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Sample records for garcinia kola heckel

  1. Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel. FB Yakubu, JO Ogunade, OT Bolanle-Ojo, DK Yahaya. Abstract. Garcinia kola plays an important socioeconomic role in the Africa culture. Inspite of this, the plant only exists in the wild or as part of left over in the Agroforestry farms. Therefore, this research ...

  2. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... About 0.5 g of the extract was dissolved in 2 ml of glacial acetic acid containing .... this observation, G. kola extract compared favourably with the .... lactone and other volatile constituents of the oleoresin from seeds of. Garcinia ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has lent credence to the ethnopharmaceutical claims of the curative affect of raw-chewed Garcinia kola seeds on throat infections as well as highlighting the bacterial resistance to standard antibiotics, particularly, the β-lactams. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 68-76 ...

  4. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... cardiac glycoside, saponins, steroids and reducing sugars. Key words: ..... to be a novel cancer therapeutic agent (Robert et al.,. 2008). Cardiac ... their relationship with such compounds as sex hormone. (Okwu, 2001).G. kola ...

  5. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  6. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 l of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 l of 100 ng/ml phorbol ...

  7. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity ... The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) as an Antimicrobial Agent: Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days 1-5 decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva ...

  9. Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola): Is it truly the Wonder Seed? | Labo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Garcinia kola seed is eaten raw with the belief that it promotes longevity. ... This review summarises the diverse biological activities of Garcinia kola and possible role as an emerging ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  10. in-vitro antifungal effect of garcinia kola and garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Alliums sativum and Garcinia kola seeds were tested for their ... resistance and this has led to development of more potent synthetic ... outer coat were removed, the cloves were air dried at .... regulated genes to Candida albicans virulence.

  11. Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria. ... returns and identifying and determining the Socio-economic variables that affect the marketers net returns. Three markets, one ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. Gastroprotective potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Induced Oxidative. Gastric Mucosa Damage in Rats by Kolaviron, A Natural. Biflavonoid of Garcinia kola Seed. Phytother Res. 2006;20:14-20. 8. Ibironke GF, Olaleye SB, Balogun O and Aremu. DA. Antiulcerogenic effect of diet containing seeds of.

  13. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  14. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola using an in vitro adsorption study. Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. kola was conducted at 37 ± 0.1 °C. Adsorption of quinine (2.5 - 40 μg/ml) to 2.5 % w/v G. kola suspension was studied. Thereafter, quinine desorption process ...

  15. Evaluation of the anti-fertility effect of Garcinia Kola Seeds on male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, West Africa, Garcinia Kola seed is widely use for social, therapeutic and nutritional purposes. In recent times, there have been reports about its negative effects on male fertility. In view of this, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Garcinia Kola seed on male fertility indices. 2Kg of the Garcinia Kola seed ...

  16. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study (8 weeks). The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and ...

  17. Antibacterial Interaction of Crude Methanol Extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed (GKS) which is chewed habitually as a masticatory ...

  18. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar ...

  19. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and nutritional composition of kola nut, garcinia kola and alligator pepper. African Journal ... primarily carried bound to albumin in the blood and only a minor amount is ... increased oxida ve stress. With regular intake, the ascorbic ...

  20. Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahna, Mohammed; Seke Etet, Paul F; Osman, Sayed Y; Yurt, Kıymet K; Amir, Naheed; Vecchio, Lorella; Aydin, Isınsu; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Sheikh, Azimullah; Chijuka, John C; Kaplan, Süleyman; Adem, Abdu

    2017-01-04

    The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging. The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G. kola seeds in long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model. Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. kola oral aqueous suspension daily for 30 days. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment. After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were significantly increased, and histopathological signs of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G. kola compared to diabetic rats given distilled water. Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight restored to non-diabetic control values, following G. kola treatment. These results suggest that G. kola treatment improved the general condition of long-term diabetic rats and protected Purkinje cells partly by improving the systemic glycemia and mitigating neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiacea) Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the bioactive constituents of the extracts using TLC analysis revealed the presence of steroids/triterpenes and phenolic compounds with phenolic compounds appearing in all extracts irrespective of the solvent polarity used for extraction. Anthraquinone and alkaloids were confirmed absent on TLC.

  2. Ocular dynamics of Garcinia cola (Heckel on healthy volunteers following bolus ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Igwe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia cola Heckel, an angiospermae belonging to the  family Guttiferae, is known in commerce as bitter cola. It is a plant found in the West African subregion, mostly in moist conditions, and often in association with Cola acuminata. The seeds are highly valued ingredients in African ethonomedicine. The seeds have several social uses and applications in folk medicine. These seeds are ordinarily chewed by the local people without prescription or restriction. In an in vivo case control study, the effects of Garcinia cola on some visual functions: pupil diameter, near point of convergence (NPC, amplitude of accommodation (AA, intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity (VA and habitual phoria; following bolus ingestion of 20 g was undertaken using healthy visually active volunteers. Results showed that bolus ingestion of Garcinia cola constricted the pupil by 68%, reduced the NPC by 28%, increased the AA by 17.8% at peak effect and decreased the intraocular pressure by 31% without affecting the distance and near VA. The lateral phoria at far and near tended towards esophoria. Possibly the miotic effect and reduction in IOP could be of benefit to patients with raised IOP where conventional drugs may not be effective. Also it is possible that the effects on phoria could be exploited in oculomotor function in combination with visual training.

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron (a Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats. Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of ...

  4. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined intake of Garcinia kola and Ascorbic acid on Intraocular pressure (IOP) of normotensive Nigerians. A total of one hundred and sixty (n= 160) parcipants, males, and females within the age range of 18-50 years (Mean age = 29.29± 8.74) were used for this study.

  5. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. kola was conducted at 37 ± 0.1 °C. Adsorption of ... The amount of quinine adsorbed and desorbed was quantified using HPLC. A ..... first place, G. kola is known to contain flavonoids.

  6. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  7. The methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola attenuated angiotensin II- and lipopolyssacharide-inducedvascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, cardiovascular diseases are a risk factor for poor health and early death with predisposing factors to include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution. It is envisaged that herbal products that can stem this trend would be of great benefit. Garcinia kola (GK, also known as bitter kola is one of such plants. Generally used as a social snack and offered to guests in some cultural settings, bitter kola has been indicated in the treatment of laryngitis, general inflammation, bronchitis, viral infections and diabetes. In this study, the effects of methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola on the proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs in cell culture by Angiotensin II (Ang II and LPS-induced NO production were carried out. Confluent VSMCs were exposed to GK (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml before or after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (100μg/ml, and Angiotensin II (10-8-10-6M. Cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay and NO production by Griess assay. Treatment with Angiotensin II (10-8, 10-6 or LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of VSM cells while LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with GK (25, 50 & 100 μg/ml attenuated VSM cell proliferation. The results indicate that GK has potential to inhibit mitogen activated vascular cell growth and possibly inhibit inflammatory responses to LPS. Thus GK may be useful in condition that is characterized by cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses.

  8. Garcinia kola seeds may prevent cognitive and motor dysfunctions in a type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model partly by mitigating neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Farahna, Mohammed; Satti, Gwiria M H; Bushara, Yahia M; El-Tahir, Ahmed; Hamza, Muaawia A; Osman, Sayed Y; Dibia, Ambrose C; Vecchio, Lorella

    2017-04-15

    Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G. kola extract from the first to the 6th week post-injection. Then, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using holeboard and vertical pole behavioral tests, and animals were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out, cut, and processed for Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. Results Hyperglycemia (209.26 %), body weight loss (-12.37 %), and T1DM-like cognitive and motor dysfunctions revealed behavioral tests in diabetic control animals were not observed in insulin and extract-treated animals. Similar, expressions of inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), iba1 (CD68), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as decreases of neuronal density in regions involved in cognitive and motor functions (-49.56 % motor cortex, -33.24 % medial septal nucleus, -41.8 % /-37.34 % cerebellar Purkinje /granular cell layers) were observed in diabetic controls but not in animals treated with insulin or G. kola. Conclusions Our results indicate that T1DM-like functional alterations are mediated, at least partly, by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in this model. The prevention of the development of such alterations by early treatment with G. kola confirms the neuroprotective properties of the plant and warrant further mechanistic studies, considering the potential for human disease.

  9. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-05

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  11. Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramoye, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in γ-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    treatment of dysentery, bronchitis and throat infections. (Braide ... for parasitic skin disease while the latex (gum) is used internally ..... sulphate sodium-induced colitis in rats. ... (Herckel) On Gastric acidity and Experimental Ulceration in. Rats.

  13. A critical evaluation of the Heckel equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Great differences between published Heckel parameters, obtained from 'at pressure' data or the 'in-die' method, are outlined. The general validity of the concept of yield pressures derived from slopes of such Heckel plots is questioned. When the ability of the Heckel and the Walker equations...

  14. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study ... All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol ... and causes fertility abnormalities with low sperm count and ...

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Garcinia kola seed against hepatotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    purchased from. Choba market in Rivers State, Nigeria) were peeled, sliced and dried .... liver damage12, 13. These enzymes are located in the cell cytoplasm and are emptied into the circulation once the cellular membrane is damaged 14, 15.

  16. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  17. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Parameters related to seed germination and seedlings vigour was evaluated. Results indicated that substrate do not affect seed germination and plant vigour. However ..... Annual plant reviews California, USA, pp. 50-. 6.7.

  18. Effect Of Gavage Treatment With Pulverised Garcinia Kola Seeds On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packed red cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and red blood cell count (RBC) showed significantly (P < 0.05, Student's t-test) increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red ...

  19. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Tannin, Saponin, and Cardiac glycoside, Flavonoid, Terpenoid, Phenols, Anthraquinone and Steroid. However, reducing sugar is absent. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against the isolates showed that ethanol extract is more ...

  20. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... is a biopolymer consisting of thousands of glucose units linked with ... enzyme production by this organism in the wheat straw and rice husks media ... substrate, pretreatment and strain of microorganism used. (Ali et al., 1991).

  1. Radiation processing of Garcinia cambogia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Sanju; Varshney, Lalit

    2001-01-01

    Garcinia Cambogia (GC) extract is used in controlling obesity and many health related problems. Being a natural product, locally known as cocum powder, is often contaminated with various microbiological species. Ability of g-radiation is well established to eliminate such species and it could be used to protect the quality of the product. In the present study, GC extract was subjected to g-radiation dose in order to evaluate the stability of its active ingredients. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detector (DAD) and Thermo-Gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate the product stability. No significant physico-chemical changes were observed in GC at 30 kGy. GC could be sterilized or decontaminated in dry powder form using gamma radiation without affecting its physico-chemical properties. (author)

  2. The effects of different dietary inclusion levels of bitter kola ( Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v23i2.4571 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  3. 6447 Volume 12 No. 5 August 2012 EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs NELLY EGONTE

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... Thus, there is the need for a suitable method of fish seed production to ... to focus on improved broodstock for increase in fish seed production and control fertility in ..... Iwu MW Handbook of African Medicinal Plant. CRC Press.

  4. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−-HCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Oon Chuah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid.

  5. Kola reindeer herder measured by Finns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illukka, E.; Rahola, T.

    1995-01-01

    Experts from the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and from the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki travelled in August 1994 to Lovozero in the Kola peninsula, Russia, to study the local radioactivity contents. The purpose of the study, which formed a part of the science and technology cooperation programme between Finland and Russia, was to compare activity levels in Kola and in Finnish Lapland, in the food chain between lichen, reindeer and people. By means of samples taken from nature, the study group also determined the composition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Using a whole-body counting system, the experts measured 33 people from Lovozero. Samples were collected, for instance, of reindeer meat, lichen and the bottom sediment of Lovozero lake. On the basis of preliminary findings, it seems that the levels of radiocesium do ALARA 1/1995. (orig.)

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr. ) (Coleopera: Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivbijaro, M F [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr.) with gamma radiation showed that 20 krad effectively caused high larval mortality and prevented pupation. Dead larvae became soft and bluishblack and, occasionally, dry and brown. Percentage adult emergence from irradiated pupae, longevity and fecundity of emerging adults provided the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation. Mean survival and adult emergence from young pupae irradiated with 20 krad was 6 and 2 percent, respectively, in contrast to 86 and 8 percent, respectively, in old pupae given the same dosage. Old pupae (3-5 days old) showed some tolerance to gamma radiation and over 20 krad was required to prevent adult emergence. Gamma radiation seriously reduced longevity to an average of 6 and 15 days, respectively, in pre- and post-emergence irradiated adults in contrast to 44 days in the control. Distortion of the membranous hind wings were some of the adverse effects observed in adults that emerged from irradiated pupae. Reproduction and oviposition was seriously impaired by irradiation before or immediately after emergence. The opinion of a panel of experienced kola nut testers was that gamma irradiation did not alter the taste or flavour of the kola nuts and no change was observed in the colour or texture of the irradiated nuts.

  7. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyue Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the most popular tropical fruits (called the “Queen of Fruits”, and is a rich source of oxygenated and prenylated xanthone derivatives. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G. mangostana. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. The new one was further tested for cytotoxic activity against seven cancer cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, A549, H490, PC-3, SGC-7901, U87, displaying the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values 3.35, 4.01, 4.84, 7.84, 6.21, 8.09, and 6.39 μM, respectively. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1.26 μM. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Kolaviron, a Biflavonoid Complex of Garcinia kola, on Rats Hippocampus against Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ijomone, Omamuyovwi M.; Nwoha, Polycarp U.; Olaibi, Olayemi K.; Obi, Augustine U.; Alese, Margaret O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of kolaviron on brain weight and behavioural performance and the histology of the hippocampus of adult Wistar rats following methamphetamine challenge.Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g, randomly assigned into four groups of six each (Groups A, B, C, D) were used for this research. Group A served as control, while groups B and C were given single dose methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally after grou...

  9. Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria | Iheke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. ... The goal of marketing of agricultural products is to ensure that consumers get satisfaction from the entire process of production, as well as ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. A comparison between two powder compaction parameters of plasticity: the effective medium A parameter and the Heckel 1/K parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Foad; Klevan, Ingvild; Nordström, Josefina; Alderborn, Göran; Frenning, Göran

    2013-09-10

    The purpose of the research was to introduce a procedure to derive a powder compression parameter (EM A) representing particle yield stress using an effective medium equation and to compare the EM A parameter with the Heckel compression parameter (1/K). 16 pharmaceutical powders, including drugs and excipients, were compressed in a materials testing instrument and powder compression profiles were derived using the EM and Heckel equations. The compression profiles thus obtained could be sub-divided into regions among which one region was approximately linear and from this region, the compression parameters EM A and 1/K were calculated. A linear relationship between the EM A parameter and the 1/K parameter was obtained with a strong correlation. The slope of the plot was close to 1 (0.84) and the intercept of the plot was small in comparison to the range of parameter values obtained. The relationship between the theoretical EM A parameter and the 1/K parameter supports the interpretation of the empirical Heckel parameter as being a measure of yield stress. It is concluded that the combination of Heckel and EM equations represents a suitable procedure to derive a value of particle plasticity from powder compression data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fuel consumption organization at the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.A.; Ignatenko, E.I.; Volkov, A.P.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Problems of using NPPs in the power systems including hydroelectric power plants and NPPs are considered on the example of the Kola power system. The methods of the WWER-440 reactor fuel loading formation, reactor power forcing, optimization of volumes and time of the NPP main equipment planned maintenance are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal methods for the WWER-440 reactor fuel loading formation are the following: reactor make-up with the lesser number of fuel assemblies with maximum designed enrichment; for the case of decreased loading energy capacity displacement of make-up fuel with 2.4% enrichment by the fuel with 3.6% enrichment when preserving the designed number of make-up fuel assemblies [ru

  12. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Ocular Antiviral Effect of Garcinia Kolanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The claim of an Octogenarian on Garcinia kolanuts crude water extract on his open angle glaucoma has opened up a series of researchers into the native nuts as to their pharmocotherapeutic properties. Some of these have been reported as pressure lowering effects on laboratory animals and as antibacterials ...

  14. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,

  15. A New Benzoyl Compound Isolated from the Endophytic Fungi of Kandis Gajah (Garcinia griffithii and Asam Kandis (Garcinia cowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia cowa belong to the genus Garcinia. The genus Garcinia has been known to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and other phenolic derivatives. Previous investigations of endophytic fungi from G. griffithii revealed the presence of three compounds not found in the host. In order to the continue the phytochemical work on endophytic fungi of G. griffithii, the constituent of the endophytic fungi of G. griffithii was re-examined. In this study, a benzoyl compound similar to that found in the endophytic fungus of G. cowa was observed. The same benzoyl compound was also isolated from the endophytic fungus Acremonium sp of G. griffithii and Aspergillus sp of G. cowa with cultivation of eight weeks in static conditions at room temperature. The culture medium was partitioned using ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain the concentrated extract. Isolation of compounds was performed using the chromatography method. The chemical structure was proposed on the basis of spectroscopic data, including ultraviolet (UV, infrared (IR, mass spectrometry (MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR, heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC, and correlation spectroscopy (COSY.

  16. Atividade alimentar da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae no rio Paraná Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Peciformes, Sciaenidae feeding activity in Parana river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A atividade alimentar anual, estacional e diária da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi avaliada para a planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (município de Porto Rico-PR e para o reservatório de Itaipu. Os peixes foram capturados com redes de espera de diferentes malhagens, sendo as coletas realizadas mensalmente, de outubro de 86 a setembro de 88, no primeiro ambiente, e de novembro de 83 a fevereiro de 89, no segundo. Os aparelhos de pesca ficaram expostos por 24h, com despescas ao amanhecer (7h, durante o dia (15h e ao anoitecer (23h e a cada três horas, em coletas especiais, para determinação do ritmo diário. Foi utilizado o grau de enchimento do estômago e a freqüência de estômagos com alimento como indicadores de repleção estomacal. Registrou-se alta incidência de estômagos vazios, em ambos os ambientes. As variações anuais desses indicadores foram mais pronunciadas no reservatório de Itaipu. Em relação às variações sazonais, a atividade alimentar foi sempre mais elevada nos períodos mais quentes, em contraste com o inverno. A tomada de alimento no período de 24 horas foi mais intensa nas primeiras horas da manhã, revelando-se uma espécie predadora tipicamente diurna, utilizando estímulos visuais para a detecção e perseguição das presas.Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 feeding activity at the upper Paraná river floodplain (Porto Rico region, state of Paraná, Brazil and Itaipu reservoir was investigated. The fishes were collected monthly with different mesh-sized gill nets October, 1986 through September, 1989 at upper Paraná river and November, 1983 through February, 1989 at Itaipu reservoir. The nets were set for 24 hours and the fishes were collected at sunrise (7A.M., afternoon (3P.M. and night (11P.M. at Itaipu reservoir and each, three hours at upper Paraná river floodplain to determine daily feeding rhythm. Stomach repletion degree and food update frequency

  17. Optimization of Bread Enriched with Garcinia mangostana Pericarp Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Maqsood-ul-Hague, S. N. S.; Hashib, S. Abd; Karim, S. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of bread enhanced with Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder with the combination of baking process conditions. The independent variables used were baking time (15 - 30 minutes), baking temperature (180 - 220°C) and pericarp powder concentration (0.5 - 2.0%). The physical and chemical properties of bread sample such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, moisture analysis and colour parameters were studied. Bread dough without fortification of pericarp powder was used as control. Data obtained were analyzed by multiple regressions and the significant model such as linear and quadratic with variables interactions were used. As a conclusion, the optimum baking conditions were found at 213°C baking temperature with 23 minutes baking time and addition of 0.87% for Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder to the bread formulation.

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Derajat Matra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  19. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J; Rathmann, O; Lundsager, P [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  20. SMRT sequencing data for Garcinia mangostana L. variety Mesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razik Midin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Queen of Fruits” mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. produces commercially important fruits with desirable taste of flesh and pericarp rich in xanthones with medicinal properties. To date, only limited knowledge is available on the cytogenetics and genome sequences of a common variety of mangosteen (Abu Bakar et al., 2016 [1]. Here, we report the first single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing data from whole genome sequencing of mangosteen of Mesta variety. Raw reads of the SMRT sequencing project can be obtained from SRA database with the accession numbers SRX2718652 until SRX2718659.

  1. MORPHOANATOMY OF Garcinia madruno (KUNTH HAMMEL (CLUSIACEAE UNDER WATERLOGGED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA DO COUTO ABREU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Garcinia madruno (Kunth Hammel is a neotropical tree that naturally occurs in terra firme forests and is important as a source of income and medicine for Amazonian populations. This study describes and compares the morphoanatomical responses of plants under conditions of stress and normoxia. Young plants of Garcinia madruno were subjected to two water regimes: daily controlled irrigation and waterlogged for 84 days. Hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and anatomical characteristics of the roots and leaves were evaluated on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84. There were no changes in leaf structure, but cracks and hypertrophic lenticels appeared on the stems, there was an increase in blackness of the roots and the plants formed adventitious roots to adapt to the flooded environment. The anatomical changes in the roots of the flooded plants were thickening of the exodermis in the main root and of the pericycle in the lateral roots, and a large increase in the amount of aerenchyma. Histochemical tests detected starch in the midrib, mesophyll, stem and root of flooded plants, and in the petiole of control plants. In the waterlogged plants, phenolic compounds were found in the petiole and alkaloids were found in the midrib, petiole and root.

  2. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  3. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m 3 of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  4. Marketingový mix firmy ALU KOLA CB

    OpenAIRE

    URBAN, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on a marketing mix practical application in my own company ALU KOLA CB. My company sells alloy wheels and tyres for personal cars. In a literary review are introduced and explained terms marketing, marketing mix and its parts - product, price, place and promotion. In a practical part of this thesis are these terms applied on my company. The end of this part contains results and improvement suggestions.

  5. the case of a medicinal species, Garcinia lucida, as source of raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... be an important variable to be tested in future studies on the bark .... These alternative management options could easily be integrated into forest .... dihydrochelerythrine derivatives from Garcinia lucida. Journal of Natural ...

  6. Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of Garcinia cambogia flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, A S; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2001-08-01

    Flavonoids from Cocos nucifera, Myristica fragrance, Saraka asoka and Garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. Lipid lowering activity was maximum in rats administered flavonoids (10 mg/kg BW/day) from Garcinia cambogia. A dose response study revealed biphasic activity. Higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The status of nuclear cooperation with Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant; Status for atomsikkerhetssamarbeidet med Kola og Leningrad kjernekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Norway has since 1993 participated in joint projects with Russia to improve nuclear safety at the Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant. The project have been funded under the Government's nuclear action under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has completed most of the projects. NRPA is the authority responsible for assessing the implementation of the projects. (eb)

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Oon Chuah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL” at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.

  9. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  10. A New Prenylated Xanthone from Latex of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Na

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new prenylated xanthone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3,7-dimethyloct-2,6-dienyl xanthone (3-O-methylcowaxanthone (1, together with four known xanthones, cowaxanthone (2, 7-O-methylgarcinone (3, α-mangostin (4 and γ-mangostin (5 were isolated from the latex of Garcinia cowa. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. The cytotoxic activitiy of 1 against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480, was evaluated, but it was inactive (IC 50>40μM.

  11. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  12. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Hyperglycemic and Antituberculosis Activities of Phylogenetically Related Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) and Garcinia hombroniana (Seashore Mangosteen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamila, N.; Kim, K.S.; Khan, A.A.; Khan, S.N

    2016-01-01

    Species of genus Garcinia belonging to family Clusiaceae are traditionally known for the treatment of ulcer, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea and abdominal pain. This genus is also reported to be a rich source of xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, biflavonoids and triterpenes showing significant pharmacological activities. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) and Garcinia hombroniana Pierre (seashore mangosteen) are evergreen tropical trees grown in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and other tropical countries. The fruits of G. mangostana (queen of fruits), and roots and leaves decoction of G. hombroniana are commonly used for skin allergies, infections after childbirth, trauma and diarrhea. This study aimed to evaluate the bark and fruit extracts of G. mangostana and G. hombroniana for phytochemicals analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and antituberculosis activities. Total phenolic contents were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent colorimetric method. For antioxidant activities, radical scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used. Anti-hyperglycemic activity was determined using a-glucosidase and a-amylase enzymes. In quantitative phytochemical analysis, the extracts of G. mangostana showed significantly higher content of phenolics (3498.7 micro M GAE/g (gallic acid equivalent per gram), ethyl acetate; bark), carbohydrates (14.2 g/100g, aqueous; fruit) and reducing sugars (13.9 g/100g, aqueous; fruit). Also, in antioxidant activities, G. mangostana showed comparatively high activities with the ethyl acetate extract as the most potent showing IC50 2.78 micro g/ml in DPPH, 1.19 micro g/ml in ABTS, and 8742.7 micro M TE/g in FRAP assays. G. mangostana was also more potent in anti-hyperglycemic properties (IC50 182.9 micro g/ml, a-glucosidase, 247.8 micro g/ml, a-amylase) compared to G. hombroniana

  13. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MATOS

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  14. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  15. SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Aspergillus niger OF THE STEM BARK OF KANDIS GAJAH (Garcinia griffithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout. Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic. Aspergillus niger cultured in media 5L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB for 8 weeks and filtered. Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L (twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal. The molecular structures of isolated compounds are determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY. The compound was determined as phenolic (1.

  16. On behavioural responses to smell and sight of alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel for an allopatric and a sympatric population of brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Joakim

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater sculpins and salmonids coexist in many streams throughout the Northern hemisphere, and often constitute an important component of stream ecosystems. Alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel have been known to predate eggs and fry of brown trout Salmo trutta L., and also to function as a competitor to older brown trout for habitat and prey items. This study was designed to examine possible behavioural differences in activity level and positioning between a sympatric and an allopatri...

  17. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  18. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of ... combination with other drugs (Rall, 1980). Caffeine and some of its ... combination of coffee drinking with smoking ... effects on reproductive functions using male rats.

  19. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  1. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Erinfolami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of sociodemographic variables (of the students and their parents with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385 randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  2. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  3. Xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia and their antidiabetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Quach, Tam T. T.; Bui, Dung N.

    2017-01-01

    Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H ( 1 - 3 ), along with eight known xanthones ( 4 - 11 ), were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The a...

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Girija, A S Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus salivarius (3 mm) respectively. The MBC and MIC

  5. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos

  6. The reliability improvement plan of hot cell examination data by introducing of Kolas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Song, Wung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byung Ok; Baik, Seung Je; Lim, Nam Jin; Nam Ju Hee

    2000-01-01

    For enhancement of hot cell data reliability produced at Irradiated Material Examination Facility in KAERI,Korea a project to introduce Kolas of National Quality Assurance Institute. By Kolas introduction the examination data currently produced would be reinforced by additional function of uncertainty evaluation and would obtained more reliable data. The all of data collected would be quality controlled, so that it would be re-traceable. Presently at IMEF shock test, tension test, dimension measurement test, hardness test, density test, and composition analysis test will be subject to Kolas. It is also planned to expand the number of test items in near future. At the end of 2000 year IMEF aims to secure the certificate issued by the National Quality Assurance Institute. (Hong, J. S.)

  7. Is spent nuclear fuel at the Kola coast a real danger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussgard, K.

    1995-01-01

    Norwegian authorities regard with some disquiet the possibility of a criticality accident in a ship propulsion reactor core at the Kola coast. Along this coast, in land storages, floating storages and in submarines taken out of service, the total number of spent fuel reactor cores amount to two hundred. The total Cs-137 radioactivity in spent ship propulsion reactor fuel at the Kola peninsula can be assessed to 600,000 TBq. A worst case release may amount to more than 5,000 TBq Cs-137, a quantity which under unfavourable conditions might cause serious contamination locally and even across the border to Norway

  8. Feasibility study on introduction of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) in nuclear examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Hong, K. P.; Song, W. S.; Min, D. K.

    1999-07-01

    To be an institute officially authorized by the KOLAS, the understanding and the analysis of following contents is required.: the understanding of concept required to get the accreditation of testing, the system specifying an internationally accredited testing and examination organization, international organization in the field of laboratory accreditation, domestic laboratory accreditation organization(KOLAS), the investigation of the regulations with laboratory accreditation in Korea, the investigation of the procedures accrediting a testing and examination organization, the investigation of general requirements(ISO 17025) for a testing and examination organization. (author)

  9. Penambahan Ragi terhadap Multiplikasi Subkultur Tunas Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L.) secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Darwati, Herlina; Wulandari, Reine Suci; Erma Safitri, Revina Rizqidia

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. is a species tropical forest that has many benefit. The benefitmangosteen for human life makes it worth as commodity in International market. This aimed to knowing the influence of addition some yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen and to getting the best yeast concentration for bud multiplication of mangosteen. The research took place in Sylviculture Laboratory at Tanjungpura University for 2 month. The data analyzed to usecompletely randomized desi...

  10. Pengendalian Kutu Putih pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) dengan Insektisida Botani

    OpenAIRE

    Bangun, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Susana Bangun “Controlling of Mealybugs on Mangosteen Fruits (Garcinia mangostana L.) Using Botanical Insecticides“ supervised by Maryani Cyccu Tobing and Darma Bakti. The objectives of the research were to find out an effective and eco-friendly method controlling on mealybug, and technique on keeping mangosteen fruits freshness lasts longer taking the advantages of using botanical insecticides that can be used for the need of certificating mealybug-free mangosteen for export destination. The...

  11. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  13. Caged Garcinia Xanthones, a Novel Chemical Scaffold with Potent Antimalarial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hangjun; Morrisey, Joanne M; Qu, Shiwei; Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Mather, Michael W; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Vaidya, Akhil B

    2017-01-01

    Caged Garcinia xanthones (CGXs) constitute a family of natural products that are produced by tropical/subtropical trees of the genus Garcinia CGXs have a unique chemical architecture, defined by the presence of a caged scaffold at the C ring of a xanthone moiety, and exhibit a broad range of biological activities. Here we show that synthetic CGXs exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative parasite of human malaria, at the intraerythrocytic stages. Their activity can be substantially improved by attaching a triphenylphosphonium group at the A ring of the caged xanthone. Specifically, CR135 and CR142 were found to be highly effective antimalarial inhibitors, with 50% effective concentrations as low as ∼10 nM. CGXs affect malaria parasites at multiple intraerythrocytic stages, with mature stages (trophozoites and schizonts) being more vulnerable than immature rings. Within hours of CGX treatment, malaria parasites display distinct morphological changes, significant reduction of parasitemia (the percentage of infected red blood cells), and aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation. CGXs do not, however, target the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the target of the drug atovaquone and several preclinical candidates. CGXs are cytotoxic to human HEK293 cells at the low micromolar level, which results in a therapeutic window of around 150-fold for the lead compounds. In summary, we show that CGXs are potent antimalarial compounds with structures distinct from those of previously reported antimalarial inhibitors. Our results highlight the potential to further develop Garcinia natural product derivatives as novel antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the

  15. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  16. Effects of Caffeine from Different Kola Nut Extracts on Kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caffeine from different kola nut extracts on kidney and liver functions of male wistar rats were investigated using standard methods. Twelve male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D made up of 3 rats each. The control group (A) received water + food ad ...

