-zirconium placer mineralizat ion in Neoproterozoic terrigenous rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, Kildin Group, and in contempo rary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsula (Kola region have been considered i n the paper. It has been shown that the rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are facially variable. The shallow littoral facies are confined to the western and central parts of Sredny Peninsula, the deeper sublitt oral facies are confined to the eastern part of Sredny Peninsula and to Motka Cape of Rybachy Peninsula. It has b een established that lenses and beds with titanium-zirconium placer mineralization occur solely in littoral facies. The ore minerals in aleurite-psamite of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are represented by leucoxene, rutile and zircon, and in contemporary beach deposits – by ilmenite, rutile and minor zircon. Paleogeograp hic reconstruction indicates that almost all deposits of Neoproterozoic (Upper Riphean Kildin Group were accumulated in shallow (littoral and sublittoral environment during dominant humid climate and intense weat hering of source area. Thus, not only deposits of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, but also the whole succession of Kildin Group can be regarded perspective for placers' accumulation. The low grade of heavy minerals (mainly Ti an d Zr minerals in contemporary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsu la is related to weak weathering of the Baltic Shield during Quaternary and to accumulation of coarse debris in littoral zone, preventing the differentiation of sand by wave action.

  18. Formation of Pt-bearing Western Pana pluton on the Kola Peninsula: Fluid regime as deduced from helium and argon isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivin, V. A.; Rundqvist, T. V.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of He and Ar isotopes has been studied in 41 rock samples and seven monomineralic fractions from ore-bearing layered units and poorly differentiated host gabbronorite of the Western Pana mafic-ultramafic pluton on the Kola Peninsula. The gases assigned for mass-spectrometric analysis were released by means of whole-rock sample melting and by comminution mainly from fluid microinclusions. The data show that the present-day isotopic composition of noble gases in rocks from the pluton is caused by many factors: the degree of melt degassing, various concentrations and retention of the trapped isotopes, the contents of radioactive elements, and the generation and loss of radiogenic gases. The hypabyssal conditions of pluton formation facilitate the loss of primary mantle-derived volatile components and the dilution of magmatic fluid with near-surface paleometeoric waters containing air dissolved therein. The correlation of noble gas isotopes and ore-forming chemical elements does not suggest derivation of the latter from crustal material and evidences their mantle origin. Variations in the geochemical indices of the gas corroborate previously established or proposed multistage formation of the pluton, mainly, the autometamorphic character of postmagmatic processes and the participation of fluids in ore formation.

  19. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  20. Breakthrough Curve Analysis for Column Dynamics Sorption of Mn(II Ions from Wastewater by Using Mangostana garcinia Peel-Based Granular-Activated Carbon

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    Z. Z. Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, feed flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min, and activated carbon bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption system were determined. The adsorption data were fitted with well-established column models, namely, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart. The results were best-fitted with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models rather than Adams-Bohart model for all conditions. The column had been regenerated and reused consecutively for five cycles. The results demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Mn(II ions from wastewater using batch as well as fixed bed sorption system.

  1. Resolution and identification of scalemic caged xanthones from the leaf extract of Garcinia propinqua having potent cytotoxicities against colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Andersen, Raymond J; Patrick, Brian O; Pyne, Stephen G; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Seemakhan, Sawinee; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2018-01-01

    A new scalemic 8,8a-dihydro caged xanthone (1) was isolated from the leaf extract of Garcinia propinqua. Five other known natural products, the three caged xanthones (2, 5 and 6) and the two neocaged xanthones, (3 and 4) were also isolated as scalemic mixtures. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. The enantiomeric ratios (er) of compounds 1-6 ranged from 1:0.7 to 1:0.9. These compounds were also resolved by semipreparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of (+)-2 and (+)-3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation while the absolute configurations of the other compounds were determined by comparisons of their ECD spectra. Compounds (-)-4, (+)-4, (-)-5, (+)-5, and (-)-6 showed potent cytotoxicities against a colon cancer cell line HCT116 with IC 50 values of 2.60, 7.02, 1.47, 3.37, and 4.14μM, respectively, which were better than the standard control doxorubicin (IC 50 9.74μM). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) supplementation does not alleviate physical fatigue during exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Zung; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Tseng, Yi-Chun; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-01-01

    The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the "queen of fruit," is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out by 12 healthy adults. The participants were randomly assigned to receive acute oral administration of either 250 mL of the mangosteen-based juice (supplementation treatment; 305 mg of α-mangostin and 278 mg of hydroxycitric acid) or a placebo (control treatment) 1 h before cycle ergometer exercise. Time to exhaustion, heart rate, Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion score, blood biochemical markers (namely ammonia, cortisol, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and lactate), muscle dynamic stiffness, and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were evaluated and recorded. The results showed all parameters we examined were significantly altered by the exercise challenge, which demonstrated they directly reflected the condition of fatigue. However, there were no differences between the two treatments besides a positive impact on the POMS examination. The occurrence of physical fatigue depends on multiple underlying mechanisms. We concluded that acute mangosteen supplementation had no impact on alleviating physical fatigue during exercise.

  3. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  4. The Effect Of Juice Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia Mangostana L. To Blood Sugar Levels And Histological Of Pancreatic Rats With The Induction Of Streptozotocin

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    Maris Kurniawati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels as a result of insufficiency of insulin function. Xanton a bioactive compound in the mangosteen rind is convinced to possess antidiabetic effects. There for, in this study effect of juice mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L. on blood sugar levels, and histological features of pancreatic rats with the induction of streptozotocin was investigated. This research using experimental rats species of Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain male. Rats were divided into 3 groups, the first group was the control without any treatments, group II was sick rat group, and group III was therapy rat group treated with juice mangosteen rind (a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight by sonde for 2 consecutive weeks. Then,blood sugar levels of all rat groups were measured along with observation of their pancreatic histological. The results showed that the blood sugar level in therapy rat group (104.7 ± 10.9 mg/dL is not significantly different with that of rat control group (108.5 ± 19.5 mg/dL, revealing effectiveness of therapy. Conservely, blood sugar level remained high in sick rat group (163.8 ± 16.2 mg/dL. Juice mangosteen rind can improve conditions of the pancreatic histology rat with the induction of streptozotocin.

  5. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  6. Phylogenetic relationship of asam gelugur (Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders) based on morphological characters in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai, Sumatera Utara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, E. S.; Lestami, A.; Kardhinata, E. H.; Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia atroviridis plant is a commodity that has the potential to become an export commodity in Sumatera Utara. Characterization is an activity in germplasm to determine the morphological properties that can be utilized in differentiating between accessions and assessing the magnitude of genetic diversity. The magnitude of genetic diversity based on morphological properties can support breeding programs. The research was conducted in several areas of G. atroviridis plant, i.e. Gebang, Bahorok, Padang Tualang, Pegajahan, Sei Rampah, Pantai Cermin, and Perbaungan sub-districts in September 2016 with direct observation method. The aim of this research is to explore and characterization between G. atroviridis plant in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai. Parameters morphology characters were observed based on IPGRI, and observation data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21 to obtain the dendogram. The dendogram results showed that there are four groups of kinship relationships on the scale of the spacing (euclidean distance scale) 17. The lowest unequal value (closest kinship) in accessions G3(Bahorok) and G7(Sei Rampah) is 16.328 while the highest value of inequality (farthest kinship) in G5( Padang Tualang) and G6 (Pegajahan) is equal to 54.187. It needs the conservation of G. atroviridis although must be done next observation.

  7. Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract protects against oxidative stress and cardiovascular remodeling via suppression of p47phox and iNOS in nitric oxide deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprom, Pattanapong; Boonla, Orachorn; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2017-07-01

    N ω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Garcinia mangostana Linn., has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated whether G. mangostana pericarp extract (GME) could prevent l-NAME-induced hemodynamic alterations, cardiovascular remodeling, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 40mg/kg/day of l-NAME in drinking water to induce hypertension, and were simultaneously treated with GME at a dose of 200mg/kg/day. Rats that received l-NAME for five weeks had high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and thickening of aortic wall. Vascular superoxide production, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in l-NAME-hypertensive rats (poxide metabolites were observed in l-NAME hypertension. GME prevented the development of hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling induced by l-NAME with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. These data suggest that GME had a protective effect against l-NAME-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling via suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase subunit and iNOS protein expression resulting in enhancing NO bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Griffipavixanthone from Garcinia oblongifolia champ induces cell apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H520 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun-Min; Huang, Hui-Juan; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Li, Xu-E

    2014-01-27

    Griffipavixanthone (GPX) is a dimeric xanthone which was isolated in a systematic investigation of Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. In this study, we investigate the effect of GPX on cell proliferation and apoptosis on human Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and determine the mechanisms of its action. GPX inhibited the growth of H520 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, with IC50 values of 3.03 ± 0.21 μM at 48 h. The morphologic characteristics of apoptosis and apoptotic bodies were observed by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, Annexin V/PI double staining assay revealed that cells in early stage of apoptosis were significantly increased upon GPX treatment dose-dependently. Rh123 staining assay indicated that GPX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. DCFH-DA staining revealed that intracellular ROS increased with GPX treatment. Moreover, GPX cleaved and activated caspase-3. In summary, this study showed that GPX inhibited H520 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study indicated that GPX induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway accompanying with ROS production. Our results demonstrate the potential application of GPX as an anti-non-small cell lung cancer agent.

  9. Long-term effects of Garcinia cambogia/Glucomannan on weight loss in people with obesity, PLIN4, FTO and Trp64Arg polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Landim, Andrea; Ramírez, Juan M; Lancho, Carolina; Poblador, María S; Lancho, José L

    2018-01-24

    Overweight and obesity are considered major health problems that contribute to increase mortality and quality of life. Both conditions have a high prevalence across the world reaching epidemic numbers. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the administration of Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Glucomannan (GNN) on long-term weight loss in people with overweight or obesity. Prospective, not-randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted. We treated 214 subjects with overweight or obesity with GC and GNN (500 mg twice a day, each) for 6 months evaluating weight, fat mass, visceral fat, basal metabolic rate, and lipid and glucose blood profiles comparing them with basal values. Some patients were carriers of polymorphisms PLIN4 -11482G > A-, fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) -rs9939609 A/T- and β-adrenergic receptor 3 (ADRB3) -Trp64Arg. Treatment produced weight loss, reducing fat mass, visceral fat, lipid and blood glucose profiles while increasing basal metabolic rate. Results were independent of sex, age or suffering from hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia and were attenuated in carriers of PLIN4, FTO, Trp64Arg polymorphisms. Administration of GC and GNN reduce weight and improve lipid and glucose blood profiles in people with overweight or obesity, although the presence of polymorphisms PLIN4, FTO and ADRB3 might hinder in some degree these effects. ISRCTN78807585, 19 September 2017, retrospective study.

  10. Growing season changes in Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula during the period 1982 to 1999 - Implications for reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

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    Hans Tømmervik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and particularly variations in air temperature have significant impacts on the growth rhythm of plants where these occur at the limits of their natural distribution range, especially at northern latitudes. Our study area, Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula, is characterized by large regional climatic differences from south to north, from west to east, and from lowland to mountains. Accordingly, the region is well suited for looking for evidence of climatic change and studying regional differences in the response of such change. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reports that the projected warming in northern Europe is greater than for many other regions of the world. Therefore major physical and ecological changes are expected. On land, there will be a tendency for shifts in major biomes such as tundra and boreal forest. Permafrost will decline, trees and shrubs will encroach northern tundra, and broad-leaved trees may encroach coniferous forests. Net primary productivity in ecosystems is likely to increase. The temperature level at the end of the 20th century is ca. 0.5 oC higher than in the 1930 for the Northern hemisphere (IPCC and World Meteorological Organization. Other studies show that in the period 1890-1999, the increase in temperature over Fennoscandia varies between 0.02 (Karasjok and 0.1 oC decade-1 (Helsinki, and they also showed that at several stations within the area the spring temperatures have increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Most stations experienced low spring temperatures in the beginning of the century, and rather high temperatures around 1950. At present, the winter temperature levels are considerably higher than in the rest of the period. However, at northern stations the winter temperatures were higher in the 1930s than at present. Phenological registrations have been used word-wide to look for possible effects of climate change, but within Fennoscandia the problem is that

  11. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

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    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  12. Plant-mediated green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Garcinia gummi-gutta seed extract: Photoluminescence, screening of their catalytic activity in antioxidant, formylation and biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, M.; Yatish, K. V.; Lalithamba, H. S.

    2017-08-01

    The green synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared by treatment of zinc nitrate with an extract of Garcinia gummi-gutta seed by the combustion method. The ZnO NPs were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared ZnO NPs were evaluated for photoluminescence (PL), antioxidant properties and also utilized as a catalyst for the formylation of aromatic amines and biodiesel production. The study reveals that the reaction is simple, mild and environmental friendly. Furthermore, the reaction results in excellent yield of products.

  13. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

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    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Number and Structure of the Complexes of Microscopic Fungi in Tundra and Taiga Soils in the North of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneikova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The number, biomass, length of fungal mycelium, and species diversity of microscopic fungi have been studied in soils of the tundra and taiga zones in the northern part of the Kola Peninsula: Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Podzols), podburs (Entic Podzols), dry peaty soils (Folic Histosols), low-moor peat soils (Sapric Histosols), and soils of frost bare spots (Cryosols). The number of cultivated microscopic fungi in tundra soils varied from 8 to 328 thousand CFU/g, their biomass averaged 1.81 ± 0.19 mg/g, and the length of fungal mycelium averaged 245 ± 25 m/g. The number of micromycetes in taiga soils varied from 80 to 350 thousand CFU/g, the number of fungal propagules in some years reached 600 thousand CFU/g; the fungal biomass varied from 0.23 to 6.2 mg/g, and the length of fungal mycelium varied from 32 to 3900 m/g. Overall, 36 species of fungi belonging to 16 genera, 13 families, and 8 orders were isolated from tundra soils. The species diversity of microscopic fungi in taiga soils was significantly higher: 87 species belonging to 31 genera, 21 families, and 11 orders. Fungi from the Penicillium genus predominated in both natural zones and constituted 38-50% of the total number of isolated species. The soils of tundra and taiga zones were characterized by their own complexes of micromycetes; the similarity of their species composition was about 40%. In soils of the tundra zone, Mortierella longicollis, Penicillium melinii, P. raistrickii, and P. simplicissimum predominated; dominant fungal species in soils of the taiga zone were represented by M. longicollis, P. decumbens, P. implicatum, and Umbelopsis isabellina.

  15. α-Mangostin Extraction from the Native Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Binding Mechanisms of α-Mangostin to HSA or TRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Hongzheng; Brodelius, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purity of the obtained α-mangostin was 95.6% as determined by HPLC analysis. The binding of native α-mangostin to human serum albumin (HSA) or transferrin (TRF) was explored by combining spectral experiments with molecular modeling. The results showed that α-mangostin binds to HSA or TRF as static complexes but the binding affinities were different in different systems. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The association constant of HSA or TRF binding to α-mangostin is 6.4832×105 L/mol and 1.4652×105 L/mol at 298 K and 7.8619×105 L/mol and 1.1582×105 L/mol at 310 K, respectively. The binding distance, the energy transfer efficiency between α-mangostin and HSA or TRF were also obtained by virtue of the Förster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The effect of α-mangostin on the HSA or TRF conformation was analyzed by synchronous spectrometry and fluorescence polarization studies. Molecular docking results reveal that the main interaction between α-mangostin and HSA is hydrophobic interactions, while the main interaction between α-mangostin and TRF is hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. These results are consistent with spectral results.

  16. The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid and gamma irradiation on the gross plantlet morphology of Garcinia mangostana L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsol, Ma. Fatima Nona M.; Lasiste, Jade Marie Edenvirg F.; Quinio, Ma. Franchesca S.