  17. Hepatotoxicity Associated with Use of the Weight Loss Supplement Garcinia cambogia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten P. Kothadia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States. Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern. Garcinia cambogia extract with its active ingredient “hydroxycitric acid” is a component of many weight loss regimens. It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown. Here we describe a case of acute hepatitis after the use of Garcinia cambogia for weight loss.

  18. Pilot scale trials of irradiation preservation of maize, kola nuts and dried fish, and preliminary market test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akingbohungbe, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Various studies were conducted to determine the possibility of utilizing gamma irradiation to disinfect cowpea, maize, kola nuts and smoked fish in Nigeria. The studies included the determination of radiosensitivity of important storage insect pests such as the cowpea seed beetle, 'Callosobrucus maculatus', the cigarette beetle, 'Lasioderma serricorne', the kola weevils, 'Balanogastris kolae' and 'Sophrorhinus gbanjaensis'. They also included consumer acceptance and or sensory evaluation of irradiated cowpea, maize and smoked-dried fish. The results showed that irradiation could be integrated with the traditional peasant farmers' method of storing unshelled dry cowpea in granaries; and such an integration can completely eliminate seed beetle infestation. Irradiation at a dose of 0.2-1.0KGy was quite effective in preventing development of 'L. Serricorne'. All stages of development of 'B.kolae' and 'S. gbanjaensis' were very sensitive to irradiation; and a dose of 0.1KGy-0.2KGy was found to be adequate for disinfecting kola nut of the weevils. Irradiation up to 0.2KGy also did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of kola nuts. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation tests on cowpea, maize and smoke-dried fish showed that Nigerian consumers did not have any aversion to irradiated foods. A high percentage of respondents indicated their willingness to purchase samples

  19. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  20. ISOLASI SENYAWA AKTIF “BRINE SHRIMPS“ AKAR Garcinia cowa Roxb FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afdhil arel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavonoid compound has been isolated as yellow crystalline which has melting point at 218-220˚C from root of Garcinia cowa Roxb. The compound was isolated by using column chromatography and characteristic with ultra violet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.   The indicated this compound was hegoflavon (B. Anticancer activities of aethyl acetat fraction and hegoflavon (B using “Brine Shrimps“ gave LC50 37,325 µg/ml and 1,95 µg/ml.

  1. The status of nuclear cooperation with Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Norway has since 1993 participated in joint projects with Russia to improve nuclear safety at the Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant. The project have been funded under the Government's nuclear action under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has completed most of the projects. NRPA is the authority responsible for assessing the implementation of the projects. (eb)

  2. Kola Fjord radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the nuclear icebreakers fleet base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namjatov, A.

    1995-01-01

    The civil nuclear icebreakers have been based at the enterprise ''Atomflot'' in the Kola Bay for more than 30 years. In this paper the effects of nuclear discards from these ships on the ecosystem in the region have been stipulated. It is concluded that the estimated individual dose to man in the area is 1.7 to 4.1 x 10 -4 μSv/year

  3. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva A. M.; Plotitsyna N. F.

    2017-01-01

    The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic (As) in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan) by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air) and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements incl...

  4. Site-sensitive hazards of potential airborne radioactive release from sources on the Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Thaning, L.; Baklanov, A.

    1998-02-01

    In this work we focus on cases of airborne releases from some of the sources on the Kola Peninsula - primarily nuclear reactors on submarines and the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The purpose of our study is to illustrate, and discuss some features - dependent on site and release characteristics - of the deposition patterns resulting from assumed unit radioactive releases to the atmosphere from a location at a fjord and from the KNPP in Polyarnye Zori. Using meteorological data for one real weather situation, the analysis is based on simulating the transport in air of assumed radioactive releases and estimating the deposition pattern on local, meso- and regional scales. By allowing unit releases to occur simultaneously from the site at the fjord and from the power plant (and with the same release profile in time) comparisons are made of differences in deposition patterns in and outside the Kola region. In this case study a set of assumed release heights, durations of the release, and particle size distributions are applied to indicate the dependence for the resulting deposition pattern on these parameters

  5. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  6. Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Mazocraeidea: Microcotylidae) from the freshwater mullet Liza abu (Heckel) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) from Atatürk Reservoir on the Euphrates River in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Öktener, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of the abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in Atatürk Reservoir in southern Turkey is described. Among other features, the new species is easily distinguished from its three congeners, Solostamenides mugilis (Vogt, 1879), Solostamenides pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) and Solostamenides polyorchis Zhang & Yang, 2001, by having fewer hooks on the male copulatory organ (11 to 14), testes (5 to 9), and haptoral clamps (31 to 47).

  7. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  8. Discharges of nuclear waste into the Kola Bay and its impact on human radiological doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2000-01-01

    The civilian nuclear icebreaker facility, RTP ''ATOMFLOT,'' is located in Kola Bay, Northwest Russia, as are several nuclear installations operated by the Russian Northern Fleet. A treatment plant at the Atomflot facility discharges purified nuclear waste into the bay at an annual rate of 500 m 3 . As a result of plant modifications this rate will soon increase to 5000 m 3 /yr. Evidence of minor leakages of 60 Co are reported by in the vicinity of Atomflot as well as near several military installations in Kola and the adjacent Motovsky Bays. 137 Cs levels reported in the present study for seawater and seaweed collected from locations within the bays are at expected levels except in the vicinity of Atomflot, where the 137 Cs level in a seaweed sample was 46±5 Bq/kg w.w. indicating significant uptake of radionuclides to biota. Uptake also may be occurring in higher trophic levels of the food web through environmental exchange and/or biotransformation. We consider the impact of the present and anticipated discharges from Atomflot through a radiological dose assessment for humans consuming fish from Kola Bay. Mixing and transport of nuclear waste is simulated using a simple box model. Maximum doses, assuming consumption of 100 kg/yr of fish, are below 10 -9 Sv/yr; the planned ten-fold increase in the discharge of treated waste will increase the doses to below 10 -8 Sv/yr. Using data on radionuclide levels in sediments and assuming equilibrium partitioning of radionuclides among sediment, seawater and fish, we estimate that the total doses to humans consuming fish from different areas of Kola and Motovsky Bays, including adjacent to military-controlled nuclear installations, are ∼10 -7 Sv/yr. Nuclear activities in Kola and Motovsky Bays thus far have had minimal impact on the environment. Discharges from the treatment plant currently account for less than 0.2% of the total dose predictions. The increase in discharges from the treatment plant is not expected to change

  9. Potencial inibitório in vitro de biflavonoides de Garcinia gardneriana : um estudo sobre monoamina oxidades e CYP19 (aromatase)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angélica Recalde Gil

    2015-01-01

    The plant Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi, popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari" has traditionally been used for various types of inflammatory diseases and the evaluation of their chemical composition, mainly of leaves, has resulted in biflavonoids as major compounds. These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant. In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that...

  10. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  11. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  12. Determinación de biflavonoides en diferentes partes de la especie Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Shaghdari

    Full Text Available Introducción: el género Garcinia produce una gran variedad de metabolitos secundarios representados por xantonas, acilfloroglucinoles y biflavonoides fundamentalmente. Sin embargo, existe muy poca información sobre la composición química de las especies cubanas pertenecientes a este género. Objetivo: determinar la presencia de 11 biflavonoides en las hojas, la corteza del tallo y el látex de Garcinia bakeriana (Urb Borhidi. Métodos : los extractos de las hojas, látex y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana fueron comparados empleando un método de cromatografía líquida de ultra alta eficacia (CLUAE y 11 biflavonoides como sustancias de referencia. Resultados: los biflavonoides GB-1A, GB-2A, glicósido de GB-2A, glicósido de morelloflavona, 4´´´metoxi- I3,II8-biapigenina, I3,II8-biapigenina, amentoflavona y 4´´´-metoxiamentoflavona fueron detectados como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo de G. bakeriana. Conclusiones: la especie G. bakeriana presenta biflavonoides como constituyentes de las hojas y la corteza del tallo. Además, la metodología de trabajo desarrollada contribuye al conocimiento de la composición química de la flora cubana y podría constituir una alternativa, rápida y de bajo consumo de disolventes, para el estudio comparativo de especies endémicas cubanas de escasa distribución y abundancia.

  13. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Vasselli, J R; Pietrobelli, A; Greenfield, D; Nunez, C

    1998-11-11

    Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase. As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans. To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects. Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient weight control research unit. Overweight men and women subjects (mean body mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], approximately 32 kg/m2). Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound (1500 mg of hydroxycitric acid per day) or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet. The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and 12. Body weight change and fat mass change. A total of 135 subjects were randomized to either active hydroxycitric acid (n = 66) or placebo (n = 69); 42 (64%) in the active hydroxycitric acid group and 42 (61%) in the placebo group completed 12 weeks of treatment (P = .74). Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the 12-week treatment period (P<.001); however, between-group weight loss differences were not statistically significant (mean [SD], 3.2 [3.3] kg vs 4.1 [3.9] kg; P = .14). There were no significant differences in estimated percentage of body fat mass loss between treatment groups, and the fraction of subject weight loss as fat was not influenced by treatment group. Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.

  14. Modeling of the regional and global transport of radionuclides from the Kola NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G.I.; Aloyan, A.E.; Arutyunyan, V.O.; Louzan, P.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Numerical Mathematics; Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    2000-05-01

    This Technical Report belongs to the INTAS project 96-1802: Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia. The aim of this INTAS project is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in northwest Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The main aim in this technical report is to calculate and describe radioactive contamination levels in the Kola Peninsula resulting from a hypothetical accidental release from the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The method of assessment of radioactive contamination in the Kola Peninsula described here is based on the mathematical models developed at the Institute for Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). Model validation was performed several times on a wide variety of actual problems and case studies. The validation procedure indicated good capabilities in predicting the qualitative and quantitative contamination patterns resulting from the processes under consideration. Various scenarios reflecting typical meteorological conditions in a specific area are used in the numerical simulation. The conclusions resulting from analysis of such scenario calculations are of rather general character, and can be extrapolated in time provided that climate remains relatively stable. The employed 3D numerical model of radionuclide transport in the Northern hemisphere takes into account the interaction between boundary layers of the ocean and atmosphere, long term tracing of the radionuclides evolution in the atmosphere, their deposition on the earth surface, and migration in soil and sea water.

  15. Investigation and design concepts for a nuclear waste repository in the Kola Peninsula of Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.N.; Sharp, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Murmansk and Archangelsk regions located in northwestern Russia have accumulated large quantities of radioactive waste products from nuclear power plants, military ships (submarines, aircraft carriers and cruisers), ice breakers and light ships of the Murmansk Merchant Marines. This nuclear waste and associated byproducts are temporarily stored in surface facilities which lack long-term safety and containment assurances. Due to the lack of temporary storage facilities, the Russian Navy accumulates nuclear waste on floating ships and continues to dump liquid wastes into the Arctic Sea. The extent and nature of the problem is presently unknown. Waste producing organizations have neither facilities for the treatment and disposal, nor the capital necessary to construct such facilities. If urgent measures are not taken soon, the increasing quantity of waste will create an even more serious danger not only to the local population but also to the neighboring countries. The problem is one of global concern. This paper describes work being done at the Kola Mining Institute to mitigate problems of the past and to assure the continued safe production of energy from nuclear resources. The Kola Peninsula provides a natural location for the storage of nuclear materials and as a site for the production of abundant, inexpensive nuclear power. Recent studies support the theory that Kola is an ideal location for both the production of nuclear power and as a site to store and recycle radioactive materials. However, there exists today in Russia several potential long-term, world-threatening environmental problems if they are not addressed and resolved within the next few years. The problem is not due to the lack of technical solutions, but rather a lack of political and capital commitment

  16. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body.

  17. Field experience of new nuclear fuel types on the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Burlov, S.; Panov, A.; Saprykin, V.

    2008-01-01

    Specificity of the Kola nuclear power plant geographical position, conditions of region economics determine fuel management strategy. Isolation of Kola power supply system and, as a consequence, generating capacities redundancy cause operation of the nuclear power plant on reduced power level. At the same time there is a need to operate the power unit on the maximum power level in the case of not planned conditions. The basis of in-core fuel management is an achievement of the maximal burnup under providing of high installed capacity. At present there are not abilities to improve the fuel cycle based on traditional implementation fuel assemblies. Burnup maximum in these fuel cycles is achieved. At the core periphery installed highest possible quantity of the burned-up assemblies in the view of safety operation margins satisfaction. Works on application of the second generation fuel have been carried out on the Kola NPP since 2002. Fuel assemblies of this type are profiled. Burnable absorber, changed lattice spacing in relation to standard fuel, changed height of a fuel column, thickness of fuel pin clad are applied. In CR fuel followers modernized docking unit (with hafnium plates are intended for energy-release splash suppression) is used. At present 2-nd generation fuel is in experimental operation on unit 3 (18-21 fuel cycles, 2002-2007 years) and unit 4 (18-19 fuel cycles, 2005-2007 years). Safety margins did not exceeded. Coolant activity did not exceed the limiting value. There were not damaged fuel assemblies of second generation. Originally in the project of applications of new fuel it was supposed to refuel annually 78 fresh assemblies. At the moment annual refueling consists of 66 assemblies with effective enrichment 3.82 %. Cycle duration does not exceed 250-260 effective days. The part of assemblies is left on 5-th cycle of operation. In a similar fuel cycle in 2007 on the unit 1 operation with profiled fuel (enrichment of 3.82 %) of shakeproof type

  18. Stavovi nastavnika osnovnih škola o inkluzivnom odgoju i obrazovanju u Republici Makedoniji

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova-Radojičić, Daniela; Čičevska-Jovanova, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Cilj je ovog istraživanja utvrditi kakvi su stavovi nastavnika/ca razredne i predmetne nastave u 25 redovnih osnovnih škola prema uključivanju učenika s posebnim odgojno-obrazobnim potrebama (POOP) u njihove razrede. Korišten je upitnik koji je posebno napravljen za ovo istraživanje. Podatci su dobiveni od ukupno 879 nastavnika/ca. Ovim smo istraživanjem htjeli utvrditi broj učenika s POOP uključenih u redovnim školama, stavove nastavnika/ca o inkluzivnom obrazovanju kao i njihovo mišljenje o...

  19. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in southwest Nigeria: ... Where employment opportunities from traditional industries are .... This reduction in price between merchant and wholesaler was to make up for the cost of.

  20. Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae Ontogênese do fruto de Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eglaé Camargo Asinelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae is a small to medium-sized tree that usually occurs on the floodplains of the Paraná River and it is an important food source for the local inhabitants. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds. The material analyzed consisted of ovary and fruits in different stages of development, collected from five plants from Aurélio Island, Baía River (MS, BR and the description was done according to standard procedures in anatomy. The fruit is a yellowish-orange spherical berry ("bacóide" type. The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function. The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae.Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae é árvore de pequeno a médio porte frequente na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná e de importância na alimentação das populações ribeirinhas, sendo consumida in natura e na forma de sucos e doces. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie como contribuição à classificação do tipo de fruto e da porção carnosa e comestível que envolve as sementes. Ovários e frutos, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento foram coletados de cinco espécimes de uma população localizada na ilha do Aurélio, rio Baía (MS, BR e processados segundo t

  1. Development of the safety analysis system - SAIS - application to the Kola nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Fuhrmann, C.; Neumann, L.; Rumpf, J.; Kubintsev, B.; Marakulin, I.; Shevelev, V.; Terekhov, I.

    1995-01-01

    The project was started in July 1991 and finished by the end of 1993. It was aimed at adapting SAIS to WWER-440/W213 plant design and operational procedures, demonstrating the possibilities of SAIS for safety evaluation and examining the system by plant personnel and a PSA team. The project covered -the use of data form as well as fault and event tree methods of SAIS, - a probabilistic assessment of the high pressure injection system in case of a small break loss-of-coolant accident, - a quantification of human error probabilities for operator actions to cool down the primary circuit in case of a small break loss-of-coolant accident when the high pressure injection system has failed and - a comparison of Russian and German operational procedures and safety documents used in the probabilistic analyses of the SAIS-Kola project. As a main result SAIS was found to be an appropriate tool to give assistance to the plant personnel on safety evaluation of the plant within the frame of reconstruction measures and on the establishment of a qualified reliability data collection system at Kola NPP. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Current and perspective on the radioactive waste management at territory of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amazova, Ludmila

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, 25 thousand cubic metres of solid radioactive waste of one million Ci activity has accumulated in the Murmansk Region because of previous civilian and military activities and more will come as a result of the coming decommissioning of nuclear submarines and nuclear power plants. Only a part of the solid radioactive waste is reprocessed at the Kola nuclear power plant and at the repairing and technological enterprise Atomflot. Compaction and incineration are used to decrease the volume of waste. An incineration facility at Atomflot fails to satisfy new requirements and even releases more radioactivity to the atmosphere than what used to come from the Kola nuclear power plant operation. Solid radioactive waste is stored non-reprocessed Spetscombinat special plant Radon. This plant collects and stores radioactive waste produced by the civil industry and at the bases of the Northern Fleet. It is emphasised, however, that during the observation period there were no cases of dangerous increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Soil and vegetation contamination by long-lived radionuclides was at the background level. The establishment of a common reprocessing and regional storage facility for long-term storage has been proposed by the Ministry for Atomic Energy

  3. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  4. Radioactive sources of main radiological concern in the Kola-Barents region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    1998-07-01

    This overview focuses on some major issues for risk analysis appearing in our recent study surveying radioactive sources on the Kola Peninsula, along with adjacent parts of the Arctic seas. The main issues of the parts are as follows: An introduction to the presence of radioactive sources and environmental contamination in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the current status as regards various significant studies. Radioactive contamination in man and the environment on the Kola Peninsula, as well as radioactive transfer during the last three decades from external sources to the Kola-Barents region. The main conclusion from the findings is that the contamination is generally relatively low and that neither the activity levels in samples of soil, vegetation, and the important food-chains, nor the content in man indicate any changes since 1986 that could not be explained by the combined effect of the cumulative deposition from the nuclear weapons testing and the accident in Chernobyl. The radioactive sources of main concern in the region belong to the following categories: nuclear power submarine and cruiser naval bases; civil nuclear power ice-breaker fleet; building and repairing shipyards; nuclear power plants; radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel storage facilities; sunken reactors/ships; liquid radioactive waste dumping; solid radioactive waste dumping; nuclear weapon bases; nuclear weapon tests; civil nuclear explosions; nuclear accidents; mining radioactive ore deposits and plants; new projects and others. Several case studies concerning releases in the Kola-Barents region are reviewed, and followed by consequence analyses for the categories of primary interest covering: a) airborne releases from the Kola NPP, and from submarines or spent nuclear fuel; b) releases from objects in the marine environment including submarines, dumped reactors, and various other radioactive objects and waste; c) releases from liquid and solid wastes stored on land or during

  5. Radioactive sources of main radiological concern in the Kola-Barents region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Baklanov, A

    1998-07-01

    This overview focuses on some major issues for risk analysis appearing in our recent study surveying radioactive sources on the Kola Peninsula, along with adjacent parts of the Arctic seas. The main issues of the parts are as follows: An introduction to the presence of radioactive sources and environmental contamination in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the current status as regards various significant studies. Radioactive contamination in man and the environment on the Kola Peninsula, as well as radioactive transfer during the last three decades from external sources to the Kola-Barents region. The main conclusion from the findings is that the contamination is generally relatively low and that neither the activity levels in samples of soil, vegetation, and the important food-chains, nor the content in man indicate any changes since 1986 that could not be explained by the combined effect of the cumulative deposition from the nuclear weapons testing and the accident in Chernobyl. The radioactive sources of main concern in the region belong to the following categories: nuclear power submarine and cruiser naval bases; civil nuclear power ice-breaker fleet; building and repairing shipyards; nuclear power plants; radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel storage facilities; sunken reactors/ships; liquid radioactive waste dumping; solid radioactive waste dumping; nuclear weapon bases; nuclear weapon tests; civil nuclear explosions; nuclear accidents; mining radioactive ore deposits and plants; new projects and others. Several case studies concerning releases in the Kola-Barents region are reviewed, and followed by consequence analyses for the categories of primary interest covering: a) airborne releases from the Kola NPP, and from submarines or spent nuclear fuel; b) releases from objects in the marine environment including submarines, dumped reactors, and various other radioactive objects and waste; c) releases from liquid and solid wastes stored on land or during

  6. Assessment of the uncertainty and the proficiency test for accrediting KOLAS of ISO 17025 for a neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.; Sim, C.M.; Lim, I.C.; Hong, K.P.; Choi, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    KOLAS(Korea of Lab Accreditation Scheme) is the charter member of ILAS (International Lab Accreditation Scheme) and APLAS (Asia Pacific Lab Accreditation Scheme), which originates from ISO 17025. KATS (Korea Agent of Technology Standard) governs the KOLAS. The KOLAS describes the basis of satisfying those issues related to a quality assurance and management system. The requirements specify an organization, the accommodation and environmental conditions, an uncertainty in the measurement and an inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program. The evaluation process of the requirements of certifying KOLAS for HANARO NRF has been proceeded by a neutron radiography laboratory, NRT level II course of SNT-TC-1A II is opened, with 20 persons attending for certification. An inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program is conducted through with Kyoto University in accordance with ASTM method for determining the imaging quality in direct thermal neutron radiographic testing (E545-91). In order to determine the uncertainty, dimensional measurements for the calibration fuel pin of the RISO using a profile project is performed with the ASTM practice for thermal neutron radiography of materials (E748-95) (orig.)

  7. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  8. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  9. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF THERMAL INACTIVATION OF PEROXIDASE FROM MANGOSTEEN (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSA ZIABAKHSH DEYLAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp is an abundant source of phytochemicals. Blanching prior to further process stabilizes these valuable compounds. In this research, crude peroxidase (POD was extracted from mangosteen peel using Triton X-100. Kinetics of POD inactivation was studied over temperature range of 60- 100°C. The inactivation kinetics followed a monophasic first-order model with k values between 1.93×10-2- 8.14×10-2 min-1. The decreasing trend of k values with increasing temperature indicates a faster inactivation of peroxidase from mangosteen pericarp at higher temperatures. The activation energy (Ea of 35.06 kJ/mol was calculated from the slope of Arrhenius plot. Thermodynamic parameters (∆H, ∆G, ∆S for inactivation of peroxidase at different temperatures (60-100°C were studied in detail. The results of this research will help to design pre-processing conditions of mangosteen pericarp as a source of antioxidants.

  10. Fractionation and antioxidant activity potency of the extract of Garcinia lateriflora Blume var. javanica Boerl leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahayasih, Putu Gita Maya Widyaswari; Elya, Berna; Hanafi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia lateriflora leaves extract of the family Guttiferae has been known to have excellent antioxidant activity. The objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant effect of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of G. lateriflora leaves extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods and Feric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) to determine the antioxidant properties. The extracts were fractionated by using column chromatography. The Methanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with EC50 values are 13.95 and 19.65 µg/mL by DPPH and FRAP methods respectively. E13 fraction was the most active fraction from ethyl acetate extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 37.14 µg/mL and 34.46 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method. Meanwhile M3 fraction was the most active fraction in methanol extract with EC50 value for DPPH scavenging method was 50.02 µg/mL and 37.32 µg/mL for reducing power by the FRAP method.

  11. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Menezes Terrazas

    Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE and normochromatic (NCE erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  12. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Xin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana. An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111, (200, (220, and (311 planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

  13. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  14. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Leilane; Pezuk, Julia Alejandra; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Brassesco, María Sol; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Ionta, Marisa; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho

    2015-10-30

    Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. 7-epiclusianone, a tetraprenylated benzophenone isolated from the epicarp of the native plant Garcinia brasiliensis, exhibits a range of biological activities but its prospect anticancer activity is underexplored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG and U138MG). Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells. Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. 7-epiclusianone treatment at low concentrations also altered cell cycle progression, decreased the S and G2/M populations and at higher concentrations increased the number of cells at sub-G1, in concordance with the increase of apoptotic cells. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

  15. Antibacterial and EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activities of Polyhydroxylated Xanthones from Garcinia succifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susawat Duangsrisai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6. All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1, as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  16. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  17. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  18. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  19. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  20. Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2014-05-01

    Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

  1. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  2. Intermediate storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines are a product of the arms race and the Cold War. Russia still continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines, and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste. A solution to this problem is proposed: to construct a new regional interim storage facilities at Kola for the spent nuclear fuel instead of transporting it to Mayak, the existing reprocessing plant. This storage should have the capacity to handle the fuel in the existing storage and the fuel still on board of retired nuclear submarines. Its lifetime should be 50 years. later it would be possible to make a decision on the future of this fuel

  3. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg and arsenic (As in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements include Pb, Cd, As, and Hg. It is believed that 90 % of lead, 70–80 % of cadmium, and arsenic, over 30 % of mercury in the atmosphere are of anthropogenic origin, and emissions of these elements in the atmosphere are almost completely manufactured in the Northern Hemisphere. The main sources of income in the Barents Sea are waters of the North Atlantic current and the large-scale atmospheric transport from industrialized Central Europe. As a rule the spatial distribution of trace elements is in good agreement with the granulometric composition of bottom sediments and the content of organic carbon. The contents of most of the listed trace elements in samples of bottom sediments on the standard section "Kola Meridian" in the Norwegian classification are consistent with background levels with the exception of Ni, Cr, and As. Their content in bottom sediments at some stations has met the criteria for "slight" and "moderate" pollution. The obtained results confirm the insignificant levels of contamination of bottom sediments of some trace elements. On the status of stocks of commercial species of aquatic biological resources, the observed levels of contamination of bottom sediments in the investigated areas of the Barents Sea will have no significant effect

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Kola and Motovsky Bays of the Barents Sea, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, G.G.; Matishov, D.G.; Namjatov, A.A.; Carroll, J.; Dahle, S.

    1999-01-01

    Russia's military and civilian nuclear powered maritime fleets operate in the Kola and Motovsky Bays on the northwest Arctic coast of Russia. Levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in sediment grab samples collected from approximately 100 stations in areas near military and civilian nuclear installations and in the open waters of the two bays. In most areas, radionuclide levels are similar to those reported for other Arctic seas: 137 Cs=1-24 Bq kg -1 d.w., 60 Co= -1 d.w. and 239,240 Pu=0.8-1.6 Bq kg -1 d.w. However, the presence of 60 Co (up to 27 Bq kg -1 d.w.) indicates that minor leakage of radioactive waste has occurred near several military installations. Sites where leakage is detected include Pala, Sayda, Olenya and Ekaterininskaya Bays in the Kola Bay and Zapadnaya Litsa in Motovsky Bay. 137 Cs levels of 40-50 Bq kg -1 d.w. and 239,240 Pu levels of up to 2.2 Bq kg -1 d.w. were measured near several military installations but these levels do not indicate leakage as the source.Some of the highest 60 Co activities were detected in sediments collected near the civilian nuclear installation, Atomflot. The sediments also contained higher 137 Cs activities compared to samples from other regions of the study area with similar particle size distributions. Routine discharges of purified radioactive waste from the Atomflot facility are the likely source of 60 Co and enhanced 137 Cs levels. With this investigation, we have detected evidence of radioactive waste leakage in the marine environment, but the environmental impact on the bays has been minimal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Fennoscandia in the Phanerozoic: Paleogeodynamic Reconstructions Based on the New Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Data from the Kola Magmatic Province (kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    During last four years we studied more than 100 dolerite and alkaline dykes, which are widely spread on the Kola Peninsula and belong to the Devonian magmatic province. Within the scope of our researches some of these dykes have been dated and their precise isotopic ages (Ar/Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) lie in the range of 390-360 Ma (Veselovskiy et al., 2013). The age of other sampled dykes can be considered as Devonian due to similarity of their paleomagnetic, geochemical and petrological characteristics to the dated ones. Paleomagnetic directions have been obtained from more than 80 dykes. Almost all dykes yielded (a) a low-temperature component that is aligned along the present-day field and is likely of viscous origin; (b) a well defined dual-polarity intermediate-temperature component with steep eastward directions that accounts for a main part of the NRM and often decays to the origin on orthogonal plots; and (c) a dual-polarity high-temperature component with shallow inclinations and ENE declinations of presumed primary origin. The presence of the primary high-temperature component makes us possible to calculate preliminary Baltica's paleomagnetic pole for the Middle-Late Devonian. In view of the obtained microprobe data we believe that intermediate component is a result of unknown hydrothermal process, which age can be estimated from the comparison of corresponding paleomagnetic pole with the Baltica's APWP as Jurassic. We believe that both mentioned episodes of endogenous activity within the large stable craton were connected with plume-lithospheric interaction in the Devonian and Jurassic. In this presentation we use the obtained paleomagnetic, petrological and geochronological data to determine the paleogeography of Baltica in the Devonian and Jurassic times and to find its position within the global paleotectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 12-05-00216, 13-05-12021, 13-05-12030 and grant MK-3383.2012.5.

  6. The U-Pb System in Schorlomite from Calcite-Amphobole-Pyroxene Pegmatite of the Afrikanda Complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Stifeeva, M. V.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Glebovitsky, V. A.; Reguir, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The geochronological U-Pb study of shorlomite from igneous rocks of the alkali-ultramafic Afrikanda massif (Kola Peninsula) was performed. The results demonstrate the reliability of calcium garnet as a mineral for the U-Pb geochronology of a wide range of igneous rocks, i.e., carbonatite, syenite, foidolite, foidite, melilitolite, melilitite, lamprophyres, micaceous kimberlites, etc., and associated rare earth and trace elements (REE, Nb, Zr) mineralization.

  7. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    *Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo ... This study was carried out to investigate the cardiovascular effect of ... the risk of coronary and artherogenic diseases and that Garcinia kola do not prevent the ... Key Words: Garcinia kola, Cardiovascular disease risk factor, amodiaquine ...

  8. Molecular Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Garcinia cambogia Germplasm Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Tharachand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this work, the genetic relationship among twelveGarcinia cambogia (Gaertn. Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.28 (OPA18 to 0.37 (OPA9 and Marker Index (MI ranged between 3.61 (OPA12 and 5.93 (OPA3 among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49 between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.

  9. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. endophyte isolated from Garcinia nobilis against Mycobacteriumsmegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean Bosco; Mawabo, Isabelle Kamga; Notedji, Augustin; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Nkenfou, Jean; Wandji, Jean; Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu

    2016-06-01

    According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2014: 5.4 million among men, 3.2 million among women, and 1.0 million among children. There were also 1.5 million TB deaths. Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants harbor microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes, which also produce metabolites. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel and active compounds. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the crude extract and compounds isolated from Penicillium sp. endophyte associated with Garcinia nobilis against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Liquid culture obtained from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. was extracted using ethylacetate and the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry monitored fractionation of crude extracts yielded six compounds. Their structures were elucidated with spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry by dereplication using Antibase, and by comparison to literature data. All compounds and the crude extract from the liquid medium were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis. In this study, the activity of penialidins A-C (1-3), citromycetin (4), p-hydroxy phenyl glyoxalaldoxime (5), and Brefeldin A (6) were tested against nonpathogenic M. smegmatis. Penialidin C was the most active compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 15.6μg/mL. Isolated compounds from Penicillium sp. harbored in G. nobilis exhibited promising antimycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis thus supporting the immensity of the potential of antimycobacterial drug discovery from endophytes from medicinal plants

  10. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjani, Susy

    2017-02-28

    Malaria especially falciparum malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Several factors have been linked to this situation and the most important one is the rapid spread of parasite resistance to the currently available antimalarials, including artemisinin. Artemisinin is the main component of the currently recommended antimalarial, artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT), and it is a free radical generating antimalarial. Garcinia mangostana L (mangosteen) rind contain a lot of xanthone compounds acting as an antioxidant and exhibited antimalarial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of mangosteen rind extract and its fractions and their interaction with artemisinin against the 3D7 clone of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Dry ripe mangosteen rind was extracted with ethanol followed by fractionation with hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water consecutively to get ethanol extract, hexane, athylacetate, buthanol, and water fractions. Each of these substances was diluted in DMSO and examined for antimalarial activity either singly or in combination with artemisinin in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone. Synergism between these substances with artemisinin was evaluated according to certain formula to get the sum of fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (∑FIC 50 ). Analysis of the parasite growth in vitro indicated that IC 50 of these mangosteen rind extract, hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water fraction ranged from 0.41 to > 100 μg/mL. All of the ∑FIC50 were antimalarial activity of the extract and fractions of G.mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin. Further study using lead compound(s) isolated from extract and fractions should be performed to identify more accurately their mechanism of antimalarial activities.

  11. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  12. Optimization of ethanol production from garcinia cambogia residues and the effects of its medicinal component on production yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Zhang, F.

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia, a Chinese herbal medicine, was popular due to its effect for weight loss. The main medical component inside was determined to be hydroxycitric acid (HCA). To realize the resource technology of garcinia cambogia residue, Optimum ethanol production from residues was investigated, and the effects of remaining HCA on the ethanol yield were investigated. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the significance of several influencing factors, and cellulase, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were observed to exert important effects. The optimum ethanol fermentation conditions were determined through an orthogonal design to include a cellulase concentration of 100 U/g, a yeast extract concentration of 15 g/L, and a KH2PO4 concentration of 1.0 g/L. The ethanol concentration obtained under optimal conditions was 4.0 g/L. The remained HCA in the residues showed minimal influences on ethanol fermentation and could even increase ethanol yield at low concentrations. (author)

  13. Main features of Kola, Leningrad and Ignalina NPPs for emergency preparedness purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, H. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    2001-12-01

    Of the nuclear power plants situated in the Nordic and their neighbouring countries, the Ignalina, Lenigrad and Kola plants are considered to pose the largest risks to the public. The purpose of this report is to provide basic relevant information about these three plants for use in a case of a major nuclear accident or incident in any of them. The report could be used e.g. by authorities dealing with the resulting emergency measures to provide the public and the media with relevant information about the plant in question. The report can also be used for quick general familiarization With the plants in question. The total activity inventories for all the plants are listed at the end of the report, in Chapter 4. The release of noble gases is close to 100 % in most severe accidents, but the releases of other elements depend strongly on the plant features and the nature of the accident. This report has been compiled from several sources. The main source has been an earlier NKS-report: 'Design and Safety Features of Nuclear Reactors Neighbouring the Nordic Countries', TemaNord 1994:595, 1994. Only limited editing has been done. Sources of the figures are presented in parenthesis after the figure titles. (au)

  14. International aid is needed in resolving the military nuclear waste problems in Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forss, S.

    1995-01-01

    Information about military nuclear waste problems in the counties of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has become public on an unprecedented scale since the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Relevant technical details about the nuclear waste problem are still unclassified. The amount of knowledge is, however, steadily increasing despite military secrecy. It is now possible to perform a fairly reliable evaluation of the scope and magnitude of the nuclear waste problem that stems from more than three decades of operation of nuclear submarines and ships of the former Soviet Northern Fleet. The former Soviet Navy built some 240 nuclear submarines, most of them with twin reactors. About 180 nuclear submarines will have to be disposed of in the coming years. Since the late eighties the Soviet/Russian Navy has retired about twenty nuclear submarines a year. Approximately one hundred nuclear submarines now lie in Russian harbours in the North and in the Far East, awaiting disposal. More than seventy are in the Kola and Arkhangelsk areas. Most of the retired submarines still carry nuclear fuel in their reactor. (orig.)

  15. Frequency electromagnetic sounding with industrial power lines on Karelia-Kola geotraverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Шевцов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes theory, method and first experimental results of research on the interaction between electromagnetic waves of extremely low and ultra low frequency (0.1-200 Hz, the Earth crust and ionosphere in the field of two mutually orthogonal industrial power lines, 109 and 120 km long, in the course of FENICS experiment (Fennoscandian Electrical conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source soundings. The main focus was on the observation results along the line of Karelia-Kola geotraverse over a distance of 700 km from the source. High horizontal homogeneity of geoelectrical lithosphere section has been detected in the eastern part of the Baltic shield at depth range from 10-15 to 50-70 km. Parameters of «regular» lithosphere section have been specified to the depth of 60-70 km. As a result of inverse problem solution for the western part of Karelia and Central Finland, a zone of decreased transverse resistivity has been detected at the depth of 50-60 km, corresponding to the area, detected by seismic methods, where Moho boundary reaches the same depth.

  16. Virtual screening of compounds derived from Garcinia pedunculata as an inhibitor of gamma hemolysin component A of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarali Chowdhury

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens at alarming frequency, there has been an increase interest in the development of novel drugs from natural resources. The use of higher plants and preparations made from them to treat infections is a longstanding practice in a large part of the population, especially in the developing countries, where there is dependence on traditional medicine for a variety of ailments. The virtual screening method was used in this study to analyze the docking and inhibitory activities of some natural bioactive compounds present within Garcinia pedunculata against hemolysin toxin of Staphylococcus aureus, gamma-hemolysin component A hlgA. The study resulted in identifying compounds 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-xanthone and garcinone D with high binding affinity towards the target protein revealing them as potent inhibitors that could be further used to create new drug source in the treatment of staphyloccocal infections.

  17. Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy.

  18. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  19. PENGARUH EKSTRAK KULIT MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. TERHADAP TESTIS TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIBERI PAPARAN GELOMBANG ELEKTROMAGNETIK HANDPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartono Muhartono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelombang elektromagnetik handphone dapat menyebabkan peningkatan reactive oxygen species (ROS sehingga merubah struktur histopatologi testis. Untuk mengatasinya dibutuhkan senyawa antioksidan yang terkandung dalam kulit manggis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dalam memperbaiki gambaran histopatologi testis terhadap sel spermatozoa dan spermatogenik tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus galur Sprague dawley yang diberi paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone. Penelitian ini menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih galur Sprague dawley dengan berat badan 200-300 gram yang dibagi ke dalam 5 kelompok, yaitu kontrol 1 (K1 tikus yang tidak diberikan perlakuan, kontrol 2 (K2 diberikan NaCl 0,9% dan paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone, pada kelompok perlakuan (P1, (P2 dan (P3 diberikan ekstrak etanol kulit manggis dengan dosis bertingkat 50, 100, 200 mg/kgBB dan dilakukan paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone selama 3 jam/28 hari. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata jumlah sel spermatozoa pada K1=173,75±16,978 SD, K2=101,75±7,455 SD, P1=148,50±10,149 SD, P2=162,50±10,247 SD, P3=180,75±7,365 SD dan rerata jumlah sel spermatogenik pada K1=306,75±11,955 SD, K2=157,00±7,303 SD, P1=243,50±21,672 SD P2=266,75±10,340 SD P3=294,75±13,150 SD. Pada uji One Way Anova (p<0,005 didapatkan masing-masing sel spermatozoa dan sel spermatogenik menunjukkan hasil yang bermakna p=0,000. Ekstrak etanol kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dapat memperbaiki gambaran histopatologi testis dengan meningkatkan jumlah sel spermatozoa dan sel spermatogenik tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus galur Sprague dawley yang diberi paparan gelombang elektromagnetik handphone.

  20. Analysis of ISO/IEC 17025 for establishment of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) quality assurance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Hee

    2000-12-01

    Besides one existent accredited lab, radioactive material chemical analysis lab, five test laboratories and two calibration labs are under plan to acquire the accreditation from KOLAS. But the current Quality Manual was developed according to ISO Guide 25 that was superceded by ISO/IEC 17025. Since it is tailored to the radioactive material chemical analysis lab, a number of requirements of the Manual are not applicable to the labs other than radioactive material chemical analysis lab. Through the analysis of ISO/IEC 17025, a model of quality system was established which is not only consistent with ISO/IEC 17025 but reflective of the KAERI's situation

  1. Dynamics of metamorphism processes by the fractal textures analysis of garnets, amphiboles and pyroxenes of Lapland Granulite Belt, Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz A. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available About thousand analyzes of garnet, amphibole and pyroxene crystals from selected samples of amphibolite and granulite rocks from Lapland Granulite Belt in Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula has been made. Indicated fractal-box dimension of studied minerals has a good correlation with tectonic zones, lead to a new insight in the dynamics of processes, which has modified the examined region. Fractal-box dimension makes the textural analysis more precise, because it consents for the mathematic and repeated review of crystals topology depending directly on processes which had created them.

  2. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  3. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  4. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Shutov, V.N.; Ya Bruk, G.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Pogorely, Ju.A.; Burkova, T.F.

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137 Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137 Cs and 90 Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137 Cs intake in this group were about 10 μSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 μSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137 Cs intake of about 0.5 μSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137 Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90 Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied

  5. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of

  6. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Jeong, Tae-Sook; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial...

  7. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Samsir, Sri A’jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600–3100 cm−1 in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (S...

  8. Assessment of some Hepatic Enzyme activities in adult rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of Garcinia kola (G. kola) have been extensively documented and several researches have asserted its protective uniqueness against liver disorders/diseases. It is the aim of this study to assess the level of some enzyme involved in liver cellular integrity in rabbits chronically fed G. kola. To achieve this ...

  9. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Possible mechanism of horizontal overpressure generation of the Khibiny, Lovozero, and Kovdor ore clusters on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Sim, L. A.; Kozyrev, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses questions related to the generation of increasing crustal horizontal compressive stresses compared to the idea of the standard gravitational state at the elastic stage or even from the prevalence of horizontal compression over vertical stress equal to the lithostatic pressure. We consider a variant of superfluous horizontal compression related to internal lithospheric processes occurrin in the crust of orogens, shields, and plates. The vertical ascending movements caused by these motions at the sole of the crust or the lithosphere pertain to these and the concomitant exogenic processes giving rise to denudation and, in particular, to erosion of the surfaces of forming rises. The residual stresses of the gravitational stressed state at the upper crust of the Kola Peninsula have been estimated for the first time. These calculations are based on the volume of sediments that have been deposited in Arctic seas beginning from the Mesozoic. The data speak to the possible level of residual horizontal compressive stresses up to 90 MPa in near-surface crustal units. This estimate is consistent with the results of in situ measurements that have been carried out at the Mining Institute of the Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), for over 40 years. It is possible to forecast the horizontal stress gradient based on depth using our concept on the genesis of horizontal overpressure, and this forecasting is important for studying the formation of endogenic deposits.

  11. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigina, Olga

    1998-01-01

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and degradation levels on permanent field

  12. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigina, Olga

    1998-07-01

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and

  13. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  14. Science, sulphur and sustainability. Environmental strategies of mining in the russian Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, O.H.

    2008-07-01

    This dissertation analyses the problem of co-aligning corporate strategy and public policy for effective environmental governance. A case study of the mining industry in the Russian Kola Peninsula shows how institutional arrangements (including public policies) affect the environmental performance of industrial organizations. The analysis emphasizes the motivations that drive people's decisions and how they are affected by culture and formal institutions both inside and outside the domain of public policy. It bridges management and governance studies with an added focus on engineering approaches to sustainability. In substantial terms, the dissertation has a strong focus on 'complex utilization', which has been a common environmental and natural resource strategy in Russia since the 1930s. In an important respect, complex utilization both antedates and closely resembles industrial ecology that has been developed in the West. This suggests that a lack of technical knowledge was not the principal cause of the well-known environmental problems that existed in the Soviet Union. On the contrary, the potential benefits of complex utilization were not realized because Soviet political and economic institutions provided weak incentives for pollution control and efficient resource use. The central theoretical effort of this dissertation is to show how effective environmental governance is contingent upon emergent strategy and policy processes. Both corporate environmental strategy and public environmental policy depend on power relations and network building among a variety of actors in the society. The case study yields three different emergent processes: political embedding of scientific concepts, cultural contextualization of indicators, and legitimacy in stakeholder salience. The dissertation also delivers policy recommendations pertaining to the future development of the Barents Euro-Arctic region. This future depends both on the level of political

  15. Predicting climate change impacts on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica in the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Pramanik

    Full Text Available In recent years, climate change has become a major threat and has been widely documented in the geographic distribution of many plant species. However, the impacts of climate change on the distribution of ecologically vulnerable medicinal species remain largely unknown. The identification of a suitable habitat for a species under climate change scenario is a significant step towards the mitigation of biodiversity decline. The study, therefore, aims to predict the impact of current, and future climatic scenarios on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica across the northern Western Ghats using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modelling. The future projections were made for the year 2050 and 2070 with all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs scenario (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 using 56 species occurrence data, and 19 bioclimatic predictors from the BCC-CSM1.1 model of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change’s (IPCC 5th assessment. The bioclimatic variables were minimised to a smaller number of variables after a multicollinearity test, and their contributions were assessed using jackknife test. The AUC value of 0.956 ± 0.023 indicates that the model performs with excellent accuracy. The study identified that temperature seasonality (39.5 ± 3.1%, isothermality (19.2 ± 1.6%, and annual precipitation (12.7 ± 1.7% would be the major influencing variables in the current and future distribution. The model predicted 10.50% (19318.7 sq. km of the study area as moderately to very highly suitable, while 82.60% (151904 sq. km of the study area was identified as ‘unsuitable’ or ‘very low suitable’. Our predictions of Climate change impact on habitat suitability suggest that there will be a drastic reduction in the suitability by 5.29% and 5.69% under RCP 8.5 for 2050 and 2070, respectively. Objective and Significance: Primary objective of this study is to identify the potential distribution of medicinally and

  16. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Hayamizu, MS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: (--Hydroxycitric acid (HCA is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity. Objective: The primary end point of this study was the effects of 12 weeks of G cambogia extract administration on visceral fat accumulation. The secondary end points were body indices (including height, body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist and hip circumference, and waist–hip ratio and laboratory values (including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid. Methods: This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects aged 20 to 65 years with a visceral fat area >90 cm2 were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with G cambogia (containing 1000 mg of HCA per day or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks to assess any rebound effect. Each subject underwent a computed tomography scan at the umbilical level at −2, 0, 12, and 16 weeks. Results: Forty-four subjects were randomized at baseline, and 39 completed the study (G cambogia group, n=18; placebo group, n=21. At 16 weeks, the G cambogia group had significantly reduced visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat areas compared with the placebo group (all indices P<0.001. No severe adverse effect was observed at any time in the test period. There were no significant differences in BMI or body weight at week 12, but there were slight numeric decreases in body weight and BMI in men. There were no signs of a rebound effect from week 12 to week 16. Conclusion: G cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation in subjects, regardless of sex, who had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. No rebound effect was observed. It is therefore expected that G cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction

  17. MASA SIMPAN BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN, SUHU DAN JENID KEMASAN [Shelf life of Manggis Fruit (Garcinia mangostana L. at Various Fruit Maturity Levels, Temperature, and Types of Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of manggis fruit maturity levels, temperature, and types of packaging on the shelf fife of manggis fruit (Garcinia mangostana L, The experimental design used was Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three factors consisting of manggis fruit maturity levels (tinged with purple and brown, packaging types (flexible and stretch film, and storage temperature (l50C and 250C using two replication for each treatment. The result showed that maturity level had significant effect on weight toss, color but had no significant effect on hardness, total sugar and total acid of manggis fruit during storage. The suitable packaging type to maintain the quality of manggis fruit with maturity level of tinged purple was the flexible type, which result n a shelf life of 33 days. Packaging suitable for manggis fruit with maturity level of brown was the stretch type, which had the shelf life of 39 days. Storage temperature to maintain quality was l50C.

  18. Assessment of Toxicity and Beneficiary Effects of Garcinia pedunculata on the Hematological, Biochemical, and Histological Homeostasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli’s risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg. Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.

  19. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature, could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  1. Exterior indicators and physiological signs' indices of juveniles Salmo salar L. in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhina V. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The range of background values of main parameters of the exterior and indices of morphophysiological features of autumn juvenile salmon Salmon salar L. in four rivers of the Kola Peninsula not affected by hatchery production have been investigated. The importance of such studies is associated with intensification of artificial reproduction of salmon and occurrence of hatchery fish with characters different from wild individuals in the rivers. Currently hatchery reproduction of Atlantic salmon is not carried out in the European North of Russia, however, the need to choose a local salmon population for further hatchery reproduction is obvious. Accumulation of biological data on salmon in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula is important for population monitoring of wild stocks. Samples of juveniles widely varying in size have been collected by electrofishing in the Rivers Pechenga, Zapadnaya Litsa and Titovka of the Barents Sea basin, as well as in the tributaries of the River Varzuga inflowing the White Sea. For each sample individual and group indices of elongation, girth and massiveness have been calculated. The physiological state of the fish has been assessed with allowance for the fatness factor (according to Clark and indices of internal organs. It has been found that in the autumn season (September the average statistical values of the morphological indices characterizing the appearance of the fry from four rivers differ with a high degree of reliability. Individual fluctuations in morphological parameters are in the range of values: elongation – from 311 to 725 %; girth – from 41 to 85 %; massiveness – from 150 to 530 %. The mean values of morphophysiological indices for each of the four river populations have been presented. The obtained values of the studied parameters of juveniles of Atlantic salmon can be used for subsequent monitoring of populations.

  2. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    at the bottom and at the edge of the valley. Changing these parameters for different climatic seasons allows us to estimate the duration of the existence of gas in homogeneities in the aerial under soil and up soil layers. Complex ring structure site and manifestations of recent tectonic movements allow it to allocate more closed areas with different plant-land cover and different geomorphological features. In particular stand out - bogs, forest area on the slopes and riparian forest zone, the zone of mountain tundra and rocky plateau. Designated areas should be considered together with the full history of the evolution relief Khibin, processes of decrease glaciers and their occurrence. One of the results of the work performed is the allocation within the array of closed circuses, paleo-ice landforms drumlin and moraine ridges. These landforms represent the latest stage of the glacial history of glaciation on the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic coast. Estimated areal characteristics of different forms. In some cases it was possible to separate a sequence of glacial relief forms, which suggests staging a retreat of glaciers in the area. The project highlighted areas open mining apatite ores in Khibiny massif. Career located in the inner part of the massif form a closed area drain mine water pollution and wind. While the new career located on the border of the array and the forest zone characterized by a single watershed and accordingly included in the ecological life support cycle of residential villages and towns of Kirovsk and Apatity. This fact forces us to view mining activity as a powerful source of contamination. Designed GIS project thus can be used to solve a number of problems geomorphological orientation. In addition a number of application issues - the environment, paleoclimatology, geotectonic can be successfully addressed on the basis of the digital 3D model.

  3. Breakthrough Curve Analysis for Column Dynamics Sorption of Mn(II) Ions from Wastewater by Using Mangostana garcinia Peel-Based Granular-Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Z. Chowdhury; S. M. Zain; A. K. Rashid; R. F. Rafique; K. Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC) derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia) fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II) cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L), feed flow rate (1 mL/min...

  4. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri A’jilah Samsir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600–3100 cm−1 in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast were in another clustered group. Keywords: Apomictic, Mangosteen, Fourier Transformed-Infrared, Peninsular Malaysia

  5. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group.

  6. A pilot study on the distribution of 137Cs between vegetation and soil in an industrial pollution gradient at the Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, T.; Bergman, I.; Bergman, R.; Nikonov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The activity concentration of radiocesium in dwarf shrubs, mosses, organic and inorganic soil was studied in an industrial pollution gradient from the Monchegorsk smelter at the Kola peninsula. As expected the highest values for vegetation was found in mosses/lichens followed by dwarf shrubs. The transfer factor between organic and vascular vegetation was ten times higher in the control area (100 km from the smelter) than in the affected areas (7 to 31 km from the smelter). 3 refs

  7. An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R H L

    2013-01-01

    64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft.

  8. Verification of the transuranus-WWER code version V1M2J00 by SOFIT and Kola-3 data bases: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, D.; Boneva, S.; Djourelov, N.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study is standard WWER-440 fuel as described in the IFPE-OECD/IAEA-NEA database. The SOFIT and Kola-3 data base have been used the purpose, each one described in a separate paper, referred to as Part I (concerning SOFIT) and Part II (concerning Kola-3). It has been shown that the latest modifications of the programme lead to considerable improvements of the predictions on the fuel behaviour. Concerning the TRANSURANUS-WWER code calculations of different fuel behaviour characteristics of Kola-3 standard fuel rods, the following conclusions can be made: the burnup calculations are in excellent agreement with the measured values; the fission gas release calculations accounting for the high burnup structure influence are in very good agreement with the experiment for the two assemblies in the burnup region up to 40 MWd/kgU; the size changes for the cladding are reproduced in fairly good way; the gas pressure is reproduced by some 10 -15 % underestimation. From the obtained results including the discussed deviations, the present version of TRANSURANUS-WWER can be considered as applicable for the modelling fuel performance in Bulgarian nuclear power plants operating WWER reactors

  9. Experimental Studies for the VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser System for Kola NPP at the Integral Test Facility BC V-213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Davydov, M.V.; Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of Tacis Project R2.01/99, which was running from 2003 to 2005, the bubble condenser system of Kola NPP (unit 3) was qualified at the integral test facility BC V-213. Three LB LOCA tests, two MSLB tests, and one SB LOCA test were performed. The appropriate test scenarios for BC V-213 test facility, modeling accidents in the Kola NPP unit 3, were determined with pretest calculations. Analysis of test results has shown that calculated initial conditions and test scenarios were properly reproduced in the tests. The detailed posttest analysis of the tests performed at BC V-213 test facility was aimed to validate the COCOSYS code for the calculation of thermohydraulic processes in the hermetic compartments and bubble condenser. After that the validated COCOSYS code was applied to NPP calculations for Kola NPP (unit 3). Results of Tacis R2.01/99 Project confirmed the bubble condenser functionality during large and small break LOCAs and MSLB accidents. Maximum loads were reached in the LB LOCA case. No condensation oscillations were observed.

  10. The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

    2013-05-01

    The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

  11. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  12. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant

  13. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ji Su Park, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park College of Pharmacy, Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea Abstract: Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene. Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs] with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs] had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (–18.92 to –34.77 mV suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of

  14. Formulation of Oil-in-Water Cream from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Pericarp Extract Preserved by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Isabella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract into oil-in-water (O/W cream which stable and durable. In order to improve the shelf life durability of the formula, the irradiation of formula using gamma rays from cobalt-60 was done. The concentrations of extract were varied to 1, 2 and 3% and were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of these formulas were carried out for 90 days stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C. It was found that both of physicochemical and microbiological properties of the formulas were changed by extract concentrations and after irradiation. The irradiated formulas with dose up to 7.5 kGy, which were stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C, presented acceptable physicochemical and microbiological stability for at least 90 days. Analysis by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography-densitometry to study decomposition of G. mangostana pericarp extract cream formulas was carried out 24 h after preparation and 90 day after storage. The result of TLC-densitometry analysis showed that G. mangostana pericarp extract in the cream formulas did not develope significant decomposition after 90 days of storage. Decontamination dose for all formulas was found to be about 7.5 kGy. At this condition, the bacteria and mold-yeast have been killed, without reducing the antioxidant activity

  15. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC 50 s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC 50 =70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC 50 >200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC 50 =0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC 50 =15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with K m , V max and K ik /K iv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k 5 =0.0751µM - 1 S - 1 , k 6 =0.0249µM - 1 S - 1 and K i app =0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of magnesium lactate gluconate and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashishkumar Kyada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antiurolithiatic acitivity of magnesium lactate gluconate (MLG and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia (GC fruit was studied. Methods: Study was performed during December 2016 to April 2017. Urolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 0.75 % v/v ethylene glycol for 21 days. From 8th day onwards, intervention with MLG (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. and GC (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. was started. At the end of treatment period, biochemical parameters affecting renal stone formation were estimated in serum, urine, kidney homogenate and histopathology of harvested kidneys was performed. Results: From in vivo evaluation, it was observed that MLG 400 mg/kg b.w., GC 100 mg/kg b.w. and GC 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced nitrogenous waste products in serum (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid as well as calculogenic promoters in urine (phosphate, oxalate and kidney homogenate (calcium, phosphate, oxalate when compared to disease control animals. The MLG 200 and MLG 400 were ineffective in restoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity whereas GC 100, GC 200 and Cystone® 400 mg/kg b.w. significantly elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in urolithiatic rat kidney. Conclusions: MLG and GC extract are capable of preventing calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation and subsequent deposition in renal tubules. The principle mechanism underlying nephroprotective effect of test drugs might be attributed to their calcium ion cheating ability and CaOx crystallization inhibitory activity. It is further asserted that GC was more potent than MLG in overall kidney protection by virtue of its antioxidant potential. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 378-384

  17. Selected Physiological Effects of a Garcinia Gummi-Gutta Extract in Rats Fed with Different Hypercaloric Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guillén-Enríquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF, high-sugar (HS or high fat/sugar (HFS-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g male Wistar rats were fed for eleven weeks with six hypercaloric diets (4.1 kcal/g; five rats/diet non-supplemented (HF, HS, HFS, or supplemented (HF+, HS+, HFS+ with GGG extract (5.9%, while rats from the control group (375 g were fed a normocaloric diet (3.5 kcal/g. Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food (14.3% and 24.6% (−4.3 g/day, respectively (p < 0.05. Weight loss was greater in the HF+ group (35–52 g, which consumed 1.9 times less food than the HS+ or HFS+ fed groups. The HF and HFS groups showed 40% less plasma triacylglycerides and lower glucose levels compared to the HF+. GGG-supplemented diets were associated with lower ketonuria. The HF+ diet was associated with the best anti-adiposity effect (as measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and Soxhlet methods. The severity of hepatocyte lipidosis was HF > control > HF+, and no signs of toxicity in the testes were observed. The results indicate that GGG is more effective when co-administered with HF diets in obese rats.

  18. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG

  19. ESI-LC-MS based-metabolomics data of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. fruit pericarp, aril and seed at different ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Farah Mamat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon involving a series of biochemical, physiological and organoleptic changes. Ripening process in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. is unique of which the fruit will only ripen properly if harvested during its middle stage (emergence of purple/pink colour but not earlier (green stage. The knowledge on the molecular mechanism and regulation behind this phenomenon is still limited. Hence, electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS based metabolomics analysis was applied to determine the metabolome of mangosteen ripening. Specifically, mangosteen pericarp, aril and seed were collected at four different ripening stages (stage 0: green, stage 2: yellowish with pink patches, stage 4: brownish red and stage 6: dark purple and subjected to metabolite profiling analysis. The data provided in this article have been deposited to the EMBL-EBI MetaboLights database (DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1004. PubMed PMID: 23109552 with the identifier MTBLS595. The complete dataset can be accessed here https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights/MTBLS595. Keywords: Ripening, Garcinia mangostana Linn., Metabolomics, ESI-LC-MS

  20. Review of the Norwegian-Russian Cooperation on Safety Projects at Kola and Leningrad Nuclear Power Plants 2005 - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, H.; Tishakov, P.

    2010-11-01

    In this report, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has reviewed the Norwegian funded projects on nuclear safety performed in the period 2005-2009 under the Norwegian Action Plan. NRPA has evaluated the progress of eight projects implemented by the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) at Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP). NRPA has visited the plants, inspected delivered equipment and discussed the projects implementation with relevant personnel at the plants. One of NRPA findings is that the equipment has been delivered to KNPP and LNPP, it is in regular use by competent personnel, and the equipment contributes to safety of both plants. Furthermore, the cooperation between three main project partners - IFE, LNPP and KNPP, seems to be very productive. NRPA's main conclusion is therefore that the projects have been implemented as described in IFE's project reports and that the goals are met. Furthermore, this report reviews safety levels at the KNPP and LNPP. Safety parameters at the plants indicate that the safety level has been significantly improved since early 1990s when the cooperation between Norway and Russia was initiated. Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) values and number of INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) events, two internationally acknowledged safety parameters, indicate that the safety level has been much improved since the early 1990s when the cooperation between Norway and Russia started. Although it is clear that the Norwegian-funded projects have contributed positively to this development it is difficult to quantify the contribution. Moreover, the report also reviews the planned life-time of and the decommissioning plans for the reactors at KNPP and LNPP. Construction of new LNPP reactors has started and it is estimated that they will be operational in 2013- 2015. The license of the oldest reactor at LNPP expires in 2018 and if the new reactors are in operation by that time, it is

  1. Long-term fluctuations in population of Semibalanus balanoides (L. (Crustacea in the estuarine zone of the Kola Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitina V. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intertidal population of the barnacles Semibalanus balanoides has been explored in the estuarine zone of the Tuloma River at the end of the Kola Bay for the first time. Barnacles S. balanoides are typical species for the littoral zone of the northern seas, they populate both the high and low salinity areas along the coast of the Barents Sea. The ecology and distribution of barnacle population in estuarine intertidal zones of the Barents Sea are not studied previously, and under the critical salinity conditions of any estuary, in particular. The investigation have been carried out on the littoral of the western (left shore of the southern tribe of the Kola Bay – the estuary section from the Tuloma bridge to the Cape Elovy. The studied site is a sandy-boulder beach with stony bars, its length is about 1 150 m, the area is about 126 500 m2. Counting the number of S. balanoides in clusters has been performed on site (without removal of the copepods from the population by the standard method for intertidal sampling. Simultaneously with the defining the number of barnacles for the period 2003–2014, the measurements of salinity and temperature of water and air have been made. The peculiarity of the estuarine barnacle population is their complete absence in the upper horizon of the littoral, and in the middle and the lower horizons they are found only within the channels of the littoral streams (3–20 specimens in the sample. For the first time the abundance and biomass of barnacles S. balanoides in this estuarine population has been determined, and the causes of their narrow-local distribution on the estuary littoral of the Tuloma River have been revealed. The main ecological factors determining the abundance and specific distribution of barnacles under the conditions of estuarine littoral have been established. The regular increase in the density of adult S. balanoides settlements along the gradient of water salinity from the Tuloma River to

  2. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARLES EMOGOR

    Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The ... preserved using sandy soil shrank, only two seeds from jute bag shrank but shrinkage was.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 162 ... ... on sodium nitrite‑induced cerebellar cortex toxicity in adult Wistar rats, Abstract .... Vol 14, No 2 (2015), Histopathological effects of acetaminophen ... extracts of Garcinia Kola on acetaminophen-Induced liver injury in ...