    2004-02-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is regarded as one of the best flavored fruits in the world. Though this fruit yields high income and has great potential as an export, productivity in the Philippines is still limited due to its slow and difficult conventional propagation. To increase the plants' productivity, growth regulators can be added, the seeds can be exposed to irradiation to cause genetic mutations, and micropropagation techniques can be used. This study seeks to determine the effects of these three variables on the general morphological characteristics of the plantlets grown both in vitro and in vivo. The first set of mangosteen seeds was inoculated and grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium with different treatment combinations of growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Treatment concentrations ranged from 0 parts per million (ppm) to 6 ppm. The treatment that best induced stem, leaf and root formation, and produced plantlets with long stems and roots was MS with 6 ppm NAA combined with 6 ppm BA. A second set of seeds was then exposed to varying levels of gamma radiation and propagated in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo, it was observed that the length of stem of the plantlet decreases with increasing radiation dose; length of leaves of the mangosteen plantlets was best noted in seeds exposed to 10 Gy gamma rays. In in vitro, the two treatment concentrations that best helped seeds to develop callus, which were 0 ppm BA with 4 pmm NAA and 4 ppm BA with 6 ppm NAA, were added to MS basal medium. Seeds exposed to 5 Gy and grown in basal medium with 0 ppm BA and 4 ppm NAA were observed to have developed the most callus. (Author)

  17. E-microsatellite markers for Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) genome: validation and cross-transferability in Apiaceae family for plant omics research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Devi, Kamalakshi; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) is a plant that grows in tropical swampy regions of the world and has important medicinal and culinary use. It is often considered as part of Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. The unavailability of genomics resources is significantly impeding its genetic improvement. To date, no attempt has been made to develop Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers (eSSRs) from the Centella genome. Hence, the present study aimed to develop eSSRs and their further experimental validation and cross-transferability of these markers in different genera of the Apiaceae family to which Centella belongs. An in-house pipeline was developed for the entire analyses by combining bioinformatics tools and perl scripts. A total of 4443 C. asiatica EST sequences from dbEST were processed, which generated 2617 nonredundant high quality EST sequences consisting 441 contigs and 2176 singletons. Out of 1776.5 kb of examined sequences, 417 (15.9%) ESTs containing 686 SSRs were detected with a density of one SSR per 2.59 kb. The gene ontology study revealed 282 functional domains involved in various processes, components, and functions, out of which 64 ESTs were found to have both SSRs and functional domains. Out of 603 designed EST-SSR primers, 18 pairs of primers were selected for validation based on the optimum parameter value. Reproducible amplification was obtained for six primer pairs in C. asiatica that were further tested for cross-transferability in nine other important genera/species of the Apiaceae family. Cross-transferability of the EST-SSR markers among the species were examined and Centella javanica showed highest transferability (83.3%). The study revealed six highly polymorphic EST-SSR primers with an average PIC value of 0.95. In conclusion, these EST-SSR markers hold a big promise for the genomics analysis of Centella asiatica, to facilitate comparative

  18. Tinnunculite, C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O: Occurrences on the Kola Peninsula and Redefinition and Validation as a Mineral Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I. S.; Zubkova, N. V.; Shcherbakova, E. P.; Britvin, S. N.; Chervonnyi, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a study of samples found in the Khibiny (Mt. Rasvumchorr: the holotype) and Lovozero (Mts Alluaiv and Vavnbed) alkaline complexes on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, tinnunculite was approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification as a valid mineral species (IMA no. 2015-02la) and, taking into account a revisory examination of the original material from burnt dumps of coal mines in the southern Urals, it was redefined as crystalline uric acid dihydrate (UAD), C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O. Tinnunculite is poultry manure mineralized in biogeochemical systems, which could be defined as "guano microdeposits." The mineral occurs as prismatic or tabular crystals up to 0.01 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size and clusters of them, as well as crystalline or microglobular crusts. Tinnunculite is transparent or translucent, colorless, white, yellowish, reddish or pale lilac. Crystals show vitreous luster. The mineral is soft and brittle, with a distinct (010) cleavage. D calc = 1.68 g/cm3 (holotype). Tinnunculite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.503(3), β = 1.712(3), γ = 1.74(1), 2 V obs = 40(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of the holotype sample (electron microprobe data, content of H is calculated by UAD stoichiometry) is as follows, wt %: 37.5 O, 28.4 C, 27.0 N, 3.8 Hcalc, total 96.7. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (C + N+ O) = 14 apfu is: C4.99H8N4.07O4.94. Tinnunculite is monoclinic, space group (by analogy with synthetic UAD) P21/ c. The unit cell parameters of the holotype sample (single crystal XRD data) are a = 7.37(4), b = 6.326(16), c = 17.59(4) Å, β = 90(1)°, V = 820(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the XRD pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are 8.82-84[002], 5.97-15[011], 5.63-24[102̅, 102], 4.22-22[112], 3.24-27[114̅,114], 3.18-100[210], 3.12-44[211̅, 211], 2.576-14[024].

  19. Geochronological U-PB zircon dating of two ore-bearing magma pulses: stratifrom and non-stratiform bodies in the Fedorov deposit (Kola Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Kola Peninsula is one of the unique geological provinces both in Russia and in the world, where platinum and palladium deposits have been discovered. The highest level of noble metal concentration has been found in the ore of the Fedorov-Pana massif. Presently, the several deposits within the Fedorov block contain first hundreds of tons of estimated platinum metal resources, allowing us to ascribe the intrusion to the class of large deposits (Mitrofanov, 2005). The Fedorov-Pana massif is situated in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and is one of 14 major Early Proterozoic layered massifs of the Northern belt occurring at the border between Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rift sequences and Achean basement gneisses (Zagorodny, Radchenko, 1983; Bayanova, 2004). The isotope-geochronological data corroborate the geological-petrological conclusions made on the basis of prospecting works on the polyphase history of the Fedorov-Pana massif. At present, the following ages have been defined for the different stages of the massif evolution: 2526 - 2516 Ma (Nitkina, 2006) - pyroxenite and gabbro of the Fedorov magma chamber; 2501 - 2496- 2485 Ma (Bayanova, 2004; Nitkina, 2006) - gabbro-norite and gabbro of the main phase of the West-Pana block magma chamber and early disseminated platinum-metal mineralization and relatively rich Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization in the basal part of the massif; ca. 2470 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - pegmatoid gabbro-anothosite and, probably, fluid-associated rich platinum-metal ores of the Lower Layered Horizon (Malaya Pana deposit); ca. 2450 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - anorthositic injections and, probably, local lens-like rich Pt-Pd accumulations of the Upper layered Horizon. The Fedorov deposit represents the western part of the massif with the exposed area of about 45 km2 and occurs as a lopolith-like body (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov, 2005; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). The stratigraphy of the deposit consists of the following zones: 50

  20. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pextract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P

  1. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane

  2. Resetting of Neoarchaean hornblendes from the Murmansk Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia) revealed by a combined 40Ar/39Ar and Rb-Sr analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, K.; Timmerman, M. J.; Cliff, R. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Daly, J. S.; Balagansky, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    We present isotope data from amphiboles from the 2.6--2.8 Ga Murmansk Terrane in the northern foreland of the 1.9 Ga Lapland-Kola Orogen of northern Fennoscandia. Most amphiboles are zoned with tschermakitic cores that progressively change to actinolite in 5--10 μm wide areas in rims, defect zones or adjacent to biotite. Biotite chiefly occurs along cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries of amphibole, showing that its hydration and fluid ingress are confined to lattice imperfections. Furnace step heating of hornblende separate MT-11 gave spectra with increasing apparent ages and Ca/K ratios (a proxy for 37ArCa/39Ar_K). Hornblende is intergrown with biotite that also occurs in the matrix. Yet, laser step heating of single hornblende grain MT-11 yielded flat spectra with Neoarchaean apparent ages and constant Ca/K ratios. This suggests that the hornblende grain that was drilled from a thin section and which was not affected by biotite growth retained its Neoarchaean age. In contrast, the hornblende separate with intergrown biotite from this sample has a partially reset Neoarchaean isotope system. Hornblende MT-27 has Neoarchaean apparent ages and lacks low Ca/K ratios in both single grain and mineral separate spectra; it is not affected by biotite growth and this mineral is also absent from the matrix. Age spectra of other hornblende separates have increasing apparent ages to 2.56--2.65 Ga during final 39Ar release; their Ca/K ratio spectra similarly increase. Low Ca/K ratios for gas release below 950^oC imply degassing of included biotite. Apparent ages of the first heating increments may be as young as 1.8 Ga, comparable to the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the youngest biotites. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs from aliquots used for 40Ar/39Ar furnace step heating yielded sharply discordant Rb-Sr ages. MT-11 yielded an 1881 ± 23 Ma Rb-Sr age that compares well with the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite in the sample. In contrast, hornblende of sample MT-27 has a

  3. Caracterización fitoquímica de una fracción de biflavonoides de garcinia madruno: su inhibición de la oxidación de ldl humana y su mecanismo de estabilización de especies radicalarias

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Montoya Pelaez Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    A una fracción biflavonoide (FB) caracterizada fitoquímicamente de Garcinia madruno (Clusiaceae), se le evalúa su potencial inhibitorio de la oxidación de LDL y su capacidad estabilizadora de especies radicalarias, correlacionando dichas actividades con su contenido en biflavonoides. Los biflavonoides morelloflavona, volkensiflavona y amentoflavona se identifican a partir de la FB. El extracto que contiene la FB (extracto AcOEt) se determina como el principal factor involucrado en la activida...

  4. studies on the effects of botanical extracts on the mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONYEKE CC

    1Department of Botany, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2Department of Crop Science, University of. Nigeria, Nsukka. (Received 24.2.11, Accepted 17.6.11). Abstract. The effects of crude ethanolic plant extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and Nauclea latifolia root on mycelial growth of seed-borne fungi of African yam bean at ...

  5. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CC Eze, VC Eze. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/joafss.v5i2.46698 ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyong, AK. Vol 8, No 1&2 (2009) - Articles Effects of crude alkaloid extract of Garcinia Kola seed on serum gonadotrophins and testosterone levels in male rats. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-2911. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  7. 2 Water Sorption Isotherm.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The relationship between storage temperature, relative humidity and seed water content was investigated for six indigenous forest tree seed species, namely Garcinia kola, Terminalia superba, Terminalia ivorensis, Mansonia altissima, Entandrophragma angolense and Khaya anthotheca in Ghana. Seeds were equilibrated ...

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    5, Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, SAR. 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The crude extracts of the seed of Garcinia kola (GK) and its constituent biflavonoid, Kolaviron (KV), have been shown to effectively protect the stomach of rats form ulceration induced by ...

  9. Water Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Seeds of Six Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between storage temperature, relative humidity and seed water content was investigated for six indigenous forest tree seed species, namely Garcinia kola, Terminalia superba, Terminalia ivorensis, Mansonia altissima, Entandrophragma angolense and Khaya anthotheca in Ghana. Seeds were equilibrated ...

  10. In vitro evaluation of the interactions between acetone extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of combinations of the acetone extract of Garcinia kola seeds and six first-line antibiotics was investigated by means of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices as well as by the use of time kill assays. Using the FIC indices, synergistic interactions were observed largely against gram positive organisms (FIC ...

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to screen for in vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous seeds extract of Garcinia kola at different treatment regimes against some selected clinical bacterial isolates comprising of Gram positive and negative organisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and ...

  12. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda, Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park. The seeds were ...

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irmiya Nuka Ghamba

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... The study was conducted to screen for in vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous seeds extract of Garcinia kola at different treatment regimes against some selected clinical bacterial isolates comprising of Gram positive and negative organisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus ...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... No 1 (2006) - Articles Assessment of the antioxidant potential of alcoholic extract of Garcinia kola seed in alcohol induced testicular oxidative stress in sprague-dawley rat ... Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles Anti Diabetic Effect of Fruit Juice of Morinda Citrifolia (Tahitian Noni Juice®) on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rats

  16. Effects of Botanical Extracts on the Mycelial Growth of Seed-Borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude ethanolic plant extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and Nauclea latifolia root on mycelial growth of seed-borne fungi of African yam bean at different concentrations (100 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml) were investigated. The seed-borne fungi were Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium sp.

  17. Phytochemical screening and mineral composition of chewing sticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of the stems of Garcinia kola, Dennettia tripetala, Acioa barteri, Dialium guineense, Maesobotrya barteri, Mallotus oppositifolius and Psidium guajava which are commonly used as chewing sticks in southern Nigeria revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins, tannins, ...

  18. Antiulcerogenic Effects of Kolaviron: Inhibition of Apoptosis induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extracts of the seed of Garcinia kola (GK) and its constituent biflavonoid, Kolaviron (KV), have been shown to effectively protect the stomach of rats form ulceration induced by HCl/Ethanol mixture as well as indomethacin. However, the anti-ulcerogenic mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. Since apoptosis ...

  19. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy - Vol 11, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological evaluatin of the hepatoprotective activity of stem bark extracts of Garcinia Kola on acetaminophen-Induced liver injury in rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AA Ngokere, NJC Okolie, AC Okeke, JC Nwachukwu, CI Ikegwuonu, N Ibe ...

  20. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  1. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical hop substitute from utazi (UTZ) Gongronema latifolium, bitter cola (BTC), Garcinia kola, bitter leaf (BTL), Vernonia amygdalina and a blend (1:1.41:2.89) of the three (HSB) respectively, were produced. Stability studies were carried out to predict their suitability for brewing after one to six months storage at 5 ± 1oC ...

  2. Brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial studies on the seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia kola (Family, Guttiferae) is employed in a variety of therapies ranging from skin, gastrointestinal, chest to tumour problems. Preparations of the stem and roots are used as antitumour in traditional medicine but the potential of the seeds as antitumour had not yet been investigated hence the brine-shrimp lethality and ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 1255 ... Vol 12, No 3 (2006), Effect of aqueos extract of Garcinia Kola on some liver enyzme of rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage, Abstract ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Effect of conterion, solvent and ligand substituents on the reduction potentials of copper (II) complexes of varioius imidazoles in ...

  4. The evaluation of selected ghanaian medicinal plants for cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Adenia lobata root, Clerodendrum capitatum leaves, Garcinia kola stem bark, Plumbago zeylanica leaves and Vernonia conferta root, showed relatively low cytotoxic activities while extracts of Ficus asperifolia leaves, Paullinia pinnata root and Thonningia sanguinea root exhibited moderate activity (IC50 values ...

  5. The performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg quality indices (egg shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness, albumen index and yolk index) were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). Egg shell index was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by Garcinia kola meal. At 2.5% level, it significantly enhanced percent albumin and reduced percent ...

  6. In vitro Studies on the Trypanocidal activities of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an urgent need for the development of new, cheap, safe and highly effective drugs against African trypanosomiasis a fatal disease which affects both man and livestock in sub- Saharan Africa. Garcinia kola is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral properties. In this study ...

  7. Comparative Adsorption of Spiramycin on Veegum , Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... The adsorption data obtained for the three adsorbents were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich's plots. Results: At neutral pH, drug adsorprtion by Garcinia kola, activated charcoal and Veegum® were 67,. 54 and 71 %, respectively; differences in adsorption was not significant (p = 0.09). However, the ...

  8. Combination with Tadalafil reduces the aphrodisiac activity of Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behavioural parameters of mount latency, mount frequency, genital grooming, anogenital sniffing, and chasing of female animals were recorded in male rats (one hour after administration of extract) by their interaction with a receptive female (1:1) for an observatory period of 1 hour. Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ethanol Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizome on Neurobehavioural Activities in Stressed Rats Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 3 (2015) - Articles Analgesic and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Kolaviron (a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-5096. AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... morphology. They concluded that the plant had fertility enhancing effects. Similar observations suggestive of enhanced sperm motility, sperm count and decreased spermatozoa abnormality were made following oral administration of Curcuma longa and Garcinia kola. (Farombi et al., 2007; Adimoeja et al., ...

  11. African Health Sciences - Vol 12, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola seeds, in Wistar rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OA Adaramoye, 498-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v12i4.16 ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 643 ... Vol 18, No 3 (2015), Analgesic and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Kolaviron (a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex), Abstract PDF. GF Ibironke, AA Fasanmade. Vol 10, No 1 (2007), Antagonistic effect of Vitamin E on the efficacy of artesunate against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice ...

  13. Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats has been established. Objectives: To evaluate the possible protective effects of KV on cardiac, renal and hepatic tissues of STZ-diabetic rats. Methods: This study consists of four groups of 6 rats each.

  14. Chromatographic characterisation, in vitro antioxidant and free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic analysis of the ME4 fraction revealed the presence of four compounds namely garcinia biflavonoids GB1 and GB2, garcinal and garcinoic acid. These findings show that these four compounds are partly responsible for the great antioxidant potential of G. kola seeds.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quadri, AL. Vol 9, No 4 (2012) - Articles Garcinia Kola Seeds: Is the Aqueous Extract a True Aphrodisiac in Male Wistar Rats? Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rhizome On Some Kidney And Liver Functional Indicies Of Albino Rats Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 4 (2012) - Articles Antimicrobial Activity of the Solvent Fractions from Bulbine Natalensis Tuber Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 4 (2012) - Articles Garcinia Kola Seeds: Is the Aqueous Extract a True Aphrodisiac in Male Wistar Rats?

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia Kola Seeds: Is the Aqueous Extract a True Aphrodisiac in Male Wistar Rats? Abstract PDF · Vol 16 (2012) - Articles Toxico-Pathological Effects of Saponins from Massularia acuminata Stem in Male Wistar Rats Abstract · Vol 14, No 1 (2015) - Articles Antiglycation and Hypolipidemic Effects of Polyphenols from ...