  4. Contribution à l'identification des champignons de post-récolte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases not yet identified which are responsible of high post-harvest losses. ... Keywords: Kernels, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Garcinia kola, post-harvest, fungi, isolation frequency .... coloration rose. ..... Processing and Packaging Materials on.

  5. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 18, No 3 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Kolaviron (a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. GF Ibironke, AA Fasanmade, 217-223 ...

  6. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  7. The response of tundra springtails (Collembola, Hexapoda) to human activity on the Murman coast of the Kola Penisula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Izabella; Boniecki, Paweł; Kaliszewicz, Anita; Panteleeva, Ninel

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out in the Dalne Zelentsy settlement (69°07‧N, 36°03‧E) on the Barents Sea of the Kola Penisula in Russia. Three transects were established: the 'new garden transect'; the 'old garden transect'; and the 'settlement transect'. Overall, the number of springtails increased with distance from the 'settlement' and decreased from the 'old garden' towards the tundra. However, in the case of the 'new garden transect' there were no clear trends in springtail abundance. Eleven species of springtail were found, with Parisotoma notabilis being found at each of the studied areas along the transects. Trends in the species diversity of the springtail communities were not clear, and the values of H‧ ranged from 1.36 to 2.08. The springtail communities located 10 m from the 'new garden' and the 'old garden' were characterized by low species diversity compared with the other sites along the transects (H‧ values of 1.36 and 1.67, respectively). There were no differences in species diversity among the springtail communities along the 'settlement transect'.

  8. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Su; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2017-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene). Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs]) with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs]) had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (−18.92 to −34.77 mV) suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of gold or silver salts to their corresponding nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity (based on a water-soluble tetrazolium assay) demonstrated that GM-AgNPs were toxic to both A549 (a human lung

  9. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  10. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  11. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  12. Monitoring of Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Impact Zone of Copper-Nickel Smelter on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The results of landscape monitoring of the concentrations of acid-extractable Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in soils of the local impact zone of the Severonikel industrial complex on the Kola Peninsula are discussed. The aim of monitoring studies was to reveal the spatial and temporal regularities of variation in the degree of soil contamination by heavy metals. In 2001-2011, the concentrations of acid-extractable compounds of the elements in the upper part of organic soil horizons around this plant exceeded their background concentrations by two orders of magnitude for Cu and Co and by three orders of magnitude for Ni. The degree of topsoil contamination with Ni, Cu, and Co generally corresponded to the distance of the plots from the contamination source and to the modern technogenic load. However, because of the long period of the emissions, their extreme amounts, and complex composition, indirect factors—the degree of technogenic soil degradation, the loss of soil organic matter, saturation of the surface soil layers by the contaminating metals, and competitive relationships between the elements—also affect soil contamination level. The concentrations of all the studied metals in the topsoil are characterized by considerable (1.5 to 7 times) variability in their long-term dynamics. The most important factors of this variability for Ni, Cu, and Co are the organic matter content of the samples and the amount of atmospheric precipitation in the year preceding the sampling. An inverse relationship between element concentrations in the soils and the amount of atmospheric precipitation attests to the dynamic nature and reversible character of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils.

  13. Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Wright, S.M.; Salbu, B.; Skuterud, K.L.; Hove, K.; Loe, R.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in radiocaesium and 90 Sr doses to two population groups of the two Northernmost counties of Norway, Troms and Finnmark, following a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear power plant (KNPP) have been estimated using a model implemented within a geographical information system. The hypothetical accident assumes a severe loss of coolant accident at the KNPP coincident with meteorological conditions causing significant radionuclide deposition in the two counties. External doses are estimated from ground deposition and the behaviour of the different population groups, and internal doses from predicted food product activity concentrations and dietary consumption data. Doses are predicted for reindeer keepers and other Norwegian inhabitants, taking account of existing 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition but not including the remedial effect of any countermeasures that might be used. The predicted doses, arising mainly from radiocaesium, confirm the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme assessment that residents of the Arctic are particularly vulnerable to radiocaesium contamination, which could persist for many years. External doses are predicted to be negligible compared to ingestion doses. Ingestion doses for reindeer keepers are predicted to exceed 1 mSv y -1 for several decades primarily due to their high consumption of reindeer meat. Other Norwegians would also be potentially exposed to doses exceeding 1 mSv y -1 for several years, especially if they consume many local products. Whilst reindeer production is the most important exposure pathway, freshwater fish, lamb meat, dairy products, mushrooms and berries are also significant contributors to predicted ingestion doses. Radionuclide fluxes, defined as the total output of radioactivity in food from an area for a unit time, are dominated by reindeer meat. The results show the need for an effective emergency response, with appropriate countermeasures, should an accident of the

  14. Alteration of podzolized tills by acid load near Ni-Cu smelters at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räisänen, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogy and geochemistry of podzolized tills was studied in the area of dieback forest near the Ni-Cu smelters at Monchegorsk, and less extensively forest damage near by Apatity and Kirovsk in the Russian Kola Peninsula. The abundances of main elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na in the <64 μm fraction were determined by the hot aqua regia digestion method and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. The clay mineralogy of the silt plus clay fraction was examined by X-ray diffraction after selective extraction and heating treatments. At all study sites, trioctahedral mica and chlorite were totally weathered from the silt and clay fraction (<64 μm of the eluvial layer, leaving behind interstratified mica-vermiculite-smectite clays. In general, the mixed-layer clay of the eluvial layer had low levels of hydroxy interlayering. Illuviated layers were characterized by hydroxy interlayered vermiculite-chlorite. The abundance of chlorite and mica was greater, and the degree of interlayering lower, in parent tills than in the overlying illuviated layers. Regardless of differences in bedrock and till geochemistry, the weathering sequence throughout the podzolized till profile was coherent at most of the sampling sites. Exceptionally, in a few profiles sampled at the totally destroyed forest site, the swelling mixed-layer clay of the eluvial layer displayed a neochloritized structure. On the basis of XRD patterns and geochemistry of the samples, it was inferred that a short-term decomposition of plagioclase had promoted, via inputs of Al-hydroxides, the transformation of mica-vermiculite-smectite to a poorly crystalline interstratification of chlorite-aluminous montmorillonite. The accelerated weathering occurring occasionally in exposed places was probably activated by the strongly acidic load in the vicinity of the smelters and the city of Monchegorsk.

  15. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ 2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  16. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Houmsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter, and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity. Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p=0.000. Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p=0.000, rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p=0.000, and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p=0.000 were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area.

  17. Effect of pre-germination treatments on the dormancy breaking and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for bitter kola (Garcinia kola) is high in Nigeria market but the population of the species is low both in the wild and home gardens. Rapid deforestation, heavy exploitation in the natural forest and difficulties associated with its germination occasioned by seed dormancy have been blamed. The study on ...

  18. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resuki

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of.

  19. Yakubu and Quadri Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male ...

  20. Climatic response of stable isotope variations in wood cellulose of pine (Pinus sylvestris l.) and their tree-ring width on the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, T.; Hiller, A.; Gehre, M.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula region of northwestern Russia, adjacent to relatively well studied Scandinavian areas, is climatically affected by not only the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic but also the Eurasian continent. Living and subfossil pine trees from the Khibiny mountains on the Kola Peninsula were analysed for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition and for tree-ring width. Comparisons of local meteorological and tree-ring data revealed significant correlations. δ 13 C and δ 18 O values are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature in July and August and to precipitation in the winter months of the previous year, respectively. On average, 13 C in the cellulose of pine trees between c. 1000 and 1300 AD is enriched by δ values of around 1 per mille compared to the modern trees from this region. This indicates a distinctly warmer summer climate at that time (the Medieval Warm epoch in Europe) than recently observed. The δ 18 O values of wood cellulose and the δ 2 H values of non-exchangeable hydrogen of tree cellulose from both fossil and modern samples cover a wide range between around 22 and 29 per mille and between about -80 and -120 per mille vs. SMOW, respectively. This suggests variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation at that time, assuming its source has remained the same as in the past. (author)

  1. Genesis of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites of the Petyayan-vara rare-earth occurrence (Vuoriyarvi, the Kola Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov E. N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites ("titanium carbonatites" associated with the rare earth carbonatites of the Petyayan-Vara area of the Vuoriyarvi complex (the Kola region. In this paper, the following mechanism for the formation of these rocks has been substantiated based on the agreed results of mineralogical and geochemical studies. Prior to the onset of carbonatite genesis, a fluorine-enriched fluid phase originated in the lower horizons of the complex passed along the deep-permeating fracture system of several hundred meters length up to the level of the modern erosion surface. It transported Al, Fe2+, Mg, Ti, P into the pyroxenites and Si, Ca and Na out of them, as a result of which the pyroxenites were transformed into giant-grained phlogopite rocks – glimmerites. The most probable source of this fluid is alkaline aluminosilicate magma. Then carbonate melts intruded along the same fractures. In the course of carbonatite genesis, F-fluid caused a local migration of K, Al, Si, Fe, P, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and HREE out of glimmerites into igneous dolomite carbonatites, which led to the formation of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites. They represent several paragenetic associations superimposed on each other, the mineral composition and the formation sequence of which correspond to the metasomatic column zones directly observed within the contact "carbonatite – altered pyroxenite". The separation of HFSE and REE is controlled by the same metasomatic column: Ti, Nb and Ta were accumulated in titanium carbonatites, i. e. in associations of the frontal and intermediate zones, and Zr, Hf and HREE – in apatitized fields corresponding to the rear zone of the column. Accordingly, the fractionation of these elements occurred due to the "fluid – rock" interaction. Subsequently, the same long-lived fractures served as a channel for REE-Sr-Ba-S fluids, but the recrystallization caused by K

  2. Assessing the Effect of Salinity on an Irrigated Land at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buba Apagu ANKIDAWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of salinity on an irrigated land was carried out at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government of Taraba State. The study area was divided into four (4 units designated as A, B, C and D, each unit was subdivided into five (5 parts, designated as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, respectively, made up of twenty (20 soil samples that were collected within the irrigated land for the laboratory analysis of salinity. The parameters analyzed were pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Hydrogen and Aluminum concentration. The results of the soil sample analysis shows that the mean value of pH is 5.99 which indicates that the soil is slightly acidic, the mean value of electrical conductivity (EC is 0.76 ds/m, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum and Hydrogen concentration were obtained to be 11.29, 7.89, 7.98 and 16.88 mg/l respectively, while Sodium and Potassium concentration were obtained to be 0.90 and 0.67 mg/l respectively with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.25 mEq/l. From the analysis it indicates that the soil is low in salinity. Similarly for water sample analysis the pH is 7.7 which indicate that the water is slightly alkaline, EC is 0.8 ds/m, calcium and magnesium concentration were 0.48 and 0.35 mg/l, while sodium and potassium were 0.57 and 0.71 mg/l respectively, with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.89 meq/l, which shows that the water sample were found within the safe limit for irrigation. It can be recommended that application of good quality water, choice of salt tolerant crops and gypsum be adopted in the study area.

  3. Relationship of Technological Properties with Dynamic Recrystallization of Quartz on the Example of Objects of the Karelian-Kola Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnitskaya, Lubov; Rakov, Leonid; Bubnova, Tatyana; Shchiptsov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    account the staged dynamic dynamical recrystallization of quartz in natural conditions. This factor can play both a positive and a negative role at various stages of mineral formation. Its influence is reflected in the state of the crystal structure of quartz, which should be taken into account when developing effective technologies for its enrichment. The intermediate stage of dynamic recrystallization corresponding to the end of the second stage-the beginning of the third stage of quartz recrystallization-is optimal for the formation of high-purity quartz. When choosing a site for the first-stage quartz mining at large deposits in the Karelian-Kola region, one should be guided by the stage of dynamic recrystallization.

  4. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  5. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-11-01

    As a result, five clades come out from phylogenetic reconstruction and in phylogenetic tree Barbus lacerta determined to be sister group of Barbus macedonicus, Barbus oligolepis and Barbus plebejus complex.

  6. Combination of Garcinia cambogia Extract and Pear Pomace Extract Additively Suppresses Adipogenesis and Enhances Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kushal; Kang, Siwon; Gong, Dalseong; Oh, Sung-Hwa; Park, Eun-Young; Oak, Min-Ho; Yi, Eunyoung

    2018-01-01

    Inhibition of adipogenesis has been a therapeutic target for reducing obesity and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. For decades, anti-adipogenic potential of many herbal extracts has been investigated. One example is Garcinia cambogia extract (GE) containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid as an active ingredient. GE is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, used alone or with other ingredients. Pear pomace extract (PE), another natural product, has been also shown to have anti-adipogenic activity in a recent report. It was tested if the mixture of PE and GE (MIX) would produce more effective anti-adipogenic activity than PE or GE alone. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was induced by adding insulin, dexamethasone, and isobutylmethylxanthine and lipid accumulation was measured by Oil Red O staining. Cellular markers for adipogenesis and lipolysis such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was measured using immunocytochemistry. MIX, compared to PE or GE alone, showed greater inhibition of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, MIX reduced the expression of adipogenesis-related factors C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and FAS more than PE or GE alone did. In contrast, the expression of HSL the enzyme required for lipolysis was further enhanced in MIX-treated adipocytes compared to the PE or GE alone treated groups. Anti-adipogenic effect of PE and GE appears synergistic, and the MIX may be a useful therapeutic combination for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PE and GE efficiently inhibited adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of adipogenic transcription factor CEBP-α and PPAR-γ.PE and GE significantly decreased the expression of adipogenic enzyme FAS.PE and GE increased the expression of lipid degrading enzyme HSL.Mixture of PE and GE exhibited additive or

  7. Main results on pilot operation during 5 years of the 3rd generation fuel in VVER-440 reactors of Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, V.; Sumarokov, M.; Gagarinskiy, A.; Sumarokova, A.; Adeev, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the report the results of comparison of main neutron-physical data of exploitation of nuclear fuel are presented for the average enrichment (on U - 235) of 4.87 for the 2nd and 3rd (12 piece) generations with the results of calculations by the complex of the programs KASKAD for 5 fuel loadings of Kola NPP Unit 4 with the reactor VVER- 440. The basic feature of fuel of the 3rd generation as compared with the 2nd is a presence of ribs of inflexibility at corners instead of cover of the fuel assembly and also the increased amount of uranium. The arrangement of fuel rods with different enrichment in fuel assemblies of the 2nd and 3rd generations is chosen identical for the convenient comparison of neutronic and thermohydraulic characteristics of the fuel of different generations. The fuel of 3rd generation was situated in the core symmetrically to the fuel of 2nd one

  8. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The intensive use of fossil fuels and industrial development in last century led to the formation of acid rain and water acidification. The problem of water acidification greatly was denoted in the middle of last century in North America and in Europe as a result of air emissions of acid gases, primarily sulfur dioxide. The process of water acidification due to the interaction of two factors: 1) the high deposition of acidifying substances, taking into account the duration of exposure; 2) the sensitivity of the natural catchment area of geological, landscape, geographic and climatic characteristics (Moiseenko, 2005). The effects of acid rains on metal migration and cycling were discussed in a number of previous studies (Jeffries, 1997; Moiseenko, 1999; Manio, 2001; Moiseenko, Gashkina, 2007). The distribution of elements in water lakes has been mixed and due to the change of geochemical cycles of elements occurring in the catchment area and in water. On the Kola Peninsula as a result of long-term operation of the copper-nickel smelter was the anthropogenic acidification and water pollution metals. Increased contents of elements due to the combined effect of three factors: 1) landscape-geochemical characteristics of watersheds; 2) dispersion with flue emissions; 3) leaching elements and bonding of metals with organic matter, especially in forested watersheds and wetlands. This region is subject to long-term effects of mining and smelting industries, and therefore difficult to find of water bodies, which can serve as a background lakes. It is proved that manmade acid rain lead to leach into the water of a large group of elements entering the water as a result of man-made streams, as well as the elements that consist of the rocks forming the watersheds. In order to identify the relationships between the components of the elemental composition of the water in the lake was made a factor analysis using a computer program «STATISTICA 10". Factor analysis revealed the

  9. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of asam gelugur (Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders) based on morphological characters in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai, Sumatera Utara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, E. S.; Lestami, A.; Kardhinata, E. H.; Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia atroviridis plant is a commodity that has the potential to become an export commodity in Sumatera Utara. Characterization is an activity in germplasm to determine the morphological properties that can be utilized in differentiating between accessions and assessing the magnitude of genetic diversity. The magnitude of genetic diversity based on morphological properties can support breeding programs. The research was conducted in several areas of G. atroviridis plant, i.e. Gebang, Bahorok, Padang Tualang, Pegajahan, Sei Rampah, Pantai Cermin, and Perbaungan sub-districts in September 2016 with direct observation method. The aim of this research is to explore and characterization between G. atroviridis plant in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai. Parameters morphology characters were observed based on IPGRI, and observation data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21 to obtain the dendogram. The dendogram results showed that there are four groups of kinship relationships on the scale of the spacing (euclidean distance scale) 17. The lowest unequal value (closest kinship) in accessions G3(Bahorok) and G7(Sei Rampah) is 16.328 while the highest value of inequality (farthest kinship) in G5( Padang Tualang) and G6 (Pegajahan) is equal to 54.187. It needs the conservation of G. atroviridis although must be done next observation.

  11. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  12. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Jeong, Tae-Sook; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-09-21

    Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  13. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Breakthrough Curve Analysis for Column Dynamics Sorption of Mn(II Ions from Wastewater by Using Mangostana garcinia Peel-Based Granular-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, feed flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min, and activated carbon bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption system were determined. The adsorption data were fitted with well-established column models, namely, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart. The results were best-fitted with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models rather than Adams-Bohart model for all conditions. The column had been regenerated and reused consecutively for five cycles. The results demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Mn(II ions from wastewater using batch as well as fixed bed sorption system.

  15. BATCH AND FIXED BED ADSORPTION STUDIES OF LEAD (II CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM MANGOSTANA GARCINIA SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC derived from Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit shell to remove lead, Pb2+ cations was investigated in batch and fixed bed sorption systems. Batch experiments were carried out to study equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics by using an initial lead (Pb2+ ions concentration of 50 to 100 mg/L at pH 5.5. Equilibrium data were fitted using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin linear equation models at temperatures 30°C, 50°C, and 70°C. Langmuir maximum monolayer sorption capacity was 25.00 mg/g at 30°C. The experimental data were best represented by pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. The sorption process was found to be feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. In column experiments, the effects of initial cation concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm, and flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min on the breakthrough characteristics were evaluated. Breakthrough curves were further analyzed by using Thomas and Yoon Nelson models to study column dynamics. The column was regenerated and reused consecutively for four cycles. The result demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Pb2+ from synthetic aqueous solution using batch, as well as fixed bed sorption systems.

  16. Acute Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) supplementation does not alleviate physical fatigue during exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Zung; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Tseng, Yi-Chun; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-01-01

    The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the "queen of fruit," is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out by 12 healthy adults. The participants were randomly assigned to receive acute oral administration of either 250 mL of the mangosteen-based juice (supplementation treatment; 305 mg of α-mangostin and 278 mg of hydroxycitric acid) or a placebo (control treatment) 1 h before cycle ergometer exercise. Time to exhaustion, heart rate, Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion score, blood biochemical markers (namely ammonia, cortisol, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and lactate), muscle dynamic stiffness, and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were evaluated and recorded. The results showed all parameters we examined were significantly altered by the exercise challenge, which demonstrated they directly reflected the condition of fatigue. However, there were no differences between the two treatments besides a positive impact on the POMS examination. The occurrence of physical fatigue depends on multiple underlying mechanisms. We concluded that acute mangosteen supplementation had no impact on alleviating physical fatigue during exercise.

  17. Plant-mediated green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Garcinia gummi-gutta seed extract: Photoluminescence, screening of their catalytic activity in antioxidant, formylation and biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, M.; Yatish, K. V.; Lalithamba, H. S.

    2017-08-01

    The green synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared by treatment of zinc nitrate with an extract of Garcinia gummi-gutta seed by the combustion method. The ZnO NPs were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared ZnO NPs were evaluated for photoluminescence (PL), antioxidant properties and also utilized as a catalyst for the formylation of aromatic amines and biodiesel production. The study reveals that the reaction is simple, mild and environmental friendly. Furthermore, the reaction results in excellent yield of products.

  18. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    most intense free gas emission. The technical possibilities that are offered by Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the geomorphological investigation of inhospitable and inaccessible mountain areas Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are valuable tools for approximation of the real world's continuous surface. They allow a visual analysis of the earth's surface morphology, quanti?cation of sediment volumes and the calculation of topographic derivatives such as the slope gradient, slope aspect and pro?le curvature that consume ?eld investigations and optimize time The project has been sponsored by programmm Presidium of RAS P44. Reference Ivanyuk G, Kalashnikov A, Mikhailova J, Konoplyova N, Goryainov P, Yakovenchuk V, Pakhomovsky Y. Self-Organization of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). In Earth Sciences, Dr. Imran Ahmad Dar(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-861-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earth-sciences/self-organization-of-the-khibiny-alkaline -massif -kolapeninsula-russia INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012, Head7, P.131-156.

  19. The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid and gamma irradiation on the gross plantlet morphology of Garcinia mangostana L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsol, Ma. Fatima Nona M.; Lasiste, Jade Marie Edenvirg F.; Quinio, Ma. Franchesca S.

    2004-02-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is regarded as one of the best flavored fruits in the world. Though this fruit yields high income and has great potential as an export, productivity in the Philippines is still limited due to its slow and difficult conventional propagation. To increase the plants' productivity, growth regulators can be added, the seeds can be exposed to irradiation to cause genetic mutations, and micropropagation techniques can be used. This study seeks to determine the effects of these three variables on the general morphological characteristics of the plantlets grown both in vitro and in vivo. The first set of mangosteen seeds was inoculated and grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium with different treatment combinations of growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Treatment concentrations ranged from 0 parts per million (ppm) to 6 ppm. The treatment that best induced stem, leaf and root formation, and produced plantlets with long stems and roots was MS with 6 ppm NAA combined with 6 ppm BA. A second set of seeds was then exposed to varying levels of gamma radiation and propagated in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo, it was observed that the length of stem of the plantlet decreases with increasing radiation dose; length of leaves of the mangosteen plantlets was best noted in seeds exposed to 10 Gy gamma rays. In in vitro, the two treatment concentrations that best helped seeds to develop callus, which were 0 ppm BA with 4 pmm NAA and 4 ppm BA with 6 ppm NAA, were added to MS basal medium. Seeds exposed to 5 Gy and grown in basal medium with 0 ppm BA and 4 ppm NAA were observed to have developed the most callus. (Author)

  20. Crystal Chemistry of Pyroaurite from the Kovdor Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia, and the Långban Fe-Mn deposit, Värmland, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, E. S.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyroaurite [Mg6Fe2 3+ (OH)16][(CO3)(H2O)] from the Kovdor Pluton on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and the Långban deposit in Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden were studied with single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, an electron microprobe, and Raman spectroscopy. Both samples are rhombohedral, space group R3̅ m, a = 3.126(3), c = 23.52(2) Å (Kovdor), and a = 3.1007(9), c = 23.34(1) (Långban). The powder XRD revealed only the 3 R polytype. The ratio of di- and trivalent cations M 2+: M 3+ was determined as 3.1-3.2 (Kovdor) and 3.0 (Långban). The Raman spectroscopy of the Kovdor sample verified hydroxyl groups and/or water molecules in the mineral (absorption bands in the region of 3600-3500 cm-1) and carbonate groups (absorption bands in the region of 1346-1058 cm-1). Based on the data obtained, the studied samples should be identified as pyroaurite-3 R (hydrotalcite group).

  1. Morphological and ecological variation of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta and Picea abies sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaitera, Juha; Seitamaeki, Leena; Jalkanen, Risto [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Rovaniemi (Finland). Rovaniemi Research Station

    2000-07-01

    The morphological and ecological variation of two types of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina causing scleroderris canker on conifers was investigated in Pinus spp. and Picea sp. sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula. Small-tree type (STT or B type) of G. abietina was detected alone in 13 Scots pine, three lodgepole pine and two Norway spruce sapling stands out of 26 stands investigated, both STT and large-tree type (LTT or A type) were observed in six Scots pine stands, and LTT was detected alone in two Scots pine stands. For the first time, G. abietina was found to injure Norway spruce saplings in a respective plantation in northern Fennoscandia. STT isolates produced statistically significantly more conidia in vitro than LTT isolates. Morphological variation in conidia septation revealed that STT produced conidia with more than five septa more frequently than did LTT. There was a greater range in variation in septation in STT than in LTT, with overlapping between the types. Isolates of both types were equally associated with cankers, coloured wood, pycnidia or apothecia in the infected saplings.

  2. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  3. Growing season changes in Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula during the period 1982 to 1999 - Implications for reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

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    Hans Tømmervik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and particularly variations in air temperature have significant impacts on the growth rhythm of plants where these occur at the limits of their natural distribution range, especially at northern latitudes. Our study area, Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula, is characterized by large regional climatic differences from south to north, from west to east, and from lowland to mountains. Accordingly, the region is well suited for looking for evidence of climatic change and studying regional differences in the response of such change. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reports that the projected warming in northern Europe is greater than for many other regions of the world. Therefore major physical and ecological changes are expected. On land, there will be a tendency for shifts in major biomes such as tundra and boreal forest. Permafrost will decline, trees and shrubs will encroach northern tundra, and broad-leaved trees may encroach coniferous forests. Net primary productivity in ecosystems is likely to increase. The temperature level at the end of the 20th century is ca. 0.5 oC higher than in the 1930 for the Northern hemisphere (IPCC and World Meteorological Organization. Other studies show that in the period 1890-1999, the increase in temperature over Fennoscandia varies between 0.02 (Karasjok and 0.1 oC decade-1 (Helsinki, and they also showed that at several stations within the area the spring temperatures have increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Most stations experienced low spring temperatures in the beginning of the century, and rather high temperatures around 1950. At present, the winter temperature levels are considerably higher than in the rest of the period. However, at northern stations the winter temperatures were higher in the 1930s than at present. Phenological registrations have been used word-wide to look for possible effects of climate change, but within Fennoscandia the problem is that

  4. Development and Validation of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Determination of α-Mangostin in Fruit Pericarp of Mangosteen Plant (Garcinia mangostana L. using Ultraviolet – Visible Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and precise quantitative high performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. (Hypericaceae. Best solvent for extraction of a-mangostin optimized after screening with five solvents under same conditions using hot solid-liquid extraction through soxhlet apparatus. Methanol and chloroform gave highest and second highest recovery of a-mangostin, respectively. Plates were developed in chloroform-methanol in the ratio of 27-3 (v/v. Post-chromatographic derivatization performed using anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and scanned at 382 nm in ultraviolet-visible mode. The developed method was found to be linear in the range 1.0 to 5.0 mg spot-1, limits of detection and quantitation were 150 and 450 ng spot-1. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, specificity and robustness.

  5. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Number and Structure of the Complexes of Microscopic Fungi in Tundra and Taiga Soils in the North of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneikova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The number, biomass, length of fungal mycelium, and species diversity of microscopic fungi have been studied in soils of the tundra and taiga zones in the northern part of the Kola Peninsula: Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Podzols), podburs (Entic Podzols), dry peaty soils (Folic Histosols), low-moor peat soils (Sapric Histosols), and soils of frost bare spots (Cryosols). The number of cultivated microscopic fungi in tundra soils varied from 8 to 328 thousand CFU/g, their biomass averaged 1.81 ± 0.19 mg/g, and the length of fungal mycelium averaged 245 ± 25 m/g. The number of micromycetes in taiga soils varied from 80 to 350 thousand CFU/g, the number of fungal propagules in some years reached 600 thousand CFU/g; the fungal biomass varied from 0.23 to 6.2 mg/g, and the length of fungal mycelium varied from 32 to 3900 m/g. Overall, 36 species of fungi belonging to 16 genera, 13 families, and 8 orders were isolated from tundra soils. The species diversity of microscopic fungi in taiga soils was significantly higher: 87 species belonging to 31 genera, 21 families, and 11 orders. Fungi from the Penicillium genus predominated in both natural zones and constituted 38-50% of the total number of isolated species. The soils of tundra and taiga zones were characterized by their own complexes of micromycetes; the similarity of their species composition was about 40%. In soils of the tundra zone, Mortierella longicollis, Penicillium melinii, P. raistrickii, and P. simplicissimum predominated; dominant fungal species in soils of the taiga zone were represented by M. longicollis, P. decumbens, P. implicatum, and Umbelopsis isabellina.

  7. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  8. Caracterización fitoquímica de una fracción de biflavonoides de garcinia madruno: su inhibición de la oxidación de ldl humana y su mecanismo de estabilización de especies radicalarias

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Montoya Pelaez Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    A una fracción biflavonoide (FB) caracterizada fitoquímicamente de Garcinia madruno (Clusiaceae), se le evalúa su potencial inhibitorio de la oxidación de LDL y su capacidad estabilizadora de especies radicalarias, correlacionando dichas actividades con su contenido en biflavonoides. Los biflavonoides morelloflavona, volkensiflavona y amentoflavona se identifican a partir de la FB. El extracto que contiene la FB (extracto AcOEt) se determina como el principal factor involucrado en la activida...

  9. Tinnunculite, C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O: Occurrences on the Kola Peninsula and Redefinition and Validation as a Mineral Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I. S.; Zubkova, N. V.; Shcherbakova, E. P.; Britvin, S. N.; Chervonnyi, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a study of samples found in the Khibiny (Mt. Rasvumchorr: the holotype) and Lovozero (Mts Alluaiv and Vavnbed) alkaline complexes on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, tinnunculite was approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification as a valid mineral species (IMA no. 2015-02la) and, taking into account a revisory examination of the original material from burnt dumps of coal mines in the southern Urals, it was redefined as crystalline uric acid dihydrate (UAD), C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O. Tinnunculite is poultry manure mineralized in biogeochemical systems, which could be defined as "guano microdeposits." The mineral occurs as prismatic or tabular crystals up to 0.01 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size and clusters of them, as well as crystalline or microglobular crusts. Tinnunculite is transparent or translucent, colorless, white, yellowish, reddish or pale lilac. Crystals show vitreous luster. The mineral is soft and brittle, with a distinct (010) cleavage. D calc = 1.68 g/cm3 (holotype). Tinnunculite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.503(3), β = 1.712(3), γ = 1.74(1), 2 V obs = 40(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of the holotype sample (electron microprobe data, content of H is calculated by UAD stoichiometry) is as follows, wt %: 37.5 O, 28.4 C, 27.0 N, 3.8 Hcalc, total 96.7. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (C + N+ O) = 14 apfu is: C4.99H8N4.07O4.94. Tinnunculite is monoclinic, space group (by analogy with synthetic UAD) P21/ c. The unit cell parameters of the holotype sample (single crystal XRD data) are a = 7.37(4), b = 6.326(16), c = 17.59(4) Å, β = 90(1)°, V = 820(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the XRD pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are 8.82-84[002], 5.97-15[011], 5.63-24[102̅, 102], 4.22-22[112], 3.24-27[114̅,114], 3.18-100[210], 3.12-44[211̅, 211], 2.576-14[024].