  18. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    treatment of gastroenteritis, enteric fever, uretritis, and wound infections associated with the test bacteria. REFERENCES. Adaramoye OA, VO Nwaneri , KC Anyanwu , EO. Farombi and GO Emerole (2005). Possible anti- atherogenic effect of kolaviron (a Garcinia kola seed extract) in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin Exp ...

  19. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vitro antifungal effect of Garcinia kola and garlic (Alliums sativum) on vaginal isolates of candida · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos University Teaching Hospital · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladele, RO. Vol 14, No 3 (2013) - Articles In-vitro antifungal effect of Garcinia kola and garlic (Alliums sativum) on vaginal isolates of candida. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 3 (2013) - Articles Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos University Teaching Hospital

  1. Raíz secundaria embrional asociada a la germinación de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae y su posible papel en la supervivencia de las plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En pruebas preliminares de germinación con semillas de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae se observó que ésta producía dos tipos de raíces: la primaria y una secundaria embrional que atraviesa longitudinalmente la semilla. Para determinar su posible papel en la supervivencia y crecimiento de esta especie, se analizaron 90 plántulas con al menos seis meses de germinadas en bolsas plásticas con suelo orgánico ubicadas en un invernadero, a las que se les aplicó uno de los siguientes tratamientos: corte de la raíz primaria o la secundaria embrional, además de un grupo control con ambas raíces (30 repeticiones de cada uno. Luego de tres meses se empezaron a extraer 10 plántulas/mes/tratamiento a los que se les midió la altura total, diámetro basal, longitud de la raíz primaria y secundaria, y la biomasa del vástago, raíz y semilla sin la cubierta seminal. Las plántulas que obtuvieron el mayor crecimiento fueron las del control, seguidas por aquéllas sin la raíz secundaria. Sin embargo, más del 90% de las plántulas a las que se les cortó la raíz primaria, sobrevivieron después de cinco meses de haberse aplicado el tratamiento, en parte debido a una muy alta capacidad de recuperación de su sistema radical, ya sea produciendo rebrotes de la principal (20%, aumentando el crecimiento de la raíz secundaria (13.3%, o ambos (26.7%, y a las reservas de la semilla. La longitud de los rebrotes de la raíz principal fue estadísticamente significativa en las primeras dos extracciones mensuales de plantas, comparado con las del control (F6= 18.6, F7= 16.0, pSecondary embryonary root associated with seed germination in Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae and its possible role in seedling survival. Germination tests on Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae seeds showed the growth of two types of roots: additionally to the primary root, a secondary root crosses the seed lengthwise. To determine its possible role on the survival and growth of this

  2. Návrh a výroba modelu prototypu brzdového segmentu vysokého kola na 3D FDM tiskárně

    OpenAIRE

    Hložek, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Tématem této bakalářské práce je návrh a řešení problematiky výroby brzdného segmentu historického kola v několika variantách technologií Fused Deposition Modeling. První část práce je věnována základnímu principu metody rapid prototyping a technologii FDM, materiálům používaných pro 3D tisk a historii vysokých kol. Druhá část práce se věnuje návrhu 3D modelu v programu Autodesk Inventor Professional 2016, procesu výroby brzdných segmentů a nakonec technicko-ekonomickému zhodnocení. The th...

  3. Využití řídicího systému Sinumerik 840D při programování polotovarů pro ozubená kola

    OpenAIRE

    Havlát, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá využitím řídicího systému Sinumerik 840D při programování polotovarů pro ozubená kola. První část této práce je zaměřena na rozbor obrobitelnosti materiálu s následným provedením experimentální zkoušky obrobitelnosti materiálu 16MnCr5. Bylo provedeno experimentální vyhodnocení vlivu řezných parametrů na silové zatížení polohrubovacího soustružnického nože CoroTurn 300. V další části práce je uvedena technická dokumentace součástí s ozubením, pro které je následně vyt...

  4. Malá škola po pěti letech: proměny školy v době reformy/A small school revisited: School change in the time of reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Dvořák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Již více výzkumů konstatovalo, že kurikulární reforma českého školství nedosáhla očekávaných cílů, o příčině však nepanuje shoda. V našem příspěvku popisujeme mechanismus problematické implementace reformy v jedné základní škole a vliv různých aktérů a úrovní systému na školu. Nejprve je představena metoda analýzy kongruence jako nástroj pro propojování dat a teoretického rámce v případové studii. Následně jsou načrtnuty dvě různé teorie změny. Empirická část příspěvku popisuje proces změny školy v průběhu více než pěti let. Důraz je kladen na interakci mezi vnitřními vývojovými procesy ve škole a vnějšími vlivy přicházejícími z vyšších úrovní vzdělávacího systému. Metodou kvalitativní případové studie byla longitudinálně sledována základní škola, která se na počátku výzkumu nacházela v kritické situaci. Analyzovanými daty jsou především rozhovory s vedením, učiteli a žáky, školy, pozorování vyučovacích hodin a dokumenty školy. Škola ve sledovaném období projevila značnou vnitřní kapacitu ke změně, avšak současně vykazuje velkou skepsi k národní reformě a implementuje ji pouze formálně. Vize rozvoje školy je formulována velmi odlišně od diskurzu reformy. Pro vysvětlení dosavadní implementace reformy se teoretické rámce, jež předpokládají složitou síť aktérů a zájmů určujících výsledek reformy, jeví vhodnější než názory, které vidí hlavní problém v učitelích.

  5. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  6. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.

    2017-04-02

    The crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, ideally Na2ZnTiNb2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 (H2O)4, a lamprophyllite-group mineral of the seidozerite supergroup from the type locality, Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia have been revised. The crystal structure was refined with a new origin in space group C⎯1, a = 10.769(2), b = 14.276(3), c = 12.101(2) Å, α = 105.45(3), β = 95.17(3), γ = 90.04(3)°, V = 1785.3(3.2) Å3, R1 = 9.23%. The electron-microprobe analysis gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking along c* and HRTEM images show an intergrowth of crystalline zvyaginite with two distinct phases, both of which are partially amorphous. The crystal structure of zvyaginite is an array of TS (Titanium Silicate) blocks connected via hydrogen bonds between H2O groups. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H = heteropolyhedral, O = octahedral) parallel to (001). In the O sheet, the [6]MO(1,4,5) sites are occupied mainly by Ti, Zn and Na and the [6]MO(2,3) sites are occupied by Na at less than 50%. In the H sheet, the [6]MH(1,2) sites are occupied mainly by Nb and the [8]AP(1) and [8]AP(2) sites are occupied mainly by Na and ��. The MH and AP polyhedra and Si2O7 groups constitute the H sheet. The ideal structural formula is Na��Nb2NaZn��Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Zvyaginite is a Zn-bearing and Na-poor analogue of epistolite, ideally (Na��)Nb2Na3Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Epistolite and zvyaginite are related by the following substitution in the O sheet of the TS-block: (Na+2)epi ↔ Zn2+ zvy + ��zvy. The doubling of the t1 and t2 translations of zvyaginite relative to those of epistolite is due to the order of Zn and Na along a (t1) and b (t2) in the O sheet of zvyaginite.

  7. Phosphoinnelite, Ba4Na3Ti3Si4O14(PO4,SO4)2(O,F)3, a new mineral species from peralkaline pegmatite of the Kovdor pluton, Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Kulikova, I. M.; Belakovsky, D. I.

    2007-12-01

    Phosphoinnelite, an analogue of innelite with P > S, has been found in a peralkaline pegmatite vein crosscutting calcite carbonatite at the phlogopite deposit, Kovdor pluton, Kola Peninsula. Cancrinite (partly replaced with thomsonite-Ca), orthoclase, aegirine-augite, pectolite, magnesioarfvedsonite, golyshevite, and fluorapatite are associated minerals. Phosphoinnelite occurs as lath-shaped crystals up to 0.2 × 1 × 6 mm in size, which are combined typically in bunch-, sheaf-, and rosettelike segregations. The color is yellow-brown, with vitreous luster on crystal faces and greasy luster on broken surfaces. The mineral is transparent. The streak is pale yellowish. Phosphoinnelite is brittle, with perfect cleavage parallel to the {010} and good cleavage parallel to the {100}; the fracture is stepped. The Mohs hardness is 4.5 to 5. Density is 3.82 g/cm3 (meas.) and 3.92 g/cm3 (calc.). Phosphoinnelite is biaxial (+), α = 1.730, β = 1.745, and γ = 1.764, 2V (meas.) is close to 90°. Optical orientation is Z^c ˜ 5°. Chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is as follows (wt %): 6.06 Na2O, 0.04 K2O, 0.15 CaO, 0.99 SrO, 41.60 BaO, 0.64 MgO, 1.07 MnO, 1.55 Fe2O3, 0.27 Al2O3, 17.83 SiO2, 16.88 TiO2, 0.74 Nb2O5, 5.93 P2O5, 5.29 SO3, 0.14 F, -O=F2 = -0.06, total is 99.12. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (Si,Al)4O14 is (Ba3.59Sr0.13K0.01)Σ3.73(Na2.59Mg0.21Ca0.04)Σ3.04(Ti2.80Fe{0.26/3+}Nb0.07)Σ3.13[(Si3.93Al0.07)Σ4O14(P1.11S0.87)Σ1.98O7.96](O2.975F0.10)Σ3.075. The simplified formula is Ba4Na3Ti3Si4O14(PO4,SO4)2(O,F)3. The mineral is triclinic, space group P overline 1 or P1. The unit cell dimensions are a = 5.38, b = 7.10, c = 14.76 Å; α = 99.00°, β = 94.94°, γ = 90.14°; and V = 555 Å3, Z = 1. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å in ( I)( hkl)] are: 14.5(100)(001), 3.455(40)(103), 3.382(35)(0overline 2 2), 2.921(35)(005), 2.810(40)(1overline 1 4), 2.683(90)(200, overline 2 01), 2.133(80)(overline 2 overline

  8. Evaluation of growth performance, carcass and organ weights of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and thirty five broiler finisher birds were used in this study which lasted for 28 days. The birds were randomly assigned to three experimental treatments; T1 , T2 and T3 , containing 0.0, 15.0 and 30.0 g/L of ground Garcinia kola seeds, respectively. Growth performance of the broiler finisher birds ...

  9. Contribution à l'identification des champignons de post-récolte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Cameroun, les amandes de Ricinodendron heudelotii et Garcinia kola souffrent de diverses maladies fongiques responsables de pertes post-récolte élevées dont l'étiologie reste encore inconnue. La présente étude a pour objectif de déterminer le profil fongique des champignons de post-récolte associés à ces.

  10. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2018-02-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2 H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3 R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2 V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å ( I) ( hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(10 10). The crystal structure of kampelite was

  11. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Squalius svallize (HECKEL & KNER, 1858 (CYPRINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Šprem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neretva chub Squalius svallize is an endemic vulnerable species, strictly protected in Croatia but not protected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Populations are declining due to environmental degradation, dams, predators and poaching. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of S. svalize is required.

  12. Reproductive Strategies of Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes Sciaenidae in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cintia Carnelós

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion squamosissimus is a dominant species in the Itaipu reservoir and has a significant role in the regional economy. The aim of the present research was the investigation of the curvina's reproductive strategies during the first years of the Itaipu reservoir (November 1983 to October 1989. Collections were undertaken from eleven sampling sites in the reservoir area, left bank tributaries, Paraná River and its tributaries. Species begin the reproduction in the area of influence of the Itaipu reservoir only in 1986. Size of early maturation, local and period of spawning showed gradual variations, with a broadening trend of this activity in the area, and thus guaranteeing success of the species. Mean size of early sexual maturation for the Plagioscion squamosissimus reached 16.2 cm for males and 17.8 cm for females.Plagioscion squamosissimus, amplamente distribuída na América do Sul, constituiu-se no reservatório de Itaipu em uma das espécies dominantes e de expressiva participação nos desembarques comerciais. Com o intuito de investigar as estratégias reprodutivas utilizadas pela espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório de Itaipu foram realizadas coletas durante o período de novembro de 1983 a outubro de 1989 em onze estações de amostragens situadas na área do reservatório, tributários da margem esquerda, rio Paraná e seus tributários. Constatou-se que a espécie iniciou o processo reprodutivo na área de influência o reservatório de Itaipu somente apartir de 1986. Após este período a estratégia reprodutiva exibida pela espécie foi adaptativa, sendo que o tamanho da primeira maturação, local e período de desova, apresentaram variações gradativas no sentido de ampliação desta atividade na área, garantindo o sucesso da espécie. O tamanho médio da primeira maturação sexual para a população de P. squamosissimus é de 16,2 cm para machos e de 17,8 cm para fêmeas.

  13. Siudaite, Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O: a new eudialyte-group mineral from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Kruszewski, Łukasz; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.

    2018-03-01

    The new eudialyte-group mineral siudaite, ideally Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O, was discovered in a peralkaline pegmatite situated at the Eveslogchorr Mt., Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The associated minerals are aegirine, albite, microcline, nepheline, astrophyllite, and loparite-(Ce). Siudaite forms yellow to brownish-yellow equant anhedral grains up to 1.5 cm across. Its lustre is vitreous, and the streak is white. Cleavage is none observed. The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by hydrostatic weighing is 2.96(1) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.973 g/cm3. Siudaite is nonpleochroic, optically uniaxial, negative, with ω = 1.635(1) and ɛ = 1.626(1) (λ = 589 nm). The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of siudaite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by HCN analysis): Na2O 8.40, K2O 0.62, CaO 9.81, La2O3 1.03, Ce2O3 1.62, Pr2O3 0.21, Nd2O3 0.29, MnO 6.45, Fe2O3 4.51. TiO2 0.54, ZrO2 11.67, HfO2 0.29, Nb2O5 2.76, SiO2 47.20, Cl 0.54, H2O 3.5, -O = Cl - 0.12, total 99.32. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, all iron is trivalent. The empirical formula (based on 24.5 Si atoms pfu, in accordance with structural data) is [Na7.57(H2O)1.43]Σ9(Mn1.11Na0.88Ce0.31La0.20Nd0.05Pr0.04K0.41)Σ3(H2O)1.8(Ca5.46Mn0.54)Σ6(Fe3+ 1.76Mn2+ 1.19)Σ2.95Nb0.65(Ti0.20Si0.50)Σ0.71(Zr2.95Hf0.04Ti0.01)Σ3Si24.00Cl0.47O70(OH)2Cl0.47·1.82H2O. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3m, with a = 14.1885(26) Å, c = 29.831(7) Å, V = 5200.8(23) Å3 and Z = 3. Siudaite is chemically related to georgbarsanovite and is its analogue with Fe3+-dominant M2 site. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.38 (60) (-114), 4.29 (55) (-225), 3.389 (47) (131), 3.191 (63) (-228). 2.963 (100) (4-15), 2.843 (99) (-444), 2.577 (49) (3-39). Siudaite is named after the Polish

  14. Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf e centela (Centella asiatica (L. Urban Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabe Gomes de Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais, analisou-se dez amostras de castanha-da-índia, onze de capim-limão e seis de centela, comercializadas em farmácias da cidade do Recife, provenientes de indústrias de várias partes do país. Analisamos as informações técnico-científicas nos rótulos e/ou bulas de acordo com as exigências e obrigatoriedades da legislação brasileira (RDC n. 140 de 29/05/2003 e na RDC n. 102 de 30/11/2000, e embasamento da literatura científica. Também avaliou-se as características organolépticas, a autenticidade e a pureza dos produtos. Constatou-se ausência das informações obrigatórias em 92,59% das amostras. Dentre os termos vedados, foi comum a sugestão da inexistência de efeitos colaterais ou adversos. Quanto as indicações terapêuticas não se observou padronização técnica dos termos nem comprovação científica para algumas das atividades atribuídas pelos fabricantes. Todas as amostras foram consideradas autênticas com base nos testes fitoquímicos e farmacobotânicos. Na análise da pureza 59,26% das amostras foram reprovadas, devido principalmente ao elevado teor de umidade e cinzas totais. Constata-se que além dos produtos comercializados carecerem de informações e qualidade adequadas, há necessidade urgente de uma fiscalização efetiva por parte dos órgãos competentes.Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, coming from industries of several parts of the country. We analyzed the technical-scientific information on the labels and/or directions according to the requirements and obligations of Brazilian law (laws "RDC 140 of 29/05/2003" and "RDC 102 of 30/11/2000" and to scientific literature embasement. The products' organoleptic

  15. Power Institutions and International Collaboration on the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hønneland

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how international cooperative projects have contributed to increased interaction between civilian authorities and the military or other power agencies in Murmansk Oblast. The cases of fisheries enforcement, nuclear safety and the fight against communicable diseases, especially tuberculosis in prisons, are reviewed. The main lesson is that international collaboration ventures can sometimes provide arenas for initiating new coordination patterns that would otherwise not have evolved. Occasionally, the international project is simply the pretext necessary for changing a situation that both civilian and power agencies view as irrational. Whether these changes are fundamental and structural, however, remains to be seen.

  16. Effect of ethanol seed extract of Buccholzia coriacea (wonderful kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of ethanol extract of Buccholzia coriacea seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats within a period of two weeks of treatments. Twelve (12) Wistar albino rats weighing between 85 to 130 g purchased and randomly divided into three groups were used for this study. The control group ...

  17. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extracts of Garcina kola seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 100mg/ml concentration of each extract, the reduction in egg hatch was comparable to those obtained with various dilutions of levamisole and albendazole both of which showed 100% reduction in egg hatch. The extracts therefore showed promise for use as possible anthelminthic for the regular treatment and control ...

  18. Letní škola metod a technik ECPR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšková, Kateřina; Kouba, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 229-231 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : summerschool * methodology * ECPR Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2008

  19. Experience in the Kola NPP start-up works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S.I.; Omel'chuk, V.V.; Bodrukhin, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Main stages and peculiar features of maintenance and start-up works at WWER-440 type reactor NPPs described. Remarks revealed during complex equipment testing, physical and power start-up will be useful for arrangement of maintenance and start-up works at newly built NPPs

  20. The Effects of Bitter Kola Supplemented Diet on Hepatotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    sources usually arise from contaminated drinking water as well as plant and animal sourced food products. The metal has been reported to be highly prone to bioaccumulate, leading to biomagnification along the food chain (EPA,1997). The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicodynamics of mercury have ...

  1. Metaphysics of Kola Nut: Towards an Authentic African Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    have shown antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant activities. We sequenced total genomic DNA ... property of anti-obesity. Recently, a number of studies in animals have shown the effectivity of G. gummi-gutta fruit extracts rich in HCA in reducing body weight (Saito et al., 2005; Shara et al., 2004). Germplasm utilization and ...

  3. Effects of crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada. P.M.B 0006, Benin City. Nigeria. 2Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. .... feeding 35 mg/kg of G. cambogia to rabbits for 8 weeks.

  4. Development of male-specific SCAR marker in Garcinia morella ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... tropical rain forests of Western Ghats of India (Anonymous. 1956). It also occurs in Sri Lanka and Indo-China Himalayan regions. It is a multipurpose tree grown as a ... 1978), gambogic acid (Tang et al. 2011) have been isolated from the fruits and the bark, respectively, and evaluated for their antibiotic and.

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V.

    fruit is effective in weight loss (Jena et al. 2002). The extract obtained from this fruits has exhibited the property of antiobesity. Recently, a number of ..... pressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis. Food Chemi. Toxic 43,. 411–419. Samarajeewa U. and Shanmugapirabu N.

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V. RAVISHANKAR

    G. gummi-gutta is recognized in Ayurveda, the traditional. Indian system of medicine, for better digestion and is pre- scribed against abdominal disorders and heart diseases. The fruit rind is ground and used as a sour flavouring spice in the preparation of curries and to garnish fish preparations. The. ∗For correspondence.

  7. Development of male-specific SCAR marker in Garcinia morella ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... Genomic DNA was extracted using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. One hundred and fifty decamer primers (series A, B, C, D, .... Danilova T. V. and Karlov G. I. 2006 Application of inter sim- ple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism for detection of sex-specific molecular markers in hop ...

  8. Development of male-specific SCAR marker in Garcinia morella ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. S. Joseph1 H. N. Murthy1 K. V. Ravishankar2. Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India; Division of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gutta using next-generation sequencing technology. ... India; Biodiversity International, 93.4, Dharhara Marg, Fulbari, Ward no.11, Pokhara, Nepal; Bioversity International, University of Horticultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru 560 065, India ...

  10. Postharvest technologies for mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzsohn de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of technologies to extend the postharvest life of mangosteen fruit was studied and compared to storage at 25 °C/70-75%R.H (25 °C control treatment. The fruits were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays (5 fruits/tray. Five treatments were carried out at 13 °C/ 90-95% RH: application of carnauba wax coating, lecithin + CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose coating, 50 µm LDPE (low density polyethylene film coating, 13 µm PVC (Polyvinyl chloride, and non-coated sample (13 °C control treatment. Physicochemical analyses were performed twice a week. A statistical design was completely randomized with 8 repetitions for each treatment plus the control treatment. The results were submitted to variance analysis, and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Among the quality parameters analyzed, more significant differences were observed for weight loss, texture, and peel moisture content. The results showed that the maximum storage period for mangosteen at 25 °C is two weeks; while storage at13 °C can guarantee the conservation of this fruit for 25 days. Therefore, the treatment at 13 °C/90-95% RH without the use of coatings and films was more effective and economical.

  11. The Growth Parameters of Barbus plebejus Heckel, 1843 in Çıldır Lake-Ardahan

    OpenAIRE

    ÇALIŞKAN, Mustafa; YERLİ, Sedat Vahdet; CANBOLAT, Ali Fuat

    2014-01-01

    A total of 179 Barbus lacerta were caught in the Çıldır Lake-Ardahan from May to December 1991. The age composition of B.plebejus specimens were between I-V years and II years old dominated with a rate of 47.49%. In the stock the percentages were calculated as 55.15% for males and 44.85% for females. According to age groups I-V, to average forklengths were 150.61 mm; 193.88; 243.00 mm; 270.29 mm and 305,50 mm; average weights were 48.80 g; 103.95 g; 188.16 g; 257.07 g and 457.50 g respectiv...

  12. Isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns in discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840) from the Central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A; Lima, R C A; Teixeira, A S

    2008-09-09

    The discus is a very popular and expensive aquarium fish belonging to the family Cichlidae, genus Symphysodon, formed by three Amazon basin endemic species: Symphysodon aequifasciatus, S. discus and S. tarzoo. The taxonomic status of these fish is very controversial, with a paucity of molecular research on their population genetic structure and species identification. Information on molecular genetic markers, especially isoenzymes, in search of a better understanding of the population genetic structure and correct identification of fish species, has been receiving more attention when elaborating and implementing commercial fishery management programs. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the species taxonomic status, the present study describes the isoenzymatic patterns of 6 enzymes: esterase (Est - EC 3.1.1.1), lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh - EC 1.1.1.27), malate dehydrogenase (Mdh - EC 1.1.1.37), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm - EC 5.4.2.2), phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi - EC 5.3.1.9), and super oxide dismutase (Sod - EC 1.15.1.1) extracted from skeletal muscle specimens and analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. Monomorphic patterns, presumably controlled by 11 loci: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Ldh-1, Ldh-2, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, and Sod-1 were fixed for the same alleles: Est-1(1), Est-2(1), Est-3(1), Ldh-1(1), Ldh-2(1), Mdh-1(1), Mdh-2(1), Pgi-1(1), Pgi-2(1), Pgm-1(1), and Sod-1(1), respectively, and detected in all 60 specimens examined (27 S. aequifasciatus from Manacapuru and 33 S. discus from Novo Airão, Central Amazon). The failure in the present study to detect diagnostic loci, which could be very useful for differentiating S. aequifasciatus from S. discus species, and polymorphic loci, which could also be applied for possible identification and delimitation of their stocks, does not rule out the possibility of there existing in other isoenzyme gene loci to be analyzed in the future.

  13. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) and tubenose (Proterorhinus semilunaris, Heckel 1837) goby predation pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 785, č. 1 (2017), s. 219-232 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * Gobies * Macroinvertebrates * Impact * European rivers * Diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  14. Effects of a Supraseasonal Drought on the Ecological Attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in a Brazilian Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Antonia E. F.; Oliveira, Jônnata F.; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Costa, Rodrigo S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi). The proportional similarity index (PSi) was used to evaluate the variation in the niches of the fish. The body condition was inferred through the relative condition factor, and its variation was assessed with ANOVA. A reduction in the abundance of the species that were positively correlated with the reservoir water volume was observed. The diet of the fish comprised shrimp, gastropods, fish, insects, shrimp larvae, and vegetable matter, with shrimp being the major component. PSi showed the occurrence of individual specialization during November 2013 and November 2014. The relative condition factor was not correlated with a reduction in the water volume of the reservoir. The supraseasonal drought did not affect the relative condition factor, diet, and the trophic niche, but it did affect the species abundance. PMID:28326431

  15. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  16. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  17. Commonly consumed and naturally occurring dietary substances affect biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farombi, E. O.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    triglyceride levels and black currant juice increased plasma cholesterol but neither of them nor any other treatment affected blood glucose, erythrocyte HbA1c or fructosamine. We conclude that markers of oxidative stress may be modified by several mechanisms after feeding rats with complex dietary factors......The influence of black currant juice, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI), kolaviron (a biflavonoid fraction of Garcinia kola seed), sugars, vitamin C and tert-butyl hydroperoxide on a wide range of biomarkers for oxidative stress, DNA damage and sugar or lipid metabolism has been investigated...... decreased oxidative damage to DNA in the liver. The erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in rats treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (p treatments. Black currant juice and sugars increased plasma...

  18. Length-weight relationship of Cobitis elongatoides Heckel & Kner, 1858 from a pure diploid population in the Nová Říše Reservoir, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Pekárik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2015), s. 562-564 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : growth * reproduction * biology * stream * fishes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2015

  19. Identification of natural hybrids between Cottus poecilopus, Heckel, 1837, and Cottus gobio, Linnaeus, 1758, at a hybrid zone on the Svratka River (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, T.; Halačka, Karel; Bartoňová-Marešová, Eva; Vetešník, Lukáš; Spurný, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2014), s. 102-108 ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish communities * sculpins Cottus * bullhead * Pisces * Pleistocene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2014

  20. Two species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the cyprinid fish Luciobarbus kersin (Heckel) in northern Iraq, including R. (Globochona) kurdistanensis sp. n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bilal, S. J.; Abdullah, S. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2012), s. 139-147 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Rhabdochona * freshwater fish * Luciobarbus * Iraq Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22051

  1. WEIGHT-LENGTH RATIO AND CONDITION FACTOR OF PESCADA BRANCA (Plagioscion squamosissimus, HECKEL 1840 COMMERCIALISED IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SANTARÉM, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericleya Mota Marinho Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishing is one of the most important economic activities in the Amazon region. In the Lower Amazon, the species Plagioscion squamosissimus commonly known as pescada branca is one of the main commercial species. The objective of this study was to determine the weight-length relationship and the condition factor of “pescada branca” landed at the Fish Market in Santarém-PA. Data was gathered from August 2014 to July 2015 in the Fish Market. The sample had 352 individuals of the species studied. The mean length and mean weight of the individuals analyzed corresponded to 26,83 ± 2.64 cm and 234,87 ± 77, 60 g, respectively. These values generated two equations, namely Wt = 0,0382*Lt2,648 and Wt= 0,1424 *Lt 2,235 for the length-weight relationship for females and males, respectively. The value of b of length-weight ratio was < 3, thus the growth of species can be considered negative allometric for both genders. The annual variation of the condition factor suggests that fat accumulation occurs in the period of drought / flood. This estimation is of great use for the management of the pescada branca stocks and can provide subsidies for decision-making administratos, in order to promote the conservation and rational use of the fishery resource. Keywords: fishing landings; biological estimates; fisheries management.

  2. Postharvest technologies for mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. conservation Tecnologias pós-colheita para conservação de mangostim (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzsohn de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of technologies to extend the postharvest life of mangosteen fruit was studied and compared to storage at 25 °C/70-75%R.H (25 °C control treatment. The fruits were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays (5 fruits/tray. Five treatments were carried out at 13 °C/ 90-95% RH: application of carnauba wax coating, lecithin + CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose coating, 50 µm LDPE (low density polyethylene film coating, 13 µm PVC (Polyvinyl chloride, and non-coated sample (13 °C control treatment. Physicochemical analyses were performed twice a week. A statistical design was completely randomized with 8 repetitions for each treatment plus the control treatment. The results were submitted to variance analysis, and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Among the quality parameters analyzed, more significant differences were observed for weight loss, texture, and peel moisture content. The results showed that the maximum storage period for mangosteen at 25 °C is two weeks; while storage at13 °C can guarantee the conservation of this fruit for 25 days. Therefore, the treatment at 13 °C/90-95% RH without the use of coatings and films was more effective and economical.A aplicação de tecnologias visando extensão do período de conservação de frutos de mangostim foi estudada e comparada com o armazenamento a 25 °C/70-75%U.R. Os frutos foram colocados em bandejas de poliestireno (5 frutos/bandeja. Foram realizados cinco tratamentos a 13 °C/90-95%UR: cobertura de cera de carnaúba; cobertura com lecitina + CMC (Carboximetilcelulose; filme de PELBD (polietileno linear de baixa densidade 50 µm; PVC (Policloreto de vinila, e sem nenhuma cobertura ou revestimento. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas duas vezes por semana. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados foram submetidos análise de variância e comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Entre os índices de qualidade analisados, diferenças significativas foram observadas para perda de massa, textura e teor de umidade da casca. Os resultados mostraram que o período de armazenamento do mangostim a 25 °C é de duas semanas e, quando estocado a 13 °C, obteve-se a conservação dos frutos por 25 dias. Conclui-se, desse modo, que o tratamento a 13 °C/90-95%UR sem o uso de coberturas e filmes foi o melhor e o mais econômico.

  3. Letní škola digitální medievistiky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaluška, Matouš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2015), s. 985-987 ISSN 0009-0468. [CENDARI Summer School 2015: Researching Medieval Culture in a Digital Environment. Praha, 20.07.2015-24.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : medieval studies * digital humanities * research tools Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  4. Lithology of the Late Valdaian glacial moraine in the western part of the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevzerov V. Ya.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A profound study of the moraine has been provided. The results have been grouped according to the basement rocks composition. The basal moraines bedding on disintegration products of crystalline rocks, sandy siltstone sediments in the area of abundant metamorphosed and igneous rocks, and on clays in the sandstones occurrence of the Terskaya Suite have been considered. It has been defined that in the basement of the moraine bed there is a clear dependence of the large detrial material composition and the granular composition of the moraine silt on the basement rocks composition. The dependence considerably weakens upwards the section. The received data testify to the plastic glacier flow having dominated in the region, when layers in the glacier basement shifted slowest and the speed of the glacier movement increased upwards the section. The plastic flow has been associated with shifting along internal splits, which provides the inflow of the detrial material to the upper layers of the glacier. Some faults of the moraine that formed under the Middle Dryas advance of the glacier are considered as erratic mass of sedimentary rocks. Their contemporary appearance formed during the change of the glacier gliding along the bed for its inner shifting along internal splits and by plastic flow. An irregularstructured moraine occurred, when the detrial material in flakes, which lost their plasticity and as a result peeled off the basement of the moving glacier, did not consolidate before each flake peeled off. When the interval between the exfoliation of flakes was longer, the transferred detrial material interacted with the formed moraine. In result of the debris abrasion fine layers enriched by clayey particles occurred. The layers can be observed in a moraine with a bedded structure. The tabular structure was produced under the freezing of the previously deposited moraine. The ablation moraine differs from the basal one in its lower silt content. Along with the Quaternary sediments, the source of the detrial material was the area weathering crust of the hydro-mica type.

  5. Age paradoxes of Devonian magmatism of the northeastern part of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, E. N.; Baluev, A. S.; Shcherbakova, T. F.; Ipat'eva, I. S.

    2012-02-01

    A structural-geochemical study has been conducted on the dikes of presumably Devonian mafic rocks confined to a small graben filled in with Riphean sedimentary rocks hosted by Early Precambrian granite-gneiss of the Murmansk block. It has been demonstrated that the dolerite dikes of this region can be considered as manifestations of trap magmatism whose products fill in the foundation of the East Barents riftogenic downfold. In turn, manifestations of alkaline and kimberlite rocks of the White Sea region are confined to the peripheral portion of the trap magnetism area. Zircons from dolerite transecting Late Riphean sediments examined in two laboratories have a concordant age of 2.74-2.72 Ba, while zircons from a similar dike located in granite-gneiss of the basement are characterized by an age range of 2700-155 Ma, and the concordant age based on 4 points is 790 Ma. All these factors indicate that the age determinations of the mafic rocks are ambiguous, particularly in the zone of transition from the center of the trap province to its periphery, where alkaline magmatism is observed.

  6. [Participation of murine rodents in circulation of agents of tularemia and hemorrhagic fever in Kola peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, G D; Kuzovleva, N M; Bespiatova, L A

    2008-01-01

    Results of virological and bacteriological studies of wild mammals of 11 species from Rodentia and Cricetidae genuses during epizootic period (spring-autumn 2006-2007) in Murmansk region are presented. The number of red-baked mice (Clethrionomys) and common vole (Microtus) was rising. Antigen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus as well as tularemia pathogen were found in background rodent species.