  10. Raíz secundaria embrional asociada a la germinación de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae y su posible papel en la supervivencia de las plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En pruebas preliminares de germinación con semillas de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae se observó que ésta producía dos tipos de raíces: la primaria y una secundaria embrional que atraviesa longitudinalmente la semilla. Para determinar su posible papel en la supervivencia y crecimiento de esta especie, se analizaron 90 plántulas con al menos seis meses de germinadas en bolsas plásticas con suelo orgánico ubicadas en un invernadero, a las que se les aplicó uno de los siguientes tratamientos: corte de la raíz primaria o la secundaria embrional, además de un grupo control con ambas raíces (30 repeticiones de cada uno. Luego de tres meses se empezaron a extraer 10 plántulas/mes/tratamiento a los que se les midió la altura total, diámetro basal, longitud de la raíz primaria y secundaria, y la biomasa del vástago, raíz y semilla sin la cubierta seminal. Las plántulas que obtuvieron el mayor crecimiento fueron las del control, seguidas por aquéllas sin la raíz secundaria. Sin embargo, más del 90% de las plántulas a las que se les cortó la raíz primaria, sobrevivieron después de cinco meses de haberse aplicado el tratamiento, en parte debido a una muy alta capacidad de recuperación de su sistema radical, ya sea produciendo rebrotes de la principal (20%, aumentando el crecimiento de la raíz secundaria (13.3%, o ambos (26.7%, y a las reservas de la semilla. La longitud de los rebrotes de la raíz principal fue estadísticamente significativa en las primeras dos extracciones mensuales de plantas, comparado con las del control (F6= 18.6, F7= 16.0, pSecondary embryonary root associated with seed germination in Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae and its possible role in seedling survival. Germination tests on Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae seeds showed the growth of two types of roots: additionally to the primary root, a secondary root crosses the seed lengthwise. To determine its possible role on the survival and growth of this

  11. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    treatment of gastroenteritis, enteric fever, uretritis, and wound infections associated with the test bacteria. REFERENCES. Adaramoye OA, VO Nwaneri , KC Anyanwu , EO. Farombi and GO Emerole (2005). Possible anti- atherogenic effect of kolaviron (a Garcinia kola seed extract) in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin Exp ...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  13. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical hop substitute from utazi (UTZ) Gongronema latifolium, bitter cola (BTC), Garcinia kola, bitter leaf (BTL), Vernonia amygdalina and a blend (1:1.41:2.89) of the three (HSB) respectively, were produced. Stability studies were carried out to predict their suitability for brewing after one to six months storage at 5 ± 1oC ...

  14. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALLSWELL

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda,. Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park.

  15. The evaluation of selected ghanaian medicinal plants for cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Adenia lobata root, Clerodendrum capitatum leaves, Garcinia kola stem bark, Plumbago zeylanica leaves and Vernonia conferta root, showed relatively low cytotoxic activities while extracts of Ficus asperifolia leaves, Paullinia pinnata root and Thonningia sanguinea root exhibited moderate activity (IC50 values ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ethanol Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizome on Neurobehavioural Activities in Stressed Rats Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 3 (2015) - Articles Analgesic and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Kolaviron (a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-5096. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda, Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park. The seeds were ...

  18. Phytochemical screening and mineral composition of chewing sticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of the stems of Garcinia kola, Dennettia tripetala, Acioa barteri, Dialium guineense, Maesobotrya barteri, Mallotus oppositifolius and Psidium guajava which are commonly used as chewing sticks in southern Nigeria revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins, tannins, ...

  19. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy - Vol 11, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological evaluatin of the hepatoprotective activity of stem bark extracts of Garcinia Kola on acetaminophen-Induced liver injury in rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AA Ngokere, NJC Okolie, AC Okeke, JC Nwachukwu, CI Ikegwuonu, N Ibe ...

  20. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  1. studies on the effects of botanical extracts on the mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONYEKE CC

    1Department of Botany, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2Department of Crop Science, University of. Nigeria, Nsukka. (Received 24.2.11, Accepted 17.6.11). Abstract. The effects of crude ethanolic plant extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and Nauclea latifolia root on mycelial growth of seed-borne fungi of African yam bean at ...

  2. Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Microbial Spoilage of Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extracts of seven plant sources on the microbial spoilage of Cajanus cajan extract was investigated. The results showed that the extracts obtained from Aloe vera, bitter leaf, Gultiferae (garcinia or bitter kola), Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) and Zingiber officialae (ginger) were effective against ...

  3. Combination with Tadalafil reduces the aphrodisiac activity of Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behavioural parameters of mount latency, mount frequency, genital grooming, anogenital sniffing, and chasing of female animals were recorded in male rats (one hour after administration of extract) by their interaction with a receptive female (1:1) for an observatory period of 1 hour. Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola ...

  4. 33_198 - 203 -Nas et al.,_PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolic compoun. (Cowan, 1999). ... actericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranges from 12.5 cts. ... l activity, Garcinia kola, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aure lants lie in ..... antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic and anti-hepatotoxic activities ... beer brewing. World.

  5. African Health Sciences - Vol 12, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola seeds, in Wistar rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OA Adaramoye, 498-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v12i4.16 ...

  6. Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats has been established. Objectives: To evaluate the possible protective effects of KV on cardiac, renal and hepatic tissues of STZ-diabetic rats. Methods: This study consists of four groups of 6 rats each.

  7. Chromatographic characterisation, in vitro antioxidant and free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic analysis of the ME4 fraction revealed the presence of four compounds namely garcinia biflavonoids GB1 and GB2, garcinal and garcinoic acid. These findings show that these four compounds are partly responsible for the great antioxidant potential of G. kola seeds.

  8. Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.

    2010-03-01

    The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

  9. Garcinia mangostana Linn displays antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects in a genetic animal model of depression: a bio-behavioral study in the Flinders Sensitive Line rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Inge; Möller, Marisa; Holland, Brendan; Dean, Olivia M; Berk, Michael; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-04-01

    There is abundant evidence for both disorganized redox balance and cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). Garcinia mangostana Linn (GM) has anti-oxidant activity. We studied the antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects of raw GM rind in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, following acute and chronic treatment compared to a reference antidepressant, imipramine (IMI). The chemical composition of the GM extract was analysed for levels of α- and γ-mangostin. The acute dose-dependent effects of GM (50, 150 and 200 mg/kg po), IMI (20 mg/kg po) and vehicle were determined in the forced swim test (FST) in FSL rats, versus Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. Locomotor testing was conducted using the open field test (OFT). Using the most effective dose above coupled with behavioral testing in the FST and cognitive assessment in the novel object recognition test (nORT), a fixed dose 14-day treatment study of GM was performed and compared to IMI- (20 mg/kg/day) and vehicle-treated animals. Chronic treated animals were also assessed with respect to frontal cortex and hippocampal monoamine levels and accumulation of malondialdehyde. FSL rats showed significant cognitive deficits and depressive-like behavior, with disordered cortico-hippocampal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and noradrenaline (NA), as well as elevated hippocampal lipid peroxidation. Acute and chronic IMI treatment evoked pronounced antidepressant-like effects. Raw GM extract contained 117 mg/g and 11 mg/g α- and γ-mangostin, respectively, with acute GM demonstrating antidepressant-like effects at 50 mg/kg/day. Chronic GM (50 mg/kg/d) displayed significant antidepressant- and pro-cognitive effects, while demonstrating parity with IMI. Both behavioral and monoamine assessments suggest a more prominent serotonergic action for GM as opposed to a noradrenergic action for IMI, while both IMI and GM reversed hippocampal lipid peroxidation in

  10. A. Vessel for pressure generation, B. Battery of the electrical heater P=30kW, Project of the main loop for irradiation of enriched UO{sub 2}, Zad. E-14-37-00-29, Vol. IV; A. Sud za generaciju pritiska; B. Baterija el. grejaca snage P=30kW, Projekat glavnog kola petlje za ozracivanje obogacenog UO{sub 2}, Zad. E-14-37-00-29, Album IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasijevic, P; Pavlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za eksploataciju reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1968-11-15

    Vessel for pressure generation and the 30kW battery of the electrical heater belong to the Project of the main loop for irradiation of enriched UO{sub 2}. These two components of the irradiation loop are designed to attain and maintain the pressure and temperature of the cooling fluid. This report includes the description of the construction of the vessel for pressure generation and the battery of the electrical heater, control mechanical and electric calculations, needed tests, materials specifications, and overall and detailed engineering drawings. Sud za generaciju pritiska i baterija el. grejaca snage P=30kW pripadaju projektu glavnog kola petlje za ozracivanje obogacenog UO{sub 2}. Ova dva elementa glavnog kola petlje omogucavaju i odrzavaju pritisak i temperaturu rashadnog fluida. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi opis konstrukcije suda za generaciju pritiska i baterije elektricnog grejaca, kontrolne mehanicke i elektricne proracune, zahtevana ispitivanja, specifikaciju materijala, sklopni crtez i detalje.

  11. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  12. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.

    2017-04-02

    The crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, ideally Na2ZnTiNb2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 (H2O)4, a lamprophyllite-group mineral of the seidozerite supergroup from the type locality, Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia have been revised. The crystal structure was refined with a new origin in space group C⎯1, a = 10.769(2), b = 14.276(3), c = 12.101(2) Å, α = 105.45(3), β = 95.17(3), γ = 90.04(3)°, V = 1785.3(3.2) Å3, R1 = 9.23%. The electron-microprobe analysis gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking along c* and HRTEM images show an intergrowth of crystalline zvyaginite with two distinct phases, both of which are partially amorphous. The crystal structure of zvyaginite is an array of TS (Titanium Silicate) blocks connected via hydrogen bonds between H2O groups. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H = heteropolyhedral, O = octahedral) parallel to (001). In the O sheet, the [6]MO(1,4,5) sites are occupied mainly by Ti, Zn and Na and the [6]MO(2,3) sites are occupied by Na at less than 50%. In the H sheet, the [6]MH(1,2) sites are occupied mainly by Nb and the [8]AP(1) and [8]AP(2) sites are occupied mainly by Na and ��. The MH and AP polyhedra and Si2O7 groups constitute the H sheet. The ideal structural formula is Na��Nb2NaZn��Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Zvyaginite is a Zn-bearing and Na-poor analogue of epistolite, ideally (Na��)Nb2Na3Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Epistolite and zvyaginite are related by the following substitution in the O sheet of the TS-block: (Na+2)epi ↔ Zn2+ zvy + ��zvy. The doubling of the t1 and t2 translations of zvyaginite relative to those of epistolite is due to the order of Zn and Na along a (t1) and b (t2) in the O sheet of zvyaginite.

  13. Fluorcanasite, K3Na3Ca5Si12O30(F,OH)4 · H2O, a new mineral species from the Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia, and new data on canasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Krivokoneva, G. K.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Rozhdestvenskaya, I. V.

    2009-12-01

    Fluorcanasite is described, a new mineral species found in dumps of the Kirovsk apatite mine, Mt. Kukisvumchorr, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The new mineral is associated with microcline, nepheline, aegirine, scherbakovite, lamprophyllite, pectolite, mosandrite, villiaumite, rasvumite, and molybdenite. It occurs as prismatic crystals up to 0.2-0.3 × 1-2 mm in size extending along [010]. Fluorcanasite is purple, transparent, with white streak and vitreous luster. The fracture is hackly along the extension and stepped in other directions. The mineral is brittle. The cleavage is eminent parallel to {100} and {201} and perfect parallel to {001}. D(meas) = 2.68(2) g/cm3 (volumetric method); D(calc) = 2.69 g/cm3. Fluorcanasite is biaxial, negative, n α = 1.538(1), n β = 1.546(1), n γ = 1.549(1), 2 V(meas) = 60(2)°, 2 V(calc) = 63°. Dispersion r > v. The new mineral is pleochroic according to the scheme N β > N γ > N α; N β is purple, N γ is lilac, and N α is amber-yellow. Orientation is as follows: b = N β, a∧ N γ = 3°, c∧ N α = 19°. Fluorcanasite is not luminescent in UV light and slowly decomposes in acid. The new mineral is monoclinic, space group Cm, a = 18.846(4), b = 7.242(1), c = 12.650(2) Å, β = 111.84(2)°, V = 1602.6(4) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections [ d, Å( I)] in the X-ray powder pattern of a grainoriented sample are 2.915(100), 4.204(40), 5.872(36), 4.712(36), 2.358(32), 3.012(24), 2.310(24), 3.082(24) and the same reflections in a randomly oriented sample are 3.082(100), 2.915(85), 4.712(46), 4.204(41), 3.340(35), 5.872(33), 2.658(30). The chemical composition, determined with an electron microprobe, is as follows, wt %: 7.19 Na2O, 10.91 K2O, 19.55 CaO, 0.27 FeO, 2.08 MnO, 55.84 SiO2, 4.10 F, 2.22 H2O (determined on the basis of structural data), 1.73-O = F2; the total is 100.43. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of Si = 12, is K2.99Na3.00(Ca4.50Mn0.38·Fe{0.05/2+})Σ4.93Si12O29.93(F2.79OH1

  14. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2018-02-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2 H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3 R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2 V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å ( I) ( hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(10 10). The crystal structure of kampelite was

  15. ARTIFICIAL BREEDING OF NERETVA SOFTMOUTH TROUT (Salmo obtusirostris Oxyrhincus Heckel, 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Handžar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an artificial breeding of softmouth trout (Salmo obtusirostris oxyrhynchus, which is one of the endemic species of fish Neretva basin and which is on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN as endangered species facing extinction. Production of fry softmouth trout intended for restocking is very complex and complicated process, and in this paper, which is based on long experience in artificial breeding softmouth trout, we want to contribute to the conservation and breeding of native salmonid fish and aquaculture development of BiH. The paper describes the production technology and production phase, diet and food as well as the application of preventive and therapeutic measures in production. Key word - softmouth trout, artificial breeding, preventive and therapeutic measures

  16. The Reproductive Biology of Shirbot (Barbus grypus Heckel, 1843 in the Maroon River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Shirbot (Barbus grypus is one of the species in south and southwest of Iran which is greatly favorable to residents of the region. Unfavorable ecological conditions in habitat of this species and overfishing have led to the reduction of the population of shirbot. Therefore, to restore the natural stock of this species, identifying its reproductive cycle associated with its habitat is of a great importance. In this study, the reproductive status of shirbot in the Maroon River in Khuzestan Province was studied in six sampling steps during four seasons. Also, morphological indicators, sex ratio, age of fish, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, histological changes in the testis and ovary of the fish were studied. The ratio of male fish to female was 2.35 to 1. The maximum value of gonadosomatic index (GSI is among the specimens aged 3 to 5 years and in March and April. An increase of hepatosomatic index (HIS during March may indicate the increased activity of liver during vitellogenesis and vitellogenin synthesis which is well verified by histological results of ovarian tissue. Based on our findings we recommend that the maximum reproductive activity of shirbot in the Maroon River starts around the end of March and continues to middle of July.

  17. Biological studies of Cyprinid Fish, Barbus luteus (Heckel) fromAl-Hammar Marsh in Southern Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out over a period of one year to investigate someaspects of the biology of Barbus luteus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Al-Hammarmarsh area of Iraq. The fish are most abundant between February and June,followed by a steady decrease towards the end of the year. A mean monthlymortality rate of 35% per month was recorded. Total length and weight of 1002fish collected ranged between 120-320mm (mean: 174mm) and 21-275 gm (Mean:79gm) respectively. Numerically, the samples were dominated by females. Theyaccounted for about 52.7% of the total catch. The population of B. luteus wasdominated by 2+ year-olds for both sexes and they matured at this age. Themathematical relationship between the weight and length of the fish wasdetermined. The values of the exponent (b) showed that females are generallyheavier at a given length than males. The food taken by the fish was studiedand it was found that fish is principally a surface phytoplankton feeder.(author)

  18. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru 560 089, India; Department of Forest Biology and Tree Improvement, College of Forestry Sirsi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad 581 401, India; Biodiversity International, 93.4, Dharhara Marg, Fulbari, Ward no.11, Pokhara, Nepal; Bioversity International, ...

  19. Postharvest technologies for mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzsohn de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of technologies to extend the postharvest life of mangosteen fruit was studied and compared to storage at 25 °C/70-75%R.H (25 °C control treatment. The fruits were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays (5 fruits/tray. Five treatments were carried out at 13 °C/ 90-95% RH: application of carnauba wax coating, lecithin + CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose coating, 50 µm LDPE (low density polyethylene film coating, 13 µm PVC (Polyvinyl chloride, and non-coated sample (13 °C control treatment. Physicochemical analyses were performed twice a week. A statistical design was completely randomized with 8 repetitions for each treatment plus the control treatment. The results were submitted to variance analysis, and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Among the quality parameters analyzed, more significant differences were observed for weight loss, texture, and peel moisture content. The results showed that the maximum storage period for mangosteen at 25 °C is two weeks; while storage at13 °C can guarantee the conservation of this fruit for 25 days. Therefore, the treatment at 13 °C/90-95% RH without the use of coatings and films was more effective and economical.

  20. PRODUKTIVITAS DAN KUALITAS BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia manggostana L. DI PURWAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available        Indonesian mangosteen is prospective product to be exported to Europe, Middle East, East Asia such asTaiwan,Hong Kong,Singapore, andJapan. Indonesian exported commodities increase significantly from year to year, but the increasing volume was not followed by improvement in production and quality of the fruit.  Mangosteen has symmetrical branches which form dense canopy that protect sun radiation intensity to penetrate, and it keeps the radiation intensity remain below normal of its need. Most of harvested mangosteen plants owned by the community were not managed properly. It cause the production and quality of the fruit below standard. The research aims at : (1 knowing  the position of the buds and fruit at various branch within the canopy, (2 collecting information about distribution of production and quality of the fruit.       The research was done on September 2003 to May 2004 at the center of mangosteen fruit production inWest Java, i.e. Sub district of Wanayasa, District of Purwakarta.  The research was done on randomized complete block design which consist of nine sectors of branches with seven replications. The nine sectors are : sector 1 (inner bottom canopy, sector 2 (center bottom canopy, sector 3 (outer bottom canopy, sector 4 (inner middle canopy, sector 5 (center middle canopy, sector 6 (outer middle canopy, sector 7 (inner top canopy, sector 8 (center top canopy, sector 9 (outer top canopy. The result of research showed that the most frequent emergence of bud and fruit in Wanayasa was found on sector 3 (outer bottom canopy, sector 4 (inner middle canopy and sector 5 (center middle canopy. Sector 6 (outer middle canopy, produce more vegetative branches. Dense canopy structure of upper branches has protect inner and bottom canopy from light availability. At average, the quality of the fruit are below standard. In Wanayasa, only 0.6-0.7% of the fruit meet the quality of Super SNI which produced especially on sector 4 and sector 5. At average, distribution of quality I  was about 8.8-18.2%; distribution of quality II was about 7.7-36.4%; and more than 50% of the production do not meet the quality standards.

  1. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Artitiya; Thiengsusuk; Kanchana; Rungsihirunrat; Stephen; Andrew; Ward; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcina mangostana Linn.(G.mangostana)(pericarp)in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry(LC/MS/MS).Methods:3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp)at the concentrations of 12μg/mL(1C50level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%)and 30μg/mL(1C90level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%)for 12 h.Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS.Results:At the IC50concentration,about 82%of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control(non-exposed),while at the IC90concentration,only 15%matched proteins were found.The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12μg/mL were identified as eneymes that play role in glycolysis pathway,i.e.,phosphoglyeerate mutase putative,L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,and fruetose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglyeerate kinase.The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30μg/mL of the extract.Conclusions:Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp).

  2. Effects of crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada. P.M.B 0006, Benin City. Nigeria. 2Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. .... feeding 35 mg/kg of G. cambogia to rabbits for 8 weeks.

  3. Development of male-specific SCAR marker in Garcinia morella ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... tropical rain forests of Western Ghats of India (Anonymous. 1956). It also occurs in Sri Lanka and Indo-China Himalayan regions. It is a multipurpose tree grown as a ... 1978), gambogic acid (Tang et al. 2011) have been isolated from the fruits and the bark, respectively, and evaluated for their antibiotic and.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V. RAVISHANKAR

    2Department of Forest Biology and Tree Improvement, College of Forestry Sirsi, ... Hiseq 2000 platform and examined 241,141,804 bp high quality data, assembled into 773,889 .... were designed using Primer3 software (Untergrasser et al.

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Garcinia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. V.

    cost. This approach is especially useful for many tree crops where there is no sequence information available. We used ... ucleotide repeats were the most prevalent accounting for. 35.29% of ... linking diversity, livelihood and management (ed.

  6. Siudaite, Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O: a new eudialyte-group mineral from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Kruszewski, Łukasz; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.

    2018-03-01

    The new eudialyte-group mineral siudaite, ideally Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O, was discovered in a peralkaline pegmatite situated at the Eveslogchorr Mt., Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The associated minerals are aegirine, albite, microcline, nepheline, astrophyllite, and loparite-(Ce). Siudaite forms yellow to brownish-yellow equant anhedral grains up to 1.5 cm across. Its lustre is vitreous, and the streak is white. Cleavage is none observed. The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by hydrostatic weighing is 2.96(1) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.973 g/cm3. Siudaite is nonpleochroic, optically uniaxial, negative, with ω = 1.635(1) and ɛ = 1.626(1) (λ = 589 nm). The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of siudaite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by HCN analysis): Na2O 8.40, K2O 0.62, CaO 9.81, La2O3 1.03, Ce2O3 1.62, Pr2O3 0.21, Nd2O3 0.29, MnO 6.45, Fe2O3 4.51. TiO2 0.54, ZrO2 11.67, HfO2 0.29, Nb2O5 2.76, SiO2 47.20, Cl 0.54, H2O 3.5, -O = Cl - 0.12, total 99.32. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, all iron is trivalent. The empirical formula (based on 24.5 Si atoms pfu, in accordance with structural data) is [Na7.57(H2O)1.43]Σ9(Mn1.11Na0.88Ce0.31La0.20Nd0.05Pr0.04K0.41)Σ3(H2O)1.8(Ca5.46Mn0.54)Σ6(Fe3+ 1.76Mn2+ 1.19)Σ2.95Nb0.65(Ti0.20Si0.50)Σ0.71(Zr2.95Hf0.04Ti0.01)Σ3Si24.00Cl0.47O70(OH)2Cl0.47·1.82H2O. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3m, with a = 14.1885(26) Å, c = 29.831(7) Å, V = 5200.8(23) Å3 and Z = 3. Siudaite is chemically related to georgbarsanovite and is its analogue with Fe3+-dominant M2 site. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.38 (60) (-114), 4.29 (55) (-225), 3.389 (47) (131), 3.191 (63) (-228). 2.963 (100) (4-15), 2.843 (99) (-444), 2.577 (49) (3-39). Siudaite is named after the Polish

  7. Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf e centela (Centella asiatica (L. Urban Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabe Gomes de Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais, analisou-se dez amostras de castanha-da-índia, onze de capim-limão e seis de centela, comercializadas em farmácias da cidade do Recife, provenientes de indústrias de várias partes do país. Analisamos as informações técnico-científicas nos rótulos e/ou bulas de acordo com as exigências e obrigatoriedades da legislação brasileira (RDC n. 140 de 29/05/2003 e na RDC n. 102 de 30/11/2000, e embasamento da literatura científica. Também avaliou-se as características organolépticas, a autenticidade e a pureza dos produtos. Constatou-se ausência das informações obrigatórias em 92,59% das amostras. Dentre os termos vedados, foi comum a sugestão da inexistência de efeitos colaterais ou adversos. Quanto as indicações terapêuticas não se observou padronização técnica dos termos nem comprovação científica para algumas das atividades atribuídas pelos fabricantes. Todas as amostras foram consideradas autênticas com base nos testes fitoquímicos e farmacobotânicos. Na análise da pureza 59,26% das amostras foram reprovadas, devido principalmente ao elevado teor de umidade e cinzas totais. Constata-se que além dos produtos comercializados carecerem de informações e qualidade adequadas, há necessidade urgente de uma fiscalização efetiva por parte dos órgãos competentes.Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, coming from industries of several parts of the country. We analyzed the technical-scientific information on the labels and/or directions according to the requirements and obligations of Brazilian law (laws "RDC 140 of 29/05/2003" and "RDC 102 of 30/11/2000" and to scientific literature embasement. The products' organoleptic

  8. Škola a genderové role

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Hana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to examine and compare the notions of gender roles in the view of students, teachers and textbooks. The issue of gender roles involved in school environment concerns theoretical concepts of social construction of gender and theories of gender socialization. In the view of social constructionism gender as a social phenomenon is created, institutionalized and made into traditions by humans. Social constructionism is opposed to essentialism. A gender role is a set of beh...

  9. Experience in the Kola NPP start-up works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S.I.; Omel'chuk, V.V.; Bodrukhin, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Main stages and peculiar features of maintenance and start-up works at WWER-440 type reactor NPPs described. Remarks revealed during complex equipment testing, physical and power start-up will be useful for arrangement of maintenance and start-up works at newly built NPPs

  10. The Effects of Bitter Kola Supplemented Diet on Hepatotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were ... hepatotoxic effects of the heavy metal indirectly assessed by measurement of the serum levels of alkaline .... III vs V: Group IV vs V.P-values less than 0.05.

  11. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extracts of Garcina kola seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 100mg/ml concentration of each extract, the reduction in egg hatch was comparable to those obtained with various dilutions of levamisole and albendazole both of which showed 100% reduction in egg hatch. The extracts therefore showed promise for use as possible anthelminthic for the regular treatment and control ...

  12. Power Institutions and International Collaboration on the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hønneland

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how international cooperative projects have contributed to increased interaction between civilian authorities and the military or other power agencies in Murmansk Oblast. The cases of fisheries enforcement, nuclear safety and the fight against communicable diseases, especially tuberculosis in prisons, are reviewed. The main lesson is that international collaboration ventures can sometimes provide arenas for initiating new coordination patterns that would otherwise not have evolved. Occasionally, the international project is simply the pretext necessary for changing a situation that both civilian and power agencies view as irrational. Whether these changes are fundamental and structural, however, remains to be seen.

  13. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    characteristics of the action potential and these alterations cause ... cyclic AMP pathway is another process by which some vasodilators ... because the fact that cyclic AMP itself, causes .... potentiating the vasodilator function of Nitroglycerine.

  14. Metaphysics of Kola Nut: Towards an Authentic African Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  16. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) and tubenose (Proterorhinus semilunaris, Heckel 1837) goby predation pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 785, č. 1 (2017), s. 219-232 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * Gobies * Macroinvertebrates * Impact * European rivers * Diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  17. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  18. Postharvest technologies for mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. conservation Tecnologias pós-colheita para conservação de mangostim (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzsohn de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of technologies to extend the postharvest life of mangosteen fruit was studied and compared to storage at 25 °C/70-75%R.H (25 °C control treatment. The fruits were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays (5 fruits/tray. Five treatments were carried out at 13 °C/ 90-95% RH: application of carnauba wax coating, lecithin + CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose coating, 50 µm LDPE (low density polyethylene film coating, 13 µm PVC (Polyvinyl chloride, and non-coated sample (13 °C control treatment. Physicochemical analyses were performed twice a week. A statistical design was completely randomized with 8 repetitions for each treatment plus the control treatment. The results were submitted to variance analysis, and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Among the quality parameters analyzed, more significant differences were observed for weight loss, texture, and peel moisture content. The results showed that the maximum storage period for mangosteen at 25 °C is two weeks; while storage at13 °C can guarantee the conservation of this fruit for 25 days. Therefore, the treatment at 13 °C/90-95% RH without the use of coatings and films was more effective and economical.A aplicação de tecnologias visando extensão do período de conservação de frutos de mangostim foi estudada e comparada com o armazenamento a 25 °C/70-75%U.R. Os frutos foram colocados em bandejas de poliestireno (5 frutos/bandeja. Foram realizados cinco tratamentos a 13 °C/90-95%UR: cobertura de cera de carnaúba; cobertura com lecitina + CMC (Carboximetilcelulose; filme de PELBD (polietileno linear de baixa densidade 50 µm; PVC (Policloreto de vinila, e sem nenhuma cobertura ou revestimento. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas duas vezes por semana. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados foram submetidos análise de variância e comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Entre os índices de qualidade analisados, diferenças significativas foram observadas para perda de massa, textura e teor de umidade da casca. Os resultados mostraram que o período de armazenamento do mangostim a 25 °C é de duas semanas e, quando estocado a 13 °C, obteve-se a conservação dos frutos por 25 dias. Conclui-se, desse modo, que o tratamento a 13 °C/90-95%UR sem o uso de coberturas e filmes foi o melhor e o mais econômico.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Barrida, A.C.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Aurigue, F.B.; Marbella, L.J.; Rama, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    A study on the effects of gamma radiation on cashew and mangosteen was conducted. In cashew seeds exposed to gamma radiation with dose raging from 100 to 400 Gy, the highest percentage emergence of 80% was obtained in the control and 100 Gy. Percent emergence decreased from 200-400 Gy. Seeds irradiated with 400 Gy gave the lowest percentage of only 10%, 4 weeks after sowing, Slight increase in emergence was observed at low dose of 5 and 10 Gy gamma rays over that of the control in mangosteen. However, at doses 20 and 30 Gy, percent emergence decreased. No shoot emergence was noted at 40 Gy, 7 weeks after sowing. In both cashew and mangosteen, gamma irradiation caused a decreased in seedling height and increased frequency of induced morphological changes (leaf abnormalities, stem bifurcation, reduction in internode length and changes in chlorophyll pattern). Differences in response of cashew and mangosteen to gamma radiation were attributed to species and dosage of radiation used. Based on the foregoing results, gamma radiation is an effective mutagenic agent in inducing morphological as well as genetic changes in both tree crop species. In the micropropagation of mangosteen using the in-vitro culture system, the best treatment for callus induction was MS basal medium and MS with 2 mg/1 BA; for root formation, the best treatment combination was 4 mg/ 1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA; and for plantlet regeneration, the optium treatment was MS with 6 mg/1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA. (Author)

  20. KAJIAN METODE PELILINAN TERHADAP UMUR SIMPAN BUAH MANGGIS (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA SEMI-CUTTING DALAM PENYIMPANAN DINGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen can be stored for a relatively long period in low temperature storage, but peel hardening due to lostof moisture makes it difficult to open before consumption. One attempt to solve this problem is the application ofsemi-cutting treatment before storage of the fruits at low temperature. However, semi-cutting will acceleratedeterioration process since it increases fruit respiration and creates a door to microorganism to enter and spoil thefruit. Waxing the fruit after semi-cutting helps to overcome the problems, so the fruit can be stored at lowtemperature for long period, but it can be opened easily before consumption. This research aims to find a suitablemethod of waxing as well as the best wax concentration solution for waxing process. The methods of waxingconducted in this research were dipping and smearing, while the wax concentration in solution for both methodswere 6, 9, and 12%. The results show that smearing the fruit after semi-cutting with 12% wax concentration gave thelongest self life for the mangosteen stored at low temperature, while the fruits were still easier to open afterstorage.