  7. René Wellek a Pražská škola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-30 ISSN 2453-8507 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : literary theory ; structuralism ; poetics ; Wellek, René ; Prague School * structuralism * poetics * Wellek, René * Prague School * Prague linguistic circle * Mukařovský, Jan Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  8. Kola Nut as a Symbol of Welcome Among the Igede of Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concepts hospitality and welcome are closely related if not synonymous. Both concepts connote friendly behaviours to guests or a person who has just arrived one's place on a short or long term visit. Thus, if a host is happy with a visit, he/she is normally glad and expresses his/her gladness by the manner the guest is ...

  9. Waldorfská škola a motivace ve vyučování.

    OpenAIRE

    CHVALOVÁ, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis with the title "Waldorf school and motivation in teaching" focuses on differences in pupil´s motivation to learn English language at standard schools and Waldorf schools. Theoretical part includes fundamental information about pedagogy of Waldorf, methods of English language teaching at Waldorf schools, motivation and its role in class. The work implies findings of research made on achievement motivation and preferential motivation at standards schools and Waldorf schools. The ...

  10. SOCIJALNA KOMPETENCIJA I ZVANJE RAVNATELJA OSNOVNIH I SREDNJIH ŠKOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Ravnatelj svojim djelovanjem (bez obzira ovisi li o situaciji ili ciljevima) ne utječe samo na konačan uspjeh škole, nego i na međuljudske odnose, na školsku klimu, na motivaciju nastavnika i organizaciju rada škole. Upravo iz tog razloga nužno je ispitati socijalnu kompetenciju ravnatelja kako bi se potaknulo njihovo osposobljavanje, a potom i njihovo usavršavanje, jer vježbom se socijalne vještine mogu usavršiti (Goleman, 2008). Cilj rada je ispitati socijalne vještine koje su pr...

  11. Kola nut: revisiting the Igbo socio-cultural values and identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is regrettably observed also that this cherished kolanut cultural identity is almost at the verge of extinction especially among the young and modern day Igbos who tend to abandon the kolanut value and identity on the altar of modernization and globalization. This paper therefore called for a socio-cultural and religious ...

  12. Comparative effects of caffeine, coffee and kola nut on tear production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Health and Visual Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Effects of a Kola Nut Extract on Androgen Receptor-Mediated Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Solipuram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of prostate cancer in Asians has been attributed to chemopreventative properties of certain chemicals found in their diet. This study characterized the androgenic and chemopreventative properties of the Jamaican bush tea “Bizzy,” using androgen receptor positive and negative cell lines. Exposure of prostate cells to Biz-2 resulted in a growth inhibition (GI50 of 15 ppm in LNCaP cells and 3.6 ppm in DU145 cells. Biz-2 elicited a 2-fold increase in the mRNA of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2, with a 10-fold increase in that of the proapoptotic gene Bax. We observed a 2.4- to 7.5-fold change in apoptotic cells in both cell lines. Biz-2 at 10 ppm elicited a time- and dose-dependent stimulation of both the protein and mRNA levels of several androgen-regulated genes. Biz-2 caused a 36% decrease in PSA secretion and a significant increase in PSA mRNA. The relative binding affinity (IC50 of Biz-2 for AR was 2- to 5-fold lower than that of the synthetic androgen R1881. Biz-2 was found to be a specific ligand for the AR in that the natural ligand, DHT, and the anti-androgen, flutamide, displaced Biz-2 bound to AR and inhibited Biz-2-induced transcription and PSA secretion. This study provided evidence that Biz-2 extract possesses the ability to modulate prostate cancer cell biology in an AR-dependent manner.

  14. Letní škola Bio-Photonics 2003 ve Švédsku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pala, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 7 (2003), s. 214-215 ISSN 0447-6441. [Graduate Summer School Bio-Photonics'03. Ven, 15.06.2003-21.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/0429; GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Projekt 07/01:4075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : holographic optical elements * biophysics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. Projekt bewegte schule – škola v pohybu [Project Bewegte Schule – school in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Autor se ve svém příspěvku věnuje popisu projektu Bewegte Schule. Takto pojmenována "nová" školní koncepce německých škol, má přinést pohyb a komplexní výchovu do škol. Základními pilíři nového projektu jsou: 1. zdravý životní styl, 2. protidrogová prevence a ekologie a 3. kvalitní nadstandardní vzdělávací péče o talentované i méně nadané žáky. Koncept školy v pohybu je rozdělen do několika částí, kterými jsou školní třída, vestibul, školní dvůr, sezení a pracovní postup, výuka, přestávka trávená pohybovými aktivitami, předmět tělesná výchova a nabídka mimoškolních pohybových aktivit. Cíle školy v pohybu jsou: 1. nabídnout co nejvíce možností k pohybovým aktivitám, 2. vytvořit prostředí, kde pohybové aktivity mají vysoký kredit, 3. obohatit pohybovými aktivitami školní den žáků, 4. pomáhat žákům přijmout pohybovou aktivnost jako součást životního stylu. Poznání procesu inovace školního vzdělávání v jiné zemi může být užitečné při realizaci konceptů rámcových vzdělávacích programů a při aktuální tvorbě školních vzdělávacích programů. Výsledky naší práce mohou přispět ke zvýšení informovanosti účastníků reforem vzdělávání v České republice a umožnit tak učinit inovativní kroky, které povedou ke zkvalitnění vzdělávacího procesu v naší republice. [In his article the author describes the project "Bewegte Schule". So-called the "new" school conception of German schools should bring physical and complex education to schools. The essential pillars of this new project are: 1 the healthy lifestyle 2 drug prevention and ecology and 3 first-rate, beyond standard educational attendance of more or less talented pupils. The draft of "the school in motion" is divided into several parts, which are the classroom, the hall, the schoolyard, the sitting position and working progression, teaching, physically-active breaks, the school subject PE and an off er of out-of school physical activities. The aims of "the school in motion" are: 1 to off er as many physical activities as possible, 2 to create a world with high-credit physical activities, 3 to enrich the school day for pupils of physical activities, 4 to help pupils to accept the physical activity as a part of their lifestyle. The knowledge about educational innovations in diff erent countries can be useful for realization of the frame educational programs and for creation of the school educational programs. The results of our work can help to inform the participants of the educational reforms in the Czech Republic and to support the innovation steps, which lead to high-quality educational process in our country.

  16. Gone are the days of 'Kola(Nut)': New trends in language habits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines language habits such as metaphoric expressions, performative utterances and slang terms (sometimes accompanied with facial and bodily gestures) which are associated with aspects of corrupt practices in Nigeria. Data for the study were sourced through participant observation and informal ...

  17. WWER fuel rod analysis of KOLA3-MIR transient experiment using PAD and TRANSURANUS codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slyeptsov, O.; Slyeptsov, S.; Sung, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The capability prediction of PAD (version 10.5.2) and TRANSURANUS (TU - v1m1j09) fuel rod models to simulate Russian WWER fuel rod behavior under the power transient conditions was estimated using the benchmark from the IFPE database for WWER refabricated fuel rods (RFRs) examined in different power ramp tests of reactor MIR, which are referred to as “FGR-1”, “FGR-2” and “RAMP”. The pre-transient calculations carried out for nine RFRs operated under conditions simulating the base irradiation in WWER-440 reactor demonstrated that the rod performances at burnups (BU) of ∼50 and 60 GWD/MTU predicted by both codes are in good agreement with the experimental data. The PAD and TU calculations of RFR dimensional changes (cladding outer diameter, pellet-to-cladding gap) after the ramp tests showed reasonable agreement with the measured ones. For RFRs irradiated in the “FGR-2” test, the behavior of fuel centerline temperatures (FCT) calculated by both codes are close to each other and the predicted FCTs correlate well with the measured ones for the rod BU of ∼50 GWD/MTU. The over- and underestimation of fission gas release (FGR) after the power transients calculated by PAD code are observed for RFRs from “FGR-2” and “FGR-1”/”RAMP” tests, respectively. For the current TU code version the FGR model parameters underestimate the FGR under the power transient conditions for the examined WWER RFRs. (authors)

  18. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    The soxhlet apparatus was then set up and left for 72 hours. The extracted solution was taken to the oven for concentration to dryness at a regulated temperature of. 400 and left for 6 days. With this a powdery product was obtained, from which aqueous extract of 8mg/kg body weight was prepared. Animals: Adult male rats ...

  19. [State of circulatory system in deep hole drillers of underground mines in the Kola Transpolar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripal', B A; Torgovanov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The authors revealed significant prevalence of health disorders among deep hole borers in Transpolar regions: vegeto-sensory polyneuropathy of upper limbs (26%) with partial involvement of bones and joints. Instrumental studies revealed early disorders in workers considered apparently healthy by prophylactic examinations and follow-up--that is of diagnostic and prognostic value for assessing disablement and conducting sanitary measures.

  20. Cartographic modelling of aerotechnogenic pollution in snow cover in the landscapes of the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkin, N E; Asming, V E; Koshkin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop computational techniques for sulphates, nickel and copper accumulation in the snow in the local pollution zone. The main task was to reveal the peculiarities of formation and pollution of snow cover on the region with complex cross-relief. A digital cartographic model of aerotechnogenic pollution of snow cover in the landscapes of the local zone has been developed, based on five-year experimental data. Data regarding annual emissions from the industrial complex, information about distribution of wind and the sum of precipitation from meteostation "Nikel" for the winter period, allowed the model to ensure: * material presentation in the form of maps of water capacity and accumulation of sulphates, nickel and copper in the snow over any winter period in retrospective; * calculation of water capacity and accumulation of pollutants for watersheds and other natural-territorial complexes; * solution of the opposite problem about the determination of the emissions of sulphates, nickel and copper from the enterprise by measuring snow pollution in datum points. The model can be used in other northern regions of the Russian Federation with similar physical-geographical and climatic conditions. The relationships between the sum of precipitation and water capacity in the landscapes of the same type and also the relationships between pollution content in snow and relief, pollution content in snow and distance from the source of emissions, were used as the basis for the model.

  1. Pedagogika a škola Marie Montessori v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Glaserová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    This thesis "Pedagogy and Maria Montessori School in the Czech Republic" in the theoretical part describes the life of Maria Montessori, Montessori principles of education and development of Montessori schools with a focus on their development in the Czech Republic. The practical part deals with a case study of a Prague school with Montessori principles and a questionnaire survey with the headmaster of Montessori schools.

  2. Idade e crescimento de Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae no reservatório de Itaipu, Estado do Paraná Age and growth of Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae in the Itaipu Reservoir, state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Ambrósio

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas de idade e crescimento do cará, Satanoperca pappaterra (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae, foram feitas a partir dos anéis de crescimento presentes nas escamas, apresentando uma boa consistência nas leituras, conforme verificado nos valores dos coeficientes de variação. O ciclo anual de formação dos anéis foi determinado a partir do cálculo do incremento marginal médio do comprimento padrão para cada idade, mostrando que os anéis se formam no período de maio a julho, decorrentes da queda na temperatura e disponibilidade do alimento no ambiente. O número máximo de anéis encontrados foi 3. A curva de crescimento expressa pelo modelo de von Bertalanffy, usando o procedimento não linear é, para machos; Ls=18,1.[1-e –1,02(t ] e para fêmeas Ls=16,9.[1-e –1,52(t ].Cará, Satanoperca pappaterra (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae age and growth estimates were taken from their scales growth rings, showing good consistence, according to the variation coefficients. The ring formation annual cycle was determined by calculating the standard length average marginal increment for each age. This showed that the rings are formed from May to July, due to the temperatures and food availability decrease. The highest number of rings found was 3. The growth curve, expressed through von Bertalanffy model, using the nonlinear procedure, is: Ls = 18.1.[1-e –1.02 (t] for males and ls=16.9.[1-e –1.52(t] for females.

  3. Cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities of some Tanzanian Garcinia species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the tested extracts, the fruit extracts of G. livingstoneii and G. semseii showed moderate to mild cytotoxic activities against A549, DU145, KB and Kbivin human cell lines with 50 % cytotoxic (CC50) values ranging from 5.7-20.0 µg/ml. Furthermore, only fruit extracts of G. livingstonei and G. semseii showed significant ...

  4. Synergistic Effect of Forbesione From Garcinia hanburyi in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil on Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-ard, Sunitta; Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Kongsanthia, Charuphan; Salao, Kanin; Wongwajana, Suwin; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2017-12-29

    Background: Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective; thus innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of forbesione combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamster cholangiocarcinoma (Ham-1) cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of 5-FU combined with forbesione in vitro were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the effects in vivo were assessed in transplanted Ham-1 allograph models. Using ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining, the morphological changes of apoptotic cells was investigated. The expressions of apoptosis-related molecules after combined treatment with forbesione and 5-FU were determined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Forbesione or 5-FU alone inhibited proliferation of Ham-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and their combination showed a synergistic proliferation inhibitory effect in vitro. In vivo studies, forbesione in combination with 5-FU exhibited greater inhibition of the tumor in the hamster model compared with treatment using either drug alone. Forbesione combined with 5-FU exerted stronger apoptotic induction in Ham-1 cells than did single drug treatment. The combination of drugs strongly suppressed the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 while enhancing the expression of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9 and caspase-3, compared with single drug treatments. These results explained the decreased expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive cells and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in Ham-1 cell tumor tissues of the treated hamsters. There was no apparent systemic toxicity observed in the treated animals compared with the control groups. Forbesione combined with 5-FU strongly induced apoptosis in Ham-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of combined treatment using these two drugs was much greater than treatment with either drug alone, both in vitro and in vivo. 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.12.3343

  5. Pencapaian Fase Embriosomatik Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dengan Penambahan Thidiazuron dalam Medium Setengah MS Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innaka Ageng Rineksane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems related to the establishment of mangosteen plantation is to obtain seedlings throughout the year, which can be solved by micropropagation.   The propagation of Mangosteen was done through somatic embryogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Thidiazuron concentration in ½ MS medium to achieve somatic embryo stages of mangosteen seed. The study consisted of two experiments. Experiment 1: The embryogenic callus c.a.1 g derived from MS solid medium containing of Thidiazuron (0,1; 0,5; dan 1 mg/l and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (4,6,8 dan 10 mg/l was subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium. 2. The embryogenic callus from the previous medium were subcultured into ½ MS liquid medium containing Thidiazuron (0, 1, 2, 4 dan 8 mg/L and Casein hydrolysate 500 mg/L. The results showed that cell suspension were developed after mangosteen embryogenic callus subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium.  Somatic embryo stages such as globular, heart and torpedo were formed after the calli derived from the previous ½ MS solid medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L Thidiazuron were subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium in 8 weeks.  Cell suspension in ½ MS liquid medium with or without the addition of  Thidiazuron and Casein hydrolysate has induced the formation of embryo somatic stages such as globular, heart and torpedo after 6 months of incubation.

  6. Pengaruh Batang Bawah dan Jenis Tunas pada Mikrografting Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana) secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Rd. Selvy; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sobir,; Purwito, Agus; Ermayanti, Tri Muji

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rootstock and shoot types on in vitro mangosteen micrografting.The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors. The first factor was the rootstocktype, i.e. rooted planlet from the germination of quartered seed, and rooted planlet from the germination of undivided seeds.The second factor was the developmental phase of scion, i.e. dormant buds, and flush (had new leaf more than 2-4 mm). Theresults showed ...

  7. Pengaruh Batang Bawah dan Jenis Tunas pada Mikrografting Manggis (Garcinia mangostana secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rd. Selvy Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rootstock and shoot types on in vitro mangosteen micrografting.The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was the rootstocktype, i.e. rooted planlet from the germination of quartered seed, and rooted planlet from the germination of undivided seeds.The second factor was the developmental phase of scion, i.e. dormant buds, and flush (had new leaf more than 2-4 mm. Theresults showed that rootstock derived from the germination of undivided seed had a higher success rate than other treatmentson all variables, except for number of new leaves. The use of flush as scion was better than dormant buds; flush resulted in ahigher percentage of successful micrograft and longer shoots. In vitro micrografting had a better growth rate than grafting at the same age. The results of anatomical observation conducted at four months after micrografting demonstrated that there was a good graft union, indicated by excellent fusion between rootstock and scion xylem tissues.Keywords: flush, in vitro, micrografting, rootstock, scion

  8. Improving characteristics of goat milk yogurt drink fortified by mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Lin.) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawanti, J. M. W.; Rinawidiastuti; Arifin, H. D.; Zulfanita

    2018-01-01

    Peranakan Etawah (PE) milk is highly nutritive goaty flavour make it not preferable by consumer. Processing of yogurt drink made PE goat milk enhances palatability. Goat yogurt drink can be supplemented high antioxidantive activity by mangosteen rind extract. Comletely Randomized Design (CRD) was throughout the research with different concentrations of mangosteen rind extract (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (v/v). The organoleptic analysis showed the significant enhancement by fortification with mangosteen rind extract. The highest antioxidant activity was shown on the yogurt drink 4% v/v of mangosteen extract. In conclusion, the fortification of mangosteen rind extract was enhanced of characteristics of yogurt drink.

  9. Sifat Fisik dan Organoleptik Yogurt Drink Susu Kambing dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeki Mediantari Wahyu Wibawanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this studies were to determine the physical properties of viscosity and organoleptic of yogurt drink with the suplementation of mangosteen peel extract. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD of the factorial pattern. The first factor was the difference of mangosteen peel extract level (0%, 3% and 6% v / v, while the second factor was the storage time of yogurt (0, 1, and 2 weeks with 3 replications. The results showed that the supplementation of mangosteen peel extract on yogurt drink gave significant effect (p <0.05 on viscosity, color and sensory analysis (viscosity and texture. Yogurt drink was recommendation with mangosteen peel extract 3% (74.65cp, lightness (L 79.89, redness (a* 0.14 yellowness (b* 2.32, sensory analysis of viscosity with score 2.84 (moderate viscosity, organoleptics of color 3.52 (white yelowness and texture test with score 2.12 (moderate smooth. It can be concluded that the addition of mangosteen peel extract can improve the quality of physical, color, organoleptik yogurt drink. The use of mangosteen peel extract will increase the economic value and product diversification.

  10. Evidence of Garcinia cambogia as a fat burning and appetite suppressing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nur Asyiken Wan Ab Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Results: Consumers in Malaysia most likely tend to have a fast method in losing the weight. When the product is advertised inappropriately without any strong evidence based, the Malaysian society is solely at risk in buying the product that does not have a confirmed effectiveness and efficacy. The doubts in using G. cambogia are because the marketed product is there is no single formulation that contains only G. Cambogia.

  11. Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... the life cycle of the virus is the HIV-1 protease (PR) which process viral proteins into functional enzymes and structural proteins. HIV-1 PR plays a key role in the maturity and infectivity of the virus hence it has become an important target in HIV drug development (Kohl et al., 1988). HIV-1. PR function as a ...

  12. Efek Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Kulit Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L.) Terhadap Gigi Kelinci (Oryctogalus Cuniculus) (Penelitian In Vivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Zudhistira, Charin

    2017-01-01

    Pulpa yang teriritasi akan menyebabkan inflamasi dan rasa nyeri. Salah satu penyebab inflamasi pulpa adalah terjadinya perforasi pulpa akibat prosedur iatrogenik. Biodentin yang berbahan dasar kalsium silikat mampu membantu proses penyembuhan pulpa serta mempercepat regenerasi jaringan keras pulpa, namun harganya relatif lebih mahal. Kulit buah manggis dipilih karena diduga memiliki efek antiinflamasi, diduga karena kandungan α-mangostin dan γ-mangostin yang dimilikinya. Penelitian ini bertuj...

  13. The first data on paleomagnetism of Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the Serpovidny structure (the Kola region, northeastern Baltic Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushkin A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of natural magnetization vector components in amphibolites and amphibole schists (magnetite up to 10 % coincides with that of the modern magnetic field vector. Different orientations have been discovered only in quartzitic gneiss (magnetite ≤ 2 % and regressively changed chlorite-amphibole schist. The palaeopole position determined for these rocks corresponds on the apparent pole wander path to ages of 1.95 Ga and ~1.80 Ga, respectively

  14. A New Occurrence of Alkaline Magmatism on the Kola Peninsula: An Agpaitic Dyke in the Kandalaksha Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimenko, Mariya; Kogarko, Lia; Sorokhtina, Natalia; Kononkova, Natalia; Mamontov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    A new occurrence of alkaline dyke magmatism was discovered in 2010 during the geological works performed by the Murmansk Geological Prospecting Expedition in the "Mokhnatye Roga" area located 55 km to the southeast of the Kovdor massif (67°15' N, 31°30' E). The "Mokhnatye Roga" area is located in the Ensk segment of the northwestern part of the Belomorian mobile belt. We performed a complete petrological and geochemical description of the sections in Holes 19 and 24, which reveal one of the largest dykes in the area. The dyke, with a length of ≈4 km and a width of ≈160 m, has an eastern orientation with steep dipping (60°-90°) to the north. The thickness of Quaternary deposits ranges from 0.8 to 4.0 m; alkaline rocks occur in the range of 4.0-93.9 m being followed by host amphibole-biotite gneiss with interbeds of plagioamphibolite (AR2 mt) along the section. Among the major minerals of the dyke are the minerals of the lamprophyllite group (20-25 vol %), aegirine-augite (10-15 vol %), enigmatite (10-15 vol %), nepheline (10-15 vol %), orthoclase (15-20 vol %), alkaline amphibole (5-10 vol %), and astrophyllite (up to 5 vol %). The minor minerals are represented by shcherbakovite, sodalite, natrolite, barite, Mn carbonate, ilmenite, rutile, sphalerite, and goethite. The texture of the rock is porphyric: the groundmass is composed of finegranular nepheline and orthoclase, which are observed as individual large euhedral crystals as well. In addition, large phenocrysts are represented by the minerals of the lamprophyllite, enigmatite, pyroxene, and alkaline amphibole groups. Based on the generally accepted classifications [1], the studied agpaitic rock may be related to nepheline syenite; according to the mineral and chemical compositions, it is close to syenite of the Niva massif [2] located 35 km to the northeast from the "Mokhnatye Roga" area. Agpaitic syenite of the "Mokhnatye Roga" area is extremely enriched in dispersed and rare lithophile elements. The high concentrations of Zr, Sr, Ba, and REEs in the agpaitic dyke of the "Mokhnatye Roga" area provide evidence for the restitic character of this rock. It was previously demonstrated that differentiation of nepheline syenite magma of the Lovozero massif resulted in significant accumulation of these elements at the latest stages of evolution of alkaline magma [3]. REFERENCES 1. O. A. Bogatikov, O. V. Petrov, and A. F. Morozov, Petrographic code of Russia. Magmatic, metamorphic, metasomatic, and impact formations (VSEGEI, St. Petersburg, 2009) [in Russian]. 2. A. A. Arzamastsev, B. V. Belyatsky, and L. V. Arzamastseva, Lithos 51, 27 (2000). 3. V. I. Gerasimovskii, V. P. Volkov, L. N. Kogarko, A. I. Polyakov, T. V. Saprykina, and Yu. A. Balashov, Geochemistry of the Lovozero alkaline massif (Moscow, 1966) [in Russian].

  15. Mining Explosions in the Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula of Russia) Recorded at the Apatity Three-Component Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    928 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reston, VA 22092 Cambridge, MA 02139 Prof. Alan Kafka Mr. James F. Lewkowicz Department of Geology...Prof. Keith Priestley I.R.I.G.M.-B.P. 68 University of Cambridge 38402 St. Martin D’Heres Bullard Labs, Dept. of Earth Sciences Cedex, FRANCE Madingley...Geosciences & Nat’l Res. I.R.I.G.M.-B.P. 53 Postfach 510153 38041 Grenoble, FRANCE D-3000 Hannover 51, GERMANY Dr. Kin Yip Chun Dr. Johannes Schweitzer

  16. The character in Škola dlja Durakov. From the novel by Saša Sokolov to theatrical adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Marchesini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sokolov’s Shkola dlya Durakov (A School for Fools, 1976 is an extremely complex novel, which “depicts [the] world”, as D. Barton Johnson (1986:640[1] poignantly observes, “through the eyes, and pure, if eccentric, language, of a schizophrenic youth”. How is it possible to translate such linguistic features and the effects they create into another medium? This question lies at the core of my proposal, which aims to approach the problem of intermedial translation from prose to theatre through the presentation of an individual case-study. In fact, A School for Fools has been staged by the director Andrey Moguchy (Formalny Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Russia. With the intention of reproducing Sokolov’s aesthetic construction of illusion, Moguchy introduces a new genre in the theatrical context, the so-called “vizualnaya associaciya” (“visual association”. As the director explained in a recent interview, this original genre recalls the Impressionists’ position in observing and representing nature, in order to obtain the same effectgenerated by the reading of the novel. To comprehend this process better, special attention is devoted to the construction of unusual, hybrid characters, highlighting their constitutive features both in the novel and in the theatrical adaptation. Moreover, this research seeks to enrich discussion of the work of Sokolov and Moguchy. [1] Johnson, D. Barton (1986 “Sasha Sokolov's Twilight Cosmos: Themes and Motifs”, in: Slavic Review, 45, 4 (Winter 1986, pp. 639-649.

  17. Divadlo, Bible a škola. Biblické hry v raném novověku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacková, Magdaléna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2014), s. 177-184 ISSN 0009-0786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P823 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Biblical plays * early modern period * drama * Jesuits * theatre Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  18. Age of forming of Laplandian franulites granite-migmatite domes and Pechenga-Imandra-Varzuga greenstone belt (Kola peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, M.V.; Ts'on', O.V.; Sobotovich, Eh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The stage-by-stage nature of the geological evolution of the green-stone belt of the Pechenga-Imandra-Varzuga and interconnected structures of framework is characterized. U-Pb-, Pb-Sr and Pb-Pb-datings of tectonic events are given. The first rifting stage is 2.8-2.4 billiard years. The second stage is 2.2-1.9 billiard years, compression perio (the formation of tectonic covers of Laplandian granulites and andesite eruption within the belt) is 2.0-1.9 billiard years. The formation of granite migratite cupolas in the Southern and rheomorphism of Archean granitoids in the nothern framework of the Pechenga structure is 2.1-1.95 billiard years. The formation of sulfide copper-nickel ores is 2.1-2.0 billiard years. The competence of possible variants of paleogeodynamic reconstructions is estimated

  19. Sociální prostředí, dítě a škola

    OpenAIRE

    BARTOŠOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is focused on a problematic of social environment and culture in a context of forming relation between children and a school. It occupies by socialization, social environment and culture of some social and ethnic groups. Inspected groups are Vietnam ethnicity, Gipsy ethnicity and social environment in a Children´s Home. Intention is describe where and how the social environment and culture can influence the relation between school and education.

  20. Chemical composition of natural waters of contaminated area: The case for the Imandra Lake catchment (the Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Z. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Kopylova, J. G.; A, Vorobeva D.

    2016-03-01

    The study of the current chemical composition of natural waters in the eastern and western parts of the Imandra Lake catchment was performed using ion chromatography, potentiometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was found that the content of trace elements in the surface water is considerably higher than that in the groundwater. The nickel and copper concentrations exceed the background levels over 19 and 2 times respectively in groundwater, and 175 and 61 times in the surface waters. These data show that the Severonikel influences negatively air and surface water.

  1. Problémy vzdělávání a Waldorfská škola

    OpenAIRE

    Linhart, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with the contemporary problems in education and how Waldorf pedagogy deals with these problems. The thesis is divided into larger theoretical part, which covers the grounds and approaches of Waldorf pedagogy and the Czech standard educational system. I also look into the problems of education in a broader social context. The practical part describes the pilot study carried out at a Waldorf basic school.

  2. Assemblages and genesis of platinum-group minerals in low-sulfide ores of the monchetundra deposit, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grokhovskaya, T. L.; Lapina, M. I.; Mokhov, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    New data on the composition, assemblages, and formation conditions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) identified in platinum-group element (PGE) occurrences of the Monchetundra intrusion (2495 +- 13 to 2435 ± 11 Ma) are described. This intrusion is a part of the Paleoproterozoic pluton of the Monche-Chuna-Volch’i and Losevy tundras located in the Pechenga-Imandra-Varzuga Rift System. The rhythmically layered host rocks comprise multiple megarhythms juxtaposed to mylonite zones and magmatic breccia and injected by younger intrusive rocks in the process of intense and long magmatic and fluid activity in the Monchetundra Fault Zone. The primary PGM and later assemblages that formed as a result of replacement of the former have been identified in low-sulfide PGE occurrences. More than 50 minerals and unnamed PGE phases including alloys, Pt and Pd sulfides and bismuthotellurides, PGE sulfarsenides, and minerals of the Pd-As-Sb, Pd-Ni-As, and Pd-Ag-Te systems have been established. The unnamed PGE phases—Ni6Pd2As3, Pd6AgTe4, Cu3Pt, Pd2NiTe2, and (Pd, Cu)9Pb(Te, S)4—are described. The primary PGM were altered due to the effect of several mineral-forming processes that resulted in the formation of micro- and nanograins of Pt and Pd alloys, sulfides, and oxides, as well as in the complex distribution of PGE, Au, and Ag mineral assemblages. New types of complex Pt and Pd oxides with variable Cu and Fe contents were identified in the altered ores. Pt and Pd oxides as products of replacement of secondary Pt-Pd-Cu-Fe alloys occur as zonal and fibrous nanoscale Pt-Pd-Cu-Fe-(±S)-O aggregates.

  3. Podnikatelský plán - soukromá mateřská škola

    OpenAIRE

    Boráňová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This final thesis is regarding the creating and evaluation of the business plan of private nursery school. The theoretical part is about small and medium-sized enterprises and business plan itself. Practical part contains concrete business plan. Crucial parts of the business plan are: analysis of the environment, marketing mix, financial plan, risk analysis.

  4. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Efek Sitotoksik Ekstrak Kola (Cola Nitida) pada Kulter Sel Kanker Hati (HepG-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Endrini, Susi; Marsiati, Himmi; J, Suherman; O, Fauziah; R, Asmah

    2009-01-01

    Liver cancer is one among cancers with increasing incidence in the world. Cola fruit (Cola nitida) is a fruit that is rich in properties and has been known since the Dutch colonial era. This fruit contains ingredients such as those contained in tea and chocolate such as methylxanthine and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the content of antioxidants and cytotoxic effects of cola fruit extracts obtained from Indonesia and Malaysia on liver cancer cell lines. Antioxidant content of ...

  5. Kola peninsula radwaste management in the framework of THE Italian-Russian cooperation agreement for global partnership - 59392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, Massimiliano; Izmailov, Dmitry; Spadoni, Antonino; Uryvskiy, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 a Cooperation Agreement, envisaging a grant of 360 Meuro in 10 years, was signed between Italy and Russia in the framework of the 'so-called' Global Partnership Program. So far, in five years of concrete work, a total of 146 Meuro have been engaged through 33 contracts and 121 Meuro have been already paid. Together with other significant lines of activities the management of waste, presently located at Andreeva Bay site, is surely the most important one, not only for the amount of allocated funds (about the half of available ones) but also for the urgency to solve serious environmental problems linked to the actual unsafe conditions of these waste, both as regards possible incidents or malicious attacks from outside. Volume of Low Level and Intermediate Level (LL/IL) waste at Andreeva Bay site are 17000 tons and 3000 tons, respectively for solid and liquid; moreover is expected, during the next 15 years, the production of additional 33000 tons of liquid and 8000 tons of solid, due to the need of demolishing existing facilities and final closing of the site. As regards radwaste management facilities, the solution defined in OBIN (justification of investment) has been analyzed and critically reviewed. After the completion of a conceptual study, the construction of three facilities (solid and liquid treatment ones and a protective structure for storing on site temporarily conditioned waste) was decided and a contract was assigned in 2010 to Ansaldo Nucleare/AtomStroyExport for the detailed design of the above mentioned facilities, which is expected to be completed in 2012. Some important modifications to the initial time schedule have been taken into account and now the operation of the facilities is expected by 2015, two years before the previous estimate. (authors)

  6. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physi...

  7. Idade e crescimento de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Acanthopterygii, Sciaenidae do reservatório de Barra Bonita-SP, através da estrutura dos otólitos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4470 Age and growth of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Acanthopterygii, Sciaenidae of Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil, through otolith structure - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4470

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Leal de Castro

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a idade e o crescimento de Plagioscion squamosissimus coletados no reservatório de Barra Bonita-SP, no período de agosto/92 a julho/93, com base no método dos anéis etários nos otólitos. A época de formação dos anéis para cada sexo, foi estabelecida graficamente através do comprimento médio dos indivíduos com o mesmo número de anéis por bimestre. A curva de crescimento em comprimento foi obtida pela expressão de Von Bertalanffy e a curva de crescimento em peso determinada pelo método dedutivo, a partir das expressões matemáticas da curva de crescimento em comprimento e da relação peso/comprimento. Observou-se que a formação de anéis nos otólitos ocorre durante o bimestre dezembro/janeiro, coincidindo com o período reprodutivo da espécie, que se inicia a partir do segundo ano de vida para ambos os sexos. O crescimento da espécie no reservatório de Barra Bonita é lento e do tipo alométrico. Os exemplares podem atingir um comprimento máximo de 68,4cm e 89,1cm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente.The age and growth of Plagioscion squamosissimus in the Barra Bonita reservoir from August 1992 to July 1993, based on the annual ring method of otoliths are analyzed. The time during which otolith annuli are formed in males and females was established by plotting the bimonthly average length of the specimens with the same number of annuli. Length growth curve was obtained by Von Bertalanffy mathematical expression and weight growth curve was determined by deductive method from the mathematical expressions of the growth curve in length and weight/length relation. It was observed that ring formation on the otoliths occurs during the bimester December/January, coinciding with the reproductive period that starts in the second year of life for both sexes. At the Barra Bonita reservoir, the growth of this species is allometric and slow. Specimens can reach a maximum length of 68.4cm and 89.1cm for males and females, respectively.