  1. Cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities of some Tanzanian Garcinia species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    development of new drugs particularly of plant origin owing to their success as sources of anticancer ... establish the classes of compounds responsible for the biological activities noted in this study. ..... active fractions from these plants in order to establish chemical constituents responsible for ... We are grateful to Prof.

  2. α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana Linn: An updated review of its pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, various studies have highlighted the pure natural compound, α-mangostin as their main topic. The compound’s pre-clinical and pharmacological properties have been recognized and defined in these studies. α-Mangostin shows strong pharmacological effects in in vitro and in vivo model systems by targeting a number of vital cellular factors through various mechanisms of action. Despite its important molecular versatility, the α-mangostin still has limited clinical application. In order to optimize the conditions of this compound as a chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent, for instance in diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes as well as inflammatory disorders, the recent tendency is to limit the range of its pharmacological properties. The present work reviews recent studies on the central and potential pharmacological principles as well as the preclinical applications of the α-mangostin.

  3. Evidence of Garcinia cambogia as a fat burning and appetite suppressing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nur Asyiken Wan Ab Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Results: Consumers in Malaysia most likely tend to have a fast method in losing the weight. When the product is advertised inappropriately without any strong evidence based, the Malaysian society is solely at risk in buying the product that does not have a confirmed effectiveness and efficacy. The doubts in using G. cambogia are because the marketed product is there is no single formulation that contains only G. Cambogia.

  4. Improving characteristics of goat milk yogurt drink fortified by mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Lin.) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawanti, J. M. W.; Rinawidiastuti; Arifin, H. D.; Zulfanita

    2018-01-01

    Peranakan Etawah (PE) milk is highly nutritive goaty flavour make it not preferable by consumer. Processing of yogurt drink made PE goat milk enhances palatability. Goat yogurt drink can be supplemented high antioxidantive activity by mangosteen rind extract. Comletely Randomized Design (CRD) was throughout the research with different concentrations of mangosteen rind extract (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (v/v). The organoleptic analysis showed the significant enhancement by fortification with mangosteen rind extract. The highest antioxidant activity was shown on the yogurt drink 4% v/v of mangosteen extract. In conclusion, the fortification of mangosteen rind extract was enhanced of characteristics of yogurt drink.

  5. Biosintesis Partikel-nano Perak Menggunakan Ekstrak Metanol Daun Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalkhin Masakke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan ekstrak daun manggis dalam menyintesis partikel-nano perak serta menentukan karakteristik partikel-nano perak yang dihasilkan. Larutan AgNO3 4 mM  direduksi menggunakan ekstrak daun manggis selama 90 menit pada suhu 70°C. Keberhasilan reaksi reduksi dilihat dari munculnya serapan pada panjang gelombang 395 – 515 nm pada pengukuran serapan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Penentuan waktu reduksi optimum dilakukan dengan analisis spektrum UV-Vis larutan setiap 30 menit dengan larutan ekstrak daun manggis sebagai kontrol. Karakteristik partikel-nano perak yang dihasilkan, dianalisis dengan menggunakan instrumen SEM-EDS, dan PSA. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan waktu reaksi optimum adalah 60 menit, partikel-nano yang dihasilkan berbentuk acak serta cenderung untuk beragregasi dengan distribusi ukuran partikel-nano antara 204,23 nm – 562,49 nm dan diameter rata-rata 339,44 nm.Kata Kunci: Biosintesis Partikel-nano, Daun Manggis, Partikel-nano Perak

  6. The Naturally Occurring Compound Garcinia Indica Selectively Impairs the Reconsolidation of a Cocaine-Associated Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Monsey, Melissa S; Sanchez, Hayde; Taylor, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    Sustained abstinence from cocaine use is frequently compromised by exposure to environmental stimuli that have previously been strongly associated with drug taking. Such cues trigger memories of the effects of the drug, leading to craving and potential relapse. Our work has demonstrated that manipulating cocaine-cue memories by destabilizing them through interfering with the reconsolidation process is one potential therapeutic tool by which to prolong abstinence. Here, we examine the use of t...

  7. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Fenolik Dari Kulit Buah Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dungir, Stevi G; Katja, Dewa G; Kamu, Vanda S

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kandungan total senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan dari ekstrak kulit buah manggis. Sampel yang digunakan adalah kulit buah manggis segar dan kering, diekstraksi dengan pelarut air panas dan metanol selama 24 jam. Metode penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menentukan kandungan total senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode penangkal radikal bebas DPPH. Kandungan total senyawa fenolik tertinggi pada ekstrak metanol sampel kering ...

  8. Sifat Fisik dan Organoleptik Yogurt Drink Susu Kambing dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeki Mediantari Wahyu Wibawanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this studies were to determine the physical properties of viscosity and organoleptic of yogurt drink with the suplementation of mangosteen peel extract. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD of the factorial pattern. The first factor was the difference of mangosteen peel extract level (0%, 3% and 6% v / v, while the second factor was the storage time of yogurt (0, 1, and 2 weeks with 3 replications. The results showed that the supplementation of mangosteen peel extract on yogurt drink gave significant effect (p <0.05 on viscosity, color and sensory analysis (viscosity and texture. Yogurt drink was recommendation with mangosteen peel extract 3% (74.65cp, lightness (L 79.89, redness (a* 0.14 yellowness (b* 2.32, sensory analysis of viscosity with score 2.84 (moderate viscosity, organoleptics of color 3.52 (white yelowness and texture test with score 2.12 (moderate smooth. It can be concluded that the addition of mangosteen peel extract can improve the quality of physical, color, organoleptik yogurt drink. The use of mangosteen peel extract will increase the economic value and product diversification.

  9. Pencapaian Fase Embriosomatik Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dengan Penambahan Thidiazuron dalam Medium Setengah MS Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innaka Ageng Rineksane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems related to the establishment of mangosteen plantation is to obtain seedlings throughout the year, which can be solved by micropropagation.   The propagation of Mangosteen was done through somatic embryogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Thidiazuron concentration in ½ MS medium to achieve somatic embryo stages of mangosteen seed. The study consisted of two experiments. Experiment 1: The embryogenic callus c.a.1 g derived from MS solid medium containing of Thidiazuron (0,1; 0,5; dan 1 mg/l and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (4,6,8 dan 10 mg/l was subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium. 2. The embryogenic callus from the previous medium were subcultured into ½ MS liquid medium containing Thidiazuron (0, 1, 2, 4 dan 8 mg/L and Casein hydrolysate 500 mg/L. The results showed that cell suspension were developed after mangosteen embryogenic callus subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium.  Somatic embryo stages such as globular, heart and torpedo were formed after the calli derived from the previous ½ MS solid medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L Thidiazuron were subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium in 8 weeks.  Cell suspension in ½ MS liquid medium with or without the addition of  Thidiazuron and Casein hydrolysate has induced the formation of embryo somatic stages such as globular, heart and torpedo after 6 months of incubation.

  10. Two species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the cyprinid fish Luciobarbus kersin (Heckel) in northern Iraq, including R. (Globochona) kurdistanensis sp. n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bilal, S. J.; Abdullah, S. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2012), s. 139-147 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Rhabdochona * freshwater fish * Luciobarbus * Iraq Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22051

  11. Distribution and reproductive biology of the Electric ray Discopyge tschudii Heckel, 1846 in San Matías Gulf, Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilú Estalles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electric ray Discopyge tschudii is distributed in the Southwest Atlantic from southern Brazil to southern Argentina and in the Southeast Pacific from Peru to southern Chile. The main threat to this species is fishing. Discopyge tschudii is noncommercial and individuals caught are discarded on board. The present study analyzes the distribution and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of this ray in San Matías Gulf (SMG, Argentina. A total of 1087 individuals were analyzed. The species presented an aggregate distribution, with the main concentrations in the northern and eastern areas of SMG, at depths below 100 m. Males ranged from 9 to 43 cm and females from 11 to 38 cm. The species presented sexual dimorphism. Males were larger and heavier than females and also matured at larger sizes. Size at 50% of maturity was estimated at 30 cm for males and 21 cm for females. A total of 199 embryos were sampled and the proportion of sexes showed no significant differences from the expected 1:1. The number of embryos per female varied from 1 to 12. The most frequent values were 2 and 5. Length at birth was estimated at 82.17 ± 3.87 mm. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the electric ray D. tschudii completes its reproductive cycle in SMG.La raya eléctrica Discopyge tschudii se distribuye, en el Atlántico Sudoccidental, desde el sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y en el Pacifico Sudoriental desde Perú al sur de Chile. La principal amenaza para la especie es la pesca. Es una especie sin valor comercial y debido a esto los ejemplares capturados por las embarcaciones pesqueras son descartados a bordo. En el presente estudio se analizan la distribución espacial y las características morfológicas y reproductivas de la especie en el Golfo San Matías (GSM, Argentina. Un total de 1087 ejemplares fueron analizados. La especie presentó una distribución agregada, encontrándose las principales concentraciones en el sector norte y este del GSM a profundidades menores a los 100 m. Los machos midieron entre 9 y 43 cm de largo total y las hembras entre 11 y 38 cm. La especie exhibió dimorfismo sexual, siendo los machos más grandes, más pesados y presentando mayores tallas de madurez que las hembras. La talla de madurez a la cual el 50% de la población alcanzó la madurez sexual fue estimada en 30 cm en machos y 21 cm en hembras. Se analizaron 199 embriones. Las proporciones de sexos de los embriones no mostraron diferencias significativas de lo esperado 1:1. El número de embriones por hembra varió de 1 a 12, siendo los valores más frecuentes 2 y 5. La talla de nacimiento fue estimada en 82,17 ± 3,87 mm. De acuerdo a nuestros resultados se hipotetiza que D. tschudii completa su ciclo reproductivo en el golfo.

  12. Identification of natural hybrids between Cottus poecilopus, Heckel, 1837, and Cottus gobio, Linnaeus, 1758, at a hybrid zone on the Svratka River (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, T.; Halačka, Karel; Bartoňová-Marešová, Eva; Vetešník, Lukáš; Spurný, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2014), s. 102-108 ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish communities * sculpins Cottus * bullhead * Pisces * Pleistocene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2014

  13. Length-weight relationship of Cobitis elongatoides Heckel & Kner, 1858 from a pure diploid population in the Nová Říše Reservoir, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Pekárik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2015), s. 562-564 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : growth * reproduction * biology * stream * fishes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2015

  14. Reproductive life history of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel, 1848 (Poeciliinae: Poeciliidae in the Honduran interior highlands: trait variation along an elevational gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Olinger

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined reproductive traits and growth rates of Heterandria bimaculata (Poeciliidae in Cusuco National Park (CNP, a cloud forest reserve in northern Honduras, Central America. In CNP, H. bimaculata occurs in the absence of other fish species and major invertebrate predators along an approximately 1000 m elevation gradient. This allowed for the examination of trait variation along the gradient without the confounding effects of interspecific interactions or habitat patchiness. Heterandria bimaculata exhibited traits characteristic of a low-predation environment: balanced sex ratio, slow growth, late maturity and large female size. Females produced more, smaller eggs from upstream to downstream, but overall reproductive allocation remained constant along the gradient. Maximum male length and annual growth rates increased from upstream to downstream, but female growth showed no trend. The patterns of growth and reproductive allocation tradeoff are consistent with predicted response to a longitudinally-increasing productivity gradient in which food resources become more abundant downstream. Macrobrachium and Bellastoma could have caused some predation, but were sparse and patchily distributed. Fish density remained fairly constant among elevations; if food resources were limiting in upstream habitats, per-capita resource availability would be lower and density-dependent competition would drive selection for larger but fewer, more competitive offspring. Future work should quantify longitudinal changes in productivity and conduct experiments to decouple the effects of stream order and fish density dependence.

  15. Pedagogika a škola Marie Montessori v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Glaserová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    This thesis "Pedagogy and Maria Montessori School in the Czech Republic" in the theoretical part describes the life of Maria Montessori, Montessori principles of education and development of Montessori schools with a focus on their development in the Czech Republic. The practical part deals with a case study of a Prague school with Montessori principles and a questionnaire survey with the headmaster of Montessori schools.

  16. Molecular and Biochemical Effects of a Kola Nut Extract on Androgen Receptor-Mediated Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Solipuram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of prostate cancer in Asians has been attributed to chemopreventative properties of certain chemicals found in their diet. This study characterized the androgenic and chemopreventative properties of the Jamaican bush tea “Bizzy,” using androgen receptor positive and negative cell lines. Exposure of prostate cells to Biz-2 resulted in a growth inhibition (GI50 of 15 ppm in LNCaP cells and 3.6 ppm in DU145 cells. Biz-2 elicited a 2-fold increase in the mRNA of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2, with a 10-fold increase in that of the proapoptotic gene Bax. We observed a 2.4- to 7.5-fold change in apoptotic cells in both cell lines. Biz-2 at 10 ppm elicited a time- and dose-dependent stimulation of both the protein and mRNA levels of several androgen-regulated genes. Biz-2 caused a 36% decrease in PSA secretion and a significant increase in PSA mRNA. The relative binding affinity (IC50 of Biz-2 for AR was 2- to 5-fold lower than that of the synthetic androgen R1881. Biz-2 was found to be a specific ligand for the AR in that the natural ligand, DHT, and the anti-androgen, flutamide, displaced Biz-2 bound to AR and inhibited Biz-2-induced transcription and PSA secretion. This study provided evidence that Biz-2 extract possesses the ability to modulate prostate cancer cell biology in an AR-dependent manner.

  17. Waldorfská škola a motivace ve vyučování.

    OpenAIRE

    CHVALOVÁ, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis with the title "Waldorf school and motivation in teaching" focuses on differences in pupil´s motivation to learn English language at standard schools and Waldorf schools. Theoretical part includes fundamental information about pedagogy of Waldorf, methods of English language teaching at Waldorf schools, motivation and its role in class. The work implies findings of research made on achievement motivation and preferential motivation at standards schools and Waldorf schools. The ...

  18. Distribution of the ore elements in ore bodies of the Zapolyarnoe field (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Taymasov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted studies of the chemical zonality of ore deposits of all types for the sulfide-copper-nickel deposit Zapolyarnoe. Within the deposit of sulfide-copper-nickel ores Zapolyarnoe are the following industrial types of ores: rich interspersed ores, which are interspersed mineralization in peridotites; brecciated ores formed by detrital material; poor interspersed ores characterized by vein-interspersed mineralization; solid ores in a form of massive sulphide emissions. This work is based on operational and detailed exploration data. The author sorted samples according to the types of ores. Using the results, the author derived regression lines and their formulas to rectilinear dependencies. Analysis of the graphs showed that for all types of ores the dependences of copper and cobalt content on nickel content are direct, but at that, in thick-interspersed and brecciated types they are similar, and in scattered-interspersed they differ significantly. It becomes clear that correlation of copper and nickel in ore body depends on the scattered-interspersed ores, whereas the correlation of cobalt and nickel is determined mainly by thick-interspersed and brecciated ores. Dependencies between nickel, copper and cobalt in ores change when concentration of nickel in the ore changes. The graphs also show that the ratio of Ni/Cu in breccias and scattered-interspersed ores, as well as in near-ore metaperidotites, is almost constant at different nickel concentrations, on average 2:1.5 and 1, respectively. Thick- interspersed ores show the tendency towards an increase in the ratio with an increase in nickel content. The Ni/Co ratio increases with an increase of Ni concentration in all types of ores. In rich ores, growth occurs along a stepped curve, and in breccias – rectilinearly. Thus, the analysis of distribution of ore elements in ore bodies indicates a complex heterogeneous composition of sulphide mineralizations in different types of ores and their similarity in zones differing in the content of metals from the sampling data. It is obvious that the chemical zonality in brecciated and thick- interspersed ores is mainly due to a different concentration of sulphides with constant qualitative composition. The main types of zonality in the deposit are asymmetric zoning (columnar in brecciated deposits and symmetric (concentric in deposits of thick-interspersed ores. One can determine these types of zonality using the distribution of useful components of ores and mineralogical data confirms it. Based on this author concludes that the eastern branch, in which the thick-interspersed deposits lie, is the so-called supply canal (conductor to the upper part of the deposit and to the western branch, which is similar in its morphological parameters with the central part.

  19. Loparite-(Ce) from the Khibiny Alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopleva, N. G.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the occurrence, morphology, anatomy, composition, and formation conditions of loparite-(Ce) in the Khibiny alkaline pluton are given. Loparite-(Ce), (Na,Ce,Sr)(Ce,Th)(Ti,Nb)2O6, resulted from metasomatic alteration and assimilation of metamorphic host rocks at the contact with foyaite as well as foyaite on the contact with foidolite. This alteration was the highest in pegmatite, and albitite developed there. A decrease in temperature resulted in enrichment of the perovskite and tausonite endmembers in loparite-(Ce) owing to a decrease in the loparite and lueshite endmembers. La and Ce sharply predominate among rare earth elements in the composition of loparite-(Ce).

  20. Lithology of the Late Valdaian glacial moraine in the western part of the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevzerov V. Ya.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A profound study of the moraine has been provided. The results have been grouped according to the basement rocks composition. The basal moraines bedding on disintegration products of crystalline rocks, sandy siltstone sediments in the area of abundant metamorphosed and igneous rocks, and on clays in the sandstones occurrence of the Terskaya Suite have been considered. It has been defined that in the basement of the moraine bed there is a clear dependence of the large detrial material composition and the granular composition of the moraine silt on the basement rocks composition. The dependence considerably weakens upwards the section. The received data testify to the plastic glacier flow having dominated in the region, when layers in the glacier basement shifted slowest and the speed of the glacier movement increased upwards the section. The plastic flow has been associated with shifting along internal splits, which provides the inflow of the detrial material to the upper layers of the glacier. Some faults of the moraine that formed under the Middle Dryas advance of the glacier are considered as erratic mass of sedimentary rocks. Their contemporary appearance formed during the change of the glacier gliding along the bed for its inner shifting along internal splits and by plastic flow. An irregularstructured moraine occurred, when the detrial material in flakes, which lost their plasticity and as a result peeled off the basement of the moving glacier, did not consolidate before each flake peeled off. When the interval between the exfoliation of flakes was longer, the transferred detrial material interacted with the formed moraine. In result of the debris abrasion fine layers enriched by clayey particles occurred. The layers can be observed in a moraine with a bedded structure. The tabular structure was produced under the freezing of the previously deposited moraine. The ablation moraine differs from the basal one in its lower silt content. Along with the Quaternary sediments, the source of the detrial material was the area weathering crust of the hydro-mica type.

  1. Letní škola digitální medievistiky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaluška, Matouš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2015), s. 985-987 ISSN 0009-0468. [CENDARI Summer School 2015: Researching Medieval Culture in a Digital Environment. Praha, 20.07.2015-24.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : medieval studies * digital humanities * research tools Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  2. SOCIJALNA KOMPETENCIJA I ZVANJE RAVNATELJA OSNOVNIH I SREDNJIH ŠKOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Ravnatelj svojim djelovanjem (bez obzira ovisi li o situaciji ili ciljevima) ne utječe samo na konačan uspjeh škole, nego i na međuljudske odnose, na školsku klimu, na motivaciju nastavnika i organizaciju rada škole. Upravo iz tog razloga nužno je ispitati socijalnu kompetenciju ravnatelja kako bi se potaknulo njihovo osposobljavanje, a potom i njihovo usavršavanje, jer vježbom se socijalne vještine mogu usavršiti (Goleman, 2008). Cilj rada je ispitati socijalne vještine koje su pr...

  3. René Wellek a Pražská škola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-30 ISSN 2453-8507 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : literary theory ; structuralism ; poetics ; Wellek, René ; Prague School * structuralism * poetics * Wellek, René * Prague School * Prague linguistic circle * Mukařovský, Jan Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  4. Graphite as an indicator of contact influence of Western Keivy alkaline granite intrusion, the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina E. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex petro-mineragraphic, Raman and isotope- geochemical study of three types of graphite- bearing rocks circulated at different distances from the alkaline granites: (1 kyanite schists of Bolshiye Keivy, sampled at a considerable distance from a contact with alkaline gran ites; (2 sillimanite schists, sampled close to the contact, and (3 silexites, located in the inner part of th e alkaline granite massif Western Keivy have been presented. Five morphogenetic types of graphite have been revealed in the rocks under consideration: fine- grained Gr-1, intergranular Gr-2, nest-shaped Gr-3, vein Gr- 4 and spherulitic Gr-5. Current study demonstrates that these five types of graphite distinctly vary not only i n morphology, but also in temperature of crystallization, as determined by RSCM-Raman geothermometer, and in carbon isotop e composition. The most likely source for the anomalous "light" graphite Gr-1 and Gr-2 [δ 13 C(PDB = −43...−45 ‰] from kyanite schists is a water- methane fluid originating from sedimentary rocks with org anic compounds. The carbon of graphite Gr-5 of the silexites selected at the inner part of alkaline granite massif West ern Keivy, on the contrary, proved to be most "heavy" [δ 13 C(PDB = −8 ‰], which indicates its origin from the lower crustal or mantle carbon dioxide fluid. Thus, carbon extracted into the rocks of Keivy structure from at least two contrasting isotope sources. Graphite Gr-3, that makes up the bulk of graphite of exocontact sil limanite schists, is also isotopically light, but not anomalously [δ 13 C(PDB = −17...−28 ‰]. The crystallization temperature of the gi ven graphite (435−520 ºC, and its structural relationships with other minerals of th e rock evidence of its synmetamorphic origin. The presence of veinlets of isotopically heavy [δ 13 C(PDB = −10 ‰...−11 ‰] high-temperature (570−670 ºC graphite intersecting minerals of the metamorphic paragenesis (i ncluding Gr-3 indicates that the introduction of the granites occurred into the previously metamorphosed strat a and was accompanied by thermal and fluid influence on these strata.

  5. Cartographic modelling of aerotechnogenic pollution in snow cover in the landscapes of the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkin, N E; Asming, V E; Koshkin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop computational techniques for sulphates, nickel and copper accumulation in the snow in the local pollution zone. The main task was to reveal the peculiarities of formation and pollution of snow cover on the region with complex cross-relief. A digital cartographic model of aerotechnogenic pollution of snow cover in the landscapes of the local zone has been developed, based on five-year experimental data. Data regarding annual emissions from the industrial complex, information about distribution of wind and the sum of precipitation from meteostation "Nikel" for the winter period, allowed the model to ensure: * material presentation in the form of maps of water capacity and accumulation of sulphates, nickel and copper in the snow over any winter period in retrospective; * calculation of water capacity and accumulation of pollutants for watersheds and other natural-territorial complexes; * solution of the opposite problem about the determination of the emissions of sulphates, nickel and copper from the enterprise by measuring snow pollution in datum points. The model can be used in other northern regions of the Russian Federation with similar physical-geographical and climatic conditions. The relationships between the sum of precipitation and water capacity in the landscapes of the same type and also the relationships between pollution content in snow and relief, pollution content in snow and distance from the source of emissions, were used as the basis for the model.

  6. Kola Nut as a Symbol of Welcome Among the Igede of Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 4 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Kola Nut as a Symbol of Welcome Among the Igede of Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concepts hospitality and welcome are closely related if not synonymous. Both concepts connote friendly behaviours to guests or a person who has just arrived one's place on a short or long term visit. Thus, if a host is happy with a visit, he/she is normally glad and expresses his/her gladness by the manner the guest is ...

  8. Podnikatelský plán - Jezdecká škola

    OpenAIRE

    Kořínková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    This work has two basic parts. In the first, theoretical and methodological, the reader learns how has to a successful business plan looks like and what has to be included in it. Individual parts of the business plan as an operational plan, financial plan or analysis surroundings of the company, are presented in detail. The second part of this work is practical and its aim is writing a business plan for Riding school development. This particular business plan should also show whether the busi...

  9. Espectro alimentar e variação sazonal da dieta de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil = Food spectrum and seasonal variation of the diet of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae in Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Almeida Gavilan Leandro da Costa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dieta e as variações sazonais na alimentação de Plagioscion squamosissimus, capturados mensalmente, na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, entre agosto de 2004 e julho de 2005, com despescas em horários específicos. Em laboratório, após a biometria, os peixes foram abertos e eviscerados. Sob microscópio estereoscópico, analisaram-se os conteúdos estomacais, cujos itens, depois de identificados, tiveram o seu volume medido. Foram calculadas as frequências de ocorrência e volumétrica e o índice alimentar. Agruparam-se os itens em sete categorias principais, e camarão e insetos foram as predominantes. A categorização dos itens permitiu classificar a espécie como carnívora com tendência a carcinofagia-insetivoria. Quanto à sazonalidade, observouse uma alternância dos itens de acordo com as estações do ano: os insetos predominaram na estação seca e o camarão se sobressaiu na estação chuvosa. Considerando os períodos de captura, observou-se hábito crepuscular-noturno, e os horários de atividade também são marcados por diferenças no tipo de alimento consumido, pois o item camarão predominou nas horas de menor luminosidade; o item insetos, nas horas mais claras.The diet and seasonal variations in the feeding of Plagioscion squamosissimus were evaluated. Fishes were captured monthly at the Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, from August of 2004 to July of 2005, examined at a specific time of day. In laboratory, after obtaining the biometric data, fishes were opened and the guts extracted. The stomach contents were analyzed under stereoscopic microscope, and its items were identified and their volume was measured. Occurrence and volumetric frequencies and the food index were calculated. The items were grouped in seven main categories; shrimp and insects were predominant. The item classification made it possible to classify the species as carnivorous with carcinophagous-insectivore tendencies. In respect to seasonal variations, an alteration of the main items was observed according to the seasons,where insects prevailed in the dry season and shrimp stood out in the rainy season. In regards to capture periods, a twilight-nocturnal habit was observed, and activity periods are also marked by differences in the food type consumed, as shrimp prevailed in lower light and insects in brighter times.

  10. A naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase inhibitor derived from Garcinia indica impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Maddox

    Full Text Available The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica, to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories.

  11. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. endophyte isolated from Garcinia nobilis against Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bosco Jouda

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Isolated compounds from Penicillium sp. harbored in G. nobilis exhibited promising antimycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis thus supporting the immensity of the potential of antimycobacterial drug discovery from endophytes from medicinal plants. Penialidin C could further be investigated for antimycobacterial drug development.

  12. Anti-mycobacterial activity of polyketides from Penicillium sp. endophyte isolated from Garcinia nobilis against Mycobacterium smegmatis

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Bosco Jouda; Isabelle Kamga Mawabo; Augustin Notedji; Céline Djama Mbazoa; Jean Nkenfou; Jean Wandji; Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background: According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2014: 5.4 million among men, 3.2 million among women, and 1.0 million among children. There were also 1.5 million TB deaths. Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants ...

  13. A Naturally-Occurring Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor Derived from Garcinia indica Impairs Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Doyère, Valérie; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA) impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories. PMID:23349897

  14. The character in Škola dlja Durakov. From the novel by Saša Sokolov to theatrical adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Marchesini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sokolov’s Shkola dlya Durakov (A School for Fools, 1976 is an extremely complex novel, which “depicts [the] world”, as D. Barton Johnson (1986:640[1] poignantly observes, “through the eyes, and pure, if eccentric, language, of a schizophrenic youth”. How is it possible to translate such linguistic features and the effects they create into another medium? This question lies at the core of my proposal, which aims to approach the problem of intermedial translation from prose to theatre through the presentation of an individual case-study. In fact, A School for Fools has been staged by the director Andrey Moguchy (Formalny Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Russia. With the intention of reproducing Sokolov’s aesthetic construction of illusion, Moguchy introduces a new genre in the theatrical context, the so-called “vizualnaya associaciya” (“visual association”. As the director explained in a recent interview, this original genre recalls the Impressionists’ position in observing and representing nature, in order to obtain the same effectgenerated by the reading of the novel. To comprehend this process better, special attention is devoted to the construction of unusual, hybrid characters, highlighting their constitutive features both in the novel and in the theatrical adaptation. Moreover, this research seeks to enrich discussion of the work of Sokolov and Moguchy. [1] Johnson, D. Barton (1986 “Sasha Sokolov's Twilight Cosmos: Themes and Motifs”, in: Slavic Review, 45, 4 (Winter 1986, pp. 639-649.

  15. Problémy vzdělávání a Waldorfská škola

    OpenAIRE

    Linhart, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with the contemporary problems in education and how Waldorf pedagogy deals with these problems. The thesis is divided into larger theoretical part, which covers the grounds and approaches of Waldorf pedagogy and the Czech standard educational system. I also look into the problems of education in a broader social context. The practical part describes the pilot study carried out at a Waldorf basic school.

  16. Divadlo, Bible a škola. Biblické hry v raném novověku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacková, Magdaléna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2014), s. 177-184 ISSN 0009-0786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P823 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Biblical plays * early modern period * drama * Jesuits * theatre Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  17. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  18. Chicagská sociologická škola a počátky Chicagské univerzity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Jeřábek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of the Chicago School of Sociology in the development of empirical social research. It traces the increase in the significance of the education of doctoral students on American universities at the turn of the 20th century, and the role of philanthropic foundations. It focuses on the contribution of prominent individuals: W. R. Harper, rector and founder of the University of Chicago, obtained top figures and founded journals in some major fields. A. W. Small was the first chair of the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, founded the American Journal of Sociology and wrote the first two textbooks of sociology. W. I. Thomas was responsible for the famous study Polish Peasant in Europe and America and for the theoretical foundations passed on to his successors. In 1916 R. E. Park published a project in which Chicago became a social laboratory and he inspired and was an advisor for numerous doctoral projects that later were published as sociological monographs. The methodologist E. W. Burgess organized empirical research for the school of doctoral studies that emerged in Chicago and successfully worked there for twenty years. It is beyond the scope of one article to discuss also the monographs by doctoral students at the University of Chicago. Paper examines in detail only the monograph by Park, Burgess and McKenzie titled The City.

  19. Trace metal pollution in Eastern Finnmark, Norway and Kola Peninsula, Northwestern Russia as evidenced by studies of lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Dauvalter, V.; Traaen, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The eastern part of Finnmark county in Northern Norway borders against the northwestern part of Russia. On the Russian side are the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company. Sediment cores from two lakes, Hundvatn on the Norwegian side and Shuonijarvi on the Russian side, were analysed as described in the present report. Caesium from Chernobyl was detected in Shuonijarvi sediment. Americium distribution in the sediment was consistent with {sup 210}Pb dating chronology. The last century has seen increased concentrations and fluxes of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Except for Pb, all the fluxes are highest northeast of Nikel. Together with other data this indicates that the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company have been a major source of metal pollution since their start-up. No regional pollution of the metals except Pb is evident in sediment prior to the 20th century. The histories of Pb fluxes and concentrations indicate a pollution history probably exceeding 2000 years. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. SEASONAL IMPACT ANALYSIS ON POPULATION DUE TO CONTINUOUS SULPHUR EMISSIONS FROM SEVERONIKEL SMELTERS OF THE KOLA PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mahura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to investigation of total deposition and loading patterns for population of the North-West Russia and Scandinavian countries due to continuous emissions (following “mild emission scenario” of sulphates from the Cu-Ni smelters (Severonikel enterprise, Murmansk region, Russia. The Lagrangian long-range dispersion model (Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere was run in a long-term mode to simulate atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition over the Northern Hemispheric’s domain north of 10°N, and results were integrated and analyzed in the GIS environment. Analysis was performed on annual and seasonal scales, including depositions, impact on urban areas and calculating individual and collective loadings on population in selected regions ofRussiaand Scandinavian countries.It was found that wet deposition dominates, and it is higher in winter. The North-West Russia is more influenced by the Severonikel emissions compared with the Scandinavian countries. Among urban areas, the Russian cities ofMurmansk(due to its proximity to the source andArkhangelsk(due to dominating atmospheric flows are under the highest impact. The yearly individual loadings on population are the largest (up to 120 kg/person for theMurmanskregion; lower (15 kg/person for territories of the northernNorway, and the smallest (less than 5 kg/person for the easternFinland,KareliaRepublic, andArkhangelskregion. These loadings have distinct seasonal variability with a largest contribution during winter-spring for Russia, spring – for Norway, and autumn – for Finland and Sweden; and the lowest during summer (i.e. less than 10 and 1 kg/person for the Russia and Scandinavian countries, respectively. The yearly collective loadings for population living on the impacted territories inRussia,Finland,Norway, and Swedenare 2628, 140.4, 13, and 10.7 tonnes, respectively.