  8. Espectro alimentar e variação sazonal da dieta de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.2140 Food spectrum and seasonal variation of the diet of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae in Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.2140

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dieta e as variações sazonais na alimentação de Plagioscion squamosissimus, capturados mensalmente, na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, entre agosto de 2004 e julho de 2005, com despescas em horários específicos. Em laboratório, após a biometria, os peixes foram abertos e eviscerados. Sob microscópio estereoscópico, analisaram-se os conteúdos estomacais, cujos itens, depois de identificados, tiveram o seu volume medido. Foram calculadas as frequências de ocorrência e volumétrica e o índice alimentar. Agruparam-se os itens em sete categorias principais, e camarão e insetos foram as predominantes. A categorização dos itens permitiu classificar a espécie como carnívora com tendência a carcinofagia-insetivoria. Quanto à sazonalidade, observou-se uma alternância dos itens de acordo com as estações do ano: os insetos predominaram na estação seca e o camarão se sobressaiu na estação chuvosa. Considerando os períodos de captura, observou-se hábito crepuscular-noturno, e os horários de atividade também são marcados por diferenças no tipo de alimento consumido, pois o item camarão predominou nas horas de menor luminosidade; o item insetos, nas horas mais claras.The diet and seasonal variations in the feeding of Plagioscion squamosissimus were evaluated. Fishes were captured monthly at the Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, from August of 2004 to July of 2005, examined at a specific time of day. In laboratory, after obtaining the biometric data, fishes were opened and the guts extracted. The stomach contents were analyzed under stereoscopic microscope, and its items were identified and their volume was measured. Occurrence and volumetric frequencies and the food index were calculated. The items were grouped in seven main categories; shrimp and insects were predominant. The item classification made it possible to classify the species as carnivorous with carcinophagous-insectivore tendencies. In respect to seasonal variations, an alteration of the main items was observed according to the seasons, where insects prevailed in the dry season and shrimp stood out in the rainy season. In regards to capture periods, a twilight-nocturnal habit was observed, and activity periods are also marked by differences in the food type consumed, as shrimp prevailed in lower light and insects in brighter times.

  9. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzie, Emeka E.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts.

  12. Flower morphology diversity of asam gelugur (Garcinia atroviridis griff, ex t. anders) accessions in several districts of North Sumatera, Indonesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, E. S.; Febrianti, W.; Damanik, R. I. M.

    2018-02-01

    The research aims to study of flower morphology of G. atroviridis plants in several Districts of North Sumatera. This study was conducted in Asahan, Batubara and Serdang Berdagai districts in February to April 2017, exploration using survey method with IPGRI descriptors guide, and accidental sampling. The research results showed that in three Districts of Sumatera Utara, there are 26 accessions of Asam Gelugur characterized based on morphology of flowers. Based on clustering analysis using the NTSYS-pc Program, all flower morphology data resulted in dendogram with similar coeffisien range from 0.34 to 0.75 into four groups. The first group (I) consists of 16 accessions i.e Asahan, Batubara and Serdang Bedagai districts. The second group (II) in Asahan, Batubara and Serdang Bedagai districts there are 7 accessions The third group (III) consists of two accessions, i.e. Asahan and Batubara Districts. The fourth group (IV) consists of one accession in Serdang Bedagai District is the only outgroup access.

  13. A naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase inhibitor derived from Garcinia indica impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Maddox

    Full Text Available The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica, to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories.

  14. Panaxanthone isolated from pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of a mouse model of mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hitoshi; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Shibata, Eiko; Morimoto, Junji; Akao, Yukihiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2009-07-01

    The antitumor growth and antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone (approximately 80% alpha-mangostin and 20% gamma-mangostin) were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model that produces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancer. Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879 cells, were subsequently treated with panaxanthone at 0, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm in their diet. In vitro studies were also conducted to evaluate the effects of alpha-mangostin, the main component of panaxanthone, on BJMC3879 cells. In the in vivo study, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in mice treated with 2,500 and 5,000 ppm panaxanthone in their diet. The multiplicity of lung metastasis was significantly lower in the 5,000 ppm group. Lymph node metastasis also tended to decrease in the 5,000 ppm group but not significantly. The antitumor effects of panaxanthone were associated with elevation of apoptotic cell death, antiproliferation (inhibition of PCNA) and antiangiogenesis (inhibition of microvessel density). The in vitro study demonstrated that alpha-mangostin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, elevated activities of caspases and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest in the G(1)-phase and decreases in the cell population in the S- and G(2)/M-phases. These results suggest that the observed antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone may be of clinical significance as adjuvant therapy in metastatic human breast cancer, and may also be useful as a chemopreventative of breast cancer development.

  15. Efek Konsentrasi Hormon Giberelin (Ga3) dan Lama Perendaman pada Berbagai Pembelahan terhadap Perkecambahan Benih Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhendra, Dede; Nisa, T. Chairun; Sofia Hanafiah, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the best number of seeds cuttings, gibberellin concentration and immersion time for the germination of mangosteen seeds. This research conducted at Laboratory of Seed Technology Faculty Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan from December to March 2016. Experimental design used a factorial randomized block design with three factors, seed cutting, gibberellin concentrations and immersion time. Parameters measured were membrane leakage (μmhos), no...

  16. 7884jị: Mkpụrụ Ndọ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also made attempts to explain some kola rites: presentation of kola, blessing, and breaking, sharing and chewing of kola. Here, apart from chewing which anyone can do, not everyone has right to present, break, share or bless kola nut among the Igbo. It went on to explain the messages of oji when broken ...

  17. The fishes of the cichlid genus Crenicichla in French Guiana (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the species of the cichlid genus Crenicichla Heckel, 1840 in French Guiana is presented. Five species are encountered, viz.: C. saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758), C. albopunctata Pellegrin, 1904, C. multispinosa Pellegrin, 1903, C. ternetzi Norman, 1926, and C. johanna Heckel, 1840. Their

  18. Karyoevolutionary and karyosystematic considerations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic studies have helped in clarifying the problem of disagreement amongst taxonomists on the identity of a given species. Cytogenetic studies were performed on two fishes of the genus Schizothorax viz. Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Schizothorax niger Heckel (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) obtained from ...

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the producers and intermediaries. Unfortunately, Garcinia trees are currently on the decrease as a result of deforestation; this therefore calls for urgent attention on the establishment of Garcinia plantation. Diversification of the products should be encouraged to.

  20. Evaluation of the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of asiatic acid, a compound from Gotu kola or Centella asiatica, in the male Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceremuga, Tomás Eduardo; Valdivieso, Debra; Kenner, Catherine; Lucia, Amy; Lathrop, Keith; Stailey, Owen; Bailey, Heather; Criss, Jonathan; Linton, Jessica; Fried, Jordan; Taylor, Andrew; Padron, Gina; Johnson, Arthur Don

    2015-04-01

    Herbal medication use continues to rise and interactions with existing medications propose risks and may have significant effects and consequences on the administration of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of asiatic acid and its potential modulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor. Fifty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: vehicle (DMSO), asiatic acid (AA), midazolam, or a combination of flumazenil + AA or midazolam + AA, and injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to testing. The rats were tested on the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). Data were analyzed using a two-tailed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Significance was found regarding the ratio of open arm time, maximum speed, and time spent mobile in the AA group and the midazolam + AA group (P < .05). Flumazenil decreased the anxiolytic effects, suggesting that AA modulates the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor. Further studies are recommended to determine the efficacy of prolonged treatment for anxiety and depression.

  1. Che Cosa è? Uma experiência de trabalho de campo, com o grupo de Kola San Jon do Kova M, em Itália

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Ana Flávia

    2011-01-01

    O Oceano Atlântico foi durante séculos palco de caminhos que, numa cadeia de ligação entre o continente africano, americano e europeu originou redes de relacionamento diferenciadas com significados evidentes ao nível da cultura. Cabo Verde é o exemplo de um país cuja dinâmica migratória se insere nesta teia de significados criados no vai e vem entre o país de origem e os espaços de acolhimento, de entre os quais Portugal assume um particular de protagonismo (Gois 2008). O antropólogo Rui Cidr...

  2. Minerals of Fe in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ore in the South Pechenga structure zone, Kola region: Identification by the Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompanchenko A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the study of iron-bearing minerals formed in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ores. The minerals are represented by two groups: oxides, i. e. goethite and lepidocrocite, and sulfates, i. e. melanterite and rozenit. Mineral identification has been produced by Raman spectroscopy, these data have been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The resulting Raman spectra have been compared with the spectra of the known database and the results of previous studies of these minerals. Goethite and lepidocrocite are polymorphic modifications formed under the specific conditions by the influence of special solutions. Goethite has diagnostic bands at 243 cm–1, 300 cm–1, 391 cm–1, 480 cm–1, 552 cm–1, 681 cm–1 , and 995 cm–1, diagnostic bands of lepidocrocite – 252 cm–1, 381 cm–1, 528 cm–1, and 652 cm–1. Discovered small crystals in the lepidocrocite veins have been diagnosed as magnetite, with diagnostic bands at 678 cm–1, 549 cm–1 , and 316 cm–1. Goethite and lepidocrocite are formed on the surface of a complex pyrrhotite-marcasite aggregate with "bird's-eye" structure. The presence of pyrite and marcasite is confirmed by Raman spectrum which has pyrite bands (343 cm–1 and 403 cm–1 and marcasite bands (323 cm–1 and 386 cm–1. Melanterite and rozenite are formed under the influence of surface water on sulfide ores or other readily degradable iron-bearing minerals, as well as in confined spaces with high humidity. Raman spectra of these minerals well differ from each other allowing them reliably diagnose. There are sulfate anion [SO4]2– vibrations in the range of 990–1010 cm–1, and vibrations of the H–O–H in the range of 3 000–4000 cm–1 and 1 500–1700 cm–1 on the spectra. As a result of the research the authors can certainly confirm that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a reliable method for mineral identification

  3. Škola jako centrum komunity - realita a možnosti rozvoje komunitního vzdělávání

    OpenAIRE

    Neumannová, Klára

    2015-01-01

    and key words School as a community center - reality and possiblities of development of communtiy education Key words: local community, school as a community center, cooperation, community work, lifelong learning, case study. This thesis deals with the community schools in the Czech Republic and the possibilities of their development. Firstly, it defines basic concepts like community education in an international context and the notion of community schools itself. Secondly, it discusses certa...

  4. Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Wong, Ling Shing; Tan, Ai Li; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in Malaysia. As heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in C. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. In this study, the heavy metal accumulation in C. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. Samples of C. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of six heavy metals namely Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The degree of anthropogenic influence was assessed by calculating the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The heavy metal uptake into the plant was estimated through the calculation of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and correlation study. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to determine the potential health risk of consuming C. asiatica. The results showed that the overall surface soil was polluted by Cd, Cu and Pb, while the uptake of Zn and Ni by the plants was high. The value of EDI and THQ showed that the potential of Pb toxicity in C. asiatica was high as well. As heavy metal accumulation was confirmed in C. asiatica, daily consumption of the plant derived from polluted sites in Malaysia was not recommended.

  5. Wuerzburská škola: reinterpretace jejích výsledků z pozic současné kognitivní psychologie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Miluše

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2001), s. 23-55 ISSN 1211-216X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : history of psychology * psychology of the 20th century * Wuerzburg's school Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  6. Podnikatelský záměr: Soukromá škola se zaměřením na e-sport

    OpenAIRE

    Lipták, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation thesis write up the bussines model to create private high school focus on e-sport. Theoretical part is focus on introduce basic information about e-sport and importance of this plan. Practical part include business plan, marketing mix, market analysis by Porters model, factors analysis by SLEPT, financial analysis with risk analysis and business model support by creative economy and knowledge management.

  7. Changes in the Degree of Contamination of Organic Horizons of Al-Fe-Humus Podzols upon a Decrease in Aerotechnogenic Loads, the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, V. Sh.; Lyanguzova, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    Contamination levels of the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Rustic Podzols) in the zone affected by atmospheric emissions of the Severonikel smelter (Murmansk oblast) within a 20-yearlong period are compared. The spatiotemporal changes in the total content of heavy metals in the soils in response to a decrease in aerotechnogenic loads have a complicated pattern. As the content of heavy metals in the soils varies widely, the correlation between their amount in the organic soil horizon and the distance from the contamination source is absent. In response to the ninefold decrease in the amount of atmospheric emission of Ni compounds, the bulk content of Ni in the organic horizons of podzols reliably decreased by 2.5 times. The threefold decrease in the emission of Cu compounds proved to be insufficient for a significant decrease in the Cu content in the soils. In 2016, the content of heavy metals in some sampling points even increased in comparison with the earlier periods. The Ni-to-Cu ratio in the soil samples changed significantly. In 1989-1994, bulk forms of heavy metals in the soil samples formed the sequence Ni > Cu > Co; in 2016, it changed to Cu > Ni > Co, which corresponds to the proportions of these metals in the aerial emissions. Under conditions of the continuous input of heavy metals from the atmosphere, the contamination of the organic horizons of podzols with heavy metals remains at the high or very high levels.

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region)

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryashov N. M.; Skublov S. G.; Kalinin A. A.; Lyalina L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in ...

  9. Optimalizace obvodové rychlosti brousicího kola s resinovou vazbou s ohledem na kvalitu produkovaného povrchu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Ondřej; Tomka, David; Procháska, František; Polák, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 84-87 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Aspheric grinding * resin bond * tool circumferential speed optimization Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing http://jmo.fzu.cz/

  10. Protective Effect of Kolaviron on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omole, Joseph Gbenga; Ayoka, Oladele Abiodun; Alabi, Quadri Kunle; Adefisayo, Modinat Adebukola; Asafa, Muritala Abiola; Olubunmi, Babalola Olusegun; Fadeyi, Benson Akinloye

    2018-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating drug used for the treatment of chronic and acute malignant lymphomas, myeloma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, adenocarcinoma, retinoblastoma, breast carcinoma, and immunosuppressive therapy. Despite its vast therapeutic uses, it is known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. Kolaviron (KV), a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of flavonoids, is reputed for its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties. This study investigated the protective effect of KV on CP-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Thirty rats were used, and they were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group I received 2 mL/kg propylene glycol orally for 14 days; group II received CP (50 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) for 3 days; groups III and IV received 200 and 400 mg/kg/d KV, respectively, orally for 14 days and groups V and VI were pretreated with 200 and 400 mg/kg/d KV, respectively, orally for 14 days followed by CP (50 mg/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. CP treatment resulted in a significantly lower food consumption and body weight in rats. The lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase enzymes in cardiac tissues of rats treated with CP were significantly higher. In cardiac tissues, 3-day doses of CP resulted in significantly higher heart weight, cardiac troponin I, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and lower superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and reduced glutathione levels. Histological examination of cardiac tissues showed sign of necrosis of myocardium after CP treatment. However, administration of KV at 200 and 400 mg/kg for 14 days prior to CP treatment, increase food consumption, body weight, and attenuates the biochemical and histological changes induced by CP. These results revealed that KV attenuates CP-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and preserving the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Inhibition of neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia by the biflavonoid kolaviron is dependent on the Nrf2/ARE antioxidant protective mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanwo, Samuel A; Velagapudi, Ravikanth; El-Bakoush, Abdelmeneim; Olajide, Olumayokun A

    2016-03-01

    Kolaviron is a mixture of biflavonoids found in the nut of the West African edible seed Garcinia kola, and it has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of kolaviron in neuroinflammation. The effects of kolaviron on the expression of nitric oxide/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/cyclooxygenase-2, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of kolaviron on NF-κB and Nrf2/ARE signalling pathways were analysed by immunoblotting, binding assays and reporter assays. RNA interference was used to investigate the role of Nrf2 in the anti-inflammatory effect of kolaviron. Neuroprotective effect of kolaviron was assessed in a BV2 microglia/HT22 hippocampal neuron co-culture. Kolaviron inhibited the protein levels of NO/iNOS, PGE2/COX-2, cellular ROS and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6) in LPS-stimulated microglia. Further mechanistic studies showed that kolaviron inhibited neuroinflammation by inhibiting IκB/NF-κB signalling pathway in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Kolaviron produced antioxidant effect in BV2 microglia by increasing HO-1 via the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. RNAi experiments revealed that Nrf2 is needed for the anti-inflammatory effects of kolaviron. Kolaviron protected HT22 neurons from neuroinflammation-induced toxicity. Kolaviron inhibits neuroinflammation through Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. This compound may therefore be beneficial in neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron against reproductive toxicity in sub-lethally whole body gamma-irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2012-05-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental factors that may contribute to reproductive dysfunction by a mechanism involving oxidative stress. We investigated the possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola) on sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status after a whole body γ-irradiation in Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant in this study. The study consists of four groups of 6 rats each. Group I received corn oil, whereas group II received a single dose of γ-radiation (5 Gy). The animals in groups III and IV were pretreated with KV (250 mg/kg) and VC (250 mg/kg) by oral gavage five times in a week, respectively, for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after exposure to γ-radiation. Gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant (pin body weight and relative testes weight. Also, γ-irradiation significantly (pin the serum and testes. Irradiated rats showed testicular degeneration with concomitant decrease in sperm motility and viability. Although sperm abnormalities significantly increased, it has no effect on the epididymal sperm count. KV and VC significantly (prats. Furthermore, supplementation of KV and VC ameliorated radiation-induced toxicity by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased LPO and abrogated testicular degeneration. Taken together, γ-irradiation caused reproductive dysfunction by depleting the antioxidant defence system in the rats, while administration of KV or VC ameliorated the radiation-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  14. Kolaviron attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in the stomach of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukanmi, Olugbenga Adeola; Salami, Adeola Temitope; Ashaolu, Onaara Peter; Adegoke, Adeoti Gbemisola; Olaleye, Samuel Babafemi

    2018-01-01

    Kolaviron (KV), an active complex of at least 3 compounds in Garcinia kola seed, which is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, was investigated for its gastro-protective effect in the stomach of rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric ulceration. Male adult Wistar rats (180-210 g) were randomized into 6 groups (n = 15) as follows: (i) control, (ii) ulcerated untreated (UU), (iii) KV alone (KVA), (iv) KV + ulcer (KVU), (v) ulcer + KV (UKV), and (vi) ulcer + omeprazole (20 mg/kg). Ulcer was induced through ischemia/reperfusion method after 2 weeks of daily oral KV (100 mg/kg). Rats were weighed daily, and gastric acid secretion, ulcer scores, hematological, biochemical, and histological variables were assessed 1 h after induction at 3 and 7 days post-ulceration. Body weight decreased in KVA (179.1 ± 1.6 g), and KVU (170.1 ± 2.2 g) compared with UU (199.0 ± 1.4 g). Gastric acid secretion decreased significantly in KVU after 1 h and 3 days post-ulceration (0.27 ± 0.03 mEq/L; 0.49 ± 0.02 mEq/L) compared with UU (0.60 ± 0.06 mEq/L; 0.85 ± 0.29 mEq/L), respectively. There was significant reduction in neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of KVA (0.29 ± 0.06) and KVU (0.35 ± 0.02) compared with UU (0.54 ± 0.04). Malondialdehyde level decreased significantly with concomitant increase in anti-oxidative activities and nitric oxide level in the KV treated groups (KVA, KVU, UKV) compared with UU. In conclusion, treatment with KV protects the stomach by reducing gastric acid secretion, promoting antioxidant activity and suppressing action of reactive oxygen species.

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  16. Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Xanthones Obtained via Semi-Synthetic Modification of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Narasimhan; Shanmugam Maheshwaran; Imad A. Abu-Yousef; Amin F. Majdalawieh; Janarthanam Rethavathi; Prince Edwin Das; Palmiro Poltronieri

    2017-01-01

    The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C), alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the paren...

  17. Effect of Hydrothermal Extraction Condition on The Content of Phenolic Compound Extracted from Rind of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and Its Antioxidant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifni Yasa Ash Shiddiqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthone is an antioxidant compound contained in the rind of mangosteen. There are some methods to extract Xanthone from rind of mangosteen, and one of them is hydrothermal extraction. Hydrothermal extraction is a method to obtain xanthone from rind of mangosteen using water at teIn this work, the effect of extraction temperature, pressure, and mode (batch and continuous, and particle size of starting material on the yield and recovery of extracted xanthone and phenolic compounds was investigated. Extraction was carried out at various temperatures (120, 150, and 180oC and pressures (1, 3, and 5 MPa and constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. The xanthone content and antioxidant efficiency of extract was examined by using spectrophotometer, while the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extract was determined with folin ciocalteu reagent and examined using spectrophotometer In order to confirm the extracted phenolic compounds, the extract residue was analyzed by using FTIR. The experimental result showed that the increase in pressure and temperature caused an increase in total phenolic compound concentration and yield of xanthone. In addition, the result also showed that antioxidant activities were observed in the extract of mangosteen rind.

  18. Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Xanthones Obtained via Semi-Synthetic Modification of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Narasimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C, alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed high anti-bacterial activity whereas I I showed the highest anti-fungal activity. Due to their microbicidal potential, modified α-mangostin derivatives could be utilized as active anti-microbial agents in materials for the biomedical and food industry.

  19. Anti-Glycemic and Anti-Hepatotoxic Effects of Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Against HFD/STZ-Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naymul

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on anti-glycemic and anti-hepatotoxic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR on five weeks high-fat diet (HFD / single dose streptozotocin (STZ 30 mg/kg BW induced male ICR diabetic mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=6, normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic groups treated with MVR 100, 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide 60 mg/kg BW for one week. After the treatment, lipid profile, glycogen and bilirubin contents, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT were measured in plasma and/or liver tissues. MVR and glibenclamide treatment to HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice significantly reduced their plasma glucose, plasma lipid profile, and hepatic lipid profile (P<0.05. Increased hepatic glycogen content indicates improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, oxidative damage markers were ameliorated in MVR- and glibenclamide-treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. MVR with phenolic compounds content of 75 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant potential of 303 mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight acted as a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative damage.

  20. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Chem_Res_Pt._S_Synop_6_2010_318.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Chem_Res_Pt._S_Synop_6_2010_318.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  2. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan UV-Vis dan FTIR, dan menunjukkan absorpsi pada panjang gelombang 392 nm untuk kulit manggis dan 413 nm untuk Rhoeo spathacea. TiO2 disintesis menggunakan metode co-precipitation. Ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan adalah 11 nm untuk anatase and 54,5 nm untuk rutile dengan menggunakan persamaan Scherrer. DSSC difabrikasi dengan variasi fraksi volume TiO2 anatase dan rutile. DSSC diuji dibawah cahaya matahari dengan daya sebesar 17 mW/cm2. Kurva arus-tegangan (I-V DSSC yang dihasilkan fraksi volume 75%:25% memperlihatkan hasil terbaik dibanding yang lain. Efisiensi tertinggi adalah 0.037% dan 0.013% dihasilkan oleh DSSC dengan pewarna alami dari kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea.

  3. Capillary Water in Pericarp Enhances Hypoxic Condition during On-Tree Fruit Maturation That Induces Lignification and Triggers Translucent Flesh Disorder in Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompoch Noichinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Translucent flesh of mangosteen normally occurs during fruit ripening. Rainfall, after water stress, enhanced on-tree mature green fruit to develop translucent flesh disorder more frequently. Thus, this research pursued the effect of applied water on translucent flesh disorder development. The on-tree mature green stage fruits were selected and wrapped with 3 layers of fabric sheet. After that, water was continuously dropped (flow rate of 0.6 ml/min on the wrapped sheet for 0, 1, and 2 days before picking. The results showed that duration time of water applying enhanced the increasing of water absorption significantly in peel. All of water-treated fruits ripened within 2-3 days after harvest and obviously had high lignin in secondary cell wall. It was hypothesized that lignification played an important role in hypoxia defense mechanism since the Na2CO3-SP fractionation extracted from alcohol insoluble residue (AIR of translucent flesh aril was higher than those of normal aril. This Na2CO3-SP reinforced the strength of cell wall complexity as well as displaying the translucency character. Hence, we concluded that the capillary water (took place in intercellular air space of fruit pericarp induced hypoxia tolerance mechanism that triggered translucent flesh disorder in mangosteen aril.

  4. Development of Polymeric Nanoparticles of Garcinia mangostana Xanthones in Eudragit RL100/RS100 for Anti-Colon Cancer Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthones are a group of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds with anticancer properties, but poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability hinder their therapeutic application. This study sought to prepare a xanthones extract (81%  α-mangostin and 16%  γ-mangostin in polymeric nanoparticles and to investigate its intracellular delivery and cytotoxicity toward colon cancer cells. The nanoparticles were prepared in Eudragit RL100 and Eudragit RS100 by the nanoprecipitation method at drug loading and entrapment efficiency of 20% and >95%, respectively. Freeze-drying of bulk nanoparticle solutions, using glucose or sucrose as cryoprotectants, allowed the collection of nanoparticles at >95% yield. Solubility of the xanthones extract was improved from 0.1 µg/mL to 1250 µg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS of the freeze-dried final formulation showed the presence of cationic round nanoparticles, with particle size in the range of 32–130 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of nanospheres, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy indicated intermolecular interaction of xanthones with Eudragit polymers. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was mediated via endocytosis and indicated intracellular delivery of xanthones associated with potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 26.3±0.22 µg/mL. Presented results suggest that cationic nanoparticles of xanthones may provide a novel oral drug delivery system for chemoprevention or treatment of intestinal and colon tumors.

  5. RISET SITOTOKSIK CAMPURAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L DAN KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L PADA SEL VERO DAN AML12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Erlina Mardja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campuran Daun sirsak dan Kulit buah manggis sekarang ini banyak digunakan sebagai fito-terapi penyakit kanker dan antioksidan. Tetapi penggunaan bahan ini belum diketahui data keamanannya. Tujuan dilakukan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efek sitotoksik campuran ekstrak daun sirsak dan kulit buah manggis terhadap sel vero dan sel AML12. Uji sitotoksik dapat memprediksi keberadaan senyawa yang bersifat toksik secara in vitro menggunakan sel normal atau sel yang telah mengalami transformasi. Uji ini menggunakan 2 jenis cell line, yaitu sel vero dan sel AML12. Sampel berupa simplisia daun sirsak dan kulit buah manggis yang dibuat ekstrak dengan menggunakan etanol 96%. Konsentrasi uji yang digunakan adalah 100; 50; 25; 12,5; 6,25 dan 3,125 mg/mL untuk sel vero dan 500; 250; 125; 62,5; 31,25 dan 15,625 mg/mL untuk sel AML12. Kultur sel dilakukan di wellplate 96 diinkubasi didalam inkubator CO2 pada suhu 37°C selama 24 jam kemudian ditambahkan sampel uji dan selanjutnya diinkubasi kembali didalam inkubator CO2 pada suhu 37°C selama 24 jam. Langkah selanjutnya uji MTT dan kemudian dibaca dengan ELISA reader pada panjang gelombang 570nm. Diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: IC50 55,97 mg/mL pada sel vero, dan 43,292 mg/mL pada sel AML12. Kesimpulannya sampel campuran ekstrak daun sirsak dan kulit buah manggis ini mempunyai efek toksik terhadap sel vero dan sel AML12 (IC50<100 mg/mL. Kata kunci: Sitotoksik, Daun sirsak, Kulit buah manggis, sel vero, sel AML12, IC50 Abstract Mix of soursop leaves and mangosteen pericarp use as cancer phytotherapy and antioxidant, but it is not yet known its toxicities data. The aim of this study was evaluate cytotoxicity effect of mix of soursop leaves and mangosteen pericarps extract on vero cells and AML12 cells. Toxicity study is one ways to predict the presence of toxic compounds using normal cells or cells that have undergone a transformation. That study was using vero cell and AML12. Samples was ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and mangosteen pericarp. The test dose were 100; 50; 25; 12,5; 6,25 dan 3,125 mg/mL in vero cell and 500; 250; 125; 62,5; 31,25 dan 15,625 mg/mL in AML12. Cells were cultured in well plate 96 and incubated in CO2, temperature 37°C for 24 hours and then added samples and incubated incubated in CO2, temperature 37°C for 24 hours. Cell was added MTT and read with ELISA reader. The results showed IC50 55,97mg/mL in vero cells and 43,292 mg/mL in AML12. Conclusion of this study is ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and mangosteen pericarps has toxicity effect in vero cells and AML12 cells (IC50<100 mg/mL. Keywords: cytotoxiciy, soursop leaves, mangosteen pericarp, vero cells, AML12 cells, IC50

  6. Preliminary studies on the use of kolanuts (cola nitida) for soft drink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola soft drink were ...

  7. Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Metanol Daun Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L. Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusran Yusran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants gotu kola (Centella Asiatica L .Urban is a wild plant that efficacious as remedies traditional cure disease tuberculosis (TB.TB is disease contagious infection caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis. Research aims to understand the ability extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and determines the concentration optimal extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and to know the comparison between extract methanol leaves gotu kola red with an extract methanol leaves gotu kola green in inhibits the activity of mycobacterium tuberculosis.Extraction done with the methods maceration use methanol and continued with evaporation until obtained extract viscous .Testing antibacterial activity done in a microscopic observation drug susceptibility ( mods use plate petri dish 24 hole with the variation of concentration ie 20%,40%, 60%, 80% and 100%.The results of testing show that extracts methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green positive capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis with inhibition optimal in concentration 80 % and 100 % characterized by the absence of growth bacteria colonies which are (- or 0 %.Extract methanol leaves gotu kola green capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis better than extract methanol leaves gotu kola red seen in concentration 40% and 60%.

  8. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  9. AcEST: BP921787 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 37 0.49 tr|O04793|O04793_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... ...cyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... 36 0.84 tr|B8BDB0|B8BDB0_ORYSI Putative uncharacterized protein ...LRFAGAGDEINRGRTVWR 285 >tr|O04793|O04793_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mango... LR A EINRGRTVW+ Sbjct: 248 QRQFLHCLRFAGNGNEINRGRTVWR 272 >tr|O04792|O04792_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mango

  10. Vliv délky klik jízdního kola na změnu svalového napětí m. triceps surae

    OpenAIRE

    Stránský, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Title: Influence of crank arm length on change of muscle tone of musculus triceps surae Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to conclude the theoretical knowledge of this issue. The experiment is to uncover via the objective results, if the change of the crank arm length can influence the muscle tone of m.triceps surae and additionaly how much. Methods: The measurement for this thesis was processed at Charles University at the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports, measuring 8 volunteers. ...

  11. Vysoká škola politická a sociální v systému Národní fronty (1945-1949/1952)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devátá, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 27 (2010), s. 52-63 ISSN 1211-8184 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP410/10/2060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : National front * education policy * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Rodina a škola jako socializační činitelé reprodukující genderové stereotypy v souvislosti s genderovou segregací na trhu práce

    OpenAIRE

    Hokeová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    In the diploma thesis we ask the question whether the important agents of socialization family and school reproduce gender stereotypes which associate women with the role of a carer about family and household and men with the role of a breadwinner and with the orientation to the field of technology. We focus on whether family and school reproduce these stereotypes in connection with the definition of a career and in relation to horizontal and vertical segregation at the labour market. The rep...

  13. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  15. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  16. Some Haematological Parameters in Rabbits Treated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    the body has developed defensive physiological mechanisms to this substance? The observed changes on the WBC count following the ingestion of methanolic extract of G. kola revealed significant increased. Thus this study reconfirmed the immune- beneficial significant of G. kola. This finding is in accordance with the ...

  17. Antibacterial properties of Uvaria chamae, Congronema latifolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold and hot water extracts of G. kola and U. chamae moderately inhibited the growth of S. aureus and S. pyogenes with zone of inhibition of between 9 – 15 mm. V. amygdalina, G. kola and C. latifolium slightly inhibited S. pyogenes and E. coli with a zone of clearing of between 7 -13 mm. Cold or hot ethanol extracts of U.

  18. DETERMINATION OF CAFFEIN MINATION OF CAFFEINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    disturbance and the effect of caffeine on sleep is highly variable, (Peters and Josef, 1967). This research is aimed at determining and comparing the caffeine contents of the old and fresh kola nut(Cola acuminate) from the southern part of Nigeria referred to as 'Dan. Ikko' meaning the Lagos variety, while kola nut from Ghana ...

  19. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  20. A Systematic Study on Processing Problems and In vitro Release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its flowability and compressibility were determined using Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger relationships. Tablets were prepared from the powder by direct compression and wet granulation techniques and characterized. Results: Kawakita analysis revealed lower cohesiveness of granules (3.877 ± 0.890) compared to the ...