  1. Podnikatelský plán - soukromá mateřská škola

    OpenAIRE

    Boráňová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This final thesis is regarding the creating and evaluation of the business plan of private nursery school. The theoretical part is about small and medium-sized enterprises and business plan itself. Practical part contains concrete business plan. Crucial parts of the business plan are: analysis of the environment, marketing mix, financial plan, risk analysis.

  2. Kola peninsula radwaste management in the framework of THE Italian-Russian cooperation agreement for global partnership - 59392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, Massimiliano; Izmailov, Dmitry; Spadoni, Antonino; Uryvskiy, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 a Cooperation Agreement, envisaging a grant of 360 Meuro in 10 years, was signed between Italy and Russia in the framework of the 'so-called' Global Partnership Program. So far, in five years of concrete work, a total of 146 Meuro have been engaged through 33 contracts and 121 Meuro have been already paid. Together with other significant lines of activities the management of waste, presently located at Andreeva Bay site, is surely the most important one, not only for the amount of allocated funds (about the half of available ones) but also for the urgency to solve serious environmental problems linked to the actual unsafe conditions of these waste, both as regards possible incidents or malicious attacks from outside. Volume of Low Level and Intermediate Level (LL/IL) waste at Andreeva Bay site are 17000 tons and 3000 tons, respectively for solid and liquid; moreover is expected, during the next 15 years, the production of additional 33000 tons of liquid and 8000 tons of solid, due to the need of demolishing existing facilities and final closing of the site. As regards radwaste management facilities, the solution defined in OBIN (justification of investment) has been analyzed and critically reviewed. After the completion of a conceptual study, the construction of three facilities (solid and liquid treatment ones and a protective structure for storing on site temporarily conditioned waste) was decided and a contract was assigned in 2010 to Ansaldo Nucleare/AtomStroyExport for the detailed design of the above mentioned facilities, which is expected to be completed in 2012. Some important modifications to the initial time schedule have been taken into account and now the operation of the facilities is expected by 2015, two years before the previous estimate. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzie, Emeka E.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts

  4. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts.

  5. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  6. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Haque, A.M.I.; Cherubini, R.

    1996-01-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Modulatory role of kolaviron in phenytoin-induced hepatic and testicular dysfunctions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olatunde; Adedara, Isaac A; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi A; Bakare, Oluwafemi S; Egun, Christa; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-03-01

    Phenytoin, an anticonvulsant agent used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects on the liver and testes. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron (KV, a bioflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) against hepatic and testicular damage in rats exposed to phenytoin. The study consisted of four groups of six rats per group. Group I rats received 2 mL/kg of corn alone while group II received 75 mg/kg of phenytoin (PHT) alone. Groups III and IV were co-treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg KV) and vitamin E (500 mg/kg VTE), respectively, for 14 days. The antioxidant status, hepatic and reproductive functional parameters were subsequently determined. PHT treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels along with significant reduction in the hepatic and testicular levels of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, PHT exposure elicited significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The significant reduction in seminal epithelium thickness and the diameter of seminiferous tubules was accompanied with marked decrease in sperm motility, sperm count, and viability in PHT-treated rats. However, antioxidant status and the functional indices of liver and testes were restored to near control levels in rats co-treated with KV and VTE. In conclusion, KV and VTE protect the liver and testes against functional impairment due to PHT treatment.

  8. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  9. Species spectrum, diversity profile and infection indices of helminth parasite fauna of Chirruh snowtrout, Schizothorax esocinus (Heckel) in lake ecosystems of Kashmir Himalayas-Do similarity and host-parasite associations arise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2013-09-01

    In order to assess the species richness and diversity profile of helminth parasite fauna in an endemic fish, an investigation was carried out in two urban and two rural lakes of Kashmir. Overall nine species of helminth parasites were observed in four lakes. Of these three were autogenic and six were allogenic. Heteroxenous parasite species were more in number than monoxenous species. Results showed significant differences in heteroxenous / monoxenous ratio between different lakes. Core species (Prevalence > 20) were only found in hypertrophic lake (Anchar Lake). Overall, majority of helminth species were either secondary or satellite species. Prevalence of some helminth parasites showed significant differences in different lakes. In addition mean intensity showed significant differences between autogenic and allogenic parasites (P Diversity indices showed significant variation between different lakes. Maximum helminth species per host was in Anchar Lake. Finally we concluded that helminth parasite fauna showed significant differences in species richness and infection indices between different lakes. Diversity profile was higher in Anchar Lake in comparison to other three lakes. The results clearly show that environmental features of lake ecosystems have got an impact on distribution pattern of helminth parasites in S. esocinus. We suggest comparative parasitological study should be taken between different species of fish in order to have a clear picture regarding the species composition of helminth species in this region. Also we need to characterize the species spectrum of parasitic worms in fish of freshwater bodies of this region as well as other similar type of climatic zones because parasite fauna is an integral part of the inventory of biodiversity and as possible regulators of host populations in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Formulação de uma dieta adequada à produção de Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) e avaliação da sua performance zootécnica.

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Mafalda Maximino Rojão Sobreiro

    2015-01-01

    Os peixes Garra rufa (ciprinídeos) são muito utilizados em tratamentos de pele em institutos de beleza e spas. Esta espécie de água doce é nativa da Eurásia e tem uma grande área de distribuição, incluindo as bacias hidrográficas na Turquia e Irão. Com a procura crescente pela prática de ictioterapia, o valor comercial desta espécie tem vindo a aumentar, despertando um grande interesse por parte dos aquacultores, apesar dos métodos de produção serem ainda desconhecidos. Deste modo, é de grand...

  11. Espectro alimentar e variação sazonal da dieta de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.2140 Food spectrum and seasonal variation of the diet of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae in Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.2140

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dieta e as variações sazonais na alimentação de Plagioscion squamosissimus, capturados mensalmente, na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, entre agosto de 2004 e julho de 2005, com despescas em horários específicos. Em laboratório, após a biometria, os peixes foram abertos e eviscerados. Sob microscópio estereoscópico, analisaram-se os conteúdos estomacais, cujos itens, depois de identificados, tiveram o seu volume medido. Foram calculadas as frequências de ocorrência e volumétrica e o índice alimentar. Agruparam-se os itens em sete categorias principais, e camarão e insetos foram as predominantes. A categorização dos itens permitiu classificar a espécie como carnívora com tendência a carcinofagia-insetivoria. Quanto à sazonalidade, observou-se uma alternância dos itens de acordo com as estações do ano: os insetos predominaram na estação seca e o camarão se sobressaiu na estação chuvosa. Considerando os períodos de captura, observou-se hábito crepuscular-noturno, e os horários de atividade também são marcados por diferenças no tipo de alimento consumido, pois o item camarão predominou nas horas de menor luminosidade; o item insetos, nas horas mais claras.The diet and seasonal variations in the feeding of Plagioscion squamosissimus were evaluated. Fishes were captured monthly at the Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, from August of 2004 to July of 2005, examined at a specific time of day. In laboratory, after obtaining the biometric data, fishes were opened and the guts extracted. The stomach contents were analyzed under stereoscopic microscope, and its items were identified and their volume was measured. Occurrence and volumetric frequencies and the food index were calculated. The items were grouped in seven main categories; shrimp and insects were predominant. The item classification made it possible to classify the species as carnivorous with carcinophagous-insectivore tendencies. In respect to seasonal variations, an alteration of the main items was observed according to the seasons, where insects prevailed in the dry season and shrimp stood out in the rainy season. In regards to capture periods, a twilight-nocturnal habit was observed, and activity periods are also marked by differences in the food type consumed, as shrimp prevailed in lower light and insects in brighter times.

  12. Karyoevolutionary and karyosystematic considerations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic studies have helped in clarifying the problem of disagreement amongst taxonomists on the identity of a given species. Cytogenetic studies were performed on two fishes of the genus Schizothorax viz. Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Schizothorax niger Heckel (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) obtained from ...

  13. Anti-Glycemic and Anti-Hepatotoxic Effects of Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Against HFD/STZ-Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naymul

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on anti-glycemic and anti-hepatotoxic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR on five weeks high-fat diet (HFD / single dose streptozotocin (STZ 30 mg/kg BW induced male ICR diabetic mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=6, normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic groups treated with MVR 100, 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide 60 mg/kg BW for one week. After the treatment, lipid profile, glycogen and bilirubin contents, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT were measured in plasma and/or liver tissues. MVR and glibenclamide treatment to HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice significantly reduced their plasma glucose, plasma lipid profile, and hepatic lipid profile (P<0.05. Increased hepatic glycogen content indicates improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, oxidative damage markers were ameliorated in MVR- and glibenclamide-treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. MVR with phenolic compounds content of 75 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant potential of 303 mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight acted as a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative damage.

  14. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan UV-Vis dan FTIR, dan menunjukkan absorpsi pada panjang gelombang 392 nm untuk kulit manggis dan 413 nm untuk Rhoeo spathacea. TiO2 disintesis menggunakan metode co-precipitation. Ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan adalah 11 nm untuk anatase and 54,5 nm untuk rutile dengan menggunakan persamaan Scherrer. DSSC difabrikasi dengan variasi fraksi volume TiO2 anatase dan rutile. DSSC diuji dibawah cahaya matahari dengan daya sebesar 17 mW/cm2. Kurva arus-tegangan (I-V DSSC yang dihasilkan fraksi volume 75%:25% memperlihatkan hasil terbaik dibanding yang lain. Efisiensi tertinggi adalah 0.037% dan 0.013% dihasilkan oleh DSSC dengan pewarna alami dari kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea.

  15. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile Dengan Garcinia Mangostana Dan Rhoeo Spathacea Sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Agustini, Sustia

    2013-01-01

    Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, USAha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna terse...

  16. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-01-01

    Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna terse...

  17. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  18. Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Xanthones Obtained via Semi-Synthetic Modification of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Narasimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C, alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed high anti-bacterial activity whereas I I showed the highest anti-fungal activity. Due to their microbicidal potential, modified α-mangostin derivatives could be utilized as active anti-microbial agents in materials for the biomedical and food industry.

  19. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  20. Preparation and Response to the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Nigeria-The Experience of a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimie Ogoina

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak elicited global attention and challenged health systems around the world, Nigeria inclusive. We hereby report the preparation and response to the outbreak by a tertiary teaching hospital in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.Between 4th August and 31st October 2014, we conducted a mixed cross sectional and qualitative study to ascertain the EVD-related fear, myths and misconceptions among healthcare workers (HCWs, and to evaluate the plans, activities and challenges faced by the hospital during the outbreak. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire as well as by documented observations during the outbreak. HCWs were asked to rate their fear of EVD from 1 (no fear to 10 (highest fear.Out of 189 respondents, majority (>75% reported uncertainty about the myth that EVD can be prevented by drinking salt water or eating Garcinia kola, while 82% of respondents believed that EVD can be prevented by avoiding crowded places. About 40% of respondents expressed fear ratings of EVD of ≥ 7 out of 10. In response to the outbreak, the hospital established an EVD response team, organised EVD-sensitization and training programmes and commenced routine EVD surveillance activities. An EVD-isolation ward was constructed from an existing ward, a field incinerator was designed, hand sanitizers were produced locally and personal protective equipment were procured. No case of EVD was reported in the hospital, although three false alarms caused panic. Some HCWs adopted overly protective and avoidance behaviours, but these behaviours were abandoned after the outbreak was declared over.Our results suggest that the fear, myth and misconceptions were common among HCW during the outbreak. The EVD outbreak, however, helped to strengthen gaps in infection control and emergency preparedness in the hospital. Strategies to allay fear are required to contain future outbreaks of EVD in Nigeria hospitals.

  1. Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Wong, Ling Shing; Tan, Ai Li; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in Malaysia. As heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in C. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. In this study, the heavy metal accumulation in C. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. Samples of C. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of six heavy metals namely Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The degree of anthropogenic influence was assessed by calculating the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The heavy metal uptake into the plant was estimated through the calculation of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and correlation study. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to determine the potential health risk of consuming C. asiatica. The results showed that the overall surface soil was polluted by Cd, Cu and Pb, while the uptake of Zn and Ni by the plants was high. The value of EDI and THQ showed that the potential of Pb toxicity in C. asiatica was high as well. As heavy metal accumulation was confirmed in C. asiatica, daily consumption of the plant derived from polluted sites in Malaysia was not recommended.

  2. Niobium, tantalum and titanium extraction from natural and technogenic raw materials of the Kola Peninsula by liquid-liquid extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassikova, N.I.; Kassikov, A.G.; Balabanov, Yu.I.; Petrov, V.B.; Kalinnikov, V.T.

    2003-01-01

    Such rare metals as niobium and tantalum are important strategic materials underlying many of the modern advanced technologies. Since the extraction and processing of rare metal concentrates from own deposits has diminished abruptly in recent years, it is essential to look into the possibility of extracting these elements from various production wastes. This work discusses liquid-liquid extraction and purification of niobium, tantalum and titanium from process solutions of loparite, perovskite and sphene concentrate decomposition with sulphuric and hydrochloric acids; niobium from lithium niobate production wastes decomposed by hydrochloric acid; and tantalum from tantalum capacitor and heat-resistant alloy wastes. (Original)

  3. Wuerzburská škola: reinterpretace jejích výsledků z pozic současné kognitivní psychologie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Miluše

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2001), s. 23-55 ISSN 1211-216X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : history of psychology * psychology of the 20th century * Wuerzburg's school Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. Features in the Lipid Status of Two Generations of Fingerlings (0+ of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. Inhabiting the Arenga River (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina N. Nemova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research focused on determining the lipid status of salmon fingerlings (0+ in early development after dispersal form groups of spawning nests in biotopes of different hydrological conditions. The revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of phospholipids and fatty acids among two generations of Atlantic salmon fingerlings (0+ living in different biotopes of the Arenga River (a tributary of the Varzuga River may be associated with the peculiarities of their genetically determined processes of the biosynthesis and modification of individual lipid classes and trophoecological factors (food spectrum, quality and availability of food objects, and hydrological regime. The research was organized to observe the dynamics of these developmental changes from ages 0+ to 2+.

  5. The model of the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of a out-of-pile test loop; Model thermohidraulickog ponasanja vanreaktorskog exksperimentalnog cirkulacionog kola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehauc, A; Stosic, Z [Institut za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric, Voinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    A complex circulation loop was modeled and a simulation program developed for the determination of the pressure, temperature, velocity and flow rate distribution in legs of the loop. The model was used to study the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of an out-of-pile test loop at IBK-ITE. For a given set of conditions in the test section, the model yields data on all the operating modes possible with the existing control system and in consequence on the optimum operating conditions for the loop as a whole. (author)

  6. Podnikatelský záměr: Soukromá škola se zaměřením na e-sport

    OpenAIRE

    Lipták, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation thesis write up the bussines model to create private high school focus on e-sport. Theoretical part is focus on introduce basic information about e-sport and importance of this plan. Practical part include business plan, marketing mix, market analysis by Porters model, factors analysis by SLEPT, financial analysis with risk analysis and business model support by creative economy and knowledge management.

  7. Influence of rural processing methods and postharvest storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... lower in white plastic storage container for coated kola nut while green plastic container reduced weight ... established and because of the high premium value attached to C. ..... non-availability of kola nut all the year round.

  8. Preliminary studies on the use of kolanuts (cola nitida) for soft drink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola soft drink were ...

  9. AcEST: BP921787 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 37 0.49 tr|O04793|O04793_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... ...cyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... 36 0.84 tr|B8BDB0|B8BDB0_ORYSI Putative uncharacterized protein ...LRFAGAGDEINRGRTVWR 285 >tr|O04793|O04793_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mango... LR A EINRGRTVW+ Sbjct: 248 QRQFLHCLRFAGNGNEINRGRTVWR 272 >tr|O04792|O04792_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mango

  10. Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Metanol Daun Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L. Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusran Yusran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants gotu kola (Centella Asiatica L .Urban is a wild plant that efficacious as remedies traditional cure disease tuberculosis (TB.TB is disease contagious infection caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis. Research aims to understand the ability extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and determines the concentration optimal extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and to know the comparison between extract methanol leaves gotu kola red with an extract methanol leaves gotu kola green in inhibits the activity of mycobacterium tuberculosis.Extraction done with the methods maceration use methanol and continued with evaporation until obtained extract viscous .Testing antibacterial activity done in a microscopic observation drug susceptibility ( mods use plate petri dish 24 hole with the variation of concentration ie 20%,40%, 60%, 80% and 100%.The results of testing show that extracts methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green positive capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis with inhibition optimal in concentration 80 % and 100 % characterized by the absence of growth bacteria colonies which are (- or 0 %.Extract methanol leaves gotu kola green capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis better than extract methanol leaves gotu kola red seen in concentration 40% and 60%.

  11. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  13. The potential of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana peel extract, combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft, to reduce ridge resorption and alveolar bone regeneration in preserving the tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The induction of MPEs and DFBBX is effective in reducing inflammation, lowering osteoclasts, decreasing alveolar bone resorption, and also increasing BMP2 expression and alveolar bone regeneration.

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and binding energies of Be 1s and O 1s core levels in clinobarylite, BaBe2Si2O7, from Khibiny massif, Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Sapozhnikov, V.K.; Yakovenchuk, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of BaBe 2 Si 2 O 7 , clinobarylite, has been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence band of the crystal is mainly formed by Ba 5p, Ba 3s and O 2s states. At higher binding energies the emission lines related to the Si 2p, Be 1s, Si 2s, O 1s and numerous Ba-related states were analyzed in the photoemission spectrum. The Si KLL Auger line has been measured under excitation by the bremsstrahlung X-rays from the Al anode. Chemical bonding effects for Be 1s core level have been considered by comparison with electronic parameters measured for other beryllium containing oxides

  15. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.; Genovese, Alessandro; Falqui, Andrea; Hawthorne, F. C.; Cá mara, F.

    2017-01-01

    gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking

  16. Mezníky ve vývoji současného kola mnohostranných liberalizačních jednání

    OpenAIRE

    Vašková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the current round of WTO negotiations. The aim of thesis is to identify the most important milestones of Doha Round development. Particular chapters are devoted to identified milestones, which are the most important ministerial conferences. The thesis describes the process and the outcomes of these conferences and the potential impact of outputs on international trade.

  17. Vysoká škola politická a sociální v systému Národní fronty (1945-1949/1952)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devátá, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 27 (2010), s. 52-63 ISSN 1211-8184 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP410/10/2060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : National front * education policy * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AB - History

  18. AcEST: BP915195 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -25 tr|O04792|O04792_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... 119 1e-25 tr|B8BDB0|B8BDB0_ORYSI Put...04793_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangost... 117 3e-25 tr|B8LS31|B8LS31_PICSI Putative uncharact...tr|O04792|O04792_9ROSI Acyl-ACP thioesterase OS=Garcinia mangostana GN=FatA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 352 Score =

  19. The suitability of common compressibility equations for characterizing plasticity of diverse powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-10-30

    The analysis of powder compressibility data yields useful information for characterizing compaction behavior and mechanical properties of powders, especially plasticity. Among the many compressibility equations proposed in powder compaction research, the Heckel equation and the Kawakita equation are the most commonly used, despite their known limitations. Systematic evaluation of the performance in analyzing compressibility data suggested the Kuentz-Leuenberger equation is superior to both the Heckel equation and the Kawakita equation for characterizing plasticity of powders exhibiting a wide range of mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of particle density and initial volume on mathematical compression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    In the calculation of the coefficients of compression models for powders either the initial volume or the particle density is introduced as a normalising factor. The influence of these normalising factors is, however, widely different on coefficients derived from the Kawakita, Walker and Heckel...... equations. The problems are illustrated by investigations on compaction profiles of 17 materials with different molecular structures and particle densities. It is shown that the particle density of materials with covalent bonds in the Heckel model acts as a key parameter with a dominating influence...

  1. Antibacterial properties of Uvaria chamae, Congronema latifolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold and hot water extracts of G. kola and U. chamae moderately inhibited the growth of S. aureus and S. pyogenes with zone of inhibition of between 9 – 15 mm. V. amygdalina, G. kola and C. latifolium slightly inhibited S. pyogenes and E. coli with a zone of clearing of between 7 -13 mm. Cold or hot ethanol extracts of U.

  2. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-03-01

    Mar 1, 2006 ... muslim population, kola nut are popular masticatory. (Russel, 1955). They are important in various social and religions customs and may also be used to counteract hunger and thirst. In Nigeria, for example, the rate consumption of kola nut especially by students is very high as the principal stimulant to keep ...

  3. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  4. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  5. SEECOND SEMESSTEER 2008/2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Joe

    Cross River State. 2. Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar ... Ibekwe et al: Effects of Garcinia seed diet on performance of broilers chicks. 133 .... depressed appetite and water intake caused.

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced production of glucose oxidase from UVmutant of Aspergillus niger · EMAIL ... bitter cola (Garcinia cola) and alligator pepper (Afromomum melegueta) ... Comparison of blood indices in healthy and fungal infected Caspian salmon ...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated for...

  8. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... plant-based drug development: a case study on Garcinia lucida tree species ... and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical ... Standard Deviation values were higher, suggesting that each tree had its ...

  9. Efficacy of four plant extracts in the control of root rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia cola) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of root rot of cowpea caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was carried out in vitro and in the field (in vivo). They were evaluated for their antifungal activity over P.

  10. Antioxidant benzophenones and xanthones from the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant benzophenones and xanthones from the root bark of Garcinia smeathmannii. Alain Meli Lannang, Justin Komguem, Fernande Ngounou Ngninzeko, Jean Gustave Tangmouo, David Lontsi, Asma Ajaz, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Beiban Luc Sondengam, Atta -ur-Rahman ...

  11. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  12. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  13. Effects of Native and Pregelatinised Fonio starches on compression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native and modified (pregelatinised) Fonio starches were evaluated as binding agents in comparison with maize starch B.P. in paracetamol tablet formulations. Compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and assessed by the compression equation of Heckel. The mechanical ...

  14. A Systematic Study on Processing Problems and In vitro Release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its flowability and compressibility were determined using Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger relationships. Tablets were prepared from the powder by direct compression and wet granulation techniques and characterized. Results: Kawakita analysis revealed lower cohesiveness of granules (3.877 ± 0.890) compared to the ...

  15. FORMULASI FLAKES TEPUNG KOMPOSIT PATI GARUT DAN TEPUNG SINGKONG DENGAN PENAMBAHAN PEGAGAN SEBAGAI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL SARAPAN ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Pratama Sianturi; Sri Anna Marliyati

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTGotu Kola is a herbal plant that can improve cognitive ability. This study aims to find a flakes formulas of composite flour of arrowroot starch and cassava flour with addition of gotu kola as a functional food for elementary school children’s breakfast. The tests show that the final selected formula flakes (FTA) are the flakes made of 60% arrowroot starch, 40% of cassava flour, with 2.5% addition of gotu kola. Acceptance test show that 91.67% of consumer target accept FTA. The result...

  16. Article 3 Adu-Boahen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    overlord, in the interior of Ghana during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. ... dependencies into the capitalist world economy. 5. The imperial .... of kola nuts to external markets in Hausaland and the Western. Sudan. In 1875 the ...

  17. Chinua Achebe in Malawi: Things Fall Apart and pan-Afrlcanlsm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mundane: have you brought any kola-nuts?; what exactly does Achebe mean by .... terminology) task could be said to have been created by the Presidential fiat ..... of them as follows: 'President Banda indeed encourages the performance of.

  18. International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Another social use of kola nut is that it is chewed to ease the pangs of ... compared to its disadvantages. ..... Communication Technologies (ICT), through which instant communication with ... Academic HOD, English, College of Education Oju,.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CAFFEIN MINATION OF CAFFEINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    nut market ('Yangoro), Kano. The moistur ... beverages (Kuoame and Scande, 2006). The use of kola ... is an important part of traditional spiritu practice of .... without food; stimulating a weak heart, weakness ..... Communications. p1. South, C.

  20. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-19

    Oct 19, 2004 ... Balanogastris kolae (Desbr). was investigated in the laboratory. The plant material was ... weaker concentration of such synthetic insecticides are utilized ... extracts from Neem (A. indica), pepper (Pipper total damage (100 ...

  1. Повесть о Феодорите Кольском(The Tale of Feodorit Kol'skij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kalugin

    1998-02-01

    On the whole, the reliability of Kurbskij's story is confirmed by other sources. It is a valuable testimony by a contemporary, and it con-tains unique facts about the colonization and conversion of the Kola Pen- insula.

  2. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keyword: Household roles, kolanut, production, marketing ..... management system (i.e. they manage their kola farm by themselves), while 1.2% of ... obvious because land preparation is a tedious operation, hence not many women.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2005-10-03

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.

  4. Soil Fertility Status under Different Tree Cropping System in a Southwestern Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement O. OGUNKUNLE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree cropping has been known to bring about changes in edaphic component among other components of the ecosystem through their interactions with the soil and soil faunas. Premised on this, this study assessed the effects of sole cropping of teak and intercropping of cocoa and kola on the soil fertility status. The study was carried out using stratified-randomed sampling technique for the study plots in all the sampling sites. Three sampling sites consisting of four (4-4oo m2 sampling plots each were established in which vegetation and some soil parameters were assessed. Results analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of leaves decomposition of cocoa and kola improved the organic matter content of the soil under the cocoa/kola site. Considerable improvement in soil fertility was enjoyed in the cocoa/kola site due to the large girth sizes and basal area of trees present in the cocoa/kola site while soil under the sole cropping of teak was impoverished. The degradation effects was due to the high rate of nutrient uptake of the teak, organic matter content was high in the forest site (9.12% and cocoa/kola site (7.34 while the least was in the teak site (3.04%. A very strong correlation existed between organic matter content and some vegetation parameters.

  5. Sledování antropometrických charakteristik u 7-letých dětí v závislosti na faktorech zevního prostředí (rodina, škola). Projekt WHO: Monitorování dětské obezity.

    OpenAIRE

    Guttenbergerová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this diploma thesis is based on European study: Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). It is WHO Europe project. In the Czech Republic is this project lead by Institute of Endocrinology. The goal of this work is to determine childhood obesity prevalence and to monitor prevalence in relation to family and school environment. Obesity in children is an important health problem, accelerating throughout the world with particularly alarming trends in Europe. It causes a wide...

  6. Tajemná souvislost dvou živlů. Vídeňská škola v počátcích moderního hodnocení českého gotického umění

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2004), s. 17-20 ISSN 0418-5129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8033913 Keywords : Vienna school of art history * Gothic * Czech nationalism Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. Letní škola kvantitativních metod v sociálních vědách (École d´été de Lille en Méthodes Quantitatives des Sciences Sociales)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaloupková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2009), s. 1143-1144 ISSN 0038-0288. [École d´été de Lille en Méthodes Quantitatives des Sciences Sociales. Lille, 02.07.2009-09.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB700280802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : longitudinal data * biographical data Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2009

  8. První mezinárodní letní škola empirického výzkumu ve vzdělání v Bambergu: Longitudinální výzkumy předškolního a mladšího školního věku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simonová, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2007), s. 491-492 ISSN 0038-0288. [1st International Bamberg Summer School in Empirical Education Research: Longitudinal studies – Preschool and Primary School Age. Bamberg, 24.07.2006-28.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA403/06/1241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : longitudinal survey * education Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.169, year: 2007

  9. Characterization of powders up to date laws of compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathala, B.; Nicolas, G.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in order to be able to describe the relationship d = f(P) of the compression phase of a powder in a more or less empirical fashion. Among the different laws, that of Heckel is the more frequently applied. The inconvenience of this, however, is that it does not bear witness to the behavior of the powder at extremely low pressure. Two new laws are described hereinafter (a complement to Heckel's Law and a new model), in attempt to solve this problem. The outcome of these equations forms the basis of the identification of the analysed powder, and its statistical sample testing contributes to product quality control. (author)

  10. Evaluation of powder and tableting properties of chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Brink, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the process of tablet formation and the properties of the resulting tablets for 3 N-deacetylated chitosans, with a degree of deacetylation of 80%, 85%, or 90%. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight were studied. The process of tablet formation was analyzed by 3-D modeling, Heckel analysis, the pressure time function, and energy calculations in combination with elastic re...

  11. Analysis of Pharmaceutical Excipient MCC Avicel PH102 Using Compaction Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peciar Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the characterization of the tabletting process and analysis one of the most common pharmaceutical excipients MCC Avicel PH102 by Heckel, Kawakita, Cooper-Eaton and Adams compaction equations. Experimental material was determined by measuring its parameters as particle size distribution, angle of wall friction and flow properties and for more detailed characteristics of the material particles, microscopy images of the powder before and after compressing were created.

  12. Assessment of Albizia zygia gum as binding agent in tablet formulations

    OpenAIRE

    ODEKU, OLUWATOYIN A.

    2005-01-01

    Albizia gum has been evaluated as a binding agent in tablet formulations in comparison with gelatin BP. Compressional properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel and Kawakita as assessment parameters, while the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets. Drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution time as assessment parameters. Fo...

  13. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  14. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  15. Risks and risks mitigations in the supply chain of mangosteen: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astuti, R.; Arkeman, M.M.Y.; Poerwanto, R.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is the highly demanded fruit for export commodity from Indonesia. The biggest mangosteen production center in Indonesia is West Java Province. The development of the mangosteen supply chain in Indonesia, particularly in West Java Province is heavily affected by

  16. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iisr

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... with marijuana (Cannabis sativa L). Figures 1 and 2 represent the banding pattern by Garcinia species indi- cating considerable level of polymorphism. In ISSR profiling, largest number of monomorphic bands were produced by primers 810 and 815 (3 bands), whereas primers 816 and 848a produced only ...

  17. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods – a case study of 'kokum' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  18. In vivo carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Garcinia hombroniana, known as “manggis hutan” (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves ...

  19. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  20. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Atanasova, L.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Gams, W.; Komon-Zelazowska, M.; Theelen, B.; Muller, W.H.; Boekhout, T.; Druzhinina, I.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2

  1. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  2. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 20, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant benzophenones and xanthones from the root bark of Garcinia smeathmannii · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Alain Meli Lannang, Justin Komguem, Fernande Ngounou Ngninzeko, Jean Gustave Tangmouo, David Lontsi, Asma Ajaz, ...

  3. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects; Ocorrencia de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos quimicos e farmacologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  4. Ocorrência de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos químicos e farmacológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Oliveira Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs.

  5. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  6. Ocorrência de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos químicos e farmacológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho,Mário Geraldo de; Silva,Tania Maria Sarmento da

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ofokansi, KC. Vol 4, No 1 (2006) - Articles Effects of garcinia kolaseed extract on the in-vitro anti bacterial action of some penicillin analogues. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  8. 505-IJBCS-Article - Omotayo O Dosumu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    (Sodom apple), Carica papaya, Citrus lemon,. Garcinia indica .... cheese products but care must be taken to use the extract at ... cattapa on the brine shrimps are similar, i.e. high toxicity. .... the above factors i.e. cost and effectiveness must be ...

  9. Regional probabilistic nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment by integration of mathematical modelling land GIS-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigina, O.; Baklanov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula, Russian Arctic exceeds all other regions in the world in the number of nuclear reactors. The study was aimed at estimating possible radiation risks to the population in the Nordic countries in case of a severe accident in the Kola Peninsula. A new approach based on probabilistic analysis of modelled possible pathways of radionuclide transport and precipitation was developed. For the general population, Finland is at most risk with respect to the Kola NPP, because of: high population density or proximity to the radiation-risk sites and relatively high probability of an airflow trajectory there, and precipitation. After considering the critical group, northern counties in Norway, Finland and Sweden appear to be most vulnerable. (au)

  10. AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. DAN DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.Urb TERHADAP KELARUTAN KALSIUM BATU GINJAL SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Swintari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soursop (Annona muricata L. and gotu kola (Centella asiatica L.Urb is a plant that can be used as a laxative medicine kidney stones. This is because of the content of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, especially the leaf section. The use of a combination of soursop leaf extract and gotu kola can improve their effectiveness in order to remove calcium kidney stones. Therefore, this study aims to determine the activity and to determine dose combination soursop leaf ethanol extract (SS and gotu kola leaf (GK which is effective for dissolving potassium kidney stones. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96% then subsequently tested phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiles on each extract. Results chromatogram showed the extract containing flavonoids. Testing the activity of the combination of soursop and gotu kola extract performed using seven treatments, combination 1 (SS 1% + GK 7.5% , a combination of 2 (SS  0.5% + GK 3.75%, the combination of 3 (SS 0, 25% + GK 1.875%, single soursop leaf extract (1%, single gotu kola extract (7.5%, negative control (aquadest and positive control (Batugin elixir. Kidney stones are then put as much as 100 mg in each treatment and incubated for 6 hours (37 ℃. Results filtrate then didestruksi and dissolved calcium levels measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the combination soursop leaf ethanol extract and gotu kola leaf extract with a combination of 2 (SS 0.5% + GK 3.75% is an effective combination of the ability to dissolve calcium kidney stones in vitro.

  11. Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp. (Nematoda : Cystidicolidae) from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2000-02-01

    A new nematode, Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp., is described on the basis of the specimens recovered from the intestine of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel) (Poeciliidae, Cyprinodontiformes) from 3 rivers of the Papaloapan River basin (type locality La Basura River), Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz State, Mexico. It differs from its congeners mainly in having the spination of the cuticle separated into 4 longitudinal sectors, each with posteriorly diminishing numbers of larger spines at the anterior part of body. It is the first species of Spinitectus described from a poeciliid fish and the second reported from freshwater fishes in Mexico.

  12. Anmeldelser af litteratur om den græsk-romerske oldtid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasilnikoff, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelser af: S. Cuomo, Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity, Cambridge UP, 2007. J. P. Oleson, The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, Oxford UP, 2008. W. Heckel, The Conquests of alexander the Great, Cambridge 2008. J. D. Lewis, Solon the Think....... Political Thought in Archaic Athens. Duckworth 2008. P. Liddel, Civic Obligation and Indivudual Liberty in Ancient Athens, Oxford UP, 2007 F. Hardy, Revenge in Athenian Culture, Duckworth 2008.   Udgivelsesdato: forår 2009...

  13. Communal and Ethnic Clashes in Nigeria: The Case of the Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yoruba and the Hausa are among the largest, politically active and commercially inclined ethnic groups in Nigeria. While the Hausa live in the north of the country, the Yoruba dwell in the south western part. The trade in cattle and kola nuts brought many Hausa to settle in the Remo-Yoruba town of Sagamu. Over the ...

  14. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y.V.; Zaitsev, S.I.; Tarankov, G.A. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  15. Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is caffeine? Caffeine is a bitter substance that occurs naturally in more than 60 plants including Coffee beans Tea leaves Kola nuts, ... chocolate products There is also synthetic (man-made) caffeine, which is added to some medicines, foods, and ...

  16. Herbal weight-loss products: how informed are we?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... among adults who had seriously attempted to lose weight, 44.9% of women and ... as the advertising and labelling claims which are made about their efficacy and .... Safety assessment of kola nut extract as a food ingredient.

  17. Chromatographic and anti-motility studies on extracts of Loranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-motility properties of the leaves of African mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (Linn), Loranthaceae harvested from Kola acuminate host tree was studied by the charcoal meal test in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 of the methanol extract was determined in mice by the Locke's method. The phytochemical constituents of ...

  18. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including Central and South America, the West Indies, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The vast ... equivalent to tea, coffee, maté and cocoa. ... Kola nuts used for this study were fresh Cola nitida seeds (100g) procured in a local market in Ile-Ife,.

  19. In vitro study of the interaction between some fluoroquinolones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cup diffusion method (CD) was used to evaluate the in vitro interaction of some fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and levofloxacin) with extracts of Kola nitida seed (KNS) against a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs was determined separately and in ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kola, MZ. Vol 20, No 1 (2014) - Articles Imperative Role of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Regenerative Therapies: A Systematic Review Abstract PDF · Vol 21, No 1 (2015) - Articles Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current Knowledge and Clinical Perspectives Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1117-6806. AJOL African ...

  1. Nigerian Journal of Surgery - Vol 20, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imperative Role of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Regenerative Therapies: A Systematic Review · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Kabir, M Gupta, A Aggarwal, D Sharma, A Sarin, MZ Kola, 1-8 ...

  2. Integration tendencies and potential of North in problem of radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, V.N.; Bichuk, N.I.; Zajtsev, V.G.; Melikhova, G.S.; Pavlov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Problems of underground solid radioactive waste disposal construction in Kola peninsula (Russian Federation) are considered. Several disposal sites are proposed. Special NUCRUS 95410 project was created in 1996 which reflects complex comparative investigations of the most prospective sites. Economic, political, social and scientific aspects are studied

  3. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  4. K analýze Skopského apoštola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Štefan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2-3 (2010), s. 107-113 ISSN 1802-825X. [Škola, jazyk a literatura 2010. Ústí nad Labem, 27.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA405/08/1582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : paleoslavistics * textology Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  5. Knowledge and practice of condom in preventing HIV/AIDS infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the studies on HIV/AIDS and condom use carried out ... Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in Kola Duba, Chuahig and Dabat towns ... Results: the level of knowledge of commercial sex workers about HIV/AIDS ...

  6. Philosophical Foundations of Reform in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Kola

    2008-01-01

    Kola Babarinde's article opens with a quotation on the theory of change credited to one of the master of classical tradition in the history of the idea. Heraclitus of Ephesus flourished about 500 B.C. Although, little is known about him, he became famous for his metaphysical doctrine that everything is in a state of flux, his comparing all things…

  7. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y V; Zaitsev, S I; Tarankov, G A [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  8. Statistical analysis of the vibration loading of the reactor internals and fuel assemblies of reactor units type WWER-440 from deferent projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.; Anikeev, J.; Pljush, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Vibration noise instrument channels; 2) Vibration loading characteristics of control assemblies, internals and design peculiarities of internals of WWER-440 deferent projects; 3) Coolant flow rate through the reactor, reactor core, fuel assemblies and control assemblies for different projects WWER-440 and 4) Noise measurements of coolant speed per channel. The change of auto power spectrum density of absolute displacement detector signal for the last 12 years of SUS monitoring of the Kola NPP unit 2; the coherence functions groups between two SPND of the same level for the Kola NPP unit 1; the measured coolant flow rate at Paks NPP and the auto power spectrum density group of SPND signals from 11 neutron measuring channels of the Kola NPP unit 1 are given. The main factors of vibration loading of internals and fuel assemblies for Kola NPP units 1-4, Bohunice NPP units 1 and 2 and Novovoronezh NPP units 3 and 4 are also discussed

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    the knowledge of the Igbo people on kolanut traditions and to boost the honour ... Nzeako (1974:5) supports ... God the creator who lives in heaven come and eat kola. Our .... who meet another in a work place, even on the road if one happens.

  10. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science - Vol 13, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in ... Nutrient release patterns of kola pod husk and pacesetter grade b fertilizer during incubation in the laboratory · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinomas (68.4%) were the most common cancers reported, mostly affecting the oral cavity (20.3%). Carcinomas were associated with farmers, kola nut chewers and tobacco users in this region, while kaposi sarcoma was the only cancer associated with HIV-positive patients. The overall mean duration of symptoms for ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kola-Oladiji, KI. Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Effect of Pre-Treatments on the Germination Capacity and Early Growth of Dacryodes Edulis at Nursery Stage Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2014) - Articles Gender analysis of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection, processing and marreting in rural enclaves of Omo biosphere, ...

  13. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rattus sp. Low concentrations of kola nut extract stimulated the heart by increasing rate and force of contraction as well as metabolic rate. Higher concentrations reduced rate and amplitude of beat resulting, at still higher concentrations in heart failure. Keywords: Kolanut, extract, basal metabolic rate, mammalian heart ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adejobi, KB. Vol 4, No 1 (2010) - Articles Effect of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus (Fusarium Spp) Isolated from Kola Nuts Abstract. ISSN: 1597-913X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  15. Evaluation of possible means to stop production of nuclear power in northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaugen, Aud K.

    2007-08-01

    This note illuminates the status and some elements in the Russian efforts on use of nuclear power, with special emphasis on northwest Russia. In addition the report describes an evaluation of the possibilities of Norwegian influence on the nuclear power in northwest Russia and Kola Peninsula

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_006351 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006351 gi|53722258 >1kolA 2 388 1 341 4e-33 ... ref|YP_111243.1| putative zinc-binding xylitol... ... zinc-binding xylitol/sorbitol dehydrogenase ... [Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243] ... .../sorbitol dehydrogenase [Burkholderia ... pseudomallei K96243] emb|CAH38702.1| putative ...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_002745 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002745 gi|15925959 >1kolA 35 389 28 338 2e-04 ... dbj|BAB56418.1| similar to xylitol... ... SA0246 [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315] ... ref|NP_370780.1| similar to xylitol

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004461 gi|27467238 >1kolA 35 391 30 342 2e-04 ... ref|NP_763875.1| xylitol dehydro...genase [Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228] ... gb|AAO03917.1| xylitol dehydrogenase [Staphylococc

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_002758 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002758 gi|15923246 >1kolA 35 389 28 338 2e-04 ... dbj|BAB56418.1| similar to xylitol... ... SA0246 [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315] ... ref|NP_370780.1| similar to xylitol

  20. Determinants of market participation in non-timber forest products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that household size, income from other occupation, labour cost and durable input cost significantly affected the decision and level of participation in extraction and marketing of NTFPs in the area of study. It was also revealed from the study that kolanut and bitter kola were more profitable and efficient out ...

  1. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR: A Fuentes-law Journal of Biomedical. Sciences lune 201a, Yol. 13 No.1 pp 33-39. KQLA NW A FHENB UR A FUE SF TERTMY. EDUCATIQN STWENTS 1N NIGERM. DR. ADAYGNFO E. G.. ABSTRAQT. Despite its common use, there is a dearth of research on kola nut. This study investigated whether there was any ...

  2. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with

  3. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  4. Effect of Some Thermal Processing Methods on the Caffeine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuts were then diced, grated and stored for subsequent analysis in a Haier thermocool freezer. Subsequent study of the effects of the various treatments on the proximate and the caffeine contents of the kola nuts revealed that increase in temperature and duration of boiling resulted in product with lower caffeine content.

  5. An evaluation of use by scientists of communication media in tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of information in human endeavour cannot be over emphasized. Hence, information and its medium of communication are crucial to human existence. The perception of scientists on the media of information transfer on tree crops research in Nigeria with particular reference to cocoa, kola, coffee, cashew and tea ...

  6. Analýza tenkých vrstev metodou SIMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorinčík, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (2007), s. 32-40 ISSN 1213-2705. [Letní škola vakuové techniky. Štrbské pleso, 04.06.2007-07.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : secondary ion mass spectrometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    plantation establishment, preservation and storage of the seeds need to be encouraged. ... Commonly known as „bitter cola‟ for the bitter attributes of the seed, ... kola is a very important and well recognized plant used for centuries to treat ... A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was then administered among 110.

  8. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  9. Problematika předloh Druhé církevněslovanské legendy o sv. Václavu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurná, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 16-24 ISSN 1802-825X. [Škola, jazyk a literatura na po č átku nového ti síciletí 2012–2013. Ústí nad Labem, 27.2.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Old Church Slavonic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  10. První staroslověnská legenda o sv. Václavu v rekonstrukcích Miloše Weingarta a Josefa Vašici

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2-3 (2010), s. 102-106 ISSN 1802-825X. [Škola, jazyk a literatura 2010. Ústí nad Labem, 27.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : First Old Slavonic Legend of St. Wenceslas * paleoslavistic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  11. Monoenergetická iontová implantace pro přípravu nanostrukturovaných materiálů a modifikaci funkčních vlastností povrchů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 33-44 ISSN 1213-2705. [Letní vakuová škola vakuové techniky 2017. Topolčianky, 31.05.2017-01.06.2017] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion implantation * ion beams * polymers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics

  12. “Frog Story” and “Map Task” in the Russian countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margje Post

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on experimental work with speakers of standard Russian and Russian dialects on the Kola peninsula. The proposed methodology, though showing some difficulties when applied in a Russian dialectological fieldwork setting, provides data on various varieties of Russian that can prove to be a rich source for many kinds of comparative linguistic research.

  13. Radioactive wastes in the areas adjacent to Finland. The improvement of the problem is slow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste problem in the area of Murmansk located in Northwestern Russia is analysed in the article. The radioactive wastes have accumulated from e.g. the military ships, ice-breakers and the Kola nuclear power plant. The problem is also a concern of neighboring countries and the international cooperation efforts to mitigate the problem are also described

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    the addition of value, and the subsequent changes in price among the intermediaries, was evaluated. Contributions of Bitter kola to the middlemen and producers, as well as its potential to the livelihood of the rural economy, were also evaluated. Fig. 1: Map of Nigeria showing the selected States in Southwest Nigeria ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 99 of 99 ... ... Metaphysics of Kola Nut: Towards an Authentic African Igbo Communion; A Challenge to Christianity, Abstract PDF. OM Ibeabuchi. Vol 6, No 2 (2017), Methodological anarchism or pluralism? An afro-constructivist perspective on Paul Feyerabend's critique of science, Abstract. J. Chidozie Chukwuokolo.

  16. Influence of rural processing methods and postharvest storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 0.45 kg of kola nuts (coated and uncoated) numbering 20 nuts were put in each storage container. Sensory quality of the nuts after storage was determined with quantitative descriptive analysis in expert panel, using six quality attributes. Physical parameters measured were; weight loss, pest incidence and sprouting ...

  17. Safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Vol. VI; Album VI: Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-01

    First part of the safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels contains descriptions of the independent CO{sub 2} loop, system for regulation, measurement and control od the loop parameters, description of the dosimetry system, and the plan for testing the experimental device before start-up. Second part of this analysis describes the influence of of the experimental device on the reactor operation under steady state conditions as follows: influence of the head of the independent coolant loop on the reactivity of the reactor core and influence on the reactor temperature coefficient. Third part of the report includes the analysis of possible accidents during operation of the independent CO{sub 2} coolant loop in the reactor. Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA sadrzi u prvom delu: opis nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2}, sistema za regulaciju, merenje i kontrolu parametara nezavisnog kola, sistema dozimetrijske kontrole i plan ispitivanja eksperimentalnih uredjaja pre pustanja u rad. Drugi deo ove analize obuhvata uticaj eksperimentalnog uredjaja na reaktor u normalnom rezimu rada i to: uticaj glave petlje nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka na reaktivnost reaktora i uticaj uredjaja na temperaturni koeficijent reaktora. Treci deo sadrzi analizu mogucih akcidenata u toku rada nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} u reaktoru.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 312 ... Vol 24, No 1 (2009), The Comparative Effects Of Chronic Consumption Of Kola Nut (Cola nitida) And Caffeine Diets On Locomotor Behaviour And Body Weights In Mice, Abstract PDF. EB Umoren, EE Osim, PB Udoh. Vol 22, No 1-2 (2007), The concentrations of methaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin ...

  19. Language Documentation and Sociolinguistics | Iwuchukwu | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The position of this paper is that one of the criteria of a genuine language documentation project is that it must represent the language as it is used e.g. the breaking of kola or pouring of libation by the Igbo, the naming ceremony, new yam festival, burial and marriage ceremonies in Bekwarra, Lokaa, Ibibio, Efik, Yoruba, ...

  20. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the Performance of Broiler Chickens Infected at Different Ages with Two Field Strains of E Maxima · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Effect of Roasting on the Caffeine Content of Three Varieties of Kola Nut Consumed In Kaduna, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 286 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2010), Effect of Roasting on the Caffeine Content of Three Varieties of Kola Nut Consumed In Kaduna, Nigeria, Abstract. MS Abdulsalami, I Jawonisi, B Orukotan. Vol 5, No 3 (2011), Effect of seed priming on agronomic performance and cost effectiveness of rainfed, dry-seeded nerica rice ...

  2. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics - Vol 7, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer factor of radionuclides from soil-to-palm oil produced from Elere palm tree plantation near Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S.K. Alusa, Kola Odunaike, I. A. Adeniji, 7-12 ...

  3. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  4. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  5. REVIEW:Species diversity of indigenous fruits in Indonesia and its potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of species diversity of indigenous fruits. The results of study reported that there are 266 species of indigenous fruits encountered in Indonesia and 62 species of them are cultivated. Four genera of indigenous fruits are recommended to developed in Indonesia, i.e. Durio, Mangifera, Garcinia and Nephelium. This study also reported that duku (Lansium domesticum, salak (Salacca zalacca, buah merah (Pandanus conoideus, and matoa (Pometia pinnata have a good prospect also to be developed in Indonesia.

  6. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitpipit, L.; Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Tamarindus indica, Uncaria gambir, Walsura robusta were primarily tested for their antibacterial activities against 35 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 using disc diffusion method (2.5 mg/disc). Almost all extracts, except Tamarindus indica exhibited antibacterial activity. Both a...

  7. Nanocarrier-mediated delivery of α-mangostin for non-surgical castration of male animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yostawonkul, Jakarwan; Surassmo, Suvimol; Namdee, Katawut; Khongkow, Mattaka; Boonthum, Chatwalee; Pagseesing, Sasithon; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Yata, Teerapong

    2017-01-01

    The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemi...

  8. Cytotoxic geranylated xanthones and O-alkylated derivatives of alpha-mangostin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Ly Dieu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Vang, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Two new geranylated xanthones, 6-O-methylcowanin (4) and oliverixanthone (5), along with five known compounds, cowanin, rubraxanthone, cowaxanthone, cowanol, and β-mangostin, have been isolated from the bark of Garcinia oliveri. For comparison of their biological activities, one mono- and seven di-O-alkylated...... that α-mangostin had the strongest activity, and all the O-alkylated α-mangostin derivatives showed reduced activity compared to the naturally occurring α-mangostin....

  9. Garcina cambogia leaf and seawater for tannase production by marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032 under slurry state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, S P; Basheer, Soorej M; Bhat, Sarita G; Chandrasekaran, M

    2011-12-01

    Garcinia gummi-gutta (syn. G. cambogia, G. quaesita), known to have medicinal properties, was evaluated as a substrate and inducer for tannase production by a marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032, under slurry state fermentation using Czapekdox-minimal medium and sea water as the cultivation medium. Among the various natural tannin substrates evaluated, Garcinia leaf supported maximal tannase production. The cultivation conditions and components of the cultivation medium were optimized employing response surface methodology. The experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model at a 92.2% level of significance (p tannase activity was obtained in a slurry state medium containing 26.6%, w/v, Garcinia leaf, supplemented with 0.1% tannic acid as inducer. The optimum values of pH, temperature and inoculum concentration obtained were 5.0, 40 degrees C and 3%, respectively. A Box-Behnken model study of the fermentation conditions was carried out, and the best production of tannase was registered at 40 degrees C without agitation. Optimization strategy employing response surface methodology led to nearly 3-fold increase in the enzyme production from 26.2 U/mL obtained in unoptimized medium to 75.2 Units/mL in Box Behnken design, within 18 h of fermentation. It was observed that sea water could support maximal tannase production by A. awamori compared with other media suggesting that the sea water salts could have played an inducer role in expression of tannase encoding genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of tannase, an industrially important enzyme, utilizing Garcinia leaf as substrate under slurry state fermentation by marine A. awamori and sea water as the cultivation medium.

  10. Investigations of botanicals on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress: study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Shuster, Jonathan; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2011-11-01

    Botanicals represent an important and underexplored source of potential new therapies that may facilitate caloric restriction and thereby may produce long-term weight loss. In particular, one promising botanical that may reduce food intake and body weight by affecting neuroendocrine pathways related to satiety is hydroxycitric acid (HCA) derived from Garcinia cambogia Desr. The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a clinical trial designed to directly test the effects of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress levels, and to serve as a model for similar trials. A total of 48 healthy, overweight or obese individuals (with a body mass index range of 25.0 to 39.9 kg/m(2)) between the ages of 50 to 70 will participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study designed to examine the effects of two doses of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels. Food intake represents the primary outcome measure and is calculated based on the total calories consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals during each test meal day. This study can be completed with far fewer subjects than a parallel design. Of the numerous botanical compounds, the compound Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA is selected for testing in the present study because of its potential to safely reduce food intake, body weight, and oxidative stress levels. We will review potential mechanisms of action and safety parameters throughout this clinical trial. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01238887).

  11. An evaluation of three-dimensional modeling of compaction cycles by analyzing the densification behavior of binary and ternary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, K M; Bikane, F

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the study is to use the 3D modeling technique of compaction cycles for analysis of binary and ternary mixtures. Three materials with very different deformation and densification characteristics [cellulose acetate (CAC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (EM) and theophylline monohydrate (TM)] have been tableted at graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) on an eccentric tableting machine. Following that, graded binary mixtures from CAC and EM have been compacted. Finally, the same ratios of CAC and EM have been tableted in a ternary mixture with 20 vol% TM. All compaction cycles have been analyzed by using different data analysis methods. Three-dimensional modeling, conventional determination of the slope of the Heckel function, determination of the elastic recovery during decompression, and calculations according to the pressure-time function were the methods of choice. The results show that the 3D model technique is able to gain the information in one step instead of three different approaches, which is an advantage for formulation development. The results show that this model enables one to better distinguish the compaction properties of mixtures and the interaction of the components in the tablet than 2D models. Furthermore, the information by 3D modeling is more precise since in the slope K of the Heckel-plot (in die) elasticity is included, and in the parameters of the pressure-time function beta and gamma plastic deformation due to pressure is included. The influence of time and pressure on the displacement can now be differentiated.

  12. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of carbamazepine cocrystals with saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Samy, Raghu; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present research was to investigate the physicochemical, mechanical properties, and stability characteristics of cocrystal of carbamazepine (CBZ) using saccharin (SAC) as a coformer. The cocrystals were prepared by solubility method and characterized by pH-solubility profile, intrinsic dissolution by static disk method, and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), crystallinity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and mechanical properties by Heckel analysis. Stability of the cocrystals were assessed by storing them at 60 (°)C for two weeks, 25 (°)C/60%RH, 40 (°)C/75%RH and 40 (°)C/94%RH for one month and compared with the stability of CBZ. The solubility profile of cocrystal was similar to CBZ. The cocrystal and CBZ have shown the same stability profile at all the conditions of studies except at 40 (°)C/94%RH. Unlike the CBZ, cocrystal was stable against dihydrate transformation. The compacts of cocrystal have a greater tensile strength and more compressibility. The Heckel analysis suggested that plastic deformation started at low compression pressure in the cocrystal than CBZ. In summary, the cocrystal form of carbamazepine provides another avenue for product development which is more stable than the parent drug.

  13. Cold compaction behavior and pressureless sinterability of ball milled WC and WC/Cu powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Seyed R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, cold compaction behavior and pressureless sinterability of WC, WC-10%wtCu and WC-30%wtCu powders were investigated. WC and WC/Cu powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for 20h. The milled powders were cold compacted at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa pressures. The compressibility behavior of the powders was evaluated using the Heckel, Panelli-Ambrosio and Ge models. The results showed that the Panelli-Ambrosio was the preferred equation for description the cold compaction behavior of the milled WC and WC-30%wtCu powders. Also, the most accurate model for describing the compressibility of WC-10%wtCu powders was the Heckel equation. The cold compacts were sintered at 1400°C. It was found that by increasing the cold compaction pressure of powder compacts before sintering, the sinterability of WC-30%wtCu powder compacts was enhanced. However, the cold compaction magnitude was not affected significantly on the sinterability of WC and WC-10%wtCu powders. The microstructural investigations of the sintered samples by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM confirmed the presence of porosities at the interface of copper-tungsten carbide phases.

  14. Compressibility of binary powder formulations: investigation and evaluation with compaction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentis, Nicolaos D; Betz, Gabriele

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate and evaluate the powder compressibility of binary mixtures containing a well-compressible compound (microcrystalline cellulose) and a brittle active drug (paracetamol and mefenamic acid) and its progression after a drug load increase. Drug concentration range was 0%-100% (m/m) with 10% intervals. The powder formulations were compacted to several relative densities with the Zwick material tester. The compaction force and tensile strength were fitted to several mathematical models that give representative factors for the powder compressibility. The factors k and C (Heckel and modified Heckel equation) showed mostly a nonlinear correlation with increasing drug load. The biggest drop in both factors occurred at far regions and drug load ranges. This outcome is crucial because in binary mixtures the drug load regions with higher changeover of plotted factors could be a hint for an existing percolation threshold. The susceptibility value (Leuenberger equation) showed varying values for each formulation without the expected trend of decrease for higher drug loads. The outcomes of this study showed the main challenges for good formulation design. Thus, we conclude that such mathematical plots are mandatory for a scientific evaluation and prediction of the powder compaction process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chitin's Functionality as a Novel Disintegrant: Benchmarking Against Commonly Used Disintegrants in Different Physicochemical Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaheen, Mohammad; Soulairol, Ian; Bataille, Bernard; Yassine, Ahmad; Belamie, Emmanuel; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2017-07-01

    Disintegrants are used as excipients to ensure rapid disintegration of pharmaceutical tablets and further ensure proper dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This study investigates disintegration mechanisms of chitin and common disintegrants. Swelling assessment (swelling force and swelling ratio) in different media, and compaction behavior (pure or mixed with other excipients) tabletability, deformation (Heckel modeling), and compact disintegration times were investigated on the tested disintegrants (alginic acid calcium salt, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and chitin). Results show that the physicochemical properties of the disintegration medium such as pH and ionic strength, as well as other formulation ingredients, affect the disintegrant functionalities. Heckel analysis using the mean yield pressure "Py" shows that alginic acid calcium salt is the most brittle among the studied disintegrants, while crospovidone has the most plastic deformation mechanism, followed by chitin. Chitin showed good tabletability and disintegration properties that were not influenced by the physicochemical formulation environment. Chitin is largely available and easily modifiable and thus a promising material that could be used as a multifunctional excipient in tablet formulation. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Juneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates.

  17. Abuse and Misuse of Selected Dietary Supplements Among Adolescents: a Look at Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Jessica M; Morgan, Jill A; Lardieri, Allison B; Kishk, Omayma A; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased and is associated with adverse effects. Indications for use include recreation, body image concerns, mood enhancement, or control of medical conditions. The risk of adverse effects may be enhanced if agents are used improperly. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of abuse and misuse of 4 dietary substances among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of medical outcomes, clinical effects, location of treatments provided, and treatments administered. This descriptive retrospective review assessed data concerning the use of garcinia (Garcinia cambogia), guarana (Paullinia cupana), salvia (Salvia divinorum), and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers from 2003 to 2014. Adolescents with a singlesubstance exposure to one of the substances of interest coded as intentional abuse or misuse were included. Poison center calls for drug information or those with unrelated clinical effects were excluded. Data were collected from the National Poison Data System. There were 84 cases: 7 cases of Garcinia cambogia, 28 Paullinia cupana, 23 Salvia divinorum, and 26 Hypericum perforatum. Garcinia cambogia was used more frequently by females (100% versus 0%), and Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum were used more frequently by males (61% versus 36% and 91% versus 9%, respectively). Abuse, driven by Salvia divinorum, was more common overall than misuse. Abuse was also more common among males than females (p <0.001). Use of these agents fluctuated over time. Overall, use trended down since 2010, except for Garcinia cambogia use. In 62 cases (73.8%), the medical outcome was minor or had no effect or was judged as nontoxic or minimally toxic. Clinical effects were most common with Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum. Treatment sites included emergency department (n = 33; 39.3%), non-healthcare facility (n = 24

  18. Approaches for accounting and prediction of fast neutron fluence on WWER pressure vessels and results of validation of calculational procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, P.G.; Khrennikov, N.N.; Ryabinin, Yu.A.; Adeev, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of the universal procedure for calculation of fast neutron fluence (FNF) on WWER vessels. Approbation of the calculation procedure was carried out by comparing the calculation results for this procedure and measurements on the outer surface of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 vessels. In addition, an estimation of the uncertainty of the settlement procedure was made in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents. The developed procedure is applied at Kola NPP for independent fast neutron fluence estimates on the WWER-440 reactor vessels when planning core loads taking into account the introduction of new fuels. The results of the pilot operation of the procedure for calculating FNF at the Kola NPP were taken into account when improving the procedure and its application to the calculations of FNF on the WWER-1000 vessels [ru

  19. Školski pastoral kao doprinos školskoj kulturi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupp, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Nakon 1990. godine u većini njemačkih biskupija razvijaju se planovi i programi "školskog pastorala". Školski pastoral obuhvaća kršćanski angažman u školi kao mjestu učenja, a organiziraju ga crkve. Riječ je o slobodnoj ponudi koja je namijenjena učenicima, nastavnom osoblju i roditeljima. Za razliku od toga, školski vjeronauk je u gotovo svim njemačkim saveznim pokrajinama redoviti školski predmet u svim vrstama škola, za koji su zajednički odgovorne država i škola. Školski vjeronauk predaju...

  20. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